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Chapter 34

Geometric Optics

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Chapter 34
Geometric Optics
34-1 Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface
34-2 Reflection at a Spherical Surface

34-3 Refraction at a Spherical Surface


34-4 Thin Lens

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

34-1

Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

OBJECTIVES
Given an object in front of a plane mirror:
Calculate the location of the image
Calculate the lateral magnification of the image
Determine whether the image will be real or virtual, and upright
or inverted

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

34-1

Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

What is an object?
anything from which light rays radiate
light could be emitted by the
object itself

light could be emitted by another


source and then reflected from the
object

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34-1

Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

1. Point Object

no physical extent

2. Extended Object

real object with length, width and height

made up of a very large


number of point objects
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Point object P
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34-1

Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

What is an image?

from which outgoing rays diverge

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34-1

Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

An image can be:

1. Real image
outgoing rays really do pass through an image point

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34-1

Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

An image can be:

2. Virtual image
outgoing rays don't actually pass through the image point

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34-1

Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

Sign Rules
1. Sign rule for the
object distance s
When the object is on the
same side of the reflecting or
refracting surface as the
incoming light, the object
distance s is positive;
otherwise, it is negative.

s is positive.
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34-1

Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

Sign Rules
2. Sign rule for the
image distance s
When the image is on the
same side of the reflecting or
refracting surface as the
outgoing light, the image
distance s' is positive;
otherwise, it is negative.

s is negative.
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34-1

Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

Sign Rules
3. Sign rule for the
radius of curvature R
of a spherical surface:
When the center of curvature C is
on the same side as the
outgoing light, the radius of
curvature is positive; otherwise,
it is negative.

For a plane reflecting or refracting


surface, R is infinite.
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34-1

Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

Plane Mirror: Image of a Point Object

Reflection

Note:
s is negative
image is virtual

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34-1

Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

Plane Mirror: Image of an Extended Object

Reflection

where:

y : object height
y : image height
s : object distance
s : image distance

The image formed by a plane mirror is always erect (y > 0).


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34-1

Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

Lateral Magnification
Sign Conventions:

If m > 0: image orientation same with that of object


If m < 0: image orientation different from that of object

where:

y : object height
y : image height
s : object distance
s : image distance

If |m| > 1: magnified


If |m| < 1: reduced
If |m| = 1: same size
If y > 0: image upright
If y < 0: image inverted
If s > 0: image real
If s < 0: image virtual
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34-1

Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

Plane Mirror

Reflection

where:

y : object height
y : image height
s : object distance
s : image distance

Lateral Magnification

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34-1

Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

Example:

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34-1

Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

Example:

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34-1

Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface

Seatwork:
A bug at about eye level is 5 cm in front of a plane mirror. You
are behind the bug, 20 cm from the mirror. What is the
distance between your eyes and the apparent position of
the bugs image in the mirror?

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Chapter 34
Geometric Optics
34-1 Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface
34-2 Reflection at a Spherical Surface

34-3 Refraction at a Spherical Surface


34-4 Thin Lens

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34-2

Reflection at a Spherical Surface

OBJECTIVES
Given an object in front of a spherical mirror:
Calculate the location of the image
Calculate the lateral magnification of the image
Determine whether the image will be real or virtual, and upright
or inverted

Given an object placed in front of a spherical mirror, draw


the principal rays and locate the image

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34-2

Reflection at a Spherical Surface


Concave Mirror

Convex Mirror

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34-2

Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Concave Mirror:
Point object

optic axis

Object P

V
C

R>0

Image P

s>0
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s> 0

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34-2

Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Concave Mirror:
Extended object

Image
Object

y>0

y < 0
R>0

s>0
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s> 0

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34-2

Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Concave Mirror:
Focal Point and Focal Length

where:
f > 0: focal length
R > 0: radius of curvature

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34-2

Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Concave Mirror:
Focal Point and Focal Length

where:
f > 0: focal length
R > 0: radius of curvature

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34-2

Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Concave Mirror:
Graphical Method

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34-2

Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Example:

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34-2

Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Seatwork:
A mosquito landed 20 cm in front of a concave mirror with
20 cm radius of curvature. How far from the mirror will the
mosquitos image be formed?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

40 cm behind the mirror


10 cm behind the mirror
10 cm in front of the mirror
20 cm in front of the mirror
At infinity

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34-2

Reflection at a Spherical Surface


Concave Mirror

Convex Mirror

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34-2

Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Convex Mirror:
Point object

Image P

optic axis
V

Object P

R<0

s>0

s< 0
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34-2

Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Convex Mirror:
Extended object

Image
Object

y>0

y > 0
V

C
R<0

s>0
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s< 0

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34-2

Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Convex Mirror:
Focal Point and Focal Length

where:
f < 0: focal length
R < 0: radius of curvature

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34-2

Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Convex Mirror:
Focal Point and Focal Length

where:
f < 0: focal length
R < 0: radius of curvature

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34-2

Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Convex Mirror:
Graphical Method

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34-2

Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Example:

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34-2

Reflection at a Spherical Surface

Seatwork:
You hold a large silver spoon a distance of 5.0 cm in front of
your face. The radius of curvature of the spoon is -20.0 cm.
What is the distance between the object and the image and
the nature (real or virtual) of the image?

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Chapter 34
Geometric Optics
34-1 Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface
34-2 Reflection at a Spherical Surface

34-3 Refraction at a Spherical Surface


34-4 Thin Lens

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34-3

Refraction at a Spherical Surface

OBJECTIVES
Given an object in front of a spherical surface or interface
separating two media:
Calculate the location of the image
Calculate the lateral magnification of the image
Determine whether the image will be real or virtual, and upright
or inverted

Calculate the apparent depth of an object when observed


across a boundary changing indices of refraction

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34-3

Refraction at a Spherical Surface

Image of a Point Object

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34-3

Refraction at a Spherical Surface

Image of an Extended Object

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34-3

Refraction at a Spherical Surface

Refracting surface:
Object-Image Relationship and Magnification

Note:
na : index of refraction of material 1
nb : index of refraction of material 2

valid for both concave and


convex refracting surface
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34-3

Refraction at a Spherical Surface

Example:

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34-3

Refraction at a Spherical Surface

Seatwork:

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34-3

Refraction at a Spherical Surface

A special case:
Plane refracting surface
Radius of Curvature

Material 1 Material 2
Object-Image Relationship

na

nb

Magnification

Plane refracting surface


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34-3

Refraction at a Spherical Surface

Example:

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34-3

Refraction at a Spherical Surface

Seatwork:

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Chapter 34
Geometric Optics
34-1 Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Surface
34-2 Reflection at a Spherical Surface

34-3 Refraction at a Spherical Surface


34-4 Thin Lens

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34-4

Thin Lens

OBJECTIVES
Differentiate a converging lens from a diverging lens
Given an object in front of a lens or series of lenses:
Calculate the location of the image
Calculate the lateral magnification of the image
Determine whether the image will be real or virtual, and upright
or inverted

Relate the radii of curvature of the lens in air and its index
of refraction of the focal length of the lens
Given an object placed in front of a lens or series of lenses,
draw the principal rays and locate the image
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34-4

Thin Lens

What is a lens?
an optical system with two refracting surfaces

Thin lens
two spherical surfaces close enough together
negligible thickness

Converging Lens
Diverging Lens
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34-4

Thin Lens

Converging Lens thicker at its center than at its edges

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34-4

Thin Lens

Properties of a Converging Lens

f: focal length (f > 0)


F1 :1st focal point
F2 : 2nd focal point
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34-4

Thin Lens

Converging Lens:
Graphical Method and Principal Rays

s>0

f>0

s> 0

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34-4

Thin Lens

Converging Lenses:
Object-image relationship and Magnification

If s > 0: image real


If s < 0: image virtual

where:
f : focal length
s : object distance
s : image distance

f > 0 : converging lens

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34-4

Thin Lens

Diverging Lens thicker at its edges than at its center

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34-4

Thin Lens

Properties of a Diverging Lens

f: focal length (f < 0)


F1 :1st focal point
F2 : 2nd focal point
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34-4

Thin Lens

Diverging Lens:
Graphical Method and Principal Rays

f<0

s< 0

s>0

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34-4

Thin Lens

Diverging Lenses:
Object-image relationship and Magnification

If s > 0: image real


If s < 0: image virtual

where:
f : focal length
s : object distance
s : image distance

f < 0 : diverging lens

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34-4

Thin Lens

Example:

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34-4

Thin Lens

Example:

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34-4

Thin Lens

Example:

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34-4

Thin Lens

Diverging lens: f < 0

y'

s = 16 cm
s = -12 cm

|f | = 48 cm |f | = 48 cm
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34-4

Thin Lens

Example:

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34-4

Thin Lens

Example:

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34-4

Thin Lens

Lensmakers equation

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34-4

Thin Lens

Lensmakers equation

where:

f : focal length
n : index of refraction of thin lens
R1 : radius of curvature of 1st surface
R2 : radius of curvature of 2nd surface
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34-4

Thin Lens

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End of Chapter 34

Geometric Optics

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