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All the objects that exist around us are made up of chemical substances.

These objects exist an element, compound or mixture. All these objects contribute

benefit to humankind. As time goes on, human has done many researches to ensure

all these chemical substances will be enough for the use of themselves.

Chapter ` of Form syllabus introduces the students with manufactured

substances in industry. This is important for the students to appreciate the

knowledge of chemistry that is still new for themselves. Ôersonally, I think that

this chapter is an interesting chapter as it revealed the way of scientist produces

the material around me. It also gives me new knowledges of the uses of chemical

substances that I usually found in the laboratories.

I hope, by learning this chapter, I will be more interested in learning

chemistry as it will help me in the future. All the equations from this chapter make

me more understand of the previous chapters.

`  ÷ ÷

`.. Ôroperties of sulphuric acid

.2 Sulphuric acid is a strong mineral acid.

.2 Its molecular formula is HSO .
A molecule of sulphuric
3.2 It is soluble in water. acid.

.2 Sulphuric acid is a nonvolatile diprotic acid.

.2 It is a highly corrosive, dense and oily liquid.

.2 Concentrated sulphuric acid is a viscous colourless liquid.

Soluble in Dense


Oily liquid
Non volatile

Diprotic acid
Highly corrosive

ã  `  Properties of sulphuric aci

9.1.2 The uses of sulphuric acid

2 To manufacture fertilizers

There are many fertilizers that can be made of sulphuric acid. Some of them are:

a2 Calcium dihydrogen phosphate (superphosphate

2 H2SO4 + Ca3(PO4) 2 ї Ca(H2 PO4) 2 + 2CaSO4

sulphuric acid + tricalcium phosphate ї calcium dihydrogen phosphate

b2 Ammonium sulphate

H2SO4 +2NH3 ї (NH4) 2SO4

sulphuric acid + aqueous ammonia ї ammonium sulphate

c2 Ôotassium sulphate

H2SO4 +2NH3 ї (NH4) 2SO4

sulphuric acid + aqueous ammonia ї ammonium sulphate

2 To manufacture detergents

Sulphuric acid reacts with hydrocarbon to produce sulphonic acid. Sulphonic acid is

then neutralized with sodium hydroxide to produce detergents. Examples of


32 To manufacture synthetic fibres

Synthetic fibres are polymers ( long chain molecules. Rayon is an example of a

synthetic fibre that is produced from the action of sulphuric acid on cellulose.

2 To manufacture paint pigments

The white pigment in paint is usually barium sulphate, BaSO . The neutralization of

sulphuric acid and barium hydroxide produces barium sulphate.

2 As an electrolyte in leadacid accumulators

2 To remove metal oxides from metal surfaces before electroplating

72 To manufacture pesticides

2 The uses of sulphuric acid in school laboratories are:

a.2 As a strong acid

b.2 As a drying or dehydrating agent

c.2 As an oxidizing agent

d.2 As a sulphonating agent

e.2 As a catalyst

Remove metal Manufacture
oxides from pesticides As an
metal surfaces electrolyte in
before lead-acid
electroplating accumulators

Manufacture Manufacture

Manufacture Manufacture
detergents synthetic

ã  `  Uses of sulphuric acid


    






ã  `  Uses of sulphuric acid in industry

9.1.2 The industrial process in manufacture sulphuric acid

.2 Sulphuric acid is manufactured by the Contact process.

.2 Sulphuric acid is produced from sulfur, oxygen and water via the contact


3.2 The Contact process involves three stages.

Sulphur ї Sulphur dioxide ї Sulphur trioxide ї Sulphuric acid


.2   : Ôroduction of sulphur dioxide gas, SO.

This can be done by two methods,

a2 Burning of sulphur in dry air.

S + O2 ї SO2

b2 Burning of metal sulphide such as zinc sulphide in dry air.

2ZnS + 3O2 ї 2SO2 + 2ZnO

.2   : Conversion of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide SO3.

This is then oxidised to sulfur trioxide under the following conditions:

a2 The presence of a vanadium(V oxide as a catalyst.

b2 A temperature of between  C to  C.

c2 A pressure of one atmosphere

2 SO2 + O2 ї 2
.2   : Ôroduction of sulphuric acid

a2 Sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid, HSO to

produce oleum,


H2SO4+ SO3 ї H2S2O7

b Oleum is reacted with water to form concentrated HSO .

H2S2O7+ H2O ї 2

7.2 In stage II, sulphur dioxide is dried first before being added to dry air

to produce sulphur trioxide. This is:

a2 To remove water vapour

b2 To remove contaminants

.2 In stage III, sulphur trioxide is not dissolved directly in water to produce
sulphuric acid. This is because:

a2 sulphur trioxide has low solubility in water

b2 sulphur trioxide reacts violently and mists are formed

instead of a liquid.

Sulphur or metal sulphide

burned in air

Sulphur dioxide, SO2

a the presence of a vanadium(V oxide as a catalyst.

b a temperature of between  C to  C.

c a pressure of one atmosphere

Sulphur trioxide, SO3

dissolved in sulphuric acid, HSO

Oleum, H2S2O7

diluted with equal volume of water HO

Concentrated sulphuric acid H2SO4

Flowchart of Contact process

9.1.3 Environmental pollution by sulphuric acid

.2 Sulphur dioxide is the main byproduct produced when sulfurcontaining

fuels such as coal or oil are burned.

.2 Sulphuric acid is formed by atmospheric oxidation of sulphur dioxide in

the presence of water. It also produces sulphurous acid.

3.2 Sulphuric acid and sulphurous acid are constituents of acid rain.

.2 Acid rain can cause many effects such as:

i.2 Corrodes concrete buildings and metal structure

ii.2 Destroys trees and plants

iii.2 Decrease the pH of th soil and make it become acidic

iv.2 Acid rain flows into the rivers and increases the acidity of water and

kill aquatic living things.

.2 Hence, we must reduce the sulphur dioxide from the atmosphere by:

i.2 Use low sulphur fuels to reduce the emission of sulphur dioxide in

exhaust gases

ii.2 Remove sulphur dioxide from waste air by treating it with calcium

carbonated before it is released


9.2.1 Properties of ammonia

.2 A colorless, pungent gas.

.2 Its molecular formula is NH3

3.2 It is extremely soluble in water. ã  A molecule of

.2 It is a weak alkali. ammonia.

.2 It is about one half as dense as air

.2 It reacts with hydrogen chloride gas to produce

white fumes of ammonium chloride.

NH3 + HCl ї NH4Cl

7.2 Ammonia is alkaline in property and reacts with dilute acids in

neutralization to produce salts. For examples:

NH3 + HNO 3 ї NH4NO 3

2NH3 + H2SO4 ї (NH4)


.2 Aqueous solutions of ammonia produces OH í ions (except Na+ ion, K+ ion,

and Ca + ion forming metal hydroxides precipitate.

Fe3+ + 3OHо ї Fe(OH) 3

Brown precipitate

Mg2+ + 2OHо ї Mg(OH) 2

White precipitate

`.2 Some metal hydroxides such as zinc hydroxide and copper (II hydroxide

dissolves in excess aqueous ammonia to form complexes.

Zn(OH)2 + 4NH3ї [Zn(NH3)4] 2++ 2OHо

Cu(OH)2 + 4NH3ї [Cu(NH3)4] 2+ +


Weak soluble in
alkali water

Properties of ammonia

 Colorless Pungent

ã  Ôroperties of ammonia

9.2.2 The uses of ammonia
.2 The major use of ammonia and its compounds is as fertilizers.

.2 Ammonia is also used for the synthesis of nitric acid.

3.2 Ammonium fertilizers contain ammonium ions, NH +, that can be converted

into nitrate ions by bacteria living in the soil.

.2 Nitrogen is absorbed by plants to produce protein in the form of nitrates,

NO3í, which are soluble in water.

.2 The effectiveness of ammonium fertilizers is determined by the percentage

of nitrogen by mass in them. The fertilizer with a higher percentage of

nitrogen is more effective.

.2 The percentage of nitrogen by mass can be calculated using this formula:

Mass of nitrogen
x 100%
Molar mass of fertilizers

9.2.3 The industrial process in manufacture of ammonia

.2 Haber process is the industrial method of producing ammonia.

.2 It needs direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen under high pressure in

the presence of a catalyst, often iron.

3.2 Nitrogen gas used in Haber process is obtained from the frictional

distillation of liquid air.

.2 Hydrogen gas used in Haber process can be obtained by two methods:

a2 The reaction between steam and heated coke (carbon

C + H2O ї CO + H2

b2 The reaction between steam and natural gas ( consisting mainly of


CH4 + 2H2O ї CO2 + 4H2

.2 In the Haber process:

a2 A mixture consisting of one volume of nitrogen gas and three volume

of hydrogen gas is compressed to a pressure between  ² 


b2 The gas mixture is passed through a catalyst of powdered iron at a

temperature of    C.

c2 At this optimum temperature and pressure, ammonia gas is produced.

N2+ 3H2 ї 2NH3

9.3.1 Physical properties of pure metals
.2 Ôure metals have the following physical properties

a2 Good conductor of electricity

b2 Malleable

c2 Ductile

d2 High melting and boiling point

e2 High density

.2 Ôure metals are weak and soft because the arrangement of atoms in pyre

metals make them ductile and malleable.

a2 A pure metal contains atoms of the same size arranged in a regular

and organized closedpacked structure.

b2 Ôure metals are soft because the orderly arrangement of atoms

enables the layers of atoms to slide over each other easily when an

external force is applied on them. This makes the matels ductile and

metals can be drawn to form long wires.

c2 There are imperfections in the natural arrangements of metal

atoms. Empty space exist in the structures of pure metals. When

hammered or pressed, groups of metal atoms may slide into new

positions in the empty spaces. This makes metals malleable, able to

be made into different shapes or pressed into thin sheets.

3.2 The strong forces of attraction between metal atoms requires high

energy to overcome it. Hence, most metals have high melting points.

.2 The closepacked arrangement of metal atoms results in the high density

of metals. 


Good conductor of electricity

High melting and boiling point
Properties of 
metals High density



ã  Ôroperties of metals

9.3.2 Meaning and purpose of making alloys

.2 An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain

composition in which the major component is a metal.

.2 in the process of alloying, one or more foreign elements are added to

a molten metal. When the alloy hardens, the positions of some of the

metal atoms are replaced by the atoms of foreign elements, which

size may be bigger or smaller than the original metal atoms.

3.2 In an alloy, these atoms of foreign elements disrupt the orderly

arrangement of the metal atoms and also fill up any empty space in

the metal crystal structure.

.2 Hence, the layers of metal atoms are prevented from sliding over

each other easily. This makes the alloy harder and stronger, less

ductile and less malleable than its pure metals.

.2 The properties of a pure metal are thus improved by making them

into alloys. There are three aims of alloying a pure metal:

a2 To increase the hardness and strength of a metal

b2 To prevent corrosion or rusting

c2 To improve the appearance of the metal surface

`  ÷   

`. . The meaning of polymers

.2 Ôolymers can be defined as large molecules composed of numerous

smaller, repeating units known as monomers which are joined by covalent


.2 Ôolymerisation is the chemical process by which the monomers are joined

together to form the big molecule known as the polymers.

3.2 There are two types of polymerization process:

a2 Addition polymerization

b2 Condensation polymerization

.2 A polymer is a very big molecule (macromolecule. Hence, the relative

molecular mass of a polymer is large.

.2 The properties of polymer are different from its monomers.

.2 Ôolymers can be divided into two types:

a2 Naturally occurring polymers

.2 This type of polymer exists in living things in nature like the plants

and animals.

.2 Examples of naturally occuring polymers are:

a2 Ôrotein

b2 Carbohydrate

c2 Natural rubber

3.2 Naturally occuring polymers are formed by the joining of monomers

by polymerization.

.2 Ôrotein is formed by the joining of monomers known as amino acid.

.2 Carbohydrate is formed by the joining of monomers known as glucose.

.2 Natural rubber is formed by the joining of monomers known as


b2 Synthetic polymers

.2 This type of polymer are manmade by chemical process in the


.2 The raw material for synthetic polymers are obtained frompetroleum.

3.2 The types of synthetic polymers include:

a2 Ôlastics

b2 Fibres

c2 Elastomers

.2 Examples of plastics are

polythene(polyethylene,polyvinylchloride(ÔVC, polypropene

(polypropylene, polystyrene , Ôerspex and bakelite.

.2 Ôolythene and ÔVC are produced by addition polymerization

.2 Examples of synthetics fibres are nylon and terylene. They are

produced by condensation polymerization.

9.4.2 Advantages of synthetic polymers
a2 Strong and light

b2 Cheap

c2 Able to resist corrosion

d2 Inert to chemical reactions

e2 Easily moulded or shaped and be coloured

f)2 Can be made to have special properties

9.4.3 Environmental pollution caused by synthetic polymers

a2 As most of polymers are nonbiodegradable, they will not decay like

other organic garbage.

b2 Burning of polymers release harmful and poisonous gases.

9.4.4 Methods to overcome the environmental pollution caused

by synthetic polymers
a2 Reduce, reuse and recycle synthetic polymers

b2 Develop biodegradable polymers

`    ÷ ÷
.2 The main component of both glass and ceramic is silica or silicon dioxide, SiO.

.2 Both glass and ceramic have the same properties as follow

a2 Hard and brittle

b2 Inert to chemical reactions

c2 Insulators or poor conductors of heat and electricity

d2 Withstand compression but not stretching

e2 Can be easily cleaned

f2 Low cost of production

3.2 Differences between glass and cerement are, glass is transparent, while

ceramic is opaque. Ceramic can withstand a higher temperature than normal


.2 Types of glass are

a2 Fused glass

À2 It is consist mainly of silica or silicon dioxide

À2 It has high heat resistance

b2 Soda lime glass

À2 It cannot withstand high temperatures

c2 Borosilicate glass

À2 It can withstand high temperature

d2 Lead glass

À2 High refractive index

.2 Uses of improved glass for specific purpose

a Ôhotochromic glass

À2 It is sensitive to light intensity

b Conducting glass

À2 It conducts electricity

.2 Ceramic is a manufactured substances made from clay, with the main

constituent of aluminosilicate with small quantity of sand and feldspar.

7.2 Superconductor is one improved ceramics for specific purposes.


j 2 Glass is made up from sand.

„ 2 The major component of glass is SiO.
ñ 2 There are four types of glass which are as follows:
À2Fused glass

À2Sodalime glass

À2Borosilicate glass

À2Lead crystal glass

Name of glass Ôroperties Examples of uses

Very high softening

point (7 C

hence, highly heat

SiO (``

Transparent to
Ba O 3 (

ultraviolet and
Fused glass
infrared light
Optical fibres
Difficult to be made
Laboratory glass
into different

Does not crack when


changes (very low

thermal expansion


Very resistant to

chemical reactions

Low softening point

(7 C, hence,

does not withstand

Breaks easily
Cracks easily with
SiO (7

Light bulbs
sudden temperature
NaO (

Soda lime glass
changes (high CaO (3

coefficient of Others (

( The most widely
used type of
Less resistant to
chemical reactions

Easy to be made into

different shapes

High softening point

( C. Thus it is SiO (

heat resistant Ba O 3 (
Does not crack NaO (3
 Cooking utensils
easily with sudden Al  O 3 Electrical tubes
temperature Glass pipelines

Transparent to

ultraviolet light

More resistant to

chemical reactions

Does not break


Low softening point

SiO (
 Decorative items
( C
ÔbO( 3
 Crystal glass
High density
KO (
Lead crystal High refractive
NaO ( 3
glass index
Al O 3 ( 
Reflects light rays
and appears spar


j 2 Ceramic is a manufactured substance made from clay that is dried and then

baked in a kiln at high temperature.

„ 2 The main constituent of clay is aluminosilicate, (which consist of aluminium

oxide and silicon dioxide with small quantities of sand and feldspar.

ñ 2 Kaolinite is an example of high

% 2 Red clay contains iron (III oxide which gives the red colour .

p 2 General uses ceramics are as follows of :

À2 very hard and strong but brittle

À2 inert to chemical reaction

À2 has a very high melting point

À2 good electric and heat insulator

À2 able to withstand compression

`  ÷   
.2 A composite material is a structural material formed by combining two or more

materials with different physical properties, producing a complex mixture.

.2 The composite material produced will have different properties far more

superior to the original materials.

3.2 The composite material produced are harder, stronger, lighter, more

resistant to heat and corrosion and also for specific purposes.

.2 When composite material is formed, the weakness of the components will not

exist anymore.

Composite material Component Ôroperties of Ôroperties of

component composite

Concrete Hard but brittle, Stronger, higher

With low tensile tensile strength,

strength not so brittle, does

Reinforced Steel Hard with high not corrode easily,

concrete tensile strength can withstand

but expensive and higher applied

can corrode forces and loads,

relatively cheaper

Glass of low Transparent, does Reflect light rays

refractive index not reflect light and allow light rays

Fibre optics rays. to travel along the

Glass of high Heavy, strong but fibre

refractive index brittle and non


Glass Heavy, strong but Light, strong,

brittle and non tough, resilient and

Fibreglass flexible flexible, with high

Ôolyester plastic Light, flexible, tensile strength

elastic but weak and not flammable

and inflammable

Glass Transparent and Sensitive to light:

not sensitive to darkness when

Ôhotochromic glass light light intensity is

Silver chloride, or Sensitive to light high, becomes

silver bromide clear when light

intensity is low

ã  Composite material and their new properties

÷ ÷ 

We must appreciate these various synthetic industrial materials. One of the way

is by doing continuous research and development ( R & D  to produce better

materials used to improve our standard of living. As we live in a changing world, our

society is getting more complex. New materials are required to overcome new

challenges and problems we face in our daily lives. Synthetic material are developed

constantly due to the limitation and shortage of natural materials. New

technological developments are used by scientists to make new discoveries.

New materials for clothing, shelter, tools and communication to improve our

daily life are developed continuously for the wellbeing of mankind. New needs and

new problem will stimulate the development of new synthetic materials. For

example, the new use of plastic composite material will replace metal in the making

of a stronger and lighter car body. This will save fuel and improve speed. Ôlastic

composite materials may one day used to make organs for organ transplant in human

bodies. This will become necessity with the shortage of human organ donors.

The understanding of the interaction between different chemicals is

important for both the development of new synthetic materials and the disposal of

such synthetic materials as waste. A responsible and systemic method of handling

the waste of synthetic materials and their byproduct is important to prevent

environmental pollution. The recycling and development of environmental friendly

synthetic material should be enforced.


.2 Tan Yin Toon, Loh Wai Leng, Tan On Tin, , SUCCESS Chemistry SÔM,
Oxford Fajar Sdn.Bhd.

.2 Website http://www.answers.com