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111Equation

Chapter (Next)
Section 1

Analysing Motion Graph

Lesson 3
Learning outcomes
1. plot and interpret displacement - time and velocity time graph
2. deduce from the shape of a displacement - time graph when a body is
(a) at rest
(b) moving with uniform velocity
(c) moving with non-uniform velocity
3. determine distance, displacement and velocity from a displacement - time graph
4. deduce from the shape of a velocity - time graph when a body is
(a) at rest
(b) moving with uniform velocity
(c) moving with uniform acceleration
5. determine distance, displacement, velocity and acceleration from a velocity - time graph
6. Solve problems on linear motion with uniform acceleration
A

Displacement - time graph

1. A displacement-time graph (s - t graph) is a graph showing


(a) the position of an object from its original position changes with time
(b) the displacement of the object changes with time
2. The gradient of a displacement - time graph gives the velocity.

Displacemen
t - time graph

Position and
movement of
object
Displacemen
t
Velocity

The object is rest over a


period of time
It is x m from its original
position in the original
direction
Displacement is constant
gradient = zero
velocity = zero

The object moves in the


original direction from its
original position

Displacement increasing
uniformly
gradient = positive and constant
velocity = positive and constant

The object moves in the


original direction from its
original position

Displacement is increasing non


uniformly
gradient = increasing and
positive
velocity = increasing and
positive

Velocity - time graph

1. A velocity-time graph (s - t graph) is a graph showing how the velocity of an object changes with
time.
2. The gradient of a velocity - time graph gives the acceleration.
3. The area under the graph of a velocity - time graph gives the displacement (or distance travelled)

Velocity time graph

Its velocity is constant over a


Its velocity increases linearly (at
period of time
constant rate)
The gradient of graph is zero. The gradient of graph is positive
Hence, its acceleration is
and constant.
Hence, the object experiences
Acceleration
zero.
constant acceleration
Velocity

Its velocity decreases linearly( at


constant rate)
The gradient of graph is
negative and constant
Hence, the object
experiences constant
deceleration

Compare displacement-time graph and velocity-time graph

Displacement-time graph

Velocity-time graph
CDB A

AB: Constant positive gradient


BC: Zero gradient
CD: Constant negative gradient
AB: Moves in the original direction
BC: Stationary( at rest)
CD: Moves in the opposite direction
AB: constant positive velocity
BC: zero velocity
CD: constant negative velocity
At regions AB, BC and CD the object
experiences zero acceleration.
No physical meaning

gradient of graph

position and movement

velocity of object

acceleration of object
area under graph

AB: Constant positive gradient


BC: Zero gradient
CD: Constant negative gradient
At regions AB, BC, and CD, the
object is moving in the positive
direction.
AB: Velocity increasing linearly
BC: Constant velocity
CD: velocity decreasing linearly
AB: Constant acceleration
BC: Zero acceleration
CD: Constant deceleration
The area under the graph refers to the
displacement of the object

Summary
1. Gradient of the graph of displacement against time gives the _________ of an object.
2. Gradient of the graph of velocity against time gives the __________ of an object.
3. Area under the graph of velocity against time gives the __________ travelled by the object

Try it yourself
1. Using your own words, describe the motion of the particle represented by the flowing displacementtime graph.
(
a
)

(
b
)

(
c
)

(
d
)

(
e
)

(
f
)

2. Using your own words, describe the motions of a particle represented by the following velocity-time
graph.
(
a
)

(
b
)

(
c
)

(
d
)

(
e
)

(
f
)

3. Diagram 1 shows a displacement-time graph of a particle.


(a) What is the displacement of the particle after 10 s?
(b) Calculate average velocity of the particle in the time interval
(i) from t = 4 s to t = 8 s
(ii) from t = 8 s to t =10 s
(c) Calculate the average speed for the whole journey
Diagram 1

4. The graph in Diagram 2 shows the displacement-time graph of a


roller skater.
Calculate
(a) the maximum velocity of the skater
(b) the velocity of the skater when he returns to his original
position
(c) the displacement of the skater when t = 50 s
(d) the average velocity throughout the whole journey
(e) average speed throughout the whole journey
Diagram 2

5. Diagram 3 shows a velocity-time graph.

Diagram 3

Find
(a) its acceleration
(b) the distance travelled in the time interval from t = 2 s to t = 6 s.

6. A stone is being thrown vertically with a velocity of 20 m s -1. The motion of the stone can be
represented by a velocity-graph in Diagram 4.

Diagram 4

Find
(a) the maximum height reached by the stone
(b) the time taken for the stone to reach the maximum height
(c) the deceleration experienced by the stone when it is being thrown upwards.
7. Diagram 5 shows a velocity-time graph of an object moving in a straight line. Find

Diagram 5

(a) the acceleration of the


object in the first 2 seconds
(b) the distance travelled by the object when it is moving in constant velocity
(c) the deceleration of the object in the time interval from t = 7 s to t = 11 s
(d) the displacement at the final second
(e) Sketch the corresponding acceleration - time graph for the object.

8. Diagram 6 shows the velocity-time graph of a particle moving in a straight line.

Diagram 6

(a) What is the acceleration of the particle in the first 3 seconds of the motion?
(b) What is the deceleration of the particle after 3 seconds?
(c) What is the total distance travelled by the particle?
(d) Find the displacement of the particle with respect to its original position after 8 seconds.
(e) Sketch the corresponding acceleration-time graph of the particle.

9. Diagram 7 shows the velocity-time graph for a particle moving in 16 seconds.

Diagram 7

Find
(a) the maximum acceleration of the particle
(b) the deceleration of the particle
(c) the total distance travelled by the particle
(d) the average velocity of the particle

10. Diagram 8 shows the velocity-time graph of a particle moving in a straight line.

Diagram 8

(a) Name the sections of the graph which


(i) acceleration of the particle
(ii) deceleration of the particle
(b) Calculate
(i) the total distance travelled by the particle
(ii) the displacement of the particle of the last second

11. The graph in Diagram 9 shows the motion of a car from the time the driver of a car from the time the
driver of a car from the time the driver of a car from the time the driver to see the traffic light.

Diagram 9

(a) The reaction time is the time interval in between the time when the traffic light is seen and the
time at which the brake is applied. What is the reaction time?
(b) What is the distance travelled by the car before the brake is applied, starting from the time he
spotted the traffic light?
(c) If the brake of the car is applied twice, calculate the greater deceleration experienced by the car.
(d) Determine the total distance travelled by the car before the car comes to a stop.
(e) Sketch the corresponding acceleration-time graph for the whole journey of the car.

12. A car accelerates uniformly from rest and reaches a velocity of u m s-1 in 6 seconds. The car continues
to move with this constant velocity for 28 seconds. Then, the brake is applied so that the car
t1
decelerates uniformly for seconds before it stops.
(a) Sketch a velocity-time graph of the motion of the car.
(b) Given that the distance travelled when the brake is applied is two-third of the distance travelled
v1
when the car is accelerating. Find the value of .
(c) Given that the total distance travelled by the car is 495 m. Find the value of u.

13. The graph below shows the motion of an object.

What is the velocity of the object at t = 4 s?


A 0 m s-1

B 5 m s-1

C 10 m s-1

D 20 m s-1

14. The graph below shows the motion of an object

Which of the following statement is true?


A The object at rest
B The object moves with uniform velocity
C The object accelerates
D The object decelerates
15. The graph below shows for the motion of an object.

Which of the following statements is not true about the object?


A The velocity of the object is increasing
B The acceleration of the object is zero
C The displacement of the object is increasing
D The gradient is constant
16. The graph below shows the motion of an object.

Calculate the acceleration of the object


A 1.5 m s-2

Past year question

B 2.5 m s-2

C 5.0 m s-2

D 7.5 m s-2

1. SPM 2007 Paper 1 Question 5


Diagram 1 is a velocity-time graph showing the motion of an object.

Diagram 1

Which of the following describes the motion of the object?


A
B
C
D

OJ
Uniform acceleration
Increasing acceleration
Increasing acceleration
Uniform acceleration

JK
Decreasing acceleration
Decreasing acceleration
Uniform deceleration
Uniform deceleration

2. SPM 2008 Paper 1 Question 4


Diagram 2 shows the velocity-time graph of an object.

Diagram 2

Which acceleration-time graph represents the same motion as the object?


A

3. SPM 2009 Paper 1 Question 4


Diagram 3 shows a velocity-time graph for a motion of an object.

Diagram 3

What is the total distance, in m, travelled by the object in 8 s?


A.

18

B. 24

C
.

32

D. 64

4. SPM 2010 Paper 1 Question 3


Diagram 4 shows a car moving up a hill. The car decelerates as it moves up the hill and accelerates as
it moves down the hill.

Diagram 4
Which graph show the correct relationship between the velocity, v of the car and the time, t of the
motion.
A

5. SPM 2011 Paper 1 Question 10


Diagram 8 shows a velocity-time graph for a motion of a toy car.

Diagram 8

What is the displacement of the car at 6 s?


A 0m

B 30 m

C 45 m

D 75 m

6. SPM 2012 Paper 1 Question 9


Diagram 5 shows a velocity-time graph of a bus with passenger on board.
After 10 minutes, the driver steps on the brake pedal to stop the bus.

Diagram 6

What is the velocity of the passengers immediately after the brake is applied?
A 0 m s-1

B 2 m s-1

C 6 m s-1

7. MRSM 2011 Paper 1 Question 4


Diagram 7 shows a graph of velocity against time of a moving car.

Diagram 7

Which of the following explains the motion correctly?


A Acceleration increases at a constant rate at PQ
B Deceleration is constant at RS
C Velocity increases at a constant rate at RS
D Velocity remains zero at QR
8. MRSM 2012 Paper 1 Question 4

D 72 m s-1

Which displacement-time graph represents the motion of a car with constant velocity?
A

9. MRSM 2013 Paper 1 Question 5


Diagram 9 shows a displacement-time graph for the motion of a car.

Diagram 9
Based on the graph, which statement explains the motion of the car from A to B?
A Stationary

B Decelerating

C Accelerating

D Constant velocity

10. MRSM 2013 Paper 1 Question 6


Diagram 10 shows a velocity-time graph for the motion of an object.

Diagram 10
What is the displacement of the object in the first 5 second?
A 20 m

B 50 m

C 70 m

D 100 m

11. SBP 2007 Paper 1 Question 6


Which of the following graphs shows an increasing acceleration?
A

12. SBP 2008 Paper 1 Question 3


Which speed-time graph applies to an object at rest?
A

13. SBP 2008 Paper 1 Question 10


Diagram 13 shows the velocity-time graph for the motion of a car.

Diagram 13
Calculate the displacement travelled by the car.
A 80 m

B 100 m

C 120 m

D 140 m

14. SBP 2010 Paper 1 Question 6


Diagram 14 shows a graph of velocity against time for the motion of a bus.

Diagram 14
How far does the bus travel before it reaches a steady velocity?
A 10 m

B 20 m

C 100 m

15. SBP 2014 Paper 1 Question 5


Diagram 15 shows displacement-time graph of a moving object.

Diagram 15
Which velocity, v against time, t graph describe the motion of the object?
A

D 200 m

16. MRSM 2014 Paper 1 Question 7


Diagram 16 shows the velocity-time graph of a car.

Diagram 16
How far does the car travel before it reaches a constant velocity?
A 240 m

B 400 m

C 640 m

D 3200 m