You are on page 1of 3

SIMPLE AND FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION

Eunice Aurelle T. Basco, Ian Lindley C. Cabral, Aira Mina A. Cayago,


Jardine Mariel L. Ching, Leomariss M. Chua and Filjosh R. Cucueco
Group 2 2A-Medical Technology Organic Chemistry Laboratory
ABSTRACT
ABSTRACT
An experiment was conducted using either simple or fractional distillation to separate the components of the alcoholic
beverage, to calculate the percentage of ethanol in an alcoholic beverage, and to differentiate the two distillation
techniques from one another. The group was assigned to perform fractional distillation on 30 mL of vodka. Test tubes
were calibrated and filled to 0.5 mL of distillate. The temperature of every distillate was then recorded. Based on the
table and graph constructed, temperatures increased as the volume of the distillate also increased. Flammability test
was also performed on the first and last distillate. Results indicated that the first distillate produced a blue flame which
indicates it is flammable while the last distillate was non-flammable. This occurred because the first distillate
composed of ethanol, which is flammable and more volatile compound and the second distillate composed of water
alone. The distillate collected by the end of the distillation process was 13.5 mL, giving 20% ethanol.

INTRODUCTION
Distillation is a process of extracting volatile
substances from a liquid mixture by using
selective vaporization and condensation. It is a
widely used method for separating mixtures
based on differences in the conditions [1].
Distillation can be used to purify substances and
remove or separate components of mixtures such
as the one used in the experiment, vodka. Vodka
is a distilled beverage composed primarily of
water and ethanol, sometimes with traces of
impurities and flavourings. Traditionally, vodka is
made by the distillation of fermented grains or
potatoes, though some modern brands use other
substances, such as fruits or sugar [2]. The
objectives of the experiment are (1) Differentiate
simple from fractional distillation, (2) Separate
the components of an alcoholic beverage which is
vodka, and (3) Calculate the percentage of
ethanol in beverage.

EXPERIMENTAL
A. Compounds tested (or samples used)
The samples used was taken from a clear and
unflavored vodka (San Miguel). jhhcuehfweufhwu

B.iPROCEDURE
1. Assembling of fractional distillation
set-up
The set-up used was a fractional distillation
set-up which used apparatus such as quick-fit
distilling flask, fractionating column (with boiling
stones), condenser, rubber tubing, adapter, test
tubes, iron stand, iron clamps, alcohol lamp and
thermometer. The instruments were secured

enough to not let the apparatus slip. gdadgadgas

2. PREPARATION OF TEST TUBES AND


OTHER MATERIALS rthrhthrhrhrhrhrhrhrhrr
The test tubes were calibrated down to the 0.5
mL, marked with masking tape, and then these
calibrated test tubes were then used for the 0.5
mL distillate collection. The distilling flask
contained few pieces of boiling stones and 15 mL
vodka.

3.iDISTILLATION
The flask was heated by continually rotating an
alcohol lamp until the vodka started to boil. After
filling the first tube with 0.5 mL of the distillate,
another test tube was used to collect another 0.5
mL. This continued until the temperature reached
96oC. After every collection of 0.5 mL of the
distillate, the temperature was also recorded.
Three to 5 drops of the first and last distillate
were separately placed on a watch glass and
were applied a lighted match. Results were
observed and recorded. ggfftftftfjhyfytcduttftftftft

RESULTSiANDiDISCUSSION
Figure 1. Fractional Distillation Set-up

Fractional distillation is essentially the same as


simple distillation except that a fractionating
column is placed between the boiling flask and
the condenser. The fractionating column is
usually filled with glass or plastic beads. These
beads improve the separation between the liquids
being distilled. The reason that fractional
distillation gives better separation between the
liquids is because the glass beads in the
fractionating column provide "theoretical plates"
on which the refluxing liquid can condense, reevaporate, and condense again, essentially
distilling the compound over and over. The more
volatile liquids will tend to push towards the top
of the fractionating column, while lower boiling
liquids will stay towards the bottom, giving a
better separation between the liquids. Of course,
the more theoretical plates that you add to a
column (the more surfaces or beads), the longer
the distillation will take (typically), and the more
energy required to keep reevaporating liquid in
the fractionating column (this is more of a
concern in industrial distillations than in an
academic lab where energy cost is not a major
cause for worry).

Tablei1.iTemperatureiofiDistillate
Test Tube No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Volume (mL)

Temperature (oC)

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Based on Table 1, as the volume of the
distillate
increases,
the
temperature
also
increases until it reaches 96 oC. The first distillate
was boiled at ___oC. It indicated a composition of
mainly ethanol. On the other hand, the last
distillate was boiled at a temperature near to
100OC and contained water. A constant
temperature of 96oC indicates the presence of the
most concentrated ethanol. It is represented by a
slightly horizontal slope. Hdfbhefeufhuefhueh
According to the results of the flammability
test, the first distillate produced blue flame and
then evaporated while the last distillate did not
ad extinguished it. Therefore, the first distillate,
containing ethanol, is flammable, and the last
distillate, containing water, is non-flammable.
Figure 2. Graph of Temperature vs. Volume.
(insert graph here)
Table 1 was used to graph figure 2. As seen in
the graph, there was a constant temperature of
___oC for a certain period of time in the distillates
with volumes from ____ mL to ____ mL. The
slope represents the presence of the most
concentrated ethanol because the distillates have
a constant temperature of ___oC, which is boiling
point of ethanol. Therefore, vodka is an
azeotrope. Azeotope is defined as a mixture of
two or more liquids that constant boiling point
because the vapour has similar compositions as
the mixture. Since the ethanol boiled with a
lower temperature than water, vodka is a positive
azeotrope.
Figure
2
also
illustrates
the
relationship of temperature and volume. It can be
concluded that as the volume of the distillate
increases, the temperature also increases.
To compute for the percentage of ethanol present
in the vodka, the following formula and values
are used:
jhfewufgwuguege

(insert computation here)


According to the computation above, the 30
mL
of
vodka
contained
___%
ethanol.
As for the percentage lost, the following
formula
and
values
are
used:
(insert

computation

here)

___% ethanol was lost due to some errorssuch


as rapid evaporation caused by excessive heating
or error in the collection of distillate, including
spillages.

REFERENCES
[1]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distillation
[2]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vodka
From the internet
(no author). Distillation.

http://www.chemhelper.com/distillation.html
9/30/15
(no author). Separating Mixtures.
https://www.superteachertools.net/speedmatch/s
peedmatchfromj.php?
gamefile=1411126267#.Vg4KP_lViko 9/30/15
Encyclopedia Britannica. Azeotrope.
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/467
65/azeotrope 9/30/15
Hansen, V. Vodka.
http://www.blackbookcooking.com/vodka
9/30/15
Shree Krishna Fabricators. Types of Distillation.
http://www.sk-fab.com/distillation-unit.html
9/30/15