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1

Introduction

The mid Norwegian passive margins has been studied well as a volcanic margin which mainly
belongs to the North Atlantic Igneous Province. The North Atlantic Igneous Province has been
studied and associated with the intrusive and massive extrusive magmatism which happened to be
as a result of the see floor spreading and the continental break up (Berndt, 2001).

Figure 1 (Regional Setting of the Norwegian Margins)

These magmatism are covered by the magnesium contents and the iron contents mostly calling the
Mafic rock. The margin has a history of spanning between the Early Eocene break-up & the
Carboniferous and episodic rifting. During the period of the extensional stress field, it resulted into

the oblique formation of younger rifts over the older rifts. Various studies have been conducted on
the mid Norwegian margin collecting the seismic refraction data, experimental drilling & the
commercial drilling on the Voring plateau & the continental shelf (Callot, 2011).

Volcanic Passive Margins

The large igneous provinces have been found of having volcanic passive margins (VPM). These
igneous provinces are said to be comprised of the transitional narrow crust which is formed due to
the rifting over the hot mantle and the continental breakup. A volcanic passive margin can be
characterized by the following attributes; firstly massive intrusion of the dyke and sill happens into
the sediments. Secondly, the lava flows reflect dipping seaward and thirdly, the ultra-mafic and
the mafic intrusion happen into the middle and the upper continental crust. Presence of seismic
velocity bodies is also found to be present at the lower crust which cause the magma under-plating
(Eldholm & Grue, 1994). The continental breakup during the Late Paleocene and the Early Eocene
resulted in the spreading of the magmatism which developed into the intrusive and extrusive
structures alongside the mid-Norwegian margin.

Figure 2 (Structural Map Related to the Rifting Phases)


3

Mid-Norwegian Volcanic Passive Margin

The mid Norwegian margin is constituted by three segments mainly i.e. Voring, More and LofotenVesteralen. These three segments are separated by the Bivrost Lineament zone and East Jan Mayen
Fracture and each has the length of 400 500 km. On the margins of More Basin and Voring
segments, a lower crustal body has been developed which is characterized by P-wave velocities
forming the thickened crust beneath them and continue to the thick western oceanic crust (Faleide,
2008). The md Norwegian margin is said to be formed due to the tectono-magmatic evolution in
the following three ways. Firstly, the change of the accretionary magma volumes from normality
to the maturation and continental margin subsidence. Secondly, lithospheric extension has
occurred due to the rift episode in Cretaceous-Paleocene which led to the plate separation and
breakup. Thirdly, the central rift tend to enhance the igneous activity and uplift it during the late
rifting and culmination of voluminous outbursts of the Early Eocenes basaltic lavas. These three
tectono-magmatic evolution described the formation of mid Norwegian margins and the increased
igneous activity (Gernigon, 2004).

3.1

The More Margin

The more margin is largely comprised of the deep and wide More Basin, Gentle/ wide slope
consisting of the thick Cretaceous fill. The inner flank is dipped basin ward in a steep way and the
curst which is crystalline in nature gets thin rapidly reaching to smaller than ten kilometer. The
More Basin is mainly comprised of the sub basins which are segregated by the Jurassic-Early
Cretaceous rift that formed the intra-basinal highs between the sub basins. The sedimentary
succession further gets thinner and deeper decreasing to twelve kilometer landwards. The
structural relief in the More Basin was filled mainly during the Mid-Cretaceous time while
intrusions are still wide spreading within this crust getting deepened in the western and central
parts of the More Basin (Lundin, 2013).
The western part of the More Basin is covered by the lava flows as well as a thick LCB with lower
than seven kilometer P-wave velocity is evident to be present under the Basin covering most of its
part. The magmatic under-plating is being evident during the interpretations of the body related to
the breakup of the crust. It has also been researched and found that the More marginal heights,
shallowing of the Cretaceous sediment, crystalline crust thickening and the making of crystalline
basement all occur near the ocean-continent transition. These mid Norwegian margins are evolved
through a process of rifting episodes and breakups related to the Cretaceous sediments which
ultimately resulted in the formation of Greenland margins and the mid Norwegian margins. The
complex structure of these volcanic margins have been studies by various researchers in order to
investigate their formation and expansion with the passage of time (Scheck-Wenderoth, 2007).
The East Greenland Margins and the NW European margins have a distinct history associated to
their development starting from the post-Caledonian orogenic backsliding to the post-Eocene
passive margin formation. The evolutionary process has been given in the later section of this
report.

3.2

The Voring Margin

It is comprised of the northwest to the southeast area, the Voring Basin, the Halten terraces, the
Voring Marginal High, the Trondelag platform and the Donna terraces. The platform is highly
stable since the deep basins got filled by the upper Paleozoic sediment and the Triassic sediment
including the deep basins which were filled during the Jurassic time. The deep MCS profiles and
the seismic refraction profiles which are wide-angle are mostly constrained by the deep Moho
reaching about thirty two kilometer close to the mainland in Norway. Like the More Basin, the
Voring Basin can also be divided into the highs and the sub Basins reflecting the vertical
movements during the Early Cretaceous and the Late Jurassic basin evolutions (Raum, 2011).
The deep Moho undulates at twenty five kilometer under the deep basin while the velocity reaches
to the 7.6 km in most of the area under the lower crust and the magmatic under-plating. A study
conducted by Gernigon et al (2004) to investigate the formation of the mid Norwegian margins
and the Basins reveals the alternative interpretation of the LCB. It included the melted continental
crust, inherited high pressure eclogite & granulite rocks, the mantle rocks and the description of
the thickness of the body. It has been said in that study that the thickness of the body varies within
the area and these variations could be the result of the spatial variations which was caused during
the magma distribution process or the variations during the pre-breakup structures. The Voring
Margin is comprised of the Voring Escarpment and the Voring Marginal Highs consisting of the
landward part of continental stretched crust and the outer part of an oceanic crust which is thick
anomalously covered by the Early Eocene basalts (kogseid, 2000).

4.1

The Process of Margin Evolution

Pre-breakup Basin Evolution

The structural pre-opening and the margin framework has caused the development of the Voring
and the More Basins of the mid Norwegian region which is characterized by the Late Jurassic &
Early Cretaceous rifting activity in the NE Atlantic-Arctic region. A considerable thinning and
crustal extension during the Earliest Cretaceous rifting activity led to the formation of the
Cretaceous basin of mid Norwegian VPM as well as the development of the East Greenland in the

Southwestern Barents Sea. However, in a study conducted by Skogseid (2000), it has been said
that no distinct structures have been identified associated to the Voring Basin. But in the mid
cretaceous time, the structural relief in the Voring and the More Basins was filled with the thick
upper Cretaceous strata (Blystad, 1995).

4.2

Break up Related Magmatism and Tectonism

At the onset of the pre-breakup related rifting of the NE Atlantic, the area between the Greenland
Margins and the NW Europe got extensively weakened caused by the previous rifting. This rifting
resulted afterwards in the detachment structures of the thick Cretaceous sequence and the intracrustal levels of the Voring Basin. Lately, the rifting episodes were taken up by the deformation
of the De Geer Zone resulting in the pull-apart formation of the SE Barents. Tectonic
reorganization happened during this era and the Greenland moved in a direction to the west of the
Eurasia. Marin shallowing occurred and the rifting related to the relative plate motion caused the
reactivation of the Volcanic Province (Eldholm & Grue, 1994).
4.3

Post-breakup Margin Evolution

The modest sedimentation and the regional subsidence in the Norwegian- Greenland Sea resulted
into the development of the mid Norwegian margin. The deep water sedimentation in the Miocene
succession expanded the sediment drifts of the contrite. Plate tectonic reconstruction occurred and
it impact mainly the ocean circulation which resulted into the deep water exchanges through a
southern gateway of the Scotland- Greenland Ridge (Lundin, 2013). At the western side of the
Barents Sea, a pre-glacial tectonic uplift occurred and led to the formation of the Vestbakken
Volcanic Province. These glacial tectonic components composed over a half of the total area of
the mid Norwegian margins afterward. The continental margins as well as the mid Norwegian
margins have been opened in the response of the Greenland- Norwegian Sea as main rifting,
exhibiting the distinct segmentation of structural inheritance which extend back to the pre-breakup
history (Faleide, 2008).

Works Cited

Berndt, C. (2001). Seismic volcanostratigraphy of the Norwegian Margin: constraints on


tectonomagmatic break-up processes. Journal of the Geological Society.
Blystad, P. (1995). Structural elements of the Norwegian continental shelf Part II: the Norwegian
Sea Region: NPD-Bulletin, . The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate.
Callot, J. (2011). Development of volcanic passive margins: Twodimensional laboratory models.
Tectonics.
Eldholm, O., & Grue, K. (1994). North Atlantic volcanic margins: dimensions and production
rates. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth.
Faleide, J. (2008). Structure and evolution of the continental margin off Norway and the Barents
Sea: Episodes. The Journal of Geography.
Gernigon, L. (2004). Deep structures and breakup along volcanic rifted margins: insights from
integrated studies along the outer Vring Basin (Norway). Marine and Petroleum Geology.
kogseid, J. (2000). NE Atlantic continental rifting and volcanic margin formation, in NOTTVEDT,
A. e. a., ed., Dynamics of the Norwegian Margin, Volume 167. London, Geological
Society.
Lundin, E. (2013). Repeated inversion and collapse in the Late CretaceousCenozoic northern
Vring Basin, offshore Norway. Petroleum Geoscience.
Raum, T. (2011). The transition from the continent to the ocean: a deeper view on the Norwegian
margin. Journal of the Geological Society,.
Scheck-Wenderoth, M. (2007). The transition from the continent to the ocean: a deeper view on
the Norwegian margin. Journal of the Geological Society,.

Additional Explanation

Continental breakup and initial seafloor spreading in the North Atlantic area was accompanied by
widespread intrusive and extrusive magmatism and the formation of North Atlantic Large Igneous
province (NAIP) (White and McKenzie, 1989; Coffin and Eldholm, 1994; Saunders et al., 1997).
The continental breakup associated with massive transient igneous activity gave rise to volcanic
passive margins. Magmatic activity is typically expressed within the stretched continental crust
by: (1) large wedges of seaward-dipping basaltic flows and tuffs extruded at the surface (SDRs)
(Eldholm, 1991; Hinz, 1981; Planke et al., 2000); (2) massive sill/dyke intrusions within the
sedimentary basin (Planke et al., 2005; Svensen et al., 2004); (3) intense intrusions into the upper
and mid continental crust by mafic to ultramafic intrusions (Abdelmalak et al., 2015; Geoffroy et
al., 2007; Karson and Brooks, 1999; Klausen and Larsen, 2002; Lenoir et al., 2003; Meyer et al.,
2009); and (4) the presence of a seismic lower crustal body (LCB) at the base of the crust showing
high Vp velocity (Vp> 7.0 km/s) (Holbrook et al., 2001; Kelemen and Holbrook, 1995; Mjelde et
al., 2009a; Mjelde et al., 2009b; White et al., 1987).

The conjugate volcanic rifted margins along the NE Atlantic are the major magmatic component
of the North Atlantic Large Igneous Province formed during the final fragmentation of Pangea
within the Early Cenozoic (Ganerd et al., 2010; Hansen et al., 2009; Meyer et al., 2007; Saunders
et al., 1997; Torsvik et al., 2001). The onset of continental breakup during Paleocene-Eocene
transition marked a culmination of a ~350 m.y. period of predominantly extensional deformation
and intermediate cooling events subsequent to the Caledonian orogeny (Dor et al., 1999; Skogseid
et al., 2000; Tsikalas et al., 2008; Ziegler, 1988). Continental breakup and initial seafloor spreading
resulted in voluminous igneous activity generating both intrusive and extrusive complexes
constituting the breakup-related igneous rocks. Based on seismic refraction data, the velocity
structure of the different segments of the North Atlantic area reveals the presence of high-velocity
lower crustal body (reef: voss, jokat holbrooh, mjelde.). The Lower crustal body has been
recognized along many parts of the North Atlantic margins. and is commonly interpreted to
represent magmatic material added beneath the crust (Eldholm & Grue 1994; Mjelde et al. 2001),

or intruded in the lower crust (e.g. White et al. 1987, 2008; White & Smith 2009). Notably, the
interpreted magmatic body has been proposed to constitute between 60 and 80% of the total
magmatic rock volume in the NAIP (White et al. 1987, 2008; Eldholm & Grue 1994).

-----

The mid-Norwegian margin, belonging to the North Atlantic Igneous Province, is considered as a
typical volcanic margin. This margin is probably one of the most extensively studied continental
margins. The mid Norwegian margin has been investigated by multichannel seismic reflection data
(Blystad et al., 1995; Brekke et al., 2001; Eldholm et al., 1989a; Gernigon et al., 2003; Skogseid
and Eldholm, 1989), seismic refraction data (Breivik et al., 2014; Faleide et al., 2010; Faleide et
al., 2008; Mjelde et al., 2009b; Mjelde et al., 1992; Mjelde et al., 2003; Talwani and Eldholm,
1972), exploration drilling on the continental shelf and scientific drilling on the Vring Plateau
(Eldholm et al., 1989a, b; Eldholm et al., 1987; Skogseid and Eldholm, 1989). The mid-Norwegian
margin experienced a prolonged history of intermittent extension and basin formation events that
occurred in late Paleozoic-Triassic, Late Jurassic- Early Cretaceous and Late CretaceousPaleocene times (Brekke, 2000; Eldholm and Grue, 1994; Faleide et al., 2010; Faleide et al., 2008;
Gernigon et al., 2004; Lundin and Dor, 2005; Tsikalas et al., 2012).

The Vring margin, part of the Mid Norwegian Margin is bounded by the Jan Mayen Fracture
Zone/Jan Mayen corridor to the southwest and the Bivrost Lineament to the northeast (Blystad et
al., 1995). The ~500 km wide of the Vring Margin comprises: the Trndelag Platform, the Vring
Basin and the Vring Marginal High. The Vring Margin is the consequence of a significant late
Jurassic to early Cretaceous crustal thinning phase, with episodic subsidence leading to a very
thick Cretaceous depocenter (Blystad et al., 1995; Skogseid et al., 2000; Scheck-Wenderoth et al.,
2007).

This significant sedimentary Cretaceous thickness (~10 km deep) mostly concealed the geometry
of the deeper syn-rift sequences in the Vring Basin (Faleide et al., 2008). The thinned crust at

Vring Margin was, again, the locus of a new phase of extensional deformation in the latest
Cretaceous. A last pre-breakup rifting phase is assumed for the latest Cretaceous-earliest Paleocene
period, particularly documented in the outer Vring Basin (Eldholm et al., 2002; Gernigon et al.,
2003; Ren et al., 2003). The magmatic-tectonic processes which lead to the final breakup at the
Vring Margin are restricted to a 100-150 km wide region of the outer Vring Basin and Vring
Marginal High presently situated to the east of the first oceanic magnetic chrons. At the Vring
Margin significant volumes of flood basalts erupted in submarine to subaerial settings (e.g. Berndt
et al., 2001). This peculiar volcanic succession displays a large variety of seismic facies that are
indicative of the style of volcanic emplacement, depositional environment and subsequent mass
transport (Planke and Alvestad, 1999; Planke et al., 1999; Planke et al., 2000; Brendt et al., 2001).
The volcanic sequences emplaced during the onset of the breakup, partially masked seismically
the Late CretaceousPaleocene and older sedimentary strata and continental structures of the outer
Vring and Mre Margins. Outside the lava flow domains, seismic observations report voluminous
magmatic complexes of dominantly sub-horizontal sheets (sills) intruding pre-breakup
sedimentary rocks during the opening of the North Atlantic, within the Vring and Mre Basins.
The sill intrusions cover an area of more than 85000 km2 offshore mid-Norway (Planke et al.,
2005; Abdelmalak et al., Submitted).

As exploration in volcanic rifted margins increases, seismic data shot over significant lava cover
became more available. The increased availability of high-quality data and reinterpretation of old
data on rifted margins show that breakup magmatism is common, although its intensity and
character may vary significantly along margin and between margins. The understanding of the
temporal evolution of breakup volcanism has been, also, improved significantly by several deepsea drilling surveys: DSDP Leg 38 and ODP Leg 104 on the Vring Margin (Eldholm et al., 1987;
Eldholm et al., 1989a; Planke, 1994) and ODP Legs 152 (Larsen and Saunders, 1998; Planke and
Cambray, 1998) and 163 (Larsen et al., 1999b) on the Southeast Greenland Margin. Recent
advances in processing of seismic data have improved imaging of geometries within the volcanic
deposits as well as in the sediments below the basalts and allow a better constraints and
interpretation of the breakup related igneous rocks. It is becoming clear that internal architecture

of flood basalt sequences is markedly heterogeneous (e.g. Jerram et al., 2009; Nelson et al., 2009a).
Furthermore improved multichannel seismic (MCS) data have allowed the definition and
characterization of a more dedicated seismic "volcanostratigraphy"

based on their shape,

reflection pattern and boundary reflections (Planke et al., 2000; Berndt et al., 2001). Several
volcanic seismic facies units have been identified: (1) Landward Flows, (2) Lava Delta, (3) Inner
Flows, (4) Inner Seaward Dipping Reflectors (Inner SDR), (5) Outer High, (6) Outer SDR (Fig.
1). Such facies succession represents a typical volcanic rifted margin sequence and describes the
evolution of the breakup extrusive complex landward and/or very close to the first magnetic
seafloor spreading anomalies. These volcanic successions, which display a variety of reflection
configurations, are indicative of the depositional environment and the subsequent mass transport
(e.g. Berndt et al., 2001; Wright et al., 2012)

Mid-Norwegian Volcanic Passive Margin... 1st need to write the introduction chapter
and then project can be extended on the effort

8
9

Introduction:

10 Large igneous province

Large igneous province (LIPs) show continuous volume of rock which is dominant in iron and
magnesium contents (mafic rock) and are form other than normal process like seafloor spreading.
On the basis of some properties like petrologic, geochemical, geochronological, geophysical, and
physical volcanological data, the productions of LIPs are easily identified from other two
important types of magmatism, i-e arc magmatism and mid-oceanic ridge magmatism. LIPs are
dominant on continent and oceanic crust including continental flood basalts, volcanic passive
margins, oceanic plateaus, submarine ridges, seamount chains, and ocean-basin flood shown in
figure 1 and table 1(Coffin and Eldholm, 2005)

11 2) Volcanic passive margins (VPM)


Volcanic passive margin (VPMs) are belong to large igneous provinces (LIPs), which comprise
the extensive volumes of intrusive and extrusive mafic rocks and dried1 out after the short period.
These passive margins can be associated with (Callot et al., 2002) ; (1) an abnormally thick
adjacent oceanic crust and (2) a hot spot track and tail, are related to lithospheric breakup over a
mantle plume [(Kelemen and Holbrook, 1995);(Eldholm et al., 1995)].
Volcanic passive margins have transitional narrow crust that forms as a result of continental
breakup and rifting over an anomalously hot mantle. Magmatism at VPM composed massively of
intruded continental crust which contains mostly flood-basalts and tuffs. These margins are
characterized by following three important features.(Callot et al., 2001)
1) Wedges shaped Strong Seaward dipping (lava flows) reflectors.
2) Central Intrusive structures together with dykes and swarms lateral to coast

3) Presence of high seismic velocity bodies (HVZ) at the lower crust resulted to magma under
plating.
1()11.1 Seaward dipping reflector:
Volcanic passive margins are quite different from non-volcanic passive margin mostly because of
diagnostic tectono-magmatic texture. These textures comprised enormous volume of magma
introduced during the early phase of seafloor spreading, normally as seaward dipping reflector and
various intrusive and extrusive bodies into sedimentary basin (Berndt et al., 2001). The high Pwave velocity layer (Vp > 7 km/s) is observed below the extended continental crust near the
continent ocean transition (COT) and resulted to magma under plating from mafic to ultra-mafic
magma at the base of the crust (Lower crust) (Geoffroy, 2005). Recent study suggests that seaward
dipping
reflectors are distinguish feature to investigate the volcanic passive margin which show flood
basalt are extruded rapidly during the rifting or early development of seafloor spreading. The
seaward dipping reflectors indicate the offshore boundary limit of continental crust, thus can be
used to interpret the transitional boundary between continental and oceanic crust (COT) (pdf:
chapter 6 SDR)

figure1

The seaward reflectors display distinguishes appearance in the seismic reflection profile. Mutter
(1985) suggests following features of SDR sequence are consistent which are based on the
observation from multichannel seismic reflection profiles along the Norwegian continental
margin.
i) The reflector sequences dip ubiquitously seaward. At the landward limit of the sequences they
often assume a horizontal to near-horizontal attitude.

ii) The reflectors usually exhibit arcuate shapes indicating upward convexity.

iii) The reflectors diverge seaward and show an overall seaward offlap.

iv) The reflectors are distributed in the form of a sea-ward dipping wedge or
fan shaped configuration. The seaward limit of the wedges is seldom well
defined and shows no distinct basal reflector. (pdf: chapter 6 SDR)

11.2 Volcanic facies


High quality seismic data provides the ability to reinterpret old seismic data on the volcanic rifted
margins, it shows that the breakup of volcanism is common however it have considerably variation
in character and intensity along a margin and between margins. It is important to analyze structure
of the volcanism on rifted margin, it helps to get knowledge about the effect and causes of
continental breakup magmatism. It is difficult to interpret volcanic deposits by seismic reflection
data because of the heterogeneity.

The main component of seismic volcano stratigraphy is to analysis the seismic facies. Seismic
interpretation based on Improved multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data along typical
volcanic rifted margin explain six characteristics of volcanic seismic facies given as:( 1) Landward
Flows,( 2) Lava Delta, (3) Inner Flows,( 4) Inner Seaward Dipping Reflectors( Inner SDR), (5)
Outer High, and( 6) Outer SDR (Planke et al., 2000). On the other hand its not always possible
to interpret all of these facies on a single margin. Further, note that we use our definition of the
seismic facies units when discussing previously published seismic data.

figure
2

Seismic facies are divided in tow part on the seismic profile landward and seaward of continental
ocean boundary. The landward part consists of three unit facies, The Landward Flow that have
sheet shaped seismic characteristic with parallel to subparallel seismic reflectors. The reflection
on top of this unit is strong and smooth. With the high quality MCS data can observe negative
reflection polarity on the basal boundary. Lava Delta is the second landward facies with internal
prograding reflection configuration. Its upper and lower boundary can interpret as toplap and
downlap surfaces. The third seismic landward facies is Inner Flow is a sheet shaped body with
wery disrupted or chaotic reflector. The top of the reflection has high amplitude and disrupted
event.
Inner SDR has fan shaped strong reflector. On the upper boundary its present as toplap and wedge
shaped. Between the Inner and Outer SDR, Outer High exists with mounded face and have chaotic
reflection configuration. The Outer SDR has the same characteristic as Inner SDR but located on

the outer part and the reflection ends on the Outer limit. Also this reflector have deeper depositional
environment on the seaward part of the profile. (Planke et al., 2000)
The explosive, shallow marine eruption stage forms the
characteristicm ounded Outer High and voluminousv olcaniclastics
edimentsa nd tuffs being depositedi n nearbyb asins.
The extensive tuff formation during this eruptive stage may
further be responsiblef or regional environmentacl hanges.
Resedimentationan d alterationo f the tuffs may yield smectirerichc lay units with distinctp etrophysicaal nd geotechnical
properties. Voluminous deep marine sheet flow deposits
are further suggestedto be imaged as the Outer SDR, being
formed in a similar manner as the subaerial Inner SDR. The
deep marine nature of the Outer SDR unit is not constrained
by boreholed ata but is an easily accessibleta rget for scientific
drilling. (Planke et al., 2000) introductio 2 ra bekhon (2001_berndt_GeolSoc)

figure ..

12 Mid Norwegian Margin

The mid Norwegian margin is divided into three main parts, Mre, Vring and LofotenVesterlen, ranging from 400 to 500km long. These margins are separated by East Jan
Mayen Fracture zone and Bivrost Lineament/transfer zone. Beneath these segment the
lower crustal body(LCB) are present and characterize with high P wave velocity zone
(HVZ)between 7.37.6 km/s beneath the outer part of the mid Norwegian volcanic
margin, due to the magmatic breakup.(Faleide et al., 2008; Geoffroy, 2005). Mre and
Vring margin displays the best result of LCB beneath the marginal high.
The

mid

Norwegian

margin

are

formed

as

following tectono-magmatic

evolution(Eldholm et al., 2002): 1) The continental break up during the late CretaceousPaleocene leading to lithospheric extension and rifting. 2) uplift

Figur 3 Mid Norwegian margin divided


into three main parts, Mre, Vring and Lofoten-Vesterlen. JMR: Jan Mayen
Ridge, LVM: Lofoten-Vesterlen Margin, MM: Mre Margin, NSF: North Sea Fan,
SF: Storfjorden Fan, VM: Vring Margin, VP: Vring Plateau.

Vring Margin, VP: Vring Plateau,

13 Vring Margin

The vring margin is 500km wide and extended from southeast to northeast the Trndelag
Platform, the Halten and Dnna terraces, the Vring Basin and the Vring Marginal
High. From Jurassic time the Trndlag Platform is comparatively stable and contains
Triassic

and Upper Paleozoic sediments filled deep basins. Deep MCS and Wide-angle

seismic refraction profiles construct Moho depth from 32 km near to mainland Norway and
25 km near to major parts of platform. The Vring Basin is characterized by number of sub
basins and highs mostly displaying the differential vertical movements from Late Jurassic
to Early Cretaceous basin evolution((Faleide et al., 2008)).

The various researches on the vring margin Performed by multichannel seismic reflection
data (Ben et al., 1984; Skogseid and Eldholm, 1989; Brekke, 2000), seismic refraction
data (Eldholm and Mutter, 1986), commercial and experimental drilling on the continental
shelf and Vring plateau (Spencer et al., 1984, 1986; Dalland et al., 1988), (Talwani et
al., 1976; Eldholm et al., 1987; Skogseid and Eldholm, 1989).
The lower crustal high velocity body mostly exists on the Vring basin and Vring plateau.
(However, the boundary between the Vring and LofotenVesterlen margins is important
as it coincides with a high-velocity lower-crustal body interpreted as the result of magmatic
underplating (Mjelde pers. comm. 2000). (2001_berndt_GeolSoc))These bodies normally
contain of mafic intrusion and mixed with blocks from the extended continental crust (e.g.,
Mjelde et al., 1997a). The velocity modeling shows large variation of velocity (7.1-7.8
km/s) and thickens (0-8 km) on the profile perpendicular and along margins. (Mjelde et al.,
2002)

Geological evolution of the Norwegian Margin:

This temperature anomaly is ascribed to the presence of the Icelandic mantle plume and
caused extensive melting of the upper mantle when the pressure on the upper mantle was
decreased during continental breakup (White & McKenzie 1989). The associated
magmatism resulted in intrusion of volcanic rocks into the sedimentary basins, magmatic
underplating
at the base of the crust, and large amounts of extrusive material (Hinz 1981; Mutter et al.
1982; Hinz et al. 1987; White & McKenzie 1989; Eldholm et al. 1989; Skogseid et al.
1992a; Eldholm & Grue 1994)
The breakup extrusive rocks have been the subject of several deep-sea drilling surveys:
DSDP Leg 38 and ODP Leg 104 on the Vring Margin and ODP Legs 152 and 163 on
the southeast Greenland Margin. Shown that the breakup volcanic rocks have been
deposited during two phases of volcanism. The first consists of scattered basaltic, andesitic
and dacitic volcanism in a continental environment from 63 to 55.5 Ma. The second phase
during continental breakup lasted from 55.5 to 53 Ma.
The amount and distribution of the volcanic deposits on the Vring Margin was the
subject of work by Hinz (1981),Mutter et al. (1982), Skogseid & Eldholm (1989), Skogseid
(1994), and
Eldholm & Grue (1994). Eldholm & Grue (1994) calculated that the flood basalts within
the North Atlantic Volcanic Province cover an area of 1.8 x106 km2.
(2001_berndt_GeolSoc))

Figure 4 Regional map showing the


Regional Setting and structural framework of different rift phases on the midNorwegian margin. BL: Bivrost Lineament, EJMFZ: East Jan Mayen Fracture Zone,
JMR: Jan Mayen Ridge, MB: Mre Basin, MMH: Mre Marginal High, TP:
Trndelag Platform, VB: Vring Basin, VMH: Vring Marginal High, WJMFZ:
West Jan Mayen Fracture Zone.

The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous extensional phase (ca. 150130 Ma) led to major
faulting with reactivation of older fault zones, and generation of slightly rotated fault
blocks with subsequent subsidence along the major rift systems (Ben et al., 1984;
Skogseid and Eldholm, 1989).
The maximum Early Cenozoic extension axis shifted westwards with respect to the Late
Jurassic- Early Cretaceous tectonic episode. The Late Cretaceous to Early Cenozoic
extension lasted 1820 m.y., until continental break-up occured in Early Eocene.
During the syn-rift phase, the outer Vring Margin was uplifted and exposed to erosion.
The late synrift period was associated with voluminous igneous activity, generating both
extrusives and intrusives into the adjacent sedimentary basin and emplacement of
magmatic material at the base of the crust (Mutter et al., 1984; Skogseid et al., 1992). The
extrusives
are partly manifested as wedges of seaward-dipping reflectors along the outer margin (e.g.,
Mutter et al., 1984).
The P-wave velocity within the lower crustal body varies significantly; from 7.1 km/s to
7.8 km/s. These variations can be explained by chemical differences in magma from gabbro
to ultramafic residuals (e.g., Holbrook et al., 1992), or to different degree of
serpentinization of peridotite (e.g., Christensen, 1982; Gebrande, 1982).
conclution
High P-wave velocities (7.17.7 km/s) and generally low Vp/Vs ratios (1.681.90) are
modelled for most of the lower crust on the Vring Margin, in the area of the latest rifting
that led to continental break-up in Early Eocene.

The modelling results for the Vring Plateau and the northern Vring Basin are consistent
with a lower crust consisting of a mixture of mafic intrusions and older continental blocks,
but not with the presence of serpentinized peridotite.

In the central and southern Vring Basin the same model is applicable, but the observations
of slightly higher Vp/Vs ratios implies that a model with a mixture of intrusions, continental
remnants and serpentinized periodotite cannot be ruled out based on the modelled seismic
velocities and densities. (Mjelde et al., 2002)#

figure 5 Jan Mayen Fracture zone(Planke et al., 2000).


Vring Margin profile located perpendicular to the margin strike across the Jan Mayen
Fracture zone. Note the presence of inner SDR the well-defined prograding reflection (r1)
in the lava Delta, and high amplitude disruptive reflection in the Inner Flows. FSE, FaeroeShetland Escarpment; VE, Vring Escarpment. T, top of volcanic sequence; p, planated
top-basement reflection.

Callot, J. P., Geoffroy, L., and Brun, J. P., 2002, Development of volcanic passive margins: Three
dimensional laboratory models: Tectonics, v. 21, no. 6, p. 2-1-2-13.
Callot, J. P., Grign, C., Geoffroy, L., and Brun, J. P., 2001, Development of volcanic passive
margins: Twodimensional laboratory models: Tectonics, v. 20, no. 1, p. 148-159.
Eldholm, O., Skogseid, J., Planke, S., and Gladczenko, T. P., 1995, Volcanic margin concepts,
Rifted Ocean-Continent Boundaries, Springer, p. 1-16.
Faleide, J. I., Tsikalas, F., Breivik, A. J., Mjelde, R., Ritzmann, O., Engen, O., Wilson, J., and
Eldholm, O., 2008, Structure and evolution of the continental margin off Norway and the
Barents Sea: Episodes, v. 31, no. 1, p. 82-91.
Geoffroy, L., 2005, Volcanic passive margins: Comptes Rendus Geoscience, v. 337, no. 16, p.
1395-1408.
Kelemen, P. B., and Holbrook, W. S., 1995, Origin of thick, highvelocity igneous crust along the
US East Coast Margin: Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (19782012), v. 100,
no. B6, p. 10077-10094.
Mjelde, R., Kasahara, J., Shimamura, H., Kamimura, A., Kanazawa, T., Kodaira, S., Raum, T.,
and Shiobara, H., 2002, Lower crustal seismic velocity-anomalies; magmatic underplating

or serpentinized peridotite? Evidence from the Vring Margin, NE Atlantic: Marine


Geophysical Researches, v. 23, no. 2, p. 169-183.
Planke, S., Symonds, P. A., Alvestad, E., and Skogseid, J., 2000, Seismic volcanostratigraphy of
large-volume basaltic extrusive complexes on rifted margins: Journal of Geophysical
Research, v. 105, no. B8, p. 19335-19351.

14 North Atlantic Large Igneous Province (NAIP)

North Atlantic Large Igneous Province (NAIP) is associated with massive extrusive and intrusive
magmatism that appeared as a result of continental break up and sea floor spreading. These
magmatism normally are dominant by iron and magnesium contents (mafic rock). (Coffin and
Eldholm, 2005), (Coffin and Eldholm, 1994)
Volcanic passive margin (VPM) is belongs to large igneous provinces (LIPs), which comprise
transitional narrow crust that forms as a result of continental breakup and rifting over an
anomalously hot mantle. Magmatism activity at VPM are characterized by following three
important features.(Callot et al., 2001);
4) Wedges shaped Strong Seaward dipping (lava flows) reflectors.
5) Massive intrusion of sill and dyke into the sediments.
6) Mafic and ultra-mafic intrusion into the upper and middle continental crust (Abdelmalak
et al., 2015; Geoffroy et al., 2007; Karson and Brooks, 1999; Klausen and Larsen, 2002;
Lenoir et al., 2003; Meyer et al., 2009).
7) Presence of high seismic velocity bodies (HVZ) at the lower crust resulted to magma under
plating.
The crustal extension during the late Cretaceus lead to late Paleocene- Early Eocene seafloor
spreading in the Nord Atlantic (Meyer et al., 2007). Seafloor spreading and continental break up
during the Early Eocene caused enormous spreading of magmatism developing both extrusive and
intrusive complex structures along Norwegian margin.

(Meyer et al., 2007).

Seismic refraction data shows the presence of high velocity lower crustal bodies at different
portion of the North Atlantic area (reef: voss, jokat holbrooh, mjelde.). These lower crustal
bodies have been identified as magmatic body along different segments at the North Atlantic
margins and the interpretation suggested that these bodies represent between (60 to 80%) of
magmatic volume in the NAIP`s (White et al. 1987, 2008; White & Smith 2009).

15 Mid Norwegian Margin


The mid Norwegian passive margin is belong to the North Atlantic Igneous Province and is the
one of the best studied volcanic margins.
The various researches on the mid Norwegian margin Performed by multichannel seismic
reflection data (Gernigon et al., 2003; Skogseid and Eldholm, 1989; Brekke et al., 2001;), seismic
refraction data ((Breivik et al., 2014; Faleide et al., 2010; Faleide et al., 2008; Mjelde et al., 2009b;
Mjelde et al., 2003; Talwani and Eldholm, 1972)), commercial and experimental drilling on the
continental shelf and Vring plateau (Spencer et al., 1984, 1986; Dalland et al., 1988), (Talwani
et al., 1976; Eldholm et al., 1987; Skogseid and Eldholm, 1989).
The mid-Norwegian margin has a long history of episodic rifting, spanning between the
Carboniferous and Early Eocene break-up, a duration of approximately 250 Ma. During this long
period the extensional stress field rotated significantly, resulting in oblique overprinting of older
by younger rifts events (Fig. 2)(Lundin et al., 2013).
Mid Norwegian margin formed by various and continues extensional and rifting episodes that took
place in the Late Paleozoic- Early Triassic, Late Jurassic-Earl Cretaceous and Late CretaceousPaleocene. The extension even during the Paleocene- Eocene led to the continental break-up of the
Nord Atlantic and also affected the magmatic activity on the Mid Norwegian margin(Gomez et
al., 2004) (Brekke, 2000; Eldholm and Grue, 1994; Faleide et al., 2010; Faleide et al., 2008); .
Mid Norwegian margin divided into three main margins, Mre, Vring and LofotenVesterlen, which has the length range 400 to 500km (Faleide et al., 2008). These margins are
separated by East Jan Mayen Fracture zone and Bivrost Lineament/transfer zone. Also from
interpretation of potential field data? and seismic volcano stratigraphy, the distribution of extrusive
let us to divide the Mre, Vring and Lofoten-Vesterlen into five more segment. The combination
of volcanic seismic facies unit shows the characteristic of typical rifted volcanic margin on the
central Mre Margin and the northern Vring Margin. The Lofoten-Vesterlen, the southern
Vring Margin and The area near the Jan Mayen Fracture Zone showing small volume submarine
seismic volcanic facieses(Berndt et al., 2001).

16 Vring Margin
Vring margin is a part of the Mid Norwegian Margin, Southwestern part of this margin is
separated by the East Jan Mayen Fracture (EJFZ), the Northeastern part by the Bivrost Lineament
(BL).
The structure of the vring margin is about 500km wide and consisting of Trndelag Platform, the
Halten and Dnna terraces, the Vring Basin and the Vring Marginal High from southeast to
northwest.
From Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Vring Margin affected by crustal extension and thinning,
this led to subsidence and development of major Cretaceous basins. (Eldholm and Grue, 1994;
Faleide et al., 2008) (Blystad et al., 1995; Scheck-Wenderoth et al., 2007b; Skogseid et al., 2000).
By studding Wide-angle seismic refraction and deep MCS profiles, the Moho depth can be
estimated from (ca. 30-32 km) near to mainland Norway to 25 km on major parts of the platform.
The Vring Basin is characterized by number of sub basins and highs mostly displaying the
differential vertical movements from Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous basin evolution(Faleide et
al., 2008).

Pre-breakup basin evolution: The pre-opening, structural margin framework is dominated by the
NE Atlantic-Arctic Late JurassicEarly Cretaceous rift episode responsible for the development
of major Cretaceous basins such as the Mre and Vring basins off mid-Norway, and the deep
basins in the SW Barents Sea.

By mid-Cretaceous time, most of the structural relief within the Mre and Vring
basins had been filled in and thick Upper Cretaceous strata, mainly fine-grained clastics were
deposited in wide basins.
Breakup-related tectonism and magmatism: Late CretaceousPaleocene rifting at the Vring
Margin covers a ~150 km wide area bounded by the Fles Fault Complex and the Utgard High on
the east.
Final lithospheric breakup at the Norwegian margin occurred near the PaleoceneEocene transition
at ~5554 Ma (Chron 24r). It culminated in a 36 m.y. period of massive magmatic activity during
breakup and onset of early sea-floor spreading. At the outer margin (e.g., Mre and Vring
margins), the lavas form characteristic SDR sequences that drilling has demonstrated to be
subaerially and/or neritically erupted basalts (Eldholm et al., 1989; Planke et al., 1999). These
seaward dipping reflectors have become diagnostic features of volcanic margins. During the main
igneous episode at the PaleoceneEocene transition, sills intruded into the thick Cretaceous
successions throughout the NE Atlantic margin, including the Vring and Mre basins.
Post-breakup margin evolution: Mid-Cenozoic compressional deformation (including domes/
anticlines, reverse faults, and broad-scale inversion) is well documented on the Vring margin, but
its timing and significance are highly debated (Dor and Lundin, 1996; Vgnes et al., 1998;
Lundinand Dor, 2002; Lseth and Henriksen, 2005; Stoker et al., 2005a).
(Faleide et al., 2008)

The crust underneath Trna basin and westwards is thin ( _10 km), and the crust is roughly twice

as thick underneath the Trndelag platform (Wangen et al., 2011).

fig..(Scheck-Wenderoth et
al., 2007a)

As part of the polyrifted system, the outer Vring Basin was particularly affected by a Late
Cretaceous Paleocene rifting leading to the breakup and seaward dipping reflectors emplacement
(Fig. ..)(Gernigon et al., 2004).

fig.. (Gernigon et al., 2004)

(Eldholm et al., 2002; Gernigon et al., 2003; Ren et al., 2003).

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Blystad, P., Brekke, H., Frseth, R. B., Larsen, B. T., Skogseid, J., and Trudbakken, B., 1995,
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Gomez, M., Verges, J., Fernandez, M., Torne, M., Ayala, C., Wheeler, W., and Karpuz, R., 2004,
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from the continent to the ocean: a deeper view on the Norwegian margin: Journal of the
Geological Society, v. 164, no. 4, p. 855-868.
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transition from the continent to the ocean: a deeper view on the Norwegian margin: Journal
of the Geological Society, v. 164, no. 4, p. 855-868.
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