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Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Fundamental nature
of Magnetism

Interaction of moving
electric charges

Magnetic forces arise in two stages:


1. Moving charge or a collection of moving charges
produces a magnetic field.
2. Current or moving charge responds to this
magnetic field and so experiences a magnetic
force.

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Chapter 28
Sources of Magnetic Field
28-1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge
28-2 Magnetic Field of a Current Element
28-3 Magnetic Field of a Straight Current-Carrying Conductor
28-4 Force Between Parallel Conductors
28-5 Magnetic Field of a Circular Current Loop
28-6 Amperes Law
28-7 Applications of Amperes Law

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Objective
Evaluate the magnetic field vector at a given point in space
due to a moving point charge

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Electric Interactions
1. A distribution of electric charge at rest creates an electric field
in the surrounding space.
2. The electric field exerts a force
that is present in the field.

on any other charge q

Magnetic Interactions
1. A moving charge or a current creates a magnetic field in the
surrounding space (in addition to its electric field).
2. The magnetic field exerts a force
on any other moving
charge or current that is present in the field.
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Source point

Field point

+
q

Point P

Question:
What is the magnetic field at point P?
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Magnetic Field of a Point Charge with Constant Velocity

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Magnetic Field of a Point Charge with Constant Velocity

Direction: Use RHR.


Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Magnetic Field of a Point Charge with Constant Velocity

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Example:

Answers: e = neg charge of electron; v = 0.100c, r = 2.00 um


(a) B = k*e*v*sin(30)/r^2; out of the page
(b) B = k*e*v/r^2; out of the page
(c) zero
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Seatwork:
What is the direction of the
magnetic field at point P due
to the two moving charges?

Answer: +i or
out of the page
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Example:
What is the magnitude of the
magnetic field at point P due
to the two moving charges?
Answer:
No B due to +3e.
B due to +4e = k*(4e)*vo*(L)/[(L^2 + (2L)^2)^(3/2)]
Out of the page

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Chapter 28
Sources of Magnetic Field
28-1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge
28-2 Magnetic Field of a Current Element
28-3 Magnetic Field of a Straight Current-Carrying Conductor
28-4 Force Between Parallel Conductors
28-5 Magnetic Field of a Circular Current Loop
28-6 Amperes Law
28-7 Applications of Amperes Law

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Objective
Evaluate the magnetic field vector at a given point in space
due to an infinitesimal current element

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Source point

Field point

Point P

Question:
What is the magnetic field at point P?
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Magnetic Field of a Current Element


Biot-Savart law

Direction: Use RHR.


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Magnetic Field of a Current Element

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Example:

Seatwork
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Source point

Field point

Point P

Biot-Savart law

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Chapter 28
Sources of Magnetic Field
28-1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge
28-2 Magnetic Field of a Current Element
28-3 Magnetic Field of a Straight Current-Carrying Conductor
28-4 Force Between Parallel Conductors
28-5 Magnetic Field of a Circular Current Loop
28-6 Amperes Law
28-7 Applications of Amperes Law

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Objectives
Evaluate the magnetic field vector at any point in space due
to a straight current-carrying conductor
Use superposition principle to calculate the magnetic field
due to one or more straight wire conductors

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Question:
What is the magnetic
field at point P?

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At all points on a circle of radius r around a long,


straight current-carrying wire, the magnitude B is

radius r

For a long, straight, current-carrying


conductor only
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Example:
Three long, straight conducting wires each carry a current I
in the direction shown. What is the magnitude and direction
of the resulting magnetic field at point P?

Answer: B = (5/4)uI/4piR, upward


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Seatwork:
Four, long, parallel power line each carry 100-A currents. A
cross-sectional diagram of these lines is a square, 20.0 cm
on each side. What is the direction of the net magnetic
field at the center of the square?

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Chapter 28
Sources of Magnetic Field
28-1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge
28-2 Magnetic Field of a Current Element
28-3 Magnetic Field of a Straight Current-Carrying Conductor
28-4 Force Between Parallel Conductors
28-5 Magnetic Field of a Circular Current Loop
28-6 Amperes Law
28-7 Applications of Amperes Law

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Objective
Calculate the force per unit length on a current carrying wire
due to the magnetic field produced by other currentcarrying wires

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The lower conductor produces a


magnetic field that, at the position of
the upper conductor, has magnitude

The magnetic force that this field


exerts on a length L of the upper
conductor is

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Lower conductor produces a


magnetic field in this portion.
Magnitude:

Direction:

The magnetic force experienced by the segment having length L on the


upper conductor is
Magnitude:

Direction:
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

downward
29

The magnetic force experienced by the segment having length L on the


lower conductor is
Magnitude:
Direction:

I
I

upward

Upper conductor produces a


magnetic field in this portion.

L
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Magnitude:
Direction:

30

Conclusion:
Two long, parallel, current-carrying conductors attract if
the currents are in the same direction.
Newtons 3rd law? Yes!
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Conclusion:
Two long, parallel, current-carrying conductors
attract if the currents are in the same direction.
Newtons 3rd law? Yes!
Two long, parallel, current-carrying conductors repel
if the currents are in the opposite direction.
Newtons 3rd law? Yes!

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Force per unit Length


upper conductor

lower conductor

Applicable for any two long, parallel,


current-carrying conductors
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Example:

Equation to be used:

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Seatwork:

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Chapter 28
Sources of Magnetic Field
28-1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge
28-2 Magnetic Field of a Current Element
28-3 Magnetic Field of a Straight Current-Carrying Conductor
28-4 Force Between Parallel Conductors
28-5 Magnetic Field of a Circular Current Loop
28-6 Amperes Law
28-7 Applications of Amperes Law

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Objective
Evaluate the magnetic field vector at any point along the
axis of a circular current loop

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Question:
What is the magnetic field at point P?
Apply Biot-Savart law.

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Question:
What is the magnetic field at point P?
Magnitude:

(on the axis of a circular loop)


Direction:

Use:

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For a coil consisting of N loops, all with the


same radius a,

(on the axis of N circular loops)

At the center of the coil (x = 0):

(at the center of N circular loops)


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What we have right now:

In general:

For N = 1:

(on the axis of a circular loop)


For N > 1:

(on the axis of N circular loops)


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Example:
Consider a circular conducting loop with radius 10 cm lying
in the yz-plane centered at the origin. It carries current I =
1.5 A directed in the counterclockwise direction as viewed
from the +x-axis.

What is the magnitude and direction


of the magnetic field at the origin?

Answers:
Direction +x-axis
Magnitude = uI/2R (substitute values)
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Example:

Apply Biot-Savart law.

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Chapter 28
Sources of Magnetic Field
28-1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge
28-2 Magnetic Field of a Current Element
28-3 Magnetic Field of a Straight Current-Carrying Conductor
28-4 Force Between Parallel Conductors
28-5 Magnetic Field of a Circular Current Loop
28-6 Amperes Law
28-7 Applications of Amperes Law

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Objective
Use Amperes law to calculate magnetic fields for highly
symmetric current configurations

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Amperes Law

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Example:

Answers:
a: 0
b: -uI1
c: u(I2-I1)
d: u(I2+I3-I1)

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Seatwork:
Which of the following statements is correct about line integral
along paths A, B and C?
A.
B.
C.
D.

The line integral along path A is positive.


The line integral along path B is positive.
The line integral along path C is positive.
The line integral along paths A and B is the
same.
E. The line integral along paths A, B and C are
the same.

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Example:

(a) B = uI/2pir
(b) B = 0
Note: if we consider regions in
b<r<c, we need to consider the
uniform distribution of coaxial
conductor J = I/[pi(c^2-b^2)] as
discussed in class.

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Note:
N: number of turns
L: length
n = N/L

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Example:
Consider two very long solenoids S1 and S2. S1 has N
number of loops and length L while S2 has 2N number of
loops and length 2L. If these solenoids are connected in
series to an emf source, compare the relative magnitudes of
the magnetic field (BS1 and BS2) inside the two solenoids.

Equal current in S1 and S2 since they are in series.


B = unI for solenoid, since they both have same
current and same coil density, then B inside for both
should be equal
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