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CELL STRUCTURE

Schleiden, Schwann and Virchow -1800s

The cell is the basic and smallest unit of life


All cells arise from pre-existing cells
The cell is the working unit of organisms

All cells perform the following functions:


Obtain and metabolize nutrients
Grow and develop
Respond to environment
Adapt and genetically evolve
Use DNA for info
Characteristics of a cell:
1. Cells interact mutually
2. Highly organized
3. Functional unit of the body
Bacterial sex genetics
1. Transformation
2. Transduction
3. Conjugation
All cells are made of

Lipids: membranes, energy


Carbohydrates: walls, energy
Nucleic Acids: genetic information, protein synthesis
Proteins: many things -enzymes, antibodies

Cell Types
Prokaryotic Cells

Simpler, smaller, and the most primitive


Lack a nucleus and organelles
Include Eubacteria and Archaea

Eukaryotic Cells

More complex, larger, and more modern


Have a nucleus and organelles
Include Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, Animals, Plants

Prokaryotic Cells In Detail

Cell Membrane

Same as eukaryotic BUT


ALSO contain metabolic enzymes
Prokaryotes resemble naked organelles

External Structure of Prokaryotic Cells


Glycocalyces
sugar cup
Attach to surfaces
Prevent phagocytosis
Streptococcus pneumonia & Klebsiella pneumonia
Flagella
Movement
Arrangements:
Peritrichous
Polar
Amphitrichous
Show taxis: Chemo/photo
Fimbriae& Pili
Fimbriae: sticky, proteinaceous bristle like projections for adherance
Pili: protein pilin, for movement
Cell walls
Peptidogylcan: polysaccharide of alternating sugars
Two types:
Gram + = THICK, naked peptidoglycan
Gram = THIN peptidoglycan, outer membrane
Non-Gram Staining Bacteria

Mycobacteria-wax coat, e.g. TB and leprosy


Mycoplasma-no walls, e.g. walking pneumonia

Cell Membrane

Selectively permeable barrier


Built of phospholipidbilayer and proteins
Proteins act as receptors and pores
Animal cells contain cholesterol in membranes
Fungi have ergosterol

Cytoplasm

Contain genetic material


Site of replication, transcription, and translation

Ribosomes
Inclusions
Gas vesicles

Endospores
Highly resistant
Vegetative cell sporulates
Bacillus
Clostridium
Prokaryotic Chromosomes

Circular DNA -half to one million base pairs


One copy of each chromosome (haploid)
Many Also Have Plasmids
Sometimes called mini-chromosomes
Small circles of DNA -10,000 base pairs
Carry emergency genes -e.g. drug resistance
Can be passed around during bacterial mating

Eukaryotic Cells
Eukaryotic Walls Vary
Location -just outside membrane
Plants = cellulose (chain of glucose)
Algae = cellulose or minerals (silica, calcium)
Insect and Fungi = chitin (chain of NAG)
Animals and protozoa lack walls
Eukaryotic Chromosomes
Linear DNA = at least 1 million base pairs
Two copies of each chromosome (diploid)
Viruses and Non-Living Agents
Not made of cells or classified as life
cannot carry out life functions without a host
Contain a few genes that make few proteins