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TIRUPUR- 641 665

Approved by AICTE, New Delhi and Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai
(An ISO 9001: 2008 Certified Institution)


Subject code & name


Semester & Year

: V & III

1. Define water hardness.
The presence in water of dissolved calcium or magnesium ions, which form a scum with soap and
prevent the formation of lather.
2. What is meant by temporary and permanent hardness?

Temporary hardness is a type of water hardness caused by the presence of dissolved bicarbonate
minerals (calcium bicarbonate and magnesium bicarbonate). This "temporary" hardness can be
reduced either by boiling the water, or by the addition of lime (calcium hydroxide) through the
softening process of lime softening
Permanent hardness is hardness (mineral content) that cannot be removed by boiling. When this is
the case, it is usually caused by the presence of calcium sulfate and/or magnesium sulfates in the
water, which do not precipitate out as the temperature increases. Ions causing permanent hardness
of water can be removed using a water softener, or ion exchange column.
3. What is hard water?
Hard water is the type of water that has high mineral content (in contrast with soft water). Hard
water minerals primarily consist of calcium (Ca2+), and magnesium (Mg2+) metal cations, and
sometimes other dissolved compounds such as bicarbonates and sulfates. Calcium usually enters
the water as either calcium carbonate (CaCO3), in the form of limestone and chalk, or calcium
sulfate (CaSO4), in the form of other mineral deposits. The predominant source of magnesium is
dolomite (CaMg (CO3)2). Hard water is generally not harmful.
4. How is hard water measured?
Hard water is usually measured in either PPM (parts per million) or GPG (grains per gallon).17.1
PPM or Mg/L = 1 GPG or PPM or Mg/L divided by 17.1 = GPG (grains per gallon).
5. What is meant by scaling or fouling?
Fouling refers to the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces, most often in an aquatic
environment. The fouling material can consists of either living organisms (biofouling) or be a nonliving substance (inorganic or organic).
Fouling phenomena are common and diverse, ranging from fouling of ships, natural surfaces in the
marine environment (marine fouling), fouling of heat-transferring components through ingredients
contained in the cooling water or gases, and even the development of plaque or calculus on teeth, or
deposits on solar panels on Mars, among other examples
6. What do you mean by softening of water?
Water softening is the removal of calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal cations in hard water.
The resulting soft water is more compatible with soap and extends the lifetime of plumbing. Water
softening is usually achieved using ion-exchange resins.
7. What is the difference between hard water and soft water?
Its the amount of calcium and magnesium in the water. The Water Quality Association of the United
States defines hard water as having dissolved mineral hardness of 1 GPG (grain per gallon) or more.
Scales are given below:
Soft Water
- less than 1 gpg
Slightly Hard
- 1-3.5 gpg
Moderately Hard - 3.5-7 gpg
Very Hard
- 7-10 gpg

Extremely Hard

Unit II

- over 10 gpg


Give the function surface active agents?

Surface active agents is a substance which lowers the surface tension of the water in which it is
Surfactant, also called surface-active agent, substance such as a detergent that, when added to a liquid,
reduces its surface tension, thereby increasing its spreading and wetting properties
What do you mean by saponification?
The reaction between sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide with animal fats or vegetable oils to
make soap. This reaction is known as saponification
Give the chemical structure for Sodium alkyl benzene sulphonate and sops

Define: Detergent
Detergent is a synthetic cleansing agents which is made from hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum
fraction. It is a kind of petrochemicals.


Give the % of carboxylic acid in various oils



Steric acid Oleic acid

Linolic acid

Olive oil





Palm oil










Give the function of brighteners and builders

The brighteners absorb the invisible ultraviolet and re-radiate it as blue light.
Brighteners make fabrics appear whiter and brighter because the blue light can hide any
yellowing on the fabrics.
Blue light added to the yellow light reflected on old fabrics make them look white.
To make bulk the soap and it is consists up to 80% in soap content.


What are the two parts consists for carboxylate ions in soap when its dissolved in water?

a) The Head
1. Negatively charged
2. Contains the C O ion (carboxylate)
3. It is hydrophilic (like to dissolves water)
b) The Tail
1. Positively charged
2. It is s a long hydrocarbon chain
3. It is hydrophobic (do not like to dissolves water)
Write short notes on Rita-nut and Shikakai


Shikakai is a natural herbal powder derived from the fruit of the Acacia Concinna tree. The
worlds original pH balanced soap
Rita nuts are a fruit of Sapindus Mukorossi trees. These trees grow in south east India, China,
Indonesia and Nepal. This tree has about five to twelve species of shrubs and small tree which
grow in tropical and warm climate
Give the short notes on
a) Optical brightener
b) Blueing agents

Optical brightener:
The OBA s (optical brightening agents) are most widely used in textiles, paper, detergents and plastics
The optical brightening effect is obtained by the addition of light, which means that the amount of
light reflected by the Fluorescent Whitening Agents (also called optical brightener) absorb high energy
radiation in the ultraviolet to violet region (330nm-380nm) on the part of characteristic molecules and
emit lower energy radiation in blue region in visible spectrum (400nm-450nm), which yields the
counteracting the yellowing appearance.
FWA should be transparent on the substrate and should not absorb the visible region of the spectrum.
The OBAs are effective only when the incident light has a significance proportion (such as daylight)
of UV rays. When material treated with OBAs is exposed to UV black light source, it glows in the
dark. Anionic OBAs exhaust on cotton, wool and silk. cationic OBAs exhaust on acrylic and certain
polyesters and nonionic OBAs are exhaust on all synthetics.
The application of a fluorescent whitening agent on textile material a "whiter than white" optical effect
can be achieved.
Blueing agents
It is a household product used to improve the appearance of textiles, especially white fabrics.
Used during laundering, it adds a trace of blue dye to the fabric.
To make fabrics appear whiter and brighter because the blue light can hide any yellowing on
the fabrics.
What do you mean by soap?
Soap is a cleaning agents produced by the reaction between sodium hydroxide and potassium
hydroxide with animal fats or vegetable oils
What are the two alkali used for soap making process?
The common alkalis used in soap making are sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also called caustic soda;
and potassium hydroxide (KOH), and also called caustic potash.
Give the chemical structure for soaps.

General formula: RCOONa+

The structure of a soap molecule is represented below:
CH3-CH2-CH2- CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2- CH2-CH2- CH2-CH2- CH2-CH2- CH2-CH2- COO

1. What are the advantages of using fusible interlining?

Reduces the manufacturing time and hence the production is increased.

It replaces the time needed for the basting
Low the labour cost.
Reduces the operators' skill and fatigue.
Consistent quality of seams can be achieved by using laminate instead of using ordinary
traditional interlining.
Fusible interlining provides alternative method of garment construction
2. What are the objects of Pressing?
To smooth away unwanted creases and crush marks
To make creases where needed
To mould the garment to the contour of the body
To prepare garments for further sewing
To finish the fabric after manufacturing
3. Give the function for thermostat in iron box.
Regulate the temperature of the iron box according types of flbres.
To maintain the temperature during ironing
4. Give the types of steam iron.
Kettle type
Flash boiler type
5. Give the function of Collar and Cuff pressing m/c.
To smooth away unwanted creases and crush marks
To give the proper shape for Collar and Cuff
6. Give the Temperature level for ironing of various types of fabrics.

Safe ironing temp


















No ironing

7. What do you mean by Trouser topper?

Trouser topper is a pressing machine and it used for to press legs and waist band section of
trousers simultaneously and give the proper shape for trouser.
8. What is Laundering?
Laundering means removing dirt from clothes by washing and then finishing them (i.e, starching,
ironing) thereby giving them a neat and clean appearance.
9. What are requirements needs for fusing

The interlining used should not affect the desired aesthetic properties of the design.
The strength of the bond of the laminate must withstand subsequent operations in garment
manufacturing and flexing, washing
Fusing process must take place without "strike-through" or Strike-back". ( The softened resin
should not go right through the right side of the face fabric or should not come out of the
interlining base cloth. These problems are called "strike-through" or Strike-back respectively)
Fusing must not cause thermal Shrinkage of the outer fabric, ( lead to improper sizing and shaping
of the parts).
The temperature used for fusing should not lead to sublimation of dyes which will cause shade
variation between fused and un-fused parts.
Fusing must not lead to crushing of piles.
When fusing is done for some special purpose garments, it shouldn't affect the ultimate functional
properties. For e.g. water proof or fire proof materials.
10. Mention the advantage of flatbed fusing machine.

Simplest version and can be kept at anywhere.

Low cost when compare to other fusing machines.
Easy maintenance and less complex system.
It reduces fabric shrinkage by applying uniform pressure throughout the fusing cycle.
What is the role of shirt press m/c and iron box in finishing room
Shirt press m/c is process of smoothing out wrinkles and crushes marks and mould the
garment to the contour of the body.
Ironing is the process of smoothing out wrinkles and/or removing moisture by Heat, Pressure
and Friction, often with application of moisture or steam
11. What you understand by sole plate?
This is the base of the iron.
Its lower surface is highly polished so that it can glide smoothly over the fabric to be ironed.
In many irons there is a coating of Teflon which prevents sticking as well as corrosion
12. Give the following details for house hold iron. i) Weight ii) Wattage
- Not weight more than 800 grams
- 750W, 220- 230V single AC phase
13. What Purpose Teflon coatings apply to sole plate in the iron box?
Teflon coating is prevents sticking as well as corrosion
14. List out the resin names of used for interlining fabrics
Resins name are polyethylene, polypropylene, polyamide, polyester, poly vinyl chloride and
plasticized poly vinyl acetate.
15. What are the essentional requirement consider for resin used in interlining?

The temperature must not to be high which will affect the garment. The maximum
temperature is 1750 C and common is 1500 C
The fusing temperature must not to be too low that the bond is inadequate to withstand.
The resin should withstand washing and dry cleaning.
The thermoplastic characteristics of the resin must not to lead to "strike-through" or Strikeback".
It must provide desired handle and harmless.
It must be white or transparent
16. Write the function of boiler in garment industry.
To provide the steam for ironing, pressing, dry cleaning and fusing process.
17. Classify the pressing equipments.
a. Iron
b. Steam Press

Press cladding
Collar and Cuff Press
Trouser topper
c. Steam Air Finisher
Shirt and Garments finisher
d. Form Finisher
e. Tunnel Finisher
18. Mention the advantage of shirt pressing machine and trouser topper.

To give shape for shirts and trouser

To easily remove the wrinkles and crush marks in the garment
To provide better appearance and attractiveness for the garments