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Korea:

Choson
 Traditional name for Korea, “Land of Morning Calm”, Yi Dynasty
adopted this name in 1392 (lasted until 1910)
 668 CE
 Unification of three kingdoms by Silla=one Korea (lasts until 1945)
 Hangul
 24 letter phonetic alphabet created in 1446
 Confucianism
 Especially prevalent in family structures
 “Hermit Kingdom”
 Name given by Western traders to a reluctant-to-trade Korea
 “shrimp between two whales”
 Korea has been a “pawn” between larger neighbors
 Japanese annexation
 1910-1945, extremely harsh (no Korean language, education,
resources/food sent to Japan)
 Korean War
 1950-1953, UN troops, MacArthur fired, stalemate results, cemented Cold
War tensions (paved the way for Vietnam)
 DMZ
 Demilitarized zone along NK/SK border, 38th parallel
 Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
 1948: North Korea, communist, led by Kim Il Sung, food shortages and
nuclear power are major issues
 Republic of Korea
 1948: South Korea, led by Syngman Rhee, dictatorship until 1980s, now a
democratic/capitalist success story and U.S. ally
 Kim Il Sung
 NK’s leader until 1994
 Kim Jong Il
 Kim Il Sung’s son, leader of NK since 1994
 Juche
 “self-reliance” proclaimed by Kim Jong Il
 6-Party Talks
 Began in August 2003, sporadic meetings with little success as of yet
 Reunification (?)
 Korea was one from 668-1945, division was arbitrary, see Reason #10
 “Choson”: ancient name for Korea
 2000 BC: evidence of farming
 Origins from North (Manchuria/Russia)
 Altaic language (similar to Japanese, not Chinese)
 100 BC- 200 AD: controlled by Han dynasty China
 During Tang dynasty Chinese influence came via the tributary system
 200-1910: independent
 Chinese interaction/influence, but not control after 200
 Strong sense of separateness from China and Japan
 3 kingdoms divided Korea until 668
 668 : united under Silla kingdom
 Buddhist influence
 Hereditary aristocracy
 stronger class system than China and Japan
 1200s: Mongol invasion quick but painful
 1392-1910: Yi dynasty
 Heavy borrowing from and connection to China, but not under complete
Chinese control
 Heavy use of Confucianism
Korea Meets the West
 1600s: VERY reluctant introduction to the West
 “Hermit Kingdom” due to inward-looking attitude
 1800s: forced to sign treaties with Japan and the West
 Japan followed in U.S.’s footsteps!
 More Japanese influence from this point on
 1910: officially annexed to Japan
 One of the worst examples of colonialism in history
 No Korean language
 No education
 Food sent to Japan
 Coal, iron, resources sent to Japan
 Forests destroyed
 Japanese took good jobs, Koreans worked in near slavery
 Koreans who went to Japan were discriminated against
 WWII: little fighting in Korea
 However, Koreans were sent to fight for Japan
Korea since WWII
 Split between Soviet (North) and American (South) troops
 38th parallel (completely random, artificial line)
 Supposedly temporary
 Tensions quickly deepen because of Cold War
 1948: officially declared
 North: People’s Democratic Republic of Korea
 Communist
 Kim Il Sung
 South: Republic of Korea
 Authoritarian (until 1980s)
 Syngman Rhee
The Korean War
 June 1950: NK invades SK
 United Nations sends 1 million troops (most from U.S.)
 Why does the UN/U.S. care so much?
 MacArthur fired (wants to invade NK and China)
 October 1953: armistice (SK never signed: still at war!)
 3 million military dead, millions more civilians
 Border changes by only a few miles
 Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)
 Even more tension results
 Was it worth it to prevent spread of communism?
Significance/results of Korean War:
 Led to American involvement in Vietnam and elsewhere
 Cold War turns “hot”
 Japan’s economic boost
 American-Chinese relations become more suspicious
 Red Scare of 1950s
 Korea arbitrarily divided by outsiders!
 No significant differences between NK/SK historically, culturally,
etc.
Recent Events
 June 2000: Historic summit between Kim Jong Il (NK) and Kim Dae Chung (SK)
—could unification happen?
 Sydney 2000 Olympics: marched in united
 Since August 2003, there have been sporadic talks with NK, SK, Japan, China,
Russia, and the US
 NK announced its nuclear test in October 2006

North Korea
 What options are there for dealing with Kim Jong Il and a nuclear North Korea?
 Which option do you suggest?

Modern Japan
Meiji Restoration
1868-1912
Commodore Perry forces Japan to open
• Black ships arrive! 1854
• Perry demands that Japan open up to trade with the US
Japan nervous b/c they knew the fate of China with spheres of influence
Unequal treaty
Due to isolation, Japanese were stunned to see ships with “smoke”?
coming out of them
• Commodore Perry warns that the US would go to war with Japan if they do not
open. With the help of firing off cannons, Japan agreed and the Treaty of
Kanagawa was signed (1854)
• Japan is officially open for trade
Japan nearly goes way of China when Europeans arrived
• Active young leaders seized control of govt to force restructuring in these areas;
– Administration, class structure, economy, technology, and culture.
• Who were they? Samurai warriors
• They wanted the shogun removed and the emperor restored as the direct ruler of
Japan (Samurai would formulate the policies of the new administration)
• 2 groups begin to emerge- those who felt they could adopt Western military
methods and still retain Japanese culture. Other group, more conservative argued
for getting rid of European barbarian

• Violence erupts but in 1869, Meiji restoration ended the power struggle
– With abdication of shogun, the shogunate obliterated, as well as the
samurai (reabsorbed into the govt ) new emperor, 14 yr old Meiji Tennō,
personal name Mutsuhito takes control as the one leader of Japan

• Let the progress to catch up begin!


New Constitution is created- 1899
• Called the Diet and has two houses: House of Representatives and House of Peers
• Emperor becomes SUPREME source of power
– “sacred and inviolable” commanded armed forces, named PM, appt
Cabinet
• (Feudal system is gone replaced with a strong central govt)
• Revamped tax system (traditionally paid in grain, now grain tax fixed into money
tax)
• Daimyo land returned to the emperor
• W/in single generation, Meiji transformed Japan into powerful industrialized
society
New Meiji “Restoration” government actively pursues “Western” ideas
• The Meiji period is one of rapid industrialization for Japan and they are eager to
“catch up”
• Japanese govt travels to W.Europe and is stunned by modernization going on
• Decided that Japan needs to imitate the West to avoid being dominated
economically OR militarily
• Zaitbatsu- Family owned business that grew into huge conglomerates b/c they
received tax-exempt breaks from govt. Why? Govt wanted Japan to grow as fast
as possible
– Example: Mitsubishi originally started out in ship-building but has
expanded into many businesses
Japanese army and navy are
modernized!!! (Navy based on Britain’s nave)
Other Meiji Restoration changes
1. University of Tokyo was founded
2. Primary school becomes compulsory
Western texts encouraged
1. First RR from Tokyo to Yokohama is completed
2. Adoption of Gregorian calendar, 7 day week w/Sunday off)
3. Metric system
4. Meat eating encouraged (sukiyaki invented!)
7. Women’s options open up slightly (some work in factories)
In general, women’s opinions restricted in this male dominated society
Demming introduces idea of quality control to West and Japan takes it and uses it
successfully
• Disadvantages
• Industrialization also has its disadvantages: Crowded Japanese cities endured
epidemics and fires
– In Tokyo, ¼ houses caught fire b/w 1876-1892
The rise of the Japanese Empire
• Japan is on the move………..
War!
• Sino-Japanese war 1894 (first one, a second one comes later)
– Japan wanted more natural resources to feed its population and industry
Japan crushes China with its superior military
Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895) gave Japan
Korea+ Taiwan and $$$
The “Rise” continues
• Russo-Japanese war 1904-1905

Island to Empire: Japanese Expansion 1874-1942


Rising militarism
• In 19th century Western powers gobbling up territories through military means
• Japan resented the “unequal” treaties forced to sign during Tokugawa period-
want to eliminate diplomatic handicaps + raise their profile
• Japan knew that in order to “play” with the big boys, had to strengthen military-
that a strong military + colonization = membership into European community of
nations
• Japan feared being invaded by Russia + China was so weak, Japan also feared its
collapse and acquisition by the West
• Let the hunt begin!
Japan’s expansion begins in 1874 in Formosa
• At this time, Formosa (now known as Taiwan) belonged to China
• Inhabitants from Ryukyu islands become shipwrecked and then murdered by
Formosan primitive peoples (beheaded!)
• Japan is angered that China did not help the Japanese sailors.
• Japan sends a military expedition hoping actually to take control of Taiwan
Japan seizes Kuril islands
1876
• With the Ryukyu islands + the Kuril islands provide Japan with defensive
island perimeters to the north, east and south of Japan’s four main islands.
Japan’s next move: Need to control Korea 1873-1894
China had control of Korea but Japan wanted it. Why????
At the same time Koreans wanted to be free of China’s involvement in their country
Japan encourages Koreans to rebel against China – Japan stirs up the pot
Sino-Japanese War
1894-1895
• Another revolt occurs in Korea
• Both China & Japan send troops to stop violence
• After they put down revolt, China and Japan go to war w/ each other!
• Russia lying in the weeds wanting to gain control as well
• Japan defeats China! Even though they had fewer numbers Why? Because by now
they had become much more modern and China remained old-fashioned
Treaty of Shimonoseki
1895
• To achieve peace b/w China & Japan, China had to surrender Formosa
(Taiwan) to Japan as well as
other islands (Pescadores + S. Manchuria)
• China had to accept Korea’s independence from China
• There is an uh-oh: Russia, France and Germany think that Japan gets too
much and they force Japan to give back some of its spoils.
• (Remember, Russia wants Port Arthur – a warm water port)
• Japan feels insulted and will never forget this humiliation!
Significance of Japan’s expansion up until now
1. Japan has been recognized by other world powers as a country to be reckoned
with
– They have direct influence over the conquered
– Japan is now in the position to control other countries
2. Contempt for China begins
3. Hatred of West develops
Russo-Japanese War
1904-1905
• Fought between Russia and Japan for control of Korea and Manchuria
• Both Japan and Russia want Port Arthur- Russia wants it b/c it is a warm-water
port and Japan had already received Korea from China (as a protectorate) and
wanted to keep it!
• Japan defeats Russia and is the only Asian nation that has ever defeated a
European country
• President Teddy Roosevelt mediates b/w the two countries but ultimately,
Japan gets: Manchuria, Korea and the Sakhalin island – more land!!!
World War I + “spoils of war”
• WWI presents Japan w/economic opportunity
– B/W 1914-1918 Japan’s gross national income rose 40%
• Japan receives more land previously controlled by Germany as “spoils of
war” when Germany is defeated (Mariana, Caroline and Marshall Is)
• New trend in Japan: Military extremists have so much influence that they force
the government to listen to their demands
• In addition, Shinto beliefs increase: Emperor is a descendent from the gods and
Japan is destined to rule Asia
Japan and rise of militarists 1931
• Japan cont to expand-
• Europe was in ruins (WWI)
• Japanese military extremists take control of Japan’s foreign policy and kick out
non-military personnel
– Military had extraordinary influence legally and in popular opinion
– Japanese law specified that ministers of war had to be active generals +
admirals
– Powers of Diet were restricted
– In theory emperor had ultimate control but he did not actively govern

World War II
• Begins July 7, 1937 when Japan invades China
• “Rape of Nanking” – terrible atrocities are committed in Nanking

East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere


1939
• Japan does not have natural resources and is dependent on the West for them
• In 1939, Japan must import 85% of oil from the US
• Decide to ally with all Asian nations but in reality sought to control Asian
resources – get oil from Indonesia
Within 2 years….1940-1942
• Japan overtook Philippines, Dutch East Indies, French Indo-China, Malaysia,
Thailand (short-lived), Solomon Islands and Burma.
• Japan sides with Germany and becomes part of the Axis nations in 1940
• Japan is told: sever ties with Germany or go to war!
• Japan bombs Pearl Harbor 12/7/1941
Yamamoto- admiral and head of the Japanese Navy
• “In the first months of war, I will run wild and win victory upon victory, but if the
war continues, I have no expectations of success. I fear all we have done is to
awaken a sleeping giant.”
After 1942
• US begins to out produce Japan
• US put a shipping blockade that slowly began to strangle Japan
• US had to retrieve island by island that Japan had occupied – some of the
bloodiest battles occurred: Iwo Jima, and Guadalcanal
During WWII, Japanese soldiers forced women into sexual slavery from the countries
they conquered = comfort women
Atomic Bomb is dropped
• US chose to drop bomb because Japan will not surrender
After the bomb
destruction in Japan but also a new beginning
• 20% of all houses destroyed
• 25% of all factories destroyed
• Must relinquish all territories
• Japanese army disbanded and people were tried for war crimes – (many felt
Hirohito should be tried as well) but McArthur said no
• Women got the vote, equality b/w men and women
• Most successful was: Land Reform Law which restricted the number of people
who could own land (max of 71/2 acres – rest went to the govt)
Japan’s economic success
• Partly came because US engaged in another war: Korean War – and the US
needed supplies that were close by instead of having to haul them over from the
US
• Japan begins to translate foreign technology into big time strength
• Quality control! What was the name of that guy?
• Incredibly stable and democratic govt
• In 1950 Japan produced 1,593 cars and by 1969 they produced 2,611,499 cars to
become the 3rd largest car manufacturer

Economic good times continue…


• Between 1970-1980 Japan had gained 70% of computer chip industry

• In 1982 researchers predicted that Japan would have the highest GNP by the year
2000. They did, but achieved it in 1991!!
The Lost Decade
During the 1990s, Japan’s economy crashed because the housing bubble burst
Study Guide for Japan Unit test 3/17/09
I may “add-on” items when I see you Monday, March 16

Meiji Restoration

 What was being restored? Why!? What is now gone?

 Japan plays catch up in what ways? What is a Zaibatusu? And why did it grow
quickly?

Japanese expansion

 (1894)Where does it start? And what were the circumstances? What does
Japan take control of?

 (1876) What does Japan get here and how does this acquisition strengthen
Japan’s defenses?

 What is the nation Japan really wanted? Who had control of it? How did that
country lose control of it? (know the war!)

 Treaty of Shimonoseki – what did Japan get? Why did other nations force
Japan to give back some of the land?

 What is the deal with Port Arthur?

 Russian-Japanese war – what is the significance of this? (who mediates


peace?) Now what does Japan get?

 How does Japan increase her land size in WWI (what did she get?)

 Rise of militarists? What role did they play in all of this?


 Rape of Nanking

 East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere – what was it? What drove Japan to war with
the US? Result of this?

Japanese expansion cont

 Next series of islands that fell? (1940-1942)

 Who is in charge of Japanese navy (quote)

 How does the US counteract Japan’s need for resources?

 What rather large bomb was dropped? Where? Date? Why?

Post-bomb destruction and reconstruction

 How bad a shape was Japan in after the bomb?

 Who was the US General who took over the occupation of Japan?

 How was he effective? What were some of the things he did?

Japan’s economic success

 Japan’s economy turned around on what war? Who was involved and why was
this a boon to Japan’s economy?

 What is quality control, who invented it?

 There will probably be something from the newspaper article on Japan’s


economic depression

Japan’s educational system + Confucius Lives Next Door

There will be more to come on this area……I will provide an addendum.

Korea powerpoint……and Top Ten things about Korea


What tactics did the US take to deal with Japan after bombing of Pearl Harbor?

What was the East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere and who would benefit?

What was the damage done by the atomic bomb?


How did General MacArthur help the Japanese people to get back on their feet?
What changes were made in Constitution, army, women etc
How did the Korean War help Japan’s fledgling economy?

What is quality control? Who started it? How did it benefit Japanese goods and services?

Terms:
Zaibatsu, Bukufu, Feudalism, Miyabi, Shoen, Uji, Daimyo, Samurai, Edo

There may be more to come so keep a head’s up!