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RUSSIAN GRAMMAR IN TABLES


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5- ,



2015

811.161.1'36(0.054.6)
81.2-2-96
89

89

..
Russian Grammar in Tables. : .
/ .. . 5- ., . . : : ,
2015. 92 . ( ).
ISBN 978-5-9765-0966-5 ()
ISBN 978-5-02-037281-8 ()
The textbook is constructed as a reference book focusing on the difficult items of
Russian grammar in an easy and understandable form. The tables of the book include
the meaning, formation and changing of different parts of speech.
This textbook is designed for foreign students learning Russian language from
any level. It can be used both by students and teachers for explaining, learning and
revision of grammar material, for systematization of knowledges, and for preparing
for exams as well.
,
.
, .
,
.
,
, .

811.161.1'36(0.054.6)
81.2-2-96

ISBN 978-5-9765-0966-5 ()
ISBN 978-5-02-037281-8 ()

.., 2010
, 2010

CONTENTS

The gender of nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Nouns in - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7
8

The uses of cases:


1) The Prepositional case ( 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) The Accusative case ( 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) The Dative case ( 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) The Genitive case ( 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5) The Accusative or the Genitive? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6) The Instrumental case ( 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9
10
12
14
16
17

The declension of nouns:


1) The endings of nouns according to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) Questions according to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) Genitive plural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) Special endings in the Prepositional singular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5) Nouns ending in - / - / - (singular) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6) Special endings of masculine nouns in the Genitive singular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7) Three types of the declension of nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8) Irregular declension of some nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9) Indeclinable nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19
19
19
20
20
20
21
23
23

Mobile vowels in nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

Formation of nouns in the plural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Special cases of formation of nouns in the plural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25
25

Nouns with the singular or plural form only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

The use of prepositions and in the Prepositional expressing place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Where? Where to? Where from? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27
27

Generic endings of adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

The declension of adjectives:


1) The endings of qualitative and relative adjectives according to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) Types of the declension of qualitative and relative adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) Adjectives with the stem in the soft consonant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) The declension of possessive adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29
30
31
32

The declension of nouns and adjectives (general table) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Golden rules of the declension of nouns, adjectives and possessive pronouns . . . . . . . . . .

33
34

Personal pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Possessive pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35
35

The declension of pronouns:


1) The declension of personal pronouns and reflexive pronoun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) The declension of possessive pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) The declension of demonstrative pronouns , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) The declension of interrogative pronouns , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5) The declension of determinative pronouns , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6) The declension of indefinite pronoun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35
36
36
36
37
37

Formation of interrogative, negative and indefinite pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

Indefinite pronouns and adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

Negative pronouns and adverbs with the particle - intensifying the negative constructions . .
Negative pronouns and adverbs with the particle - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39
40

Numerals: cardinal, ordinal, collective, fractions, decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

The declension of numerals:


1) The declension of cardinal numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) The declension of ordinal numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) The declension of collective numerals 2 - 7, / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) The declension of fractions and decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43
44
44
45

Formation of degrees of comparison of qualitative adjectives and adverbs of manner . . . . .


Special cases of formation of degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs . . . . . . . . .

46
47

Short-form adjectives and short-form passive participles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Formation of short-form of qualitative adjectives and passive participles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special cases of formation of short-form of adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48
48
49

Verb forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

The conjugation of verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

Consonant interchange in verb stems in the present tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Special cases of verb conjugation and past tense formation (irregular verbs) . . . . . . . . . . . .

52
53

Aspects of the verb:


1) Formation of the aspectual pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) The use of the aspects of the verb in the present tense, past tense and future tense . . .
3) General table: the use of the aspects of the verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) The use of the aspects of the verb in the infinitive form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5) The use of the aspects of the verb in the imperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6) Verbs which have no aspectual counterpart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54
55
58
59
61
63

Formation of the imperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

Verbs of motion:
1) Verbs of motion without prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) The use of the verbs of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) Tense and mood forms of the verbs of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) Verbs of motion with prefixes indicating spatial relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5) Verbs of motion with non-spatial prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6) Aspects of the verbs of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7) Formation of the aspectual pairs of the verbs of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67
68
70
72
74
75
77

Verbs with the particle - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

The participle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formation of the participle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81
81

The verbal adverb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Formation of the verbal adverb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82
82

Passive constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

Indefinite Personal constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

Constructions of time (when?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

Direct and Indirect speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

Complex sentences with conjunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

The main meanings of prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7
8

:
1) ( 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) ( 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) ( 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) ( 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5) ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6) ( 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9
10
12
14
16
17

:
1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) . . . . . .
4) .
5) - / - / - . . . .
6)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19
19
19
20
20
20
21
23
23

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .
,

25
25
26

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
? ? ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27
27

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

:
1) . . . . . . . . . .
2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29
30
31
32

( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
, ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35
35

:
1) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) , , . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5) , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35
36
36
36
37
37

, . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

37
38
39
40

: , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

:
1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) 2 - 7, / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43
44
44
45

. . . . . . .

46
47

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48
48
49

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52


( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

:
1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54
55
58
59
61
63

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

:
1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67
68
70
72
74
75
77

- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81
81

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82
82

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

(?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

/ The gender of nouns

1)

masculine: o - he

feminine: - she

hard

soft

hard

soft

hard

soft

consonant

neuter: - it

window

sea

brother

hero

sister

family

letter

sun

boy

museum

small girl

week

ring

field

person

tram

girl

village

matter, business

happiness

engineer

tea

woman

land, earth

word

misfortune

husband

hockey

wife

song

number, date

health

son

case, occasion

daughter

idea

place, seat

heart

friend

May

(girl)friend

article

face

Sunday

house

nightingale

flat

cherry

coat

dress

university

sparrow

school

tower

armchair

towel

concert

serpent; kite

exhibition

bedroom

mirror

college

theatre

stream

car

nanny, nurse

apple

monster

office

harvest

work, job

statue

milk

desire

shop

battle, fight

hotel

surname

wine

building

pencil

custom

pen

station

egg

attention

suitcase

sanatorium

bag

organization

summer

name, title

magazine

cafeteria

newspaper

profession

sky

decision, solution

table

commentary

book

army

tree

occupation; lesson

chair

script

cup

lecture

lake

meeting

beer

document

planetarium

paper

line

embassy

timetable

agreement

jockey

meeting

lecture hall

state

announcement

lane

system, structure

street

history

government

report, message

plant

layer

factory

accident

society

reading

2) masculine ( - ):
- father, - grandfather, - uncle; - men, - young men
short male names: (), (), (), ()

3) neuter (-):
- time, - name, - banner, - flame, - tribe, - seed
7

4) - / Nouns in -
masculine
- car
- ensemble
- nail
- hospital
- guest
- day
- rain
- animal
- calendar
- stone
- potatoes
- cough
- control
- ship
- the Kremlin
- bear
- cloister
- finger-nail
- zero
- fire
- midday
- brief-case
- way
- strap
- piano
- rouble
- steering wheel
- style
- dictionary

feminine

- performance
- coal
- level
- festival
- lamp, torch

- package
- illness
- pain
- eyebrow
- thing
- power
- chest
- sadness
- dirt
- distance
- door
- detail
- daughter
- life
- record, entry
- bed
- blood
- laziness
- horse
- love
- mother
- furniture
- small change;

months:
- January
- February
- April
- June
- July
- September
- October
- November
- December

suffix - / -
- teacher
- teacher
- writer
- reader
- inhabitant
- spectator
- switch
- secretary
- librarian

o - he

consonant

- she

- it

m/f
m

trifle

- snowstorm
- youth
- youthfulness
- carrot
- thought
- hatred

- oil, petroleum
- news
- night
- footwear
- autumn
- queue, line
- memory
- square
- short novel
- help
- bedding

- industry

- dust
- joy
- speech
- role
- connection
- table-cloth
- speed
- boldness
- death
- conscience
- salt

- profession

- exercise-book
- fabric
- purpose
- part
- wool

- brother
- museum
- sister
- family
- window
- sea
- dictionary
- door

- father, - uncle
- grandfather,

/
exception

/ The uses of cases


/ The Prepositional case ( 6)
MEANING

1. The place of an action


CONSTRUCTION

? ?
EXAMPLES

- ?
- ,
.

? where?
verbs:
- to live
- to be
- to be situated
- to work
- to study
- to have a lesson
- to rest
- to stroll
- to stand, - to sit
- to lie, - to hang
2. The object of speech or / ,
thought


.
.
,
.
.
.
.
- ?
- .
- ?
-
.

? ?
about whom / what?
1) verb + noun
verbs:
- to speak, to say
- to tell
- to ask a question
- to think
- to write, - to read
- to inform
2) noun + noun
- to remember about
- to dream
3. Time /
/


.

.
.
.
.
- ?
- .

? - ?

when? - ?
- ?
- ?

4. Transport /

/ 2009-
/ .

- ?
I- /
- 1799 .

, ,

- () ?
- .

? / ?
by what? / how?

: , , ,
, , ,
,

verbs of motion

5. Clothes /

: ,
: (,
),
.

-
-
:
(),
, , .

?
6. The musical instrument

? to play

/ The Accusative case ( 4)


MEANING

1. An object /
? ?
transitive verbs:
- to see
- to love
- to know
- to understand
- to wait
- to meet
- to remember
- to lose
- to find
- to forget
- to buy
- to read
- to write
/ - to take
- to receive

CONSTRUCTION

without a preposition

? ?
EXAMPLES

- ?
- .
- ?
- .

? - .

2. Introduction
,

.
.

3. Direction of motion (action) / - in, at, on

? where to?

- across, through

- ?
- .

- ?
- .

- behind
()

1) verbs of motion

.
.

2) verbs:
/ - to put
/ - to put
/ - to hang

verb + ? + ?

.
.

.
.

3) other verbs

.
.
.

10

MEANING

CONSTRUCTION

EXAMPLES

4. Time /
1) ? when?

- on + :

- ?
- () .
.

- in future tense

+ , ,
, ,

all

- ( )

2) A certain period of time



a) How long time?
?
?

, , ?

whole
,

- .
.
.

process - imperfect
) ?

- within

result - perfect

+ , , ,
, ,

-
?
- .

) ?
( ?)

- to stay for

-
?
- .

3) Recurrence of action

every
, ,

-
?
-
.

? how often?

5. Space (a part of the way)


+ /
( )
()?
6. Weight /

+ /

()?
7. Price /

Acc.

? to cost

verb + number

8. Game /


, ,
, ,

- for

? to play
9. Cause /
?

11

/ The Dative case ( 3)


MEANING

CONSTRUCTION

EXAMPLES

1. The recipient /
?
verbs:
- to give
- to buy
() - to write
() - to give a present
- to show
- to bring
- to pass
- to send

? ?

- ?
- .
Acc.

? + ?

Prep.

- to say
- to tell
- to inform
() - to write

? + ?

() - to advise
? + inf
- to help
- to allow (permit) to do
() - to promise
() - to disturb
Nom.
2. verb to like
1) + + (thing)
()
+ ? / ?
2) + + inf (action)
3. Age /

+ number + (a) /

.
.
M .
.
- ?
- ,
.

(, , ) ?

4. in impersonal sentences:

the person (object) experiencing


a certain state or condition

+ inf

:
(),
-

m
f
n
pl.

Nom.

+
(thing)

Instr.

+ inf (+ )

( )
-.

+ 1) adverb (condition)
2) impersonal verb

+ inf

12

.
.
.

.

MEANING

CONSTRUCTION

EXAMPLES

5. The person who is the aim - to


of the motion
verbs of motion
? (?)

- () ?
- / .
.

6. An object or a place to - to
which motion is directed
verbs of motion
? ?

(),

7. Motion along a surface


- ( ) ?
- .

- along
verbs of motion
and their synonyms

.
.
.
.

8. The attributes formed from


the subjects of education
noun + noun

()

? ( ?)

9. Way (means) of communication - by, on


()

to send

to watch

to show

to search for

to call

to speak

to listen

to broadcast
to telecast

to inform, report

to perform

to tell

13

/ The Genitive case ( 2)


MEANING

CONSTRUCTION

EXAMPLES

1. Negation /

/ .
positive:

Possessor: ?

Gen.

(-, -, -)
(-)
negation:

2. Possession /

Nom.

/ .

/
.

Gen.

/
.

/ .

name of owner - Gen.

- - - ? whose?
3. Relation:

Nom. + Gen.

an object is defined by means of


another object, related to the first
or including it as part of a whole

/ .

/
.
? - .
? - .
? - .

- ? ( ?)
- .

? ?

:
,

4. Comparison /

? ?



simple comparative degree
of adjective (adverb) + Gen.

5. Measure and quantity


.
.
.
1 , , , ,
2, 3, 4 , , , ,
5 , , , ,

1) Exact number of persons or ardinal numerals + Gen.


Nom.
objects (more than one)
singular: 2, 3, 4 - ,


plural: 5 ... - ,
( )
2) Relative number of objects
or persons
()
verb:
present - 3 person, singular
past - 3 person, singular, neuter

+ plural

-
?
-
() .
.
.

,


() .


100

3) Part of the whole



4) A certain amount, quantity
of something
,
-

5) A set of objects or persons


()

Gen.

uncountable noun: singular

countable noun: plural

Gen. plural

14

,
,
,

6. Time or date /
1) ?
What date is it today?

ordinal
2) Date of the action
number

+ +
? when? / ?

3) The beginning and the end ... - from ... to


of the time interval

- ?
-
.
- ?
- 1978
() .

/
.
.

? =
?

4) ? =

?
- before
? - during
?
- after
7. The place from where the from:
action is directed (the starting
()
point of motion)

,
( - - from behind
)
? / ?

8. Place where a person (object) - at / by, near


is, or where an action takes place near
() - (not) far from
;
- behind
,
- in front of
()
- opposite
? / ?
- in the middle of
- around
Place of motion / - past
- along
verbs of motion

- ?
- (
, ) .
/ /
.

- ?
- / -
.
.
.
.
- ?
- .
- () ?
- .
- ?
- .

.
.
.

9. The place where the action -


to reach
is directed
? where to?
verbs of motion (with prefix )

.
.
.

10. A part of the way



11. Cause /
?
- ?
12. Purpose /
/ ?
13. Exception /
/ ?
14. Absence /
/ ?
?

... - from to

- - because of

- for
- apart from, except


?



-


, .
, .

- without
.

15

? / The Accusative or the Genitive?


verbs
I. after the verbs:
() - to ask for
- to want
()

Accusative case
if the speaker means
a definite person or object

Genitive case
if the speaker means
an abstract or non-specific object

3.

.
(
- direction)

imperfect

imperfect

, ,

imperfect

()

pass,

, decision, ,
permission,
happiness, freedom,
independence, peace,
rest, peace
, defence, protection,

justice,
fairness,
sympathy
attention,

()

excuse, help

II. after the verbs:

if the action involves


the whole object

if the action involves


part of the object

- to demand, to require

- to look for
- to wait

- to pour
- to put
- to slice
- to pick

, - jug ()

, ()

, , ()

, , ()

, ()

, ()

- grapes ()

( - bunch of)

- to give
- to take

, ()

, (some amount)

- to drink
- to eat

buying some individual items,


people say:

buying provisions (),


people say:

, ,
( , ).

(,
, ).

(, , ).

(, ).

III. if the transitive verb


is preceded by
negation

the object
a specific person or thing

the object
an abstract or unspecified thing

+ verb

- to meet

- to know

sympathy
mutual understanding
,

- to love

noise, heat

- to see

, sense

- to feel

cold, ache, hunger

- to find

support

(), ()

- to buy
- to bring

16

/ The Instrumental case ( 5) ? ?


MEANING

CONSTRUCTION

EXAMPLES

1. Together with /
1) Joint action
C
verbs:
verbs of motion, - to be
- to speak
- to talk to
/ - to meet
() - to introduce
() - to say hello to
() - to say good-bye to
() - to consult
2) Emotional state (condition)
accompanying an action
,

? How?
3) The presence of the quality of
an object

- ?
-
/ .

- with

words:
- with pleasure
- with interest
- with pride
- with wonder
- with joy
- with difficult

- with

- appearance ()
- food ()
- architecture of building
( )
- ontent ()
4) The question about the health
of a person

.
.



? - .

- with

- ?
- .
2. Profession and rank / ,
Nom.

compound predicate with the verbs:

- to be
- to become
- to be

present: - .
+ Instr.

past: + +
future: + +
?

1) Interests and occupation



?

(there is no verb )
() .
- () ?
- () .
.
- ?
-
. / .

3. The object /
verbs:

- ?
- ().
- to be occupied
- to be keen on smth.
- to be interested / /
.

2) The object of the emotional state


words:
- to be delighted
- to be indignant
.
- to admire
- enjoy, take pleasure

- to be satisfied (with)

3) another verbs

17

MEANING

CONSTRUCTION

4. The instrument of action


there is no preposition

EXAMPLES
?- .

.
.

5. Place /

prepositions:

- ?
- .

- above

in front of

between

behind, after

- under
- near to, close by

.
.
.
.

6. Passive constructions

Nom.

perfect

+ +
short past passive participle

Nom.

imperfect

+ +
7. Time /
?
- seasons

Not long ago from the action

- just before

- ?
-
.

.
.

.
.
.

?
8. The means and manner of action

.
there is no preposition

(
).
(= ).

9. Purpose /
- for
? what for?

10. Congratulations

,
. =

.
Acc.

/
- with

()
I congratulate you with
! Happy birthday!
! holiday, celebration
! Merry Christmas!
! Happy New Year!
! Happy Easter!
: ! Same to you!

18

/ The Declension of Nouns


SINGULAR
CASE

h a r d
1 - Nominative
onsonant

? / ?
2 - Genitive

? / ?
3 - Dative

? / ?
4 - Accusative
inan. = Nom.

anim. = Gen.
? / ?
5 - Instrumental

? / ?
6 - Prepositional

s o f t

hard

soft

inan. = Nom.
anim. = Gen.

()

hard

inanimate = Nom.
animate = Gen.

()

soft

no ending

? / ?

PLURAL

f+m

/ Questions according to the case


CASE
1
2
3
4
5
6

Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Instrumental
Prepositional

ANIMATE OBJECT
?
?
?
?
?
?

INANIMATE OBJECT

who?
of whom?
to whom?
whom?
by whom? with whom?
about whom?

?
?
?
?
?
?

what?
of what?
to what?
what?
by what? with what?
about what?

/ Genitive plural
CASE

1Nom.
singular

MASCULINE
onsonant

museum

FEMININE

, , ,

thousand

hour

sanatorium

teacher

question

month

day

(girl)friend

floor

boy

2Gen.
plural

news

apple

sea

thing

business

field

week

mother

stop

daughter

word

seat

window

letter

+ unstable
vowel /

1. after sibilants - , , , ,
2. instead of ,

19

girl

no ending

unstable vowel :

doctor

NEUTER

no ending
+ unstable
vowel /

feminine
neuter

Special case:

- station
- building

Genitive plural

Exceptions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

/ - neighbours, / - friends, / - sons


/ - children, / - parents, / - people
/ - watch, / - glasses; / - money
/ - brothers, / - chairs, / - tree
/ - leaves
- times, - persons; - / - eyes
- / - soldiers, - / - boots

Speial endings in the Prepositional singular


? / Where?
- on the bridge
/ - in / on the nose
- on ice
- in the eye
/ - on / in snow
- in the mouth
() - at the corner - in the forehead
- on the floor
- in the battle
- in the meadow
- in smoke
- on the edge
- in the Crimea
? / When?
2009 - year
- hour

- in the wood
- in the port
- in the airport
() - in the corner
- in the garden
/ - in / on the cupboard
- on the bank

- / - / -

Nouns ending in - / - / - (singular)


gender
masculine
neuter
feminine

1 - Nominative


6 - Prepositional (?)

3 - Dative

Speial endings of masculine nouns in the Genitive singular


masculine nouns

- soup
- tea
- sugar
- cheese
- honey
- chocolate
- poison
- grapes
- people

meaning: part of the whole


(-) - plate of soup
(-) - cup of tea
(-) - piece of sugar
200 () (-)
(-) - jar of honey
(-) - bar of chocolate
(-) - a little poison
(-)
(-) - many people

20

endings

-
or
-

/ Three types of the declension of nouns

Declension I: feminine + masculine nouns ending in A -


(masculine nouns: - father, - grandfather, - uncle, - man, - young man, )
SINGULAR
consonant + A

case

consonant +

(except , , , , , , , )

, , +

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Instr.
Prep.

animate
- mother

inanimate
- mountain

animate

inanimate
- land

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Instr.
Prep.

case
Nom.

, , , +
+
animate
inanimate
animate
inanimate

wifes mother

rain cloud

she-wolf

street

fairy

statue

Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Instr.
Prep.

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Instr.
Prep.

animate
- dog

inanimate
- book

- line

PLURAL

SINGULAR
vowel (except ) +
animate
inanimate

ending
-
-

-
- ()

PLURAL

-
no ending
-
an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.
-

Declension II: 1) masculine nouns without any ending in the Nominative


SINGULAR
consonant
case (except , , , , , , , )
animate
inanimate

Nom.

, ,

animate

inanimate

animate

inanimate

artist

table

teacher

dictionary

grandson

sunflower

sanatorium

Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Instr.
Prep.

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Instr.
Prep.

PLURAL

21

SINGULAR
case
1
Nom.
2
Gen.
3
Dat.
4
Acc.
5
Instr.
6
Prep.

, , ,
animate
inanimate

- knife
friend, comrade
- march

animate

inanimate

(except -)
animate
inanimate

prince

month

hero

occasion, case

ending
-
-
anim. = Gen.
inan. = Nom.
- ()

PLURAL
1
Nom.
2
Gen.
3
Dat.
4
Acc.

5
Instr.
6
Prep.

- , -
- ,

-
anim. = Gen.
inan. = Nom.
-

Declension II: 2) neuter nouns ending in - ()


SINGULAR
consonant + O

case

consonant + E
(except , , , , )

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Instr.
Prep.

animate
- word

inanimate
- sea

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Instr.
Prep.

, , , , +
animate
- monster

ending

- building

-
-
-
- = Nom.
-

PLURAL

-
no ending /
-
- = Nom.
-
-

Declension III: feminine nouns ending in -


SINGULAR

case
animate
1 - Nom. ,

inanimate

2 - Gen. ,
3 - Dat. ,

PLURAL
ending

animate

inanimate

,
,

4 - Acc. ,

5 - Instr. ,
6 - Prep. ,

,
,

daughter, mother

exercise book

22

ending

an. = Gen.
in. = Nom.

/ Irregular declension of some nouns


SINGULAR
PLURAL
= declension III
masculine
- way

- time

2 - Gen.

3 - Dat.

4 - Acc.

5 - Instr.

6 - Prep.

case
1 - Nom.

ending
-

SINGULAR
= declension III

PLURAL
= declension II: 2

neuter: ending -

- time, - name, - banner, - flame


- tribe, - seed, - burden

/ Indeclinable nouns
- bureau, office
- jury
- interview
- cafe
- cinema, movie
- coffee
- compartment

- underground, subway
- overcoat
- piano
- radio
- taxi
- hobby
- highway

23

All inanimate nouns are neuter,


but the word is masculine.

/ Mobile vowels in nouns

1 - Nom., singular, masculine

2 - Gen., plural, feminine / neuter

nouns ending in:

nouns ending in:

-() /- (-) /- /- /- /- /- /-

- /- /- /- /- /- /- /- /- /-

-
call, bell, ring
-
piece
-
sock
-
gift
-
lane
-
ambassador
-
drawing
-
baby, child
-
machine(tool)
-
corner
-
coal
-
flower
in words of one syllable /

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

log
oar
village
small girl
girl
land
toy
kopeck
ring
armchair
spoon
sheep
song

-
-
-
-
-

day
forehead
moss
mouth
sleep, dream

-
-
-
-
-
-

letter
towel
shirt
heart
bench
match

-
-
-

wind
foreigner
stone

-
-

pine (tree)
cup

-
-
-

end
light
eagle

-
-

-
-

singer
seller, (shop)assistant

-
-
-

artist(e), actress
jar, tin, can
roll, loaf

-
-
-
-
-

bottle
branch
fork
board, plank
fir (tree)

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

note
boat
stamp
window
stop
postcard
mark, note
fairy tale

-
-
-
-

grandfather
boy

(stem ends in -)

ice
lion
stream
nightingale

masculine (nouns ending in -)

soldier

24

Formation of nouns in the plural


masculine: - he

NUMBER

feminine: - she

table

question

SINGULAR

lesson

briefcase

car

museum

newspaper

script

month

window

sea

station

business

pen

towel

dress

building

thing

, ,
,
, , ,

consonant

- they

week

floor

PLURAL:

neuter: - it

, , +

, +


Special cases of formation of nouns in the plural
-

friend

mother

-
time

brother

daughter

name

-
son ()
-

-
-

- cook
-
-

-
banner

foreman

-
tribe

teacher

- city
- house
-
-
- -
child
children
chair
seed
-
()
- train
-
- shore
leaf
()
- island
-

- evening
- -
tree
- voice
kitten
sky
- colour
-
- -
ear (of corn)
- eye
wolf-cub
miracle

- number
-
- forest
wing
- meadow
-
- snow
feather
-
- - cold
flower
apple
- century
- sort
- edge, land
- side
husband ()

person - people

25

- citizen

- peasant

- Englishman

-
owner, host

-
gentleman, Mr.

-
Tatar

-
Bulgarian

Nouns with the plural form only


1) Objects consisting of two or more identical parts
,

2) Some substances and foodstuffs

3) Some abstract ideas


- scales
- scissors
- glasses
- money
- clock, watch
- trousers
- chess
- shorts, pants
- cream
- perfume
- canned goods
- cabbage soup
- ink
- elections
- finance
- negotiations
- funeral
- twenty-four hour
- week days
- holidays

Nouns with the singular form only


1) Substances and medicines

2) Food

3) Sets of persons or objects (collective nouns)



(c )

4) Certain vegetables and berries


5) Certain actions

6) Feelings and some abstract ideas



7) Borrowed nouns (neuter, indeclinable)
c
( )

26

- oxygen
- iron
- nitrogen
- copper
- aluminium
- hydrogen
- iodine
- aspirin
- fish
- meat
- cheese
- butter
- rice
- sugar
- flour
- salt
- milk
- clothes
- footwear
- tableware
- furniture
- young people
- humankind
() - potatoes
- cabbage
() - carrots
- onions
- pea
- parsley
vine, grapes
- raspberries
- reading
- swimming
- harvesting / cleaning up
- hunting
- struggle
- love
- youth
- hatred
- darkness
- health
- radio
- metro, subway
- cinema
- main road
- coat
- taxi
- cafe
- jury
- menu
- interview

( 6)

The use of prepositions and in the Prepositional expressing place


verbs: - to be, - to be situated, - to live, - to work, - to study
- to walk, - to rest; - to stand, - to lie, - to sit, - to hang
verbs of motion are not used!
1. the position of the subject
? - (on the table) / (in, inside the table)
relating to its surface
- country, - city, - village, - center
- region, - oblast, region

- house, - entrance, - flat, - room



, , , ,
open space: - street, - square, - avenue
? Where?
- main road, - road
! - lane

, = in / at / on
- north, - south, - east, - west
- floor
- theatre, - cinema, - museum, - club
2. buildings -
, - restaurant, , , - hospital

, , - school, - university
- hotel, - shop, - pharmacy, - bank
- performance, - concert, - exhibition
3. events, shows ,
- discotheque, - party, - ballet
- work, - meeting, - meeting
- lesson, - lecture, , - excursion
- stadium, - market, - holiday cottage in the country
4. remember exceptions
- post office, - factory, - plant

- homeland, - island
- railway station, - station, - stop
,
! - airport
- business trip, - on holiday

? ? ?

inanimate
? where? [in, at, on]
place
() /
6 - Prepositional case
m

-
f

- at home

? where to?
direction
/ - I (will) go to
/ - I went to
4 - Accusative case
m

f

- / -
- home

? = ? [at]
2 - Genitive case
m - / -

- / -

? = ?
3 - Dative case
m

- / -

I was / will be in (at)

? where from?
from the place
/
I came from

2 - Genitive case
m - / -

f

- / -
- from home

animate (person)

? = ?
2 - Genitive case
m - / -

- / -

adverbs
- here
- there
/ - on the right / left
- below
, - above
- in front
, - behind

- to here
- to there
/ - to the right / left
- down
, - up
- forward
- back

27

- from here
- from there
/ - from the right / left
- from below
- from above
- from the front
- from behind

1 - Nominative
city
/
/ f

country

north / south
/
east / west
/
sea / lake
/
mountain(s)
- pl.
village

street

square
f
lane

house // home

entrance

floor

flat

room

hotel

center

school

university

museum

theatre, circus
,
swimming pool

club

park

wood, garden
/
pl.
guests at sbs house
exhibition

conert

excursion
f
performance

party

lesson

, factory, plant
airport

railway station

station
f
market

shop

drycleaners

pharmacy

bank

embassy

clinic

business trip

f, church
holiday

work

firm

office

company
f
meeting

restaurant, pub
/

? where?

? where to?

? where from?

place

direction

from the place

6 - Prepositional
/

/
/
/
/
-

//

4 - Accusative
/

/
/
/
-

//

28

2 - Genitive
/
/
/








,



/

/



/

/ Generic endings of adjectives


Stem ending
in:
a hard
consonant
, ,

, , ,

a soft
consonant

S I N G U L A R
feminine
?
- new

- red

- young
- small


- bad
- good

- fresh

- hot

- common

- big

masculine
?

- blue

PLURAL
neuter
?

The declension of qualitative and relative adjectives


1) Stem ending in a hard and soft consonant
CASE

n
hard

1
Nom.
4
Acc.
2
Gen.
3
Dat.
5
Instr.
6
Prep.

S I N G U L A R
m
n
feminine
soft
hard
soft

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

PLURAL
hard

soft

inan. = Nom.
anim. = Gen.

= declension

= declension

2) Stem ending in , ,
CASE
1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

masculine

S I N G U L A R
neuter

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

feminine

PLURAL

inan. = Nom.
anim. = Gen.

= declension

= declension

29

Types of the declension of qualitative and relative adjectives


S I N G U L A R

CASE

masculine
?

neuter
?

PLURAL

feminine
?

1) Stem ending in a hard consonant


1
Nom.
4
Acc.

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

2
Gen.
3
Dat.
5
Instr.
6
Prep.

inanimate = Nom.
animate = Gen.

2) Stem ending in the soft consonant


Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Instr.
Prep.

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

inan. = Nom. / an. = Gen.

3) Stem ending in the soft consonant ,


1
Nom.
4
Acc.
2
Gen.
3
Dat.
5
Instr.
6
Prep.

1
Nom.
4
Acc.
2
Gen.
3
Dat.
5
Instr.
6
Prep.

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

inanimate = Nom.
animate = Gen.

4) Stem ending in , ,

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

30

inanimate = Nom.
animate = Gen.

CASE

S I N G U L A R
neuter
m
n
?

masculine
?

PLURAL
feminine
?

5) Stem ending in ,
1
Nom.
4
Acc.
2
Gen.
3
Dat.
5
Instr.
6
Prep.
1
Nom.
4
Acc.
2
Gen.
3
Dat.
5
Instr.
6
Prep.

(spell , pronounce )

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

inanimate = Nom.
animate = Gen.

inanimate = Nom.
animate = Gen.

Adjectives with the stem in the soft consonant


- blue
- autumn
- winter
- spring
- summer

- yesterdays
- todays

- tomorrows
- morning
- evening
- early
- late
c - Saturday

- last years

- New Years
- upper
- lower
- front
- middle
- rear
- distant
- near

- neighbouring
- ancient
- domestic

- last
- extreme
- superfluous
- sincere
- five-year

- three-year
- internal
- external

- of this place, local

- of that place, local

- outside, extraneous

31

- old

- of those days
- former
- present
- present

- unilateral

- versatile

- multilateral

- all-round
- habitual

/ The declension of possessive adjectives

CASE

masculine
?

S I N G U L A R
neuter
m
n
?

PLURAL
feminine
?

1) suffix
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Instr.
Prep.

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

inan. = Nom. / an. = Gen.

2) suffix
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Instr.
Prep.

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

inan. = Nom. / an. = Gen.

3) suffix /
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Instr.
Prep.

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.

4) Surnames - : suffix / ,
masculine
CASE
1
Nom.
4
Acc.
2
Gen.
3
Dat.
5
Instr.
6
Prep.

no ending

animate = Genitive

suffix
, ,
,

feminine

suffix
, ,
,
,
,

32

animate = Genitive

inan. = Nom. / an. = Gen.

plural

suffix /

( )

( )

The Declension of Nouns and Adjectives (general table)


S I N G U L A R
NOUNS
CASE
1 - Nominative
? / ?

masculine

neuter

? / ?

feminine

consonant

4 - Accusative
inan. = Nom.
anim.= Gen.
? / ?
2 - Genitive
-
? / ?
3 - Dative
-
? / ?
5 - Instrumental
- ()
? / ?
6 - Prepositional

ADJECTIVES

feminine +
masculine

-
-

masculine
?

neuter
?

-
-
inanimate = Nom.
animate = Gen.

feminine
?

-
-

-
-
()

= declension

P L U R A L
CASE
1 - Nominative
? / ?
2 - Genitive
? / ?
3 - Dative
? / ?
4 - Accusative
? / ?
5 - Instrumental
? / ?
6 - Prepositional
? / ?

ADJECTIVES

NOUNS

- , -

no ending, , -

inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.


-

-
= declension

33

Golden Rules of the Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns

I. the DECLENSION of Nouns (singular)


QUESTIONS
animate
inanimate
?
?

1 - Nominative

who?

2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
4 - Accusative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

what?

of whom?

of what?

to whom?

to what?

whom?

what?

m = Gen.

m = Nom.

() ?

() ?

with whom?

with what?

about whom?

about what?

MEANING

EXAMPLES
masculine feminine

II. the DECLENSION of Nouns, Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns

1
Nominative
2
Genitive
3
Dative
4
Accusative
5
Instrumental
6
Prepositional

? / ?

? / ?

? / ?

animate: ?
m = Gen.
inanimate: ?
m = Nom.

? / ?

? / ?

CASE
1 - Nominative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
4Accusative

EXAMPLES: singular
masculine
feminine

QUESTIONS

CASE

animate = Gen.

inanim. = Nom.
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

EXAMPLES: plural

34


1Nominative

Personal pronouns

singular

plural

whose?

/ Possessive pronouns

SINGULAR
masculine

feminine

PLURAL

neuter

I
you
he
it
she

my
your
his
its
her

we
you
they

our
your
their
own


The declension of personal pronouns and reflexive pronoun

1 - Nom.
s
i
n
g
u
l
a
r

p
l
u
r
a
l

2 - Gen.

3 - Dat.

4 - Acc.

5 - Instr.

6 - Prep.

me

()

()

you

you

he

him

she

her

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )
/
( )

it

we

us

you

you

they

them

( )

( )

( )

( )

- oneself

it

35

CASE
1 - Nominative

2 - Genitive

3 - Dative

5 - Instrumental

6 - Prepositional

4 - Accusative

The declension of possessive pronouns

SINGULAR

masculine

neuter

feminine

,
, ,

,
, ,

,
, ,

,
, ,

+
+

animate = Gen. /
inanimate = Nom.

- his

animate = Gen. /
inanimate = Nom.

= declension

all cases

PLURAL

= declension

- her

- their

/ The declension of demonstrative pronouns (?)


1 - Nominative
m: / n: /
4 - Accusative
animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.
2 - Genitive
/
3 - Dative
/
5 - Instrumental
/
6 - Prepositional
/

f: /

pl: /

this / that

an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.

these / those

/
/
/
/

The declension of interrogative pronouns

1 - Nominative
m:
n:
4 - Accusative
animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.
2 - Genitive

3 - Dative

5 - Instrumental

6 - Prepositional

1 - Nominative

m:

n:

f:

pl:

an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.

f:

pl:

an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.

/
/
/
/

4 - Accusative
animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.
2 - Genitive
/
3 - Dative
/
5 - Instrumental
/
6 - Prepositional
/

36

whose?

what?
which?

/
1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

m:

f:

pl:

animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.

an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.

m:

1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative

The declension of determinative pronouns

n:

n:

f:

pl:

myself

an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.

yourself
himself

animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.

2 - Genitive

3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

all

ourselves

The declension of indefinite pronoun

1 - Nominative

- several, a few

2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
4 - Accusative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.

Formation of interrogative, negative and indefinite pronouns


Interrogative
?

Negative

-
somebody

who?

nobody

Nom.

what?

nothing

Nom.

something

whose?

nobodys

-
anyones

what? which?

none, whatever

any, some

Indefinite
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- -
-

which?

some

how much?

(not) at all

some

several, a few

37

/ Indefinite Pronouns and Adverbs

pronouns

adverbs

- //
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- once
-
-
-

-
-
-
-

meaning
1) ,

-
-

meaning
someone, somebody
something
any, some
anyones
some
somewhere
to somewhere
from somewhere
ever, one day
for some reason

with
prepositions
-
-

()

for some reason or other

somehow

examples
- ? ( , .)
-.
- !
- ? ( , .)
- .
( , .)
- .
( , .)
? - - .

-
(-)
2) :

- ? - , .
( , .)
- ?

3) ,
, /

,

-

, , -
.
- . ( , .)
- .
( , .)
? - - .
( , .)
- . -
.
- .
( , .)
, ? - - .
- .
- .
!
- .
, -
.
( , ,
.)

38

Negative Pronouns and Adverbs with the particle Intensifying the Negative Constructions

Double negation:
1) particle + verb - to express the negative constructions
2) particle - to intensify the negative constructions
particle
negative
pronouns

negative
adverbs

construction

- nobody
() - nothing
- none, whatever
- nobodys

preposition +
pronoun

- never
- no way
- nowhere
- nowhere (to)
- from nowhere

adverbs of
degree

+ noun Gen.

not at all

.
.
.

.
.
.
,
.

..., ... - neither ... nor ...

completely
absolutely

+ verb - not once =

- not one, not a single

conjunction

examples
() .

.
.
.

39

Negative Pronouns and Adverbs with the particle Meaning: there is no person / object / time / place / reason to do smth.
pronouns
2Gen.

3Dat.

4Acc.

5Instr.

6Prep.

nobody
nothing

subject = 3 Dat.
direct object = 2 Gen.

impersonal sentence
3 Dat.

()

examples
,
.
, .
- ?
- , .
,
.
,
.
- ?
- , .
.

adverbs

nowhere
no where to
from no where
theres no reason to do

there is no time, busy

+ inf.

meaning
:
= , .
= ,
.
= ().
:
= , .

= ,
.
= ,
.
= , .

- - ?
- , .
, .

= ,
.
:

= (),
.

= , .

().

= , .

, .

= , .

, .

= .

.
.

= ,
.
= , .

= , .

, ( )
.

= ,
(reason) , .

Compare:
.
.

1 Nom. + + + verb
3 Dat. + + inf.

40

He doesnt do anything.
He doesnt have anything to do.

/ NUMERALS

ARDINAL
?
m
f
n
pl
m/n
f

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
2, 3, 4 000
5 - 20 000
1 000 000
2, 3, 4 000 000
5 - 20 000 000
1 000 000 000

() 1 Nom.
2 Gen. sing

2 Gen. pl

() 1 Nom.
2 Gen. sing

COLLECTIVE
?

m
f
n
pl

O R D I N A L (= adjective)
? (- / - / -)

/ / /

2 Gen. pl

41

m
f

+ animate nouns
2 Gen. pl:
,

rouble

2, 3, 4 / 22, 43 Gen. sing


Gen. pl
5 20,
Nom.

1 / 21, 31

dollar
kopeck year day





- indeclinable

hour

person
time



exceptions

/ ? 1 Nom. - How much does the house / the book cost?


1 / 21, 31
Acc. + Acc. + Gen. pl

5 20 / 30, 40

Acc. + Gen. sing + Gen. pl

, , ()
Acc. + Gen. pl + Gen. pl

()

()
Acc. + Acc.


Acc. + Gen. sing

7
Acc. + Gen. pl

() /

21 ( )

22 ( )

5 /
50

4 Acc. + 4 Acc.

f
m
n


give me

2, 3, 4 / 22, 43

()
()
() O /

4 Acc. + 2 Gen. sing

4 Acc. + 2 Gen. pl

5
6
7

pl

/ Mathematical operations

:
=

/
/


/

15 + 23 = 38
578 34 = 544
6 7 = 42
81 : 9 = 9
15 5 : 3 = 25

/ FRACTIONS
The numerator ()
The denominator ()
f
1-

f, Nom. sing
= 1/2
= 1/3

f
2-

a cardinal numeral
an ordinal numeral

Gen. pl
= 2/2
= 2/3

1 Nom.
2 Gen. pl

Nom.
3
and higher

Gen. pl
= 3/5
= 5/8

/ DECIMALS
1 -
0 -
2 -
3

Gen. pl

+ 5 Instr.

= 1/2
= 1/3
= 1/4
m / n
f

f
Nom. sing

+ 2 Gen. sing

= 1,5

1,6 =
3,1 =
4, 61 =
0,3 =
2,5 =
7,34 =
2,5 = 2 =
;

; (= 16 15 )
, , ,
,

42

/ The declension of numerals

I. / The declension of cardinal numerals


1) , , , = , , ,
CASE
1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

SINGULAR
masculine
neuter

animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.

feminine

PLURAL

an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.

2) 2, 3, 4
1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

m
f
animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.

animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.

3) 5 - 30 =
50 - 80 = both parts decline like the noun ( )
5 - 10

CASE
1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
6 - Prepositional
5 - Instrumental

11 - 20, 30
( -)

50 - 80
( -)

4) 40, 90, 100


1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

5) 200, 300, 400 = the first part of these numerals declines like , ,
( , , )
500 - 900 = both parts decline, the first part of these numerals declines like
( , )
500 - 900 ( -)
1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

43

6) (f) =
(m) =
7) In complex cardinal numerals each part declines separately.
.
.

345 = 5 Instr.

II. / The declension of ordinal numerals


1) Ordinal numerals = adjectives with the hard stem (, )
exception: = ,
CASE
1
Nominative
4
Accusative

SINGULAR
neuter

masculine

animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.

2
Genitive
3
Dative
5
Instrumental
6
Prepositional

feminine

PLURAL

animate = Gen.
inanimate = Nom.

2) In complex ordinal numerals only the final word has the form of an ordinal numeral.
We decline the final word only.

. .
Prep.

2009-o ( ).
Gen.

Gen.

25-o 1978-o ( ).

III. / The declension of collective numerals


Collective numerals = adjective plural

1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

2, 3

both
4-7

m
f
animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.

44

IV. / The declension of fractions


In fractions, both parts decline: the numerator and the denominator.
The numerator = cardinal numeral
The denominator = a hard-stem adjective
: .
=
=

1/2
1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

2/5

3/8

V. / The declension of decimals

1,..

1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

2,..
and higher

0,..

Gen. pl

- =
- / (f) =

= 1,5
1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

= 150

45

Formation of degrees of comparison of qualitative adjectives and adverbs of manner


COMPARATIVE DEGREE

SIMPLE
COMPLEX

adjective
+ noun

SUPERLATIVE DEGREE

COMPLEX
COMPLEX
SIMPLE
simple comparative
1) suffix:

degree of adjective (- / - / -)

- more
- less

1) stem of adjective
+ suffix:
()
(after , , , , )

+
of all

+ adjective
[ - than]

the most
+ adjective

2) prefix

1) stem of adverb
+ suffix

- more
- less

2) prefix

+ some adverbs

()

beautiful

adverb
+ verb

quickly

()

SUFFIX

interchange of consonants

- / -

-
-

-
-

-
-
-
-
drop suffix -, -

-
drop suffix -, -

-
-
-
-

2) prefix

simple comparative
degree of adverb

is used seldom
-

(after , , , )

+ - animate
- inanimate

in all

/
EXAMPLES

- -
- -
- - ()
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- - -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
-- - -
-- - -
-- - -

46

bright, light
kind
strong
cheerful
expensive
strict
young
solid, hard
loud
short
light, easy
bright
hot
soft
strong
clean
often
thick, fat
dense, thick
simple, easy, ordinary
rich
steep, sharp
dry
quiet
cheap
narrow
close
low
high
rare
wide, extensive
distant, far-off
thin
long

Special cases of formation of degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs


comparative
degree

adjective

adverb

superlative degree

simple
complex / simple

,
good
better

,
bad
worse

,
small
smaller

,
big, large
bigger, larger

/

late
later


deep
deeper


sweet
sweeter

()
well
better
the best

()
badly
worse
the worst

()
little, not much
less
the least

()
many, much
more
the most

()
early
earlier
the earliest

complex
()
the best
()
the worst

the smallest

the biggest, the largest

the latest

the deepest

+ noun
simple comparative degree of adjective

Gen. 2

- simple comparative degree of adjective


- complex comparative degree of adjective
- comparison of two infinitives

- than

, .
, .
, .

Nom. 1

only Complex Comparative Degree of adjectives


:
taste

- salted
- bitter
- fried
- boiled
- smoked

- early
- proud
- tired
- friendly
- efficient, businesslike

, + adjective

Simple Superlative Degree of adjectives


suffix -
- strong (hard)
-
old
simple, easy / ordinary
-
-
rich
-
kind
-
new
-
difficult
-
tasty, delicious

-
-
-

47

suffix -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

high, tall
great
thin, slender
rare
light, easy
strict
close
quiet

Short-form adjectives and short-form passive participles


1) they are not declined
2) they agree with the noun (the subject) in gender and number
3) in a sentence, they may be used only as a predicate after the auxiliary verb
(the auxiliary verb is omitted in the present tense):
(, ) .
(, ) .



Formation of short-form of qualitative adjectives and past passive participles
SHORT-FORM
COMPLETE-FORM

- beautiful
- tall, high
- written
- open

SINGULAR
masculine
feminine

neuter

PLURAL

Words we use often:


m

f: -A

pl: -

n: -O

close
to be right
glad
happy
enjoyed
busy
free
healthy
ill, sick
agree
ready
must, have to
to be sure, confident
similar, he looks like his brother
familiar (with)

Some present participles passive have a short-form (bookish language):


- to love
- to respect
- to value
- to keep
- to torture
- to oppress

(-, -, -)

48

Special cases of formation of short-form of adjectives


1. Mobile vowel ( )

/+

complete form ends in -

-
-
-
- (stressed)

masculine
(near) -
(short) -
(low) -
(short, brief) -
(strong) - (narrow) -
(easy) -
(adroit) -
(thin) -
(sweet) -
(long) -
(funny) -
(full) -
(wicked, evil) -
(poor) -
(harmful) -
(difficult) - (clever) -
(sick) -
(useful) -
(gentle) -
(black)-
(pale) -
(necessary) -
(dirty) -
c (strong) -
(bitter) -
(sharp) -
(staunch) -
(sharp) -
(sly) -
(light) -
(frank) -
(sincere) -
(light-headed) -
(limited) -
(ordinary) -
(invariable) -
(long) -
(valuable) -
(inclined, disposed) -
(modern) -
(constant) -
!

(sure) -
(remote) -
(well-bred) -
(reserved) -

2. The adjectives and have no short forms.


in their place, we use the short forms , - (-, -, -)
of the adjectives and , - (-, -, -)
3. The adjectives which have no short-form
ending in -
- , ,
-, -
- , , ,
-, -, -
- , ,
, , , , ,
colours
, , ,
prefix - / -

, ,
4. The adjectives used only in the short-form
, , - be glad
.
, , - must
.
, , - obliged .
, ,
, ?
- responsible, guilty, to blame

(), ,
( ),
, ,

49

/ Verb forms

INFINITIVE
- after vowels
- to read
- to speak
- to draw / paint
- to laugh

- after consonants

VERB FORMS

PRESENT TENSE
?
What are you doing now?

IMPERFECTIVE ASPECT

PERFECTIVE ASPECT

change in person and number


singular

What will you do tomorrow?

plural

() + / /

, ,
, ,
, ,

m
f
pl

() + / /

COMPOUND:
+ inf.

SIMPLE

verb has the I st conjugation

verbs have a onjugation (I and II)

FUTURE TENSE
?

- to be able to do
- to help
- to lie down
- to take care of / to be careful with

verbs have a onjugation (I and II):

PAST TENSE
?
What did you do yesterday?

- after vowels (a few)

- to carry
- to go
- to grow
- to lead / drive

singular

plural

singular

plural

past tense +

THE CONDITIONAL MOOD




consonant + / vowel +

THE IMPERATIVE MOOD


singular

plural (+ )

singular

plural (+ )

50

/ The conjugation of verbs

NUMBER

I CONJUGATION:

II CONJUGATION:

inf. in

inf. in -

PERSON

-, -, -, -,
-, -, -

SINGULAR

PLURAL

(-, -)

,
,
, ,

-
-
-
-
-
-

I
you
he / she / it
we
you
they

, - after vowels
, - after consonants
, , - unstressed
, , - stressed

infinitive

, - after vowels and


soft consonants
, - after , , ,

to work

to walk

to be ill

to draw, paint

to rest

to go

can

(drop + )

infinitive

to speak

to study

consonant +
vowel +

to give

to get up

EXCEPTIONS:
Verbs ending in - and -, -
II conjugation
c - to look, - to see, - to hate
- to depend, - to offend
- to suffer, - to turn round
- to drive, - to knock
- to shout, - to be silent, c - to hear
- to breathe, - to hold
- to sleep, - to fly
- to sit, - to lie, - to stand

51

Verbs ending in -
I conjugation
- to live
- to shave
- to sew
- to drink
- to beat
- to pour

Consonant interchange in verb stems in the present tense


-
-
-

infinitive
interchange

infinitive
interchange

infinitive
interchange

-
-

-
-

-
-
-

I conjugation

to write

to cry

to cut
to slice

to look for
to search for

to go
(by transport)

to see

to translate

to ask

to sit

to pay

to love

to can
to be able to do

to help

II conjugation

to speak
to say, to tell

-
-
-
-

to prepare

to fly

to go
(on foot)

II conjugation

52

to clean

to feed

to suffer
to tolerate

to carry
to wear

( )
Special cases of verb conjugation and past tense formation (irregular verbs)
VERBS

to take

perf.
to take

to be

to live

perf.
to give

to eat

to drink

to sing

to go / drive

to go

to carry

to run

perf.
to lie down

perf.
to sit

PRESENT TENSE (imperfective) or FUTURE TENSE (perfective)


SINGULAR
PLURAL

()

, ,

, ,

to be able to do

perf.
to help
perf.
to understand

to want

to put
perf.
to die

to wait

to wash

to grow

PAST TENSE
(, , )

, ,

, ,
, ,

, ,

53

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

/ Aspects of the verb


/ Formation of the aspectual pairs

imperfective aspect

perfective aspect

1. without a prefix

prefix

the verb with prefix and without it must have the same
meaning otherwise it is not an aspectual pair

2. suffix - / -

3. suffix -

without the suffix


- / -

4. suffix -

5. suffix -

6. / in the root
()

()

to give
to pass
to stand up, to get up

suffix -

to rewrite, to copy
to write down, to record
to order, to book
to finish

without the suffix -

to read
to write
to draw
to have lunch
to do
to sing
to play
to grow

to decide, to solve
to study
to end, finish
to turn on
to answer

suffix -

without /
in the root
()

()

to cry, to shout
to rest

to start, begin
to understand
to occupy, to have a lesson
to pick up, to lift, to go up

7. different words

54

to speak, to say, to tell


to take, to borrow
to buy
to put
to sit down, to set
to lie down, to go to bed
to look for - to find
to catch
to hang (up)
to return, to give back
to turn

/ ASPECTS OF THE VERB

imperfective: The action is (will be) named only, the result is unimportant.
, .
1. Find a fact: the action in general [the general fact].
: , [ ].
1) / / ?
What are you doing now?
What did you do yesterday?
What will you do tomorrow?
What were you doing?
What are you going to do?
present
past
compound future
- ?
- ?
- ?
- .
- .
- .
2) / / ?
Are you doing something or not?
Was there any action or not?
Will there be any action or not?
present
past
compound future
- ? - ?
- ?
- , . / , .
- , . / , .
- , () ( ). /
- , () ( ).
2. The specification of the details of the action (as a fact, person, place, time), which had
already been or it will be [the individual fact].
( , , , ),
[ ].
( ) ? / ? / ?

imperfective:

perfective:

1. The action continued (will continue) for some time.


The process.

The action is (will be) completed and finished.


The result (limit) of the action.

. .

, . .

The process went on for (in)definite time: 4 Acc.

The result is achieved within some definite time:


+ 4 Acc. within

- all day / - whole evening


- during a week
2 - hours / 3 - days / 4 - years
+ past, future - for a long time
= + present
( + past - a long time ago / - recently)
- ? / present
- ?

?
+ already
+ + + verb yet

there is no present tense

How long ...?

- () / 3 .
- ? / past
- ?
- .

- () ? past
- , () . /
- , () .

- , . present
+ + verb still

- ?
- 2 . past

- ? /
- ?
- 2 .

- ? simple future
- / / .

compound future

- ?
- 3 . simple future

55

imperfective:

perfective:

2. The action was (will be) repeated many times.


, (
).

The action is single, not repeated.


, (
).

- usually
- always
- sometimes
- often
- seldom
- never
- many times
() - every time (day)
- every Sunday
- previously, used to

/ /
/ / /

- ? present
- .
- ,
.
- . past

. past

- ?
- .
compound future

.
simple future

(to get up) . past

. past

3. Both actions took place simultaneously.


.

One action which produced a result took


place after another, which was also
completed with a result.
.

,
.
present
, .

. past
.

.
.
simple future

past
,
.
compound future

[ ]
imperfect - compound future
finish
1

- to return

4.
imperfect

perfect - to call

past

.
The action which began and finished while the
other action was taken place has perfective aspect.
, ,
, .

56

imperfective

perfective

5. The result of the action is no longer valid


at the moment of speech. (past)
,
.

The result of the action is still valid at the


moment of speech. (past)

.

verbs:
1) verbs of motion with prefixes -, -, + / , /
/ , /
2) / - to take
/ - to give
/ - to open
/ - to close
/ - to turn on
/ - to turn off
/ - to put on
/ - to take off
/ - to put
/ - to put
/ - to tidy
3) () - to love,
() - to like
- ?
- . (= + )

?
(= , )

.
(= , ;
+ )

.
(= )

6.
The absolute absence of an action
(no action at all).

IN THE NEGATIVE
The action was (will be), but there is no result
of the action.

:
( , ).

(),
.

= he did not do smth. / wont do smth.

= he couldnt do it / will not be able to do it


/

/
. ( .) present
() . past

. past

2 .
simple future

compound future

imperfective

present
past
compound future: + inf.

perfective

past
simple future

57


The use of the ASPECTS OF THE VERB (general table)
imperfect

perfect

1. :

___

1) / ?
2) / ( )
3) (? ?)
2. :
, 2
?
3. :

:
,
?

, ,
, ,
4. :

:
perfect

_________
_________

+ (im)perfect

2
finish

past: perfect + perfect


future: 1) perfect + perfect
2) perfect + imperfect

IMPERATIVE:
positive perfect
negative imperfect
+ INFINITIVE perfect
+ INFINITIVE imperfect

58

The use of aspects of the verb in the infinitive form


modal word / verb + inf. to express the necessity, desire, possibility, intention or advice
, , , ,
modal words
, - it is necessary, need
- must, have to
- it is possible / may?
- it is impossible / it is not allowed

verbs
- to want
- to be able to do / can
- to ask
- to advise
- to recommend

imperfective
1. The action without indication of its limit.
By the meaning it is near the general fact.

perfective
1. The main thing is the result of the action.
.

.
.


, .

2. The action as a process /


.

3. The repetition of the action.


.

2. A single, non-repeated action.

, ().

, , . its stuffy
.
to air
-.
4. Start of the action with the meaning
its time to do smth.
.
with the modal words:
- its time to
, - it is necessary, need
- it is possible
.
! () !
. () !

? May I come in?

5. After verbs expressing:

3. After perfective verbs:

1) The beginning, continuation or the end of action.


, , .

- to have enough time / to be (make) it in time


- to forget

- - to begin, to start
(= ) - to begin
- - to continue
- - to finish
- - to finish
- - to stop
- - to stop
- - to give up doing
.

( , ) - to manage, succeed
( , ) - to be left
.
.
.
.

59

imperfective
5. After verbs expressing:
2) The ability, the skill, the habit and the practice to realization of action.
, , , .

- to be able / to know how to do


() - to learn
- - to get into the habit of doing

3) Feelings /

() - to love / () - to like
- to hate

. / .

4) The exhaustion or the negative attitude to an action.


.

- to no longer want to do
- - to get tired
- to decide not to do
- - to get tired
- to change ones mind
- - to bore
- to forget how to do
( , - to be fed up)
- - to grow out of the habit of
- to avoid
, - to dissuade
- love no longer (stop loving)
6. With the words meaning the general permission, the right for action:
, , .

- - to be allowed
- may
- to have the right (to)
- duty (responsibility)

.
.
.

infinitive in the negative:


with the word (it is impossible, it is not allowed) and without it

imperfective

perfective

The action is not allowed, not recommended or not Physical impossibility to fulfill an action.
necessary to do.
.
,
( ).

, .

, .

, .

, .

.
, .

,
.
, .

() , .

= , ,

after words:
/ - need not (one should not)
- should not, ought not /
- is not worth / - its not time
- not necessarily
- it is useless / - it is harmful
- it makes no sense
- one must not / - one ought not
- I dont suggest you
() - to have no wish
() - I would not like
- ,
not be allowed, to forbid
.
/ / - it is enough
.

60

= , ,

= it is impossible

The use of the aspects of the verb in the imperative


Imperative forms may express: a request to do something, advice, a recommendation,
an inducement to an action, a command, a demand, an invitation.
(, , , , , , )

imperfective

perfective

1. The speakers attention is centered on the 1. The main thing is the result of the action.
action itself, on the process: how?
.
,
:
( ): ?
- , , ?
- , .
, , / .
.

, , .

2. The action is single, not repeated;


expresses a request to do something,
a demand, a command or advice.
. .
, .
- At the doctors:
, , , .
, ,
, , .
.
2. The action was repeated;
expresses recommendations.

, , . (request)

, . (advice)

/ , , . (request)

3. An inducement to an action.
.

, .

1) The invitation to make an action.


.

, .

, .

(command)
:
- Having visitors:
- , , .
- , , , , - / .
; , .
- .
- , .
2) The permission to make an action.
- .
.
- At home:
? - .
- (), , .
- () .
? - .
- () () .
- () .
3) The suggestion to begin or continue an action
- () .
immediately: do it now!
( )
.
(), .

() .

(), .

, .

, , .

. .

61

IMPERATIVE IN THE NEGATIVE


imperfective
perfective
as a rule imperfective
The exception: the situations when the speaker
The request not to make an action or the is afraid that an undesirable action may occur.
prohibition to make an action.
:
.
.


+ words: , - look out!
.
()! - Dont talk!

()! - Dont forget!

() ! - Dont open the window!

, ()! - Dont break!


() !

! - Dont worry!

, ! - Dont fall down!


, .
Dont catch a cold!


()! - Dont get sick!
() ! - Dont be late!
() ! - Dont lose the keys!
, !
Dont fall asleep!

62

Verbs which have no aspectual counterpart

1) imperfective aspect

to be

to love

to sit

to call

to work

to be different from

to be situated

to be glad

to stand

to be called

to study

to cost

to have

to be bored

to lie

to have a name

to serve

to weight

to possess

to feel very sad

to grow

to teach

to belong to

to miss

to command

to be

to want

2) perfective aspect
1. The starting point of an action

prefix to start

prefix =
to begin to do

prefix - (... -)

verbs of motion (group I):

to start walking
to start driving
to start flying
to fall in love
to feel
to like
to start pouring
to blow

verbs of motion (group II):


=

to begin to walk; to pace the room


to begin bustle
to begin to speak
to begin to sing
to begin rustling
to begin shouting
to stop talking
to begin laughing
to begin weeping
to fall ill
to become / grow sad
to become interested
to begin to work / start working

to get angry
to burst into tears
to start laughing

63

2. The actions of short duration (the actions are limited in time)



verbs of motion (group II):

prefix = /
for a short while

to walk
to run about
to fly
to swim

to go for a (short) walk

to sleep

to sit

to lie

to stand

to play

to read

have a talk/ talk a little/ talk for a while

make a bit of a noise

to keep silent

to stay (for a short time)

to stay (for a while)


3. A certain period of time was taken up with the action

verbs of motion (group II):

to spend the time in walking / to walk

to run about

to be swimming / to be sailing
for a certain time:

to spend / to run through


- for a long time

to stay / to remain
- all day

to speak / to talk
- whole evening

to spend the time sitting / to sit


2 - hours / 3 - days

to spend the time lying / to lie


4 - years

to spend the time working / to work


- during a week
- until evening

to spend the time reading / to read

to sleep

to be ill
4. Single actions, actions, performed on one occasion only
prefix -

, ( )

suffix -
- once

to jump

to wave

to cry / to shout

to knock / to bang
5. The result (limit) of the action
()

prefix to finish

to finish reading
to finish writing
to finish playing
to fry
to eat up
to drink up
to smoke

64

/ Formation of the Imperative

I. SECOND PERSON
singular

plural
(polite form) +

stem of the verb () ending in:


VOWEL

- - -
() to read

CONSONANT
form of the verb ()

accent in the ending

- - - - -
() to write

2 CONSONANTS

- - -
() to remember

accent in the stem

- - - - -
() to get up

Special cases /
singular

plural

1) / / + suffix -

- / to beat
- / to pour
- / to drink
- / to sew

3) - / to eat

4) - / to lie

5) verb with prefixes

from the stem -

/ /

/ /

/ /

6) - - / to go out
- - / to study

! - - / to take out

- / to give
- / to get up
- / to recognize
2) - -

after consonant -
after vowel -
- - - -
- -
- - - -
- -

/ to get dressed
/ to get undressed
/ to study
/ to wash

no imperative
verbs:
, , ,

____

65

____

II. Joint action: the speaker invites one or several persons to do something together
: ( )
-
singular:

forms
1)

plural:

- lets

imperfect - inf.

( ) !

perfect - verb , future

() !

() !

2) verbs of motion (group I):

verb , present
3) verb , future, perfect
()
4) verbs with the meaning
to start, to begin:
verb , past

!
!
!

____

III. 3rd PERSON: a command or permission is addressed to some third person


-
1)
- let him, her, them
( )

+ verb: imperfect - present


perfect - simple future

()
() .

() .

() . ()
.

2) appeals and congratulations


( / )

is used in journalistic writings

!
Long live to peace!

( )

66

/ Verbs of motion without prefixes

Group I
Verbs of
unidirectional motion

Group II
Verbs of non-directed or
variously directed motion

imperfective

to go, to walk ( - on foot)

to go, to drive
( - by vehicle)

to run

to fly

to swim, to sail

to carry (in ones hands)

to carry (in a vehicle)

to lead; to drive

to roam, to wander

to climb (into)

to crawl

to carry, to drag

to drive

to roll, drive
to skate, to go for a ride

(for pleasure)

67

- to ski
- to skate
- to cycle
- to ride
- to go for a drive
- to boat, to go sailing

/ The use of the Verbs of motion

past

present

future

group I: - (verbs of unidirectional motion) imperfective


() ,
() (imperfect) .
() ,
() (perfect) . - was going

movement in one direction


while the other action takes place
(2 actions at the same time)

/ .

process: movement in
one definite direction
at the moment of speech

,
(imperfect) .
,
(perfect) .

movement in one direction


while the other action takes place
(2 actions at the same time)

- /
? How long did it take you to get to ?
- () / 20 .

- ()
/ ?
- / 25 .

- /
?
- / 30 .

period of time

period of time

period of time

group II: - (verbs of non-directed or variously directed motion) imperfective


- previously, used to
( () )
() / () .
repeated movement
there and back
() / () .

single movement there and back:


? direction - Acc. - went
= () .
? place - Prep. - was

/
- every day
- usually
- always
- often
- seldom
- sometimes
- never

/
,
repeated movement
there and back

repeated movement
there and back

() / () .

the non-directed action


(different directions)

round: the non-directed action

(different directions)

group I: - (start of motion) perfective


- ()? subject (-, -)
- / .
start of motion + ?- set off
() () /
() .

subject ,
[past verb]
!
() / ().

/ .

2 actions: one after another


(result - perfect + start of motion)

in speech
start of motion in a minute:

,
.

I am (we are) leaving.


Bye! Im off.

/ .
/ .
intention to go somewhere
/
.
- will go
2 actions: one after another
(result - perfect + start of motion)

beginning of a new stage of movement

group I: - (to come, to arrive) perfective


/
8 .

/
9 .

group II: - (to come, to arrive) imperfective


2

() /
() 10 .
/
. = .
.

/
9 .

68


/
9 .

/ The use of the Verbs of motion

group II
, , .

.
. .
.
.

Ability, skill, usual means of locomotion.


Movement as a persons permanent occupation.

INFINITIVE
.
.
.
.
/ .
/ .

/
.
/

, , (), + group II
the name of the movement (without concrete movement):
group II
positive intention: + prefix
negative: + without prefix
present: now or plans (without prefix )
future: prefix

IMPERATIVE
/ () !
! !
! / !
= ()!
+ / !
/ !

positive: Go! - group I


negative: Dont go! - group II
[past verb: ]
[future verb: ]

Lets go! now; We are off.


suggestion: Lets go somewhere together.
invitation: Come to see me!

Figurative meaning ( ):
(, ).
().

to behave .

().

to chair

to conduct

.
() .

to monitor
to hold
to have
to run
to wage
to carry on
to keep

.
(, ) .
(, ) .
().
(, ) ?

correspond

(, )?

- meeting, - session
, - lesson
, - research
- observation
- conversation, - debate
- negotiations,
- business, - house
- war
, - campaign
- diary, - notes
- correspondence

() ().
to wear
= () ( ).
()
Dat.
present

past
to be lucky , ()
,
future

(, ).
.
.
.
.
().

69

/ TENSE AND MOOD FORMS OF THE VERBS OF MOTION

infinitive

(-)

II

to go on foot

II

(-)

to go by transport

to arrive

imperfect
present:

()

past:

imperative:
/

to come

I
II
I
II

perfect

future:

infinitive
to run

to fly

II

(-)

to swim, to sail

arrival by swimming

imperfect
present:

()

past:

imperative:
/

infinitive

II

to carry in (ones) hands

imperfect

II

to carry in a vehicle

to lead; to drive
/

70

II

imperfect
present:

()

past:

imperative:
/

to go, set off

imperfect

II

(-)

infinitive

to climb

to climb into

II

to crawl

II

to roam, to wander

imperfect
present:

()

past:

imperative:
/

II

(-)

infinitive

to carry, to drag

to drag in(to)

II
I

to drive

II
/
(-)

to roll, to drive / to skate

imperfect
present:

()

past:

imperative:
/

/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/

/
/

future imperfect: + infinitive

tense

present
()

past
()

group I:

group II:

+
+
+

+
+
+

() + ()

() + ()

() + ()

() + ()

() + ()

() + ()

71

Verbs of motion with prefixes indicating spatial relations


prefix
(-)

meaning

examples
Acc.

Movement into smth.


The distance is not far from the entrance.
.
to enter
?
.
Movement from within:
- for not a long distance
? - for a short while.
?
, :

Gen.

, , . The doctor is not in, he is out,


wait for him please.
Acc.

?
different areas / :
?

Acc.

to come to the office /


to the doctors

Gen.


().

I came from England.


to leave the office / the doctors
My brother is not in, he has left to
work.

I came (up) to the cash desk and


bought a ticket.

. The teacher approached the


blackboard.

same area / :

We came to Moscow.

Dat.

Gen.
Gen.
Departure: for a long distance / for a long
time.
/
Acc.
? Its not necessary to say the purpose of the
movement.
?
, ( ).
, :
/ .
.
Dat.
Approaching (near, close by).
(-)

,
.
?

He went out of the house /


to the balcony.

- exit

Arrival.
.

Acc.

/ .

-
- .

He came into the room.

- entrance

The bus approached the bus stop.

(-)

Gen.
Moving away from an object for a short
distance.
. The teacher stepped aside from
the blackboard.

The bus went away from the bus
.
? .
stop.
The moment of departure of a means of
() 19 The train (the bus) leaves at 7
transport.
oclock p.m.
.
.
?
I took my clock to be repaired.
Taking an object to the required place.
/ .
(on foot / by transport)
.
+ ,
Return of the object to its former position.

Anton finished the book and

( .
+ ,
).
=

?
?

returned it to the library. (on foot)

We called on you for a moment.


A short visit to smb. (some place).
.
Acc.
Movement performed while on the way
We
popped (dropped) into a shop
somewhere.

on the way home.
.

Instr.
.
( I fetched my friend (and we left
together).
).
Dat.

( ).
Movement behind smth.
.
Movement deep into
upwards / downwards).

I called on my friend (and left alone).

Acc.

/ , / .

He turned the corner of the house.

Acc.

smth. (inside,

to walk far into the wood

to climb a tree /
to get under the cupboard

to lead somebody into a swamp

72

Gen.

Movement past smth.


.

We walked past the cinema.

Acc.

.
Acc.

Movement through smth.


() -.

Movement over a definite distance.


/
.
Movement across smth.
-
.

() .

We went through the forest.

()

to drive through a tunnel

15 .

We drove 15 kilometres.

Acc.
() /

We crossed the street.

.
- crossing

Acc.
() /

.
.
Movement from one place to another.

My friend moved to another city /


to a new flat.

- move
-

Gen.

Movement up to a definite place or object.


= Reaching a limit.

We reached (walked as far as)

.
Characterisation of the manner in which

the distance was covered.
( - ?
).
- .

the theatre and stopped.


We reached the theatre by car.
How is it possible to reach the
theatre? - On the underground.

- ? - .

- Did you reach us (by car) alright?


- Fine

() ?

How was your flight?

He reached (by car) the corner of


the street and turned left.
.

(-)

Indication of the time needed to cover it.


, .
.
Gen.
Movement round smth.
.

We reached (on foot) our home in


half an hour.

We walked round the theatre.

Acc.
Movement round an object obstructing the
way.

to drive round the mountain

,
.
Acc.
Movement over the whole of the object or
over all the places.

to tour all the shops

(-)
-

(-)

+ particle

()+ particle

-
?

to drive uphill

to go up to the second floor

to run upstairs

Gen.

Downwards movement.
.

()-

Acc.

Upwards movement.

Diverging movement.

to drive downhill

to come down from the second floor


( )

to run downstairs

()

to go, to run
to ones respective homes /
in different directions
to come, to run to one place

()
.
/
Converging movement.
()
.

()

73

Verbs of motion with non-spatial prefixes (perfective)


prefix

MEANING

The start of motion.

EXAMPLES

Its necessary to say the purpose of the


movement.
.
.

group I -


Acc.

Dat.
.

An intention to do smth.
(future tense)
,
(
)

.
.

The start of motion


The movements are limited in time.


=

He began pacing the room.


Dat.
.

Dat.


(- ).

A certain period of time was


completely taken up with movement.


. Dat.



(- ).

- for a long time


- all day
- whole evening
- during the week
2 - 2 hours

group II -
-

A single brief movement there and back



.
Instr.

1) With the purpose to get (to receive) .


smth.
.
-.

Acc.

2) With the purpose to be somewhere.


-.

- The achieving of the intensity of motion


(... - )

.
- ()?
- .
,
.

, , , .
The prefixes , , , may have spatial or non-spatial meanings.

74


ASPECTS OF THE VERBS OF MOTION with prefixes indicating spatial relations
- / - / - / - / (...) - (...) / / / / /

imperfective: The action is (will be) named only, the result is unimportant.
, .
1. Find a fact: the action in general [the general fact].
: , [ ].
/ ?
Was there any action or not?
Will there be any action or not?
past
compound future
- ?
- ?
- , . / , .
- , () ( ). /
- , () ( ).
2. The specification of the details of the action (as a fact, person, place, time), which had
already been or will be [the individual fact].
( , , , ),
[ ].
- / ? - 15 . present
future
- ? - , .

perfective: The action in a definite situation [the definite / concrete fact].


[- ].
- ? - . past
- ? - 9 .

imperfective: group II
/ + prefix
/ /
/
1. The action continued (will continue) for
some time. The process.
( ). .

perfective: group I
/ + prefix
/ /
/
The action is (will be) completed and finished.
The result (limit) of the action.
, .
.

? / + - already / + + () - yet, still

- ? present
- , () . / , .

2. The action was (will be) repeated many times.


,
( ).
- usually / - always
- sometimes
- often / - seldom
- many times
/ - every time / day
- on Sundays (every Sunday)
- previously, used to
.

present

7 .

present

- ?
- , . past
- ?
- , 20 . simple future
The action is single, not repeated.
,
( ).

,
9 .
past

8 .

,
8 . compound future

9 .
simple future
75

past

imperfective: group II
/ + prefix
3. Both actions take place simultaneously.

perfective: group I
/ + prefix
One action which produced a result took
place after another, which was also
completed with a result.

.
,
. present

.
1

,
. past
1
2
3

finish

4.

,
compound future
imperfect
perfect

. past
. imperative
The action which began and finished while
the other action was taking place has
perfective aspect.

/
/

5. The result of the action is no longer valid at


the moment of speech. (past)

, ,
, .
The result of the action is still valid at the
moment of speech. (past)

-, -, - + - , -
- , -
. ( + )
(= , )

.
(= )

- ?
- , , 6 .
6.
IN THE NEGATIVE /
1. Physical impossibility to fulfill an action.
The absolute absence of an action.
:
( ).

= (past)

+ inf.

, .

, .

, .
2. The absence of the result of an action.
.
, .

.
Prefix does not have the meaning of the process of an action.

76

Formation of the aspectual pairs of the Verbs of motion

imperfective: group II () + prefix

perfective: group I () + prefix

- / - / - / - / - / -

- / - / - / - / -
- / - + suffixes -, - / -

imperfective

perfective

imperfective

perfective

group II + prefix

group I + prefix

group II + prefix

group I + prefix

present

present

past

past

future
compound: + inf

future
compound: + inf

simple

77

simple

- / Verbs with the particle -


All these verbs are intransitive: they are never followed by an Accusative noun or pronoun without a
preposition.
: ()
( 4) .
MEANING
1. Truly reflexive verbs.

VERBS

EXAMPLES

() - to wash (oneself)

.
/ - to wash (hands and face) (= ).
- to bathe

The action is directed at the agent
(it reflects on the subject).
() - to shave
(= ).
/ - to dry oneself
/ - to comb ones hair
( ).
(= ).
/ - to dress

/ - to undress
subject = object
.
() - to prepare
- = (myself, himself ...)

/ - to get ready to do;
to assemble, gather .
/ - to defend oneself .
2. Reciprocal-reflexive verbs.
- .

() - to introduce, make the acquaintance

/ - to meet
() - to meet, see each other
One action is being done by two or
several persons together, with each / - to part
person being the agent and at the () - to greet
same time the object of action.

() - to say good bye (to)


.

.

? 5 Instr.

.
(= ,

.)
.
(= ,
.)

/ - to embrace
() - to kiss
- to correspond
() - to consult
- to whisper
() - to quarrel
() - to swear
() - to be reconciled, make up
/ - to arrange matters

? - agreed?
- to fight
- to compete
- to trade, haggle
/ - to unite, join hands

some verbs with the meaning of - to be friends


reciprocity do not have the - to speak
particle -C
- to talk

- to argue

-

- to know
- to love
- to hate
- to respect
- to trust
- to help
- to disturb
- to write

78

5 Instr.

?
with somebody

4 Acc.

each other

3 Dat.

3. Generally reflexive verbs.


.
The particle -, while making the -, ,
verb intransitive, does not change .
its principal meaning.
1) Various changes in motion, - to move
/ - to set off; start; leave
condition or state.
/ - to stop, pause

/ - to rise
,
/ - to descend, go down
.
/ - to land
/ - to open
/ - to close, shut
/ - to return
/ - to turn
/ - to turn to look at smth.
/ - to bend
/ - to increase
/ - to decrease
/ - to shorten, reduce
/ - to gain strength
/ - to weaken
/ - to improve
/ - to worsen
/ - to change
() - to hide, conceal oneself


.

9 .

.


.

5 .

() /
.
expense / income

Involuntary actions, which take / - to catch cold .


place under the influence of outer () - to break
reasons.
/ - to hit, strike (against) .
,

.

nly animate subject

/ - to burn oneself
/ - to break
() - to break, burst, tear
- to have a good time
() - to be glad / happy
/ - to be pained, to grieve
- to be sad
/ - to be confused,
to be embarrassed

- to be worried
- to worry
- to get anxious
/ - to calm down
/ - to be surprised
- to be irritated
- to be angry
/ - to be indignant
/ - to admire
- to be interested
() - to learn, study
2) The beginning, continuation / - to begin
and end of action.
/ - to continue
/ - to end
, / - to finish
.
/ - to stop
/ - to conclude

79

.
.

.
,
.

.

.

.

.
.
10
.

2 .
7 .

3) Permanent characteristic of an - to bite


object.
- to scratch
.

4. Verbs that are never used


without -.

,
-.

- to bend
- to prick, sting
/ - to smile at
() - to laugh
- to admire
/

.
.
.
.
.

- to fall in love .

- to be
/ - to appear
- to become
- to need
() - to take care
- to treat

() () - to hope (for)
- to be proud of
- to doubt
/ - to agree
- to be afraid


12 .
.

() - to try
() - to try
- to strive
/ - to be occupied
- to work
- to be
- to lie down
/ - to stay
5. Impersonal verbs denoting - it happens
condition that does not depend on - it gets dark
any person.

+ 3 Dat.:

:
, . - he thinks, it seems to him

- want, would like


() - to like

() .
(ompare:
, .)
.
.
I cant sleep.

.
Sleep is sound toward the morning.

- he feels unwell
()

(ompare: ,
.)

()

Work is going well today.

.
She did not feel like working.

.
He hates staying at home.

.
He cant stay long in one place.

6. Imperfective verbs with passive


Nom.
meaning.

Instr.

+ +


.
7. Intensity of subjects action, - to knock
often taking place with some aim. - to aim (at)
,
- .

(?) - to threaten
/
- to scrutinize, to take a good look

/
- to fall to thinking, to be / become thoughtful

80

.
.

- .
.


.
.

/ PARTICIPLE (bookish construction) ?


- adjective: gender, number, case / verb: time (present - past), aspect (perfect - imperfect), active - passive

- it expresses some temporary quality of an object linked with a certain action


1 Nom.

Active Participle = (- / - / -) + verb


?

present - imperfect
verb []

- - to read
- - to write

,
-
- to have a lesson
(= ) suffix
/ - I conjugation - - to love
.
/ - II conjugation - - to hear
- - to study
past - (im)perfect
?
() - ()

()

- to read

verb []:

-
- - to die

! () - to come

,
(= )
- - suffix
.
- - suffix
4 Acc.

Passive Participle = + verb (transitive)


?

present - imperfect

verb []

(= ).

?
,

- - to read

suffix - I conjugation - - to love


- II conjugation
-
past - perfect
- - to see
suffix , ,
-

(= ).
Instr.

person, who is doing smth.

- suffix
/ - suffix

-
-

Interchange of consonants: -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
drop / +

- to finish

verb []:

-
-
-
-

verbs with roots / / : drop

- to open
- to close
- to kill
- to forget
- to start
- to take

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

to meet
to return
to find
to hurt, offend
to win
to liberate, vacate
to depict, portray
to invite
to throw
to lower
to look for
to use
to buy
to put
to leave
to rule in columns
to crush

to paint - - , to dance - -
to sell - - , to get up - -

81

/ VERBAL ADVERB
- adverb: does not change for gender, number and case; has no tenses / verb: aspects
- predicate (verb) the principal action, verbal adverb the action of secondary importance
- predicate and verbal adverb relate to one and the same agent
/ Formation of the verbal adverb

the RULE
stem of present: verb []

verbal adverb
imperfect

suffix
suffix - after , , ,
suffix / - verb with

stem of inf. perfect

verbal adverb
perfect

suffix
suffix verb with

- - - to read
- - - to sit
- - - to go
- - - to hear
- -

- - to read
- - to write
- - to put
- - to start laughing

EXCEPTIONS
verbal adverb perfect

stem of future:

verbs of motion with prefixes:


, , ,
verb

verb []

- - -
- - -
- - -
- being + 5 Instr. ()
- -
- - to see
- - to hear

suffix

2 forms of verbal adverb perfect


verbs imperfect:
, , , ,
verbs with roots -, -, and suffix -

there is no verbal adverb


- to give
- to find out, to learn
- to get up
-
- ,
-
- ,

suffix +

imperfect verbs -
-

1) TIME (?)

MEANING:

verbal adverb imperfect + verb imperfect


verbal adverb imperfect + verb perfect
1

,
.
,
.

2
finish

verbal adverb perfect + verb perfect


, .
verbal adverb (im)perfect + verb imperfect () , .

2) Cause (?)
=
3) Condition
=
4) Despite the fact that
=
5) ? =

, .
= , .
, .
= , .

, .
= , .
, .

82

/ PASSIVE CONSTRUCTIONS

Active construction
1 Nom. (subject)
4 Acc. (object)

Passive construction
5 Instr. (person, who is doing smth.)
1 Nom. (subject)

1.
Nom.

verb imperfect

Instr.

Nom.

Acc.

Nom.

Instr.

2.
Nom.

short past passive


participle

Instr.

( / )

perfect verb [] +
suffix - / - (- /- /-)

Acc.

.
Nom.

.
Acc.

Nom.

.
Nom.

Instr.

- / Indefinite Personal Constructions

1. no subject
2. verb form

, - they say, it is said


(),
(),

(), - it was reported on the radio
(), - it was reported on TV + 3 Dat.
, - I was told that + ? 3 Dat.
- I was asked + ? 4 Acc.
? + 6 Prep.
.
.
.

83

/ Constructions of time (? - When?)

1
2, 3, 4
5 - 20,

Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
singular
Gen.
plural

hour

minute

day

week

month

year

time

exception

nouns - 2 Gen. - of
nouns - 1 Nom.

1) () ?
time:
? - fact

adverbs:
? - in

What time is it now?

2) ? = ? - event
? At what time?

morning
afternoon
evening
night

()

at
1 - 12

4 - 11
12 - 4
5 - 11
12 - 3

a.m.
p.m.

in the morning
in the daytime
in the evening
at night

() ? What time is it now? informal style: 1 - 12


Nom. + + ordinal numeral (Gen.)
+ Gen. + Nom.
16.05

16.10

16.15

16.20

()

16.55

16.50

16.45

16.40

()

16.30 = ()

ordinal numerals (neuter)


2 Gen.

1 Nom.

fact: ?

event: ? = / ?

What date is it today?


, , , , ,
, , , , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,

On what date?
, , , , ,
, , , , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
/ 2014 -

1 Nom.
fact: ?
What month is it?

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

2 Gen.: of
/
?

date +
1 - 31

84

6 Prep.: in
event: ? =
? In which month?

in

fact:
nouns - 1 Nom.
?

adverbs
event: ? - in
?

What season is it?

autumn

winter

spring

summer

In which season?

in autumn

in winter

in spring

in summer

? In which ?
6 Prep.

event: ?
6 Prep. / 5 Instr.

()

this
last
next
future

2012 ()

fact: - 1 Nom.
?

event: ? - 4 Acc.
? - on

What day (of the week) is it today?

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday
-
day(s) off - week-end

On which day of the week?


[f]

[va]

[f]

[f]

[f]

[f]

[v]

[v]
-

on

m
f
n
pl

this

last

next

()

on

? - 4 Acc.
, , /
, ,

- this day / - the next day


m
f
n
pl

all

whole

every

without a preposition - 4 Acc.

, , , / , ,
/ , , / , ,
// /

prepositions
in, within
after
just before
before
till, until
during

+ 4 Acc.
+ 2 Gen.
+ 5 Instr.
+ 2 Gen.
+ 2 Gen.

from ... to

+ Gen. ... + Gen.

within: result
for: to stay

+ 4 Acc.
+ 4 Acc.

+ 2 Gen.

/ / / / /
/ / / /
/ / /
/
/
/
/
()
, , , , , , , ,
, , ,
2 /
/ 3

85

/ Direct and Indirect Speech


type of the sentence
Affirmative sentence

Question with a question word

DIRECT speech
:
.
Direct Question

INDIRECT speech
conjunction
,
.
Indirect Question
conjunctive words:

/ - to ask?
? + 4 Acc.

, , , ,
, , ,
, ,

/ - to answer
? + 3 Dat.
:
?

,
.
particle - whether

Question
without a question word

The word containing the question


takes the initial position.
The
particle
is placed
immediately after that word (verb).

alternative:
2 answers - or
:
?

,
.
(= or )

:
?

,
.

():
?

,
.
doubt, uncertainty:
- , .
:
, .
- , .
conjunction

Request / Advice / Command


predicate - imperative

predicate - past tense (2 subjects)

() :
.

,
.

:
.

,
.

:
.

,
.

verb /

()
to advise smb to do

()

+ inf

to ask to do

/
to order smb to do


( )
.

: / /

86

words are dropped

/ COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH CONJUNCTIONS


meaning

conjunction

examples
,
.
result + cause
,
.
cause + result

.
cause + result
,
() .

post position

cause

- because

? - why?

pre position + post position

result

- therefore

- since

condition:

1) real

?
- on what condition?

2) unreal

despite the fact that


?
- in spite of what?

..., () - if then
+ future / present
,
+ past
- although, ( - but)
( - even though)

,
.
, ()
.

- in spite of, despite the fact that


words which intensify the construction:

/ - /

,
.
, .

- still, all the same, nevertheless

time

1)

, .

? - when?

2)

, .

- when

3)
1

- while
- until
before:



- after
- as soon as
purpose

+ infinitive - in order to
1 subject

? - what for?
?
?

+ past - so that

in the indirect speech


(instead of imperative):
- a wish
- a request
- a command
- a demand
- advice
- necessity

verbs: () - to want
() - to ask, to request
/ - to order
/ - to tell
() - to demand
() - to advise
/ - need, necessary

information:
speech, thoughts,
knowledge, emotions
? / ? - about what?

2 different subjects
I want smb. to do smth.

predicate + () ,
that

what

verbs: / - to say
/ - to answer
() - to know, find out
() - to think
() - to remember
() - to feel
() - to see
/ - to understand

87

,
.
,
.
,
.

, .
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
.
, ()
.
,
.
, .
, .
,
.
=
.
, ()
.
= ()
.
, 10 .
( ),
.
, .
it seems to me

question
with a question word
explanation + attribute

, , ,
, ,
, ,
, that - what
inanimate

, that - who
animate

attribute
? - what?

m - - which / who
f -
n -
pl -
gender / number

case

noun, verb

() ,
? / ? /
? / ? / ?
, .
, .
, .
,
-
-
-
- 2
-

- .
,
-
-
-
- 2
-
- .
,
-
-
- 3
- 3
-
- .

1) indirect question
without a question word
alternative:
2 answers - or
The word containing the question
takes the initial position.
The particle is placed
immediately after that word (verb).

particle - whether

= - or
is impossible to use

2) doubt, uncertainty
comparison

[degree of comparison of adj. / adv] , .


- than
, .

, - as

to join /
1) simultaneous actions - 1subject

2) consecutive actions

3) cause + consequence
+

- and

to contrast -

- but

(II part - unexpected result)

to juxtapose (compare)
to join two sentences:
A begins a question

,
-
-
-
-
-
- .
1) : ?
, .
(= )
: ?
, .
(= )
2) , .
= , .
: , .
, .

, .
1) .
2) , .
3) .
, .
, .

, .

a - but

, .

? ?

a - and
,

, .

- not only but also

, .

88

/ The main meanings of prepositions


preposition

meaning
place: in, at
location of an object:
in
time: / /
in
time: - on
direction of movement:
to
clothes
game
place: in, at
location of an object:
on
direction of movement:
to
transport: by
time:

a certain period of time


(to stay some time): for
musical instrument
starting point
of movement: from
starting point of
movement: from behind
bad cause:
because of
starting point of
movement is a person:
from

...

moving away from an


object for a short distance:

from
cause (not under control):
because of
a part of the way:
from to
together with:
1) joint action
2) emotional state

question
? where?

6 Prep.

case

? where?

6 Prep.

? when?

6 Prep.

? when?
? where to?

4 Acc.
4 Acc.

?
?
? where?

6 Prep.
4 Acc.
6 Prep.

? where?

6 Prep.

? where to?

4 Acc.

? / ?
to go by what? / how?

6 Prep.

? when?

6 Prep.

4 Acc.

?
? where from?

6 Prep.

()

? where from?

2 Gen.

- ? why?

2 Gen.

? where from?
=
? from whom?
? where from?

2 Gen.

? why?

2 Gen.

2 Gen.

2 Gen.

2 Gen.

... ... ?

? how?
5 Instr.

3) - appearance
- food
- architecture of building
- content
4) question about the
health of a person

(-, -)?

/ ?

89

-
-
-
-
-









700

? with whom?

examples




/ 2008-
/ I-
/


()
()






()

/

-
-
-
- ?
- .

()

starting point of
movement: from

...

time: from ... to

movement across smth.

time: within

movement through smth.

()

movement through smth.

object of speech or
thought: about
time: in
verb perfect
place:
1) behind

2 Gen.

()

? when?
?

2 Gen.





()

? when?
? where to?
?
?
?

4 Acc.
4 Acc.

? ?

6 Prep.

?
where from?

4 Acc.
4 Acc.

about whom / what?

4 Acc.

?
? where?

5 Instr.

/ / / /

1)
( )
2) ()
3)

2) outside
3) at

direction of movement:

? where to?

4 Acc.

1) behind
2) out (of)
3) at
?

4 Acc.

purpose of motion (to


bring, receive smth.): for

? what for?

5 Instr.

place (person): at

? where? =
? at whom?
? where?

2 Gen.

?
/ ?
?
/ ?

2 Gen.

cause: for

place: by, near


possessor of smth.
absence: without

purpose: for

place: near

is a person: to
approaching: to
(same area)
motion along a surface

2 Gen.

2 Gen.
2 Gen.

what for?

direction of movement

attributes formed from


the subjects of education

(, , )

()
()
() /
()



2

? where?
?
? where to?
? to whom?
? where to?

2 Gen.

? where?

3 Dat.

?
?

3 Dat.

3 Dat.
3 Dat.

noun + noun

3 Dat.

means (way) of
communication:
by, on

90

1)

2)
()
3)

()


(, )


/






()

()

()
()
()
, , ,
( )
, e-mail



time: before

movement: to reach to

? when?
?

2 Gen.
2 Gen.

()

how to reach (get) to?

time: just before

? when?

5 Instr.

place: in front of

5 Instr.



(, )

2 Gen.

()


time: during

? where?
?
? when?

time: after

? when?

2 Gen.

place: above

? where?

5 Instr.

place:
under // near

? where?

5 Instr.

? where to?

4 Acc.

2 Gen.

direction of movement

(, )
starting point of
movement:
from near, from under
(, , )
place: between
place:
near to, close by
place: around
movement around smth.

//
()

where from?



-
-
-

? where?

5 Instr.

? where?

5 Instr.

()

? where?

2 Gen.

/
?

2 Gen.

? where?

2 Gen.

place:
to the right (left) of
place: opposite

? where?

2 Gen.

place: not far from

? where?

2 Gen.

place: near, close to

? where?

2 Gen.

place: in front of

? where?

2 Gen.

place: behind

? where?

2 Gen.

place:
in the middle of

? where?

2 Gen.

movement past smth.

2 Gen.

place of motion:
along
despite the fact that

2 Gen.

()

?
in spite of what?

4 Acc.


/ ?
(why?)
/ ?

2 Gen.


.

.
(, )

comparison:
unlike
good cause:
thanks to

91

3 Dat.

Kuzmina Natalia
RUSSIAN GRAMMAR IN TABLES
__________________________________


Please contact the author with any comments and questions by e-mail at knatalya@list.ru
www.russianforeveryday.ru
e-mail: knatalya@list.ru
www.russianforeveryday.ru

Special thanks to Wendy Soucy.

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