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No. 11

November 2015

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CONTENTS

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82

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83

Crossword

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PHYSICS

MUSING

hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Physics Musing is to augment

the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / Other PMTs with additional study material.

In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The detailed

solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.

The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their detailed solutions with their names and complete address. The names of those who

send atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.

We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through Physics Musing and stand in better stead while facing the competitive exams.

area A is fitted onto a wooden disc of radius R > r. If

Youngs modulus of the metal is Y, then the tension

in the ring is

(a) AYR

(b) Yr

AR

r

(c)

AY (R r )

r

(d)

Y (R r )

Ar

to be hollow from inside. It weighs 38.250 g in air

and 33.865 g in water. The volume of the hollow

portion in gold is

(a) 1.982 cm3

(b) 2.403 cm3

(c) 3.825 cm3

(d) 4.385 cm3

3. A thermally insulated vessel contains an ideal

gas of molecular mass M and ratio of specific

heats g. It is moving with speed v and is suddenly

brought to rest. Assuming no heat is lost to the

surroundings, its temperature increases by

(a)

( g 1)

Mv 2

2( g + 2)R

(b)

( g 1)

Mv 2

2 gR

(c)

gMv 2

2R

(d)

( g 1)

Mv 2

2R

10 cells each of emf e and

internal resistance r. The

current through resistance

R is

(a) zero

(b) e/r

(c) 3e/r

(d) 4e/r

8

sliding connector of

length 1 m is situated in a

uniform magnetic field of

2 T perpendicular to the

plane of loop. Resistance

of connector is 2 W.

Two resistances of 6 W and 3 W are connected as

shown in the figure. The external force required to

keep the connector moving with a constant velocity

2 m s1 is

(a) 2 N

(b) 1 N

(c) 4 N

(d) 6 N

6. A thin lens of refractive

index 1.5 and focal

length in air 20 cm is

placed inside a large

container containing

two immiscible liquids

as shown in figure.

If an object is placed at an infinite distance close to

principal axis, the distance between two images will be

(a) 25 cm

(b) 40 cm

(c) 65 cm

(d) 85 cm

Solution Senders of Physics Musing

1.

2.

3.

4.

set-27

Manmohan Krishna (Bihar)

Anubhav Jana (WB)

Shiekh Md. Shakeel Hassan (Assam)

Swati Shah (Rajasthan)

1.

2.

3.

4.

set-26

Md. Samim Jahin (Assam)

Deep Anand Basumatary (Assam)

Harsimran Singh (Punjab)

Sayantan Bhanja (WB)

equipotential

lines.

Comparing

between

points A and B, choose the

best possible statement.

(a) The electric field has a greater magnitude at

point A and is directed to left.

(b) The electric field has a greater magnitude at

point A and is directed to right.

(c) The electric field has a greater magnitude at

point B and is directed to left.

(d) The electric field has a greater magnitude at

point B and is directed to right.

8. A light wire AB of length

10 cm can slide on a

vertical frame as shown

in figure. There is a film

of soap solution trapped

between the frame and the wire.

Find the mass of the load W that should be

suspended from the wire to keep it in equilibrium.

Neglect friction. Surface tension of soap solution

is 25 dyne cm1. (Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 0.25 g

(b) 0.50 g

(c) 2.50 g

(d) 5.00 g

ParagraPh tyPe

number 9 and 10.

Consider the situation shown in

figure in which a block A of mass

2 kg is placed over a block B of

mass 4 kg.

The combination of the blocks

are placed on an inclined plane of inclination 37

with horizontal. The system is released from rest.

(Take g = 10 m s2 and sin 37 = 0.6)

9. The coefficient of friction between block B and

inclined plane is 0.4 and in between the two blocks

is 0.5. Then

(a) Both blocks will move but block A will slide

over the blocks B.

(b) Both blocks will move together.

(c) None of them will move.

(d) Only block A will move.

10. The frictional force acting between the blocks will

be

(a) 8 N

(b) 6.4 N

(c) 4 N

(d) zero

nn

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here

the correct

E

D

statements.

+ DB + BE = 0

(a) ED

F

C

FE

=

(b) BC

= 2FE

(c) AD

A

B

(d) DC = AF

2. A spring mass system is hanging

from the ceiling of an elevator in

equilibrium as shown in figure. The

elevator suddenly starts accelerating

upwards with acceleration a,

consider all the statements in the

reference frame of elevator and

choose the correct one(s).

(a) The frequency of oscillation is

1 k

.

2 m

ma

.

k

m ( g + a)

(c) The amplitude of resulting SHM is

.

k

(d) Maximum speed of block during oscillation is

m

k a .

pressure CP = 5R . The gas is

2

kept in a cylindrical vessel fitted

with a piston which is free to

move.

Mass of the frictionless piston is

9 kg. Initial volume of the gas is

0.0027 m3 and cross-section area of the piston is

0.09 m2. The initial temperature of the gas is 300 K.

12

class-Xi

amount of 2.5 104 J of heat energy is supplied to

the gas, then

(a) Initial pressure of the gas is 1.06 105 N m2.

(b) Final temperature of the gas is 1000 K.

(c) Final pressure of the gas is 1.06 105 N m2.

(d) Work done by gas is 9.94 103 J.

4. A man has fallen into a ditch of width d and two of

his friends are slowly

pulling him out using a

light rope and two fixed

pulleys as shown in figure.

Assume both the friends

d

apply forces of equal

magnitude. Choose the

correct statements.

(a) The force exerted by both the friends decreases

as the man moves up.

(b) T h e f o r c e ap p l i e d by e a c h f r i e n d i s

mg 2

d + 4h2 when the man is at depth h.

4h

(c) The force exerted by both the friends increases

as the man moves up.

mg 2

d + h2

(d) The force applied by each friend is

h

when the man is at depth h.

5. Two balls are thrown from an inclined plane at angle

of projection a with the plane, one up the incline

and other down the incline as shown in figure.

(Here, T stands for total time of flight).

v 2 sin2

(a) h1 = h2 = 0

2 g cos q

2v0 sin

(b) T1 = T2 =

g cos q

(c) R2 R1 = g(sinq) T12

(d) vt = vt

1

inertia (without friction) with the same velocity v0.

A man of mass m rides the rear buggy. At a certain

moment, the man jumps into the front buggy with

a velocity u relative to his buggy. If mass of each

buggy is equal to M and velocity of buggies after

jumping of man are vrear and vfront. Then

m

(a) vrear = v0 +

u

m+M

m

u

(b) vrear = v0

m+M

mM

(c) vfront = v0 +

u

(m + M )2

mM

u

(d) vfront = v0

(m + M )2

7. A spherical body of radius R rolls on a horizontal

surface with linear velocity v. Let L1 and L2 be the

magnitudes of angular momenta of the body about

centre of mass and point of

contact P respectively.

Then (here K is the radius

of gyration about its

geometrical axis)

(a) L2 = 2L1 if radius of gyration K = R

(b) L2 = 2L1 for all cases

(c) L2 > 2L1 if radius of gyration K < R

(d) L2 > 2L1 if radius of gyration K > R

8. Two solid spheres A and B of equal volumes but of

different densities dA and dB are connected by a

string. They are fully immersed in a

fluid of density dF. They get arranged

A

into an equilibrium state as shown in

the figure with a tension in the string.

B

The arrangement is possible only if

(a) dA < dF

(b) dB > dF

(c) dA > dF

(d) dA + dB = 2dF

9. A body of mass m is attached to a spring of spring

constant k which hangs from the ceiling of an

elevator at rest in equilibrium. Now the elevator

starts accelerating upwards with its acceleration

varying with time as a = pt + q, where p and q are

(a) The block will perform SHM for all value of p

and q.

(b) The block will not perform SHM in general

for all value of p and q except p = 0.

(c) The block will perform SHM provided for all

value of p and q except p = 0.

(d) The velocity of the block will vary simple

harmonically for all value of p and q.

10. A string of mass m is fixed at both its ends. The

fundamental mode of string is excited and it

has an angular frequency w and the maximum

displacement amplitude A. Then

(a) The maximum kinetic energy of the string is

1

EK = mA2 w2 .

4

(b) The maximum kinetic energy of the string is

1

EK = mA2 w2 .

2

(c) The mean kinetic energy of the string averaged

1

over one periodic time is < EK > = mA2 w2 .

4

(d) The mean kinetic energy of the string averaged

1

over one periodic time is < EK > = mA2 w2 .

8

11. A bottle is kept on the ground as shown in the

figure. The bottle can be modelled as having two

cylindrical zones. The lower zone of the bottle has a

cross-sectional radius of

R 2 and is filled with

honey of density 2r. The

upper zone of the bottle is

filled with the water of

density r and has a crosssectional radius R. The

height of the lower zone is

H while that of the upper

zone is 2H. If now the

honey and the water parts

are mixed together to form a homogeneous

solution, then

(Assume that total volume does not change)

(a) The pressure inside the bottle at the base will

remain unaltered.

(b) The normal reaction on the bottle from the

ground will remain unaltered.

(c) The pressure inside the bottle at the base will

1

increase by an amount rgH .

2

(d) The pressure inside the bottle at the base will

1

decrease by an amount rgH .

4

Physics for you | November 15

13

elastic collision (head-on) with a stationary particle

which has twice its mass. During impact

(a) The minimum kinetic energy of system is 1 J

(b) The maximum elastic potential energy of the

system is 2 J.

(c) Momentum and total energy are conserved at

every instant.

(d) The ratio of kinetic energy to potential energy of

the system first decreases and then increases.

13. Two blocks A and B each of mass m are connected

by a massless spring of natural length L and spring

constant k. The blocks are initially resting on a

smooth horizontal floor with the spring at its

natural length as shown in figure. A third identical

block C, moving on the floor with a speed v along

the line joining A and B, collides with A. Then

v m/k .

(b) The maximum compression of the spring is

v m/2k .

(c) The kinetic energy of A-B system at maximum

compression of the spring is zero.

(d) The kinetic energy of A-B system at maximum

compression of the spring is mv2/4.

14. Three planets of same density and with radii R1, R2

and R3 such that R1 = 2R2 = 3R3, have gravitational

fields on the surfaces E1, E2, E3 and escape velocities

v1, v2, v3 respectively. Then

E1

E1 1

=

(a)

(b) E = 3

E2 2

3

v1 1

v1

=

=2

(c)

(d)

v3 3

v2

15. Water is flowing smoothly through a closed pipe

system. At one point A, the speed of the water is

3.0 m s1 while at another point B, 1.0 m higher, the

speed is 4.0 m s1. The pressure at A is 20 kPa when

the water is flowing and 18 kPa when the water flow

stops. Then

(a) the pressure at B when water is flowing is

6.7 kPa.

(b) the pressure at B when water is flowing is

8.2 kPa.

(c) the pressure at B when water stops flowing is

10.2 kPa.

(d) the pressure at B when water stops flowing is

8.2 kPa.

14

solutions

1. (a, b,c,

a regular

d):As

ABCDEF

is

hexagon,

\ FE = BC , AD = 2FE , DC = AF

Also, from triangle

law

addition,

of vector

ED + DB + BE = 0.

2. (a, b, d) : As it is a isochronous system

1 k

\ =

2 m

ma

From the reference frame of elevator, A =

k

k ma

m

vmax = wA =

=

a

m k

k

5R

3R

, CV =

2

2

3 2

W n(CP CV )

=

= 1 =

5 5

Q

nC p

3. (a, c) : CP =

2Q

2 .5

= 2

104 = 104 J

5

5

Pressure is constant and equal to

mg

9 10

P = P0 +

= 1.05 105 +

A

0.09

= 1.06 105 N m2

T

4. (b, c) : From figure,

h

sin q =

d2

d/2

h2 +

4

mg

As man moves slowly

2T sin q = mg

mg

T=

2sin q

As man moves upward,

q becomes small

\ sin q decreases

T increases

\ W =

mg

T=

2h

T

h

2

2

d 2 mg d + 4h

h +

=

4

4h

2

(v sin a)2

inclined plane, h1 max = 0

= h2 max

2 g cos q

(a) is correct

Time of flight

2v sin a

T1 = 0

= T2 (b) is correct

g cos q

q = angle of inclination of surface.

1

R1 = (v0 cos a)T1 g sin q T12

2

(Range upward the inclined plane)

1

R2 = (v0 cos a)T2 + g sin q T22

2

(Range downward the inclined plane)

(R2 R1) = g sin q T12 (c) is correct

vt and vt are the velocities of the particles at their

1

2

maximum height. Let the particles reach their

maximum heights at time t1 and t2 respectively.

Hence, 0 = (v0 sin a) (g cos q) t1

v sin a

t1 = 0

g cos q

v sin a

Similarly, t2 = 0

.

g cos q

Hence, t2 = t1

Hence, vt = v0 cos a (g sin q) t1

1

vt = v0 cos a + (g sin q) t2

2

vt vt

1

2

v0

v0

u+v

v0

buggy, (M + m)v0 = Mv + m(v + u)

mu

= vrear

v = v0

M +m

Conserving linear momentum of man and front

buggy, m(u + v) + Mv0 = (M + m)v

mu

m u + v0

+ Mv0 = (M + m)v

M + m

Mmu

= ( M + m)v

M +m

Mmu

v = v0 +

= vfront

( M + m)2

7. (a, d)

8. (a, b, d) : Let V be the volume of

each sphere and T is the tension in

the string.

For the string to be taut,

dFVg > dAVg or dF > dA

(a) is correct

and dBVg > dFVg or dB > dF

( M + m)v0 +

dFVg

(b) is correct

For an equilibrium

dFVg + dFVg + T = T + dAVg + dBVg

or dA + dB = 2dF

(d) is correct

9. (c, d) : In the frame of elevator

d2x

mg + ma kx = m

dt 2

2

d x

k

m( g + a)

= x

2

m

k

dt

or

d2x

dt

k

m( g + pt + q)

x

m

k

represent S.H.M. unless p = 0

Differentiating with respect to time

d 2v

k

mp

d3x

k dx mp

=

or

= v

3

2

m dt

k

m

k

dt

dt

Thus the velocity of the block will vary simple

harmonically.

10. (a, d) : Let the displacement of the string be given by

x

y( x , t ) = A sin cos(wt + d)

L

where d is a phase factor. So the transverse velocity

is given by

x

y

v( x , t ) =

= wA sin sin(wt + d)

y

L

The maximum kinetic energy is equal to the strings

total energy of oscillation. Note that all points of the

string achieve their maximum kinetic energy at the

same instant of time, where y = 0 for all x. Since

m

dm = mdx where m = is the mass per unit

L

length of the uniform string.

The maximum kinetic energy,

1 y 2

EK = max imum of dm

2 t

1 L y 2

= maximum of m dx

2 0 y

A

T

dAVg

dFVg

B

dBVg

y

The maximum value of , occurs when

y

2

sin (wt + d) = 1

L

m

x

Hence EK = A2 w2 sin2

dx

L

2

0

15

x

The integral sin

dx over the half-cycle has

L

0

L

the average value of

2

1

mL 1

Hence, EK = A2 w2 = mA2 w2

2 4

2

2

\ (a) is correct

The mean kinetic energy of the string averaged

over one periodic time is obtained by integrating

the time dependent factor sin2 (wt + d) over one

period, 0 to T.

Now since

sin

(wt + d) dt =

T

2

one periodic time is

T

E

E

< EK > = K sin2 (wt + d) dt = K

T

2

0

1 1

1

mA2 w2 = mA2 w2

2 4

8

(d) is correct

=

= rg 2H + 2r g H = 4rgH

Final density of the homogeneous mixture

r A 2H + 2r 2 A H 3

=

= r

A 2H + 2 A H

2

Final pressure at the bottom =

3

9

r g 3H = rgH

2

2

two particles, the kinetic energy becomes minimum

and potential energy becomes maximum at the

instant when they move with a common velocity.

The momentum and energy are conserved at every

instant.

Let m and u be the mass and initial velocity of the

first particle, 2m be the mass of second particle and

v be the common velocity.

u

1

Then, mu2 = 3 J ; mu = (m + 2m) v or v =

3

2

Minimum kinetic energy of system

2

1

u

= (3m) = 1 J

2

3

Maximum potential energy of system = 2 J

13. (b, d) : After collision of C with A, let velocity

acquired by A and B be v and spring gets compressed

by length x. Using law of conservation of linear

momentum, we have

16

mv = mv + mv

or v = v/2

Using law of conservation of mechanical energy, we

have

1 2 1

1

1

mv = mv 2 + mv 2 + kx 2

2

2

2

2

2

2

v

v

2

2

or mv = m + m + kx

2

2

mv 2

= kx 2

or

2

1/ 2

m

or x = v \ (b) is correct

2k

At maximum compression of the spring, the kinetic

energy of A-B system will be

2

1

1

mv 2

v

= mv 2 + mv 2 = mv 2 = m =

2

2

2

4

\ (d) is correct

4

G R3r

GM

3

14. (b, c) : E = 2 =

2

R

R

or

ER

E1 R1 2R2

=

=

= 2 \ (a) is not correct.

E2 R2

R2

E1 R1 3R3

=

=

= 3 \ (b) is correct.

E3 R3

R3

Escape velocity, v =

2GM

=

R

2G 4 3

R r

R 3

8 2

R r G or v R

3

v1 R1

=

= 2 \ (c) is correct.

v2 R2

v1 R1

=

= 3 \ (d) is not correct.

v3 R3

15. (a, d) : Let P1, h1, and v1 and P2, h2 and v2 represent

the pressures, heights and velocities of flow at the

two points respectively. According to the Bernoullis

theorem

1

1

P1 + rgh1 + rv12 = P2 + rgh2 + rv22

...(i)

2

2

Putting v1 = 3.0 m s1, v2 = 4.0 m s1, (h2 h1) = 1 m,

P1 = 20 kPa

we get,

10 3

P2 = 20 + 10 3 9.8 ( 1) +

[9 16] 10 3

Also when the flow stops, v1 = v2 = 0 and then from (i),

P2 = 18 9.8 = 8.2 kPa

17

At a depth h below the free surface, pressure = P.

P0

h

P

column of height h and crosssectional area A.

Since the liquid column is unaccelerated,

P0A + mg = PA

P = P0 +

mg

r( Ah)

= P0 +

g

A

A

P = P0 + rgh

The additional pressure with respect to atmospheric

pressure is known as Gauge pressure.

Hence we conclude that pressure changes by an amount

rgh on moving through a distance h vertically.

Note that this result has been derived from equilibrium

of the liquid column. Hence if the container or liquid

was vertically accelerated, it would not be applicable.

In such cases if the container is vertically accelerated,

say upward with a, then

(Fnet)upward direction = ma

(PA) (P0A + mg) = ma

m

P = P0 + ( g + a)

A

P = P0 + r(g + a)h

\ We replace g with geff where,

g eff = g + (a )

\ P = P0 + rgeff h

So, it is interesting to see that we can also have a

situation that all points inside a liquid irrespective of

geff = 0, as in case of free fall.

Measurement of atmospheric pressure (P0)

with mercury and a tube

completely filled with

mercury. We seal the

mouth of the tube and

invert it upside down

with the mouth inside the

mercury in the tub.

The liquid in the tube drops down a little, creating

almost vacuum in the upper closed end of the tube as

shown.

At equilibrium,

PA + rgh = PB = PC = P0

rgh = P0

[ PA = 0]

Hence, measuring the length of the liquid column in

the tube, P0 can easily be calculated.

Taking P0 = 1 atm 105 N m2

For Hg, r = 13.6 g cm3, h comes out to be almost

760 mm or 76 cm.

Hence you would often see that pressure is given in

terms of length and not N m2 or pascal. If instead

of Hg, some other liquid is used, to find the height of

liquid risen we can easily use,

r1h1 = r2h2

Supposedly, we keep this set-up in an upward

accelerating frame, then how will h change?

Clearly, in such case also, atmospheric pressure does

not change, we need to change g with geff.

\ P1 = rgh = rg eff h = r(g + a)h

g

\ h =

h

g + a

\ h < h height of liquid column decreases.

18

container

level would not be same. To know the exact relation we

consider a thin horizontal liquid column of length l as

drawn. Hence from free body diagram,

a = gsin

gsi

gcos

lel

ral

pa

e

lin

nc

oi

gcos = geff

surface of liquid is parallel to inclined plane.

Hence a = 0

U-tubes

(P2A P1A) = ma

(P2 P1)A = (rAl)a

P2 = P1 + ral

\ DP = ral along horizontal,

as DP = rgh along vertical.

Vertically pressure increases in the direction of gravity,

horizontally acceleration increases opposite to the

direction of acceleration.

Let us calculate the inclination of free surface with

horizontal now.

We can find pressure at B

from A as well as C.

PB = PA + rgh = PC + raL

h a

tan q = =

L g

This could also have been found out using the fact that

liquids cannot tolerate tangential force on its surface.

as below.

g eff = g + (a )

[We revert the acceleration of container and add it

vectorially to g ]

complicated situation. Assume

a container falling down on a

smooth inclined plane.

We have to find a.

Clearly, a = gsinq downwards

Hence, g eff = g + (a )

filled with two immiscible

liquids on two limbs.

Note that,

PC = PF but

PA PD

PB PE,

even though (A, D) and (B, E) pair of points are at same level.

Since if we move up from C to B and F to E, the change

in height is same but we have different density of liquids

hence r1h r2h.

If difference in height of free surface of liquids is to be

calculated in terms of H,

PC = PF

r2

P0 + r1gh1 = P0 + r2 gH h1 = H

r1

r

\ Dh = 1 2 H

r1

Archimedes principle

completely, it experiences an upward force by the liquid

due to pressure difference along the vertical column

of the liquid, which is equal to the weight of liquid

displaced by the object. To prove this, let us imagine an

object of cross-sectional area A and height H partially

submerged till height h as shown here.

h

l

FBD of object

P0A

mg

(P0 + l gh )A

buoyant force) is

Fup = (P0 + rl gh)A P0A

= rl (hA)g = rlVsub g

= weight of displaced liquid

Physics for you | november 15

19

vertically unaccelerated, else we need to replace g with

geff in the result.

Now, let us see what would the condition of floatation

for the object be.

For equilibrium,

Fup = mg

rl(Ah)g = rs(AH)g

h rs

=

1 [ h H for floatation]

H rl

\ If rs rl, the object floats, else it sinks. Hence it

does not matter how heavy an object is for floating,

what matters is how dense the object is!

h

is

Note here, that the fraction of submerged portion,

H

independent of g, hence even in accelerated containers,

this same fraction will be submerged.

Now, let us seen an application.

Suppose a helium filled balloon

is floating in air (their densities

He air

given as rHe and rair) with a

string tied to a box as shown

here.

Now, if the box is accelerated towards right with

acceleration a, we have to find the direction and angle

with the vertical in which the string gets deflected at

equilibrium.

One would be tempted to say that the string will deflect

towards left due to the pseudo force.

But there is a basic point, one is missing here. As we

saw force of upthrust being generated due to pressure

difference along vertical column of liquid, similar to it

a side thrust can also be generated if pressure difference

is created along horizontal column and on similar

approach it can be proved.

Fside thrust = rl Vsub a

Hence, since, rair > rHe,

so side thrust will be greater

than the pseudo force, so the

airVg

HeVa

20

(air He)Vg

airVa

HeVg

(air He)Va

\ tan q =

=

(rair rHe )Vg g

stops a liquid of height h from flowing. It obviously is

experiencing force due to the liquids pressure.

To find this, let us consider a horizontal strip of height

dy at a depth y below the free surface.

The force experienced by this surface due to pressure

of liquid is

dF = (rgy)(dyw)

(P0 is not considered since

it is due to atmosphere)

h

F = dF = wrgydy

0

rgh2w

=

2

\ Net horizontal force on vertical surface

h

= rg (hw )

2

= pressure at centroid of submerged portion

area of submerged portion

Force exerted by liquid on a horizontal surface

below the free surface.

We have to find the force exerted by the liquid only.

Net vertical force = PA

= (rgh)A = r(Ah)g

= weight of liquid column above its surface

nn

Solution Set-27

D = 0.5 m

l = 500 nm = 500 109 m

The distance of third maxima from the second

minima on the other side is

9

= b (where b is the fringe width)

2

9 lD 9 500 109 0.5

=

=

2 d

2 0.5 103

= 2.25 103 m = 2.25 mm

2. (c) : During motion of the particle, total mechanical

energy remains constant.

At the surface of earth, total mechanical energy is

GmM 1 2

Ei =

+ mv0

R

2

GM

1 2

= 2 mR + mv0

2

R

1 2

GM

= gmR + mv0 g = 2

2

R

Total mechanical energy at height h = R is

GmM 1 2

gmR 1 2

Ef =

+ mv =

+ mv

2R

2

2

2

According to law of conservation of mechanical

energy,

Ei = Ef

1 2

gmR 1 2

gmR + mv0 =

+ mv

2

2

2

or 2 gR + v02 = gR + v 2 v = v02 gR

3. (a) : If we consider the cylindrical surface to be a

ring of radius R, there will be an induced emf due

to changing field.

df

dB

E

dl = dt = A dt

dB

dB

R dB

E(2 R) = A

= R2

E=

dt

dt

2 dt

Force on the electron

eR dB

F = Ee =

2 dt

1 eR dB

Acceleration =

2 m dt

As the field is increasing being directed inside the

paper, hence there will be anticlockwise induced

current (in order to oppose the cause) in the ring

on the electron.

4. (c) : Total time of flight is T = 4 s and if u is its

initial speed and q is the angle of projection. Then

2u sinq

T=

=4

g

or usinq = 2g

...(i)

After 1 s velocity vector makes an angle of 45 with

horizontal i.e.,

vx = vy

ucosq = usinq gt

( t = 1 s)

ucosq = usinq g

ucosq = 2g g

(Using (i))

or ucosq = g

...(ii)

Squaring and adding (i) and (ii), we get

u2sin2q + u2cos2q = (2g)2 + (g)2

u2 = 5g2 = 5(10)2 m2 s2 u = 22.36 m s1

Dividing (i) by (ii), we get,

u sin q 2 g

=

=2

u cos q g

tanq = 2 or q = tan1 (2)

l

5. (d) : Here, T = 2

...(i)

g

When lift is accelerated upwards with acceleration

T

a, let time period becomes . Then

2

T

l

...(ii)

= 2

2

g +a

Dividing Eq. (i) by Eq. (ii), we get

1/2

g +a a

= 1 +

g

g

Squaring both sides, we get

a

4 = 1 + or

a = 3g

g

6. (c) : Lengths of the two inclined planes are

h

h

l1 =

and l2 =

sin q1

sin q2

Accelerations of the block down the two planes are

a1 = g sinq1 and a2 = g sinq2

1

1

As l1 = a1t12 and l2 = a2t22

2

2

l1 a1t12

t 22 a1l2 g sin q1 sin q1

=

or 2 =

=

l2 a2t22

t1 a2l1 g sin q2 sin q2

t

sin q1

2=

t1 sin q2

7. (a) : Given : f = at2 + bt

The magnitude of induced emf is

2=

21

a

sin q

2

a

a + cos q

2

a

sin q

tan =

2 (2 + cos q)

a

2 tan

2

tan a =

2a

1 tan

2

sin q

2

sin q

2 + cos q

=

1 + cos q

sin2 q

1

(2 + cos q)2

1

On solving, cos q =

2

q = 120

df d

= (at 2 + bt ) = 2at + b

dt dt

Current flowing, I = | | = 2at + b

R

R

=

Average emf =

dt

0

a

tan =

2

(2at + b)dt

0

dt

= a + b

a2 + b

(2at + b)

dt =

R

R

0

q = Idt =

0

T

8. (a) : Free body diagram for m

For m,

a

m

N

mg T = m 2a (i)

2a

N = ma

(ii)

mg

Free body diagram for M

For M

2T N = Ma

(iii)

2mg

On solving, a =

( M + 5m)

Net acceleration of m,

2 5mg

am = 4a2 + a2 = 5a =

(5m + M )

B sin q

9. (b) : tan a =

...(i)

A + B cos q

where a is the angle made by the vector ( A + B) with A.

B sin q

Similarly, tan b =

...(ii)

A B cos q

where b is the angle made by the vector ( A B) with A.

Adding (i) and (ii), we get

B sin q

B sin q

tan a + tan b =

+

A + B cos q A B cos q

2

AB sin q B sin q cos q + AB sin q + B2 sin q cos q

=

( A + B cos q)( A B cos q)

2 AB sin q

= 2

( A B2 cos2 q)

10. (a) :

1

4

5

10

13

26

22

(i)

D

R

Y

I T

I

C

E

R Y

E M

T

I 27G N A L

28

M A C H I N E

R

T

29

Y

D

M

I

R

R

N D F A R M S

C

M

9

12

15

D A T

F

Y

D R

T

16

F E S

20

O N

L

22

R S C L E R

C I

O

14

N W I

N U C L E A R

I

L A

11

C K

A E

F

L

R A

I V

19

18

P O S

P R U

L

N

B sin q

A + B cos q

sin q

tan a =

.

1 + cos q

nn

tan a =

(ii)

Y O C T O

T

I

O P

Y C E L L P

17

W E I G H T

O

F

23

O M E 24T E R

O 25A

S I

21

U N

R E

L Y

F W

M C

U A

E Y

C L O U D L

S

R

A H

L O

I

N C

E

Basheer Mazahar (Varanasi)

sidharth sankar sahu (Odisha)

Ayushi Tripathi (Delhi)

solution senders (september 2015)

Anoop Jain (Delhi)

sanchit Mehta (Haryana)

Viraj Thapa (Assam)

Useful for All National and State Level Medical/Engg. Entrance Exams

in a liquid of density 1.2 103 kg m3. If outer

diameter and the density of the bowl are 1 m and

2 104 kg m3 respectively, then the inner diameter

of the bowl will be

(a) 0.94 m

(b) 0.96 m

(c) 0.98 m

(d) 0.99 m

2. A body of density r is dropped from rest at a height

h into a lake of density s, where s > r. Neglecting

all dissipative forces, calculate the maximum depth

to which the body sinks before returning to float on

the surface.

h

hr

(a) s r

(b)

s

hr

hs

(c) s r

(d)

sr

3. Water in a vessel of uniform cross-section escapes

through a narrow tube at the base of the vessel.

Which of the following graphs represents the

variation of the height h of the liquid with time t?

h

(a)

and water are 135 and 0 respectively, the ratio of

surface tension of water and mercury is

(a) 1 : 0.15

(b) 1 : 3

(c) 1 : 6.5

(d) 1.5 : 1

5. A metallic sphere of mass M falls through glycerine

with a terminal velocity v. If we drop a ball of mass

8M of same metal into a column of glycerine, the

terminal velocity of the ball will be

(a) 2 v

(b) 4 v

(c) 8 v

(d) 16 v

6. A cylindrical drum, open at the top, contains 15 L

of water. It drains out through a small opening at

the bottom. 5 L of water comes out in time t1, the

next 5 L in further time t2 and the last 5 L in further

time t3. Then

(a) t1 < t2 < t3

(b) t1 > t2 > t3

(c) t1 = t2 = t3

(d) t2 > t1 = t3

7. A sealed tank containing a liquid of density r moves

with a horizontal acceleration a, as shown in figure.

The difference in pressure between the points A and

B is

l

(b)

h

(c)

(d)

t

and mercury falls to a depth of 3.42 cm in the

same capillary tube. If the density of mercury is

(a) h r g + l r a

(c) h r g

(b) h r g l r a

(d) l r a

times when it rises from bottom to top of a water

tank where the temperature is uniform. If the

Physics for you | november 15

23

the water in the tank is

(a) 30 m

(b) 40 m

(c) 70 m

(d) 80 m

than h.

(d) In a lift moving down with constant acceleration,

height is less than h.

4 th

of its

5

volume submerged, but it just floats in a liquid.

What is the density of liquid?

(a) 750 kg m3

(b) 800 kg m3

(c) 1000 kg m3

(d) 1250 kg m3

in a cylindrical container of diameter D(D>>d)

as shown in figure. If it is burning at the rate of

2 cm h1, then the top of the candle will

viscous liquid. Which of the following graphs

represent the variation of

(i) gravitational force with time

(ii) viscous force with time

(iii) net force acting on the ball with time?

F

Q

R

(a) Q, R, P

(c) P, Q, R

(b) R, Q, P

(d) R, P, Q

point pressure is 2 cm of Hg and velocity of flow of

the liquid is 32 cm s1 and at another point, velocity

of flow is 40 cm s1, the pressure at this point is

(a) 1.45 cm of Hg

(b) 1.98 cm of Hg

(c) 1.67 cm of Hg

(d) 1.34 cm of Hg

12. The rate of flow of glycerine of density

1.25 103 kg m3 through the conical section

of a pipe, if the radii of its ends are 0.1 m and

0.04 m and the pressure drop across its length is

10 N m2, is

(a) 5.28 104 m3 s1 (b) 6.28 104 m3 s1

(c) 7.28 104 m3 s1 (d) 8.28 104 m3 s1

13. Water rises in a capillary tube to a height h. Choose

the false statement regarding a capillary rise from

the following.

(a) On the surface of Jupiter, height will be less

than h.

(b) In a lift, moving up with constant acceleration,

height is less than h.

24

L

L

d

D

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

fall at the rate of 1 cm h1

fall at the rate of 2 cm h1

go up at the rate of 1 cm h1

area A is covered with a soap film. If the area of the

frame of metallic wire is reduced by 50%, the energy

of the soap film will be changed by

(a) 100% (b) 75% (c) 50% (d) 25%

therMal ProPerties of Matter

three black bodies at temperatures T1, T2 and T3

respectively are as shown. Their temperatures are

such that

I

T3

T1

T2

(c) T2 > T3 > T1

(d) T3 > T2 > T1

capacity c) of radius r at an initial temperature

200 K is suspended inside a chamber whose walls

are at almost 0 K. The time required (in ms) for the

temperature of the sphere to reach 100 K is

7 r rc

80 r rc

(a)

(b)

80 s

7 s

7 r rc

7 r rc

(c)

(d)

27 s

27 s

at 15C. What will be the error in time per day, if

the room temperature is 20C?

(The coefficient of linear expansion of iron is

0.000012C1.)

(a) 2.6 s

(b) 6.2 s

(c) 1.3 s

(d) 3.1 s

19. A body cools from 60C to 50C in

10 min. If room temperature is 25C,

temperature of body at the end of next

10 min will be

(a) 38.5C

(b) 40C

(c) 45C

(d) 42.8C

20. Two rods of same length and material transfer a

given amount of heat in 12 s, when they are joined

end to end (i.e., in series). But when they are joined

in parallel, they will transfer same heat under same

conditions in

(a) 24 s

(b) 3 s

(c) 48 s

(d) 1.5 s

21. A spherical black body with a radius of 12 cm

radiates 450 W power at 500 K. If the radius were

halved and the temperature doubled, the power

radiated in watt should be

(a) 450

(b) 900

(c) 225

(d) 1800

22. A body in laboratory takes 4 min to cool from 61C

to 59C. If the laboratory temperature is 30C, then

the time taken by it to cool from 51C to 49C is

(a) 4 min

(b) 6 min

(c) 8 min

(d) 5 min

23. The wavelength of maximum intensity of radiation

emitted by a star is 289.8 nm. The radiation intensity

for the star is (Take s = 5.67 108 W m2 K4,

Wiens constant, b = 2898 mm K)

(a) 5.67 108 W m2 (b) 5.67 1012 W m2

(c) 5.67 107 W m2 (d) 5.67 1014 W m2

24. The reading of Centigrade thermometer coincides

with that of Fahrenheit thermometer in a liquid.

The temperature of the liquid is

(a) 40C

(b) 0C

(c) 100C

(d) 300C

25. For a black body at temperature 727 C, its radiating

power is 60 W and temperature of surrounding

changed to 1227C, then its radiating power will be

(a) 120 W

(b) 240 W

(c) 304 W

(d) 320 W

26. A metal plate 4 mm thick has a temperature

difference of 32C between its faces. It transmits

200 kcal h1 through an area of 5 cm2. Thermal

conductivity of the material is

(a) 58.33 W m1 C1

(b) 33.58 W m1 C1

(c) 5 104 W m1 C1

(d) 5 102 W m1 C1

27. A 2 kg copper block is heated to 500C and then it

is placed on a large block of ice at 0C. If the specific

heat capacity of copper is 400 J kg1C1 and latent

heat of fusion of water is 3.5 105 J kg1, the amount

of ice that can melt is

(a) (7/8) kg

(b) (7/5) kg

(c) (8/7) kg

(d) (5/7) kg

28. The maximum wavelength of radiation emitted

at 2000 K is 4 mm. What will be the maximum

wavelength emitted at 2400 K?

(a) 3.3 mm

(b) 0.66 mm

(c) 1 m

(d) 1 mm

29. The net rate at which heat is lost by a body due to

radiation does not depend upon

(a) temperature of the body

(b) temperature of the surroundings

(c) material of the body

(d) nature of its surface

30. We plot a graph, having temperature in C on x-axis

and in F on y-axis. If the graph is straight line,

then it

(a) passes through origin

(b) intercepts the positive x-axis

(c) intercepts the positive y-axis

(d) intercepts the negative axis of both x-and

y-axis

solutions

1. (c) : L e t D 1 b e t h e i n n e r d i a m e t e r of t h e

hemispherical bowl. As bowl is just floating so

3

3

3

4 1

D1

3 4 1

p 1.2 10 = p (2 104 )

3 2

3 2 2

25

or

1.2 103

= 1 D13

2 10 4

1/3

1/3

1. 2

18.8

D1 = 1

=

20

20

2. (c) : The speed of the body just before entering

the liquid is u = 2 gh . The buoyant force FB of

the lake, i.e., upward thrust of liquid on the body

is greater than the weight of the body W, since

s > r. If V is the volume of the body and a is the

acceleration of the body inside the liquid, then

FB W = ma

or sVg rVg = rVa

or (s r)g = ra

(s r)g

or a =

r

Using the relation, v2 = u2 + 2as, we have

(s r)

0 = ( 2 gh )2 2 g

s

r

hr

sr

3. (a) : Let dV be the decrease in volume of water in

vessel in time dt. Therefore rate of decrease of water in

vessel = rate of water flowing out of narrow tube

or

s=

So,

4

dV p(P1 P2 )r

=

8 hl

dt

But, P1 P2 = hrg

\

dV p(hrg )r 4 (prgr 4 )

=

=

(h A)

8 hl

8 hl A

dt

=V

prgr 4

V dt = lV dt

\ dV =

8hlA

dV

or

= l dt

V

prgr 4

= l = constant

where,

8hlA

Integrating it within the limits, as time changes

from 0 to t, volume changes from V0 to V.

V

= lt

or ln

V0

or V = V0lt

where, V0 = initial volume of water in vessel = Ah0

Therefore,

26

h = h0elt

Thus, the variation of h and t will be represented by

exponential curve as given by (a).

2S cos

4. (c) : As, h =

rrg

hr rg

hr

or S

\ S=

2 cos

cos

Sw h1 cos 2 r1

=

\

SHg h2 cos 1 r2

=

cos 135

10

1

(3.42)

cos 0 13.6

10 0.707 1

=

3.42 13.6 6.5

4 3

4

pr r and 8M = pR 3r,

3

3

3

3

So, R = 8r R = 2r

5. (b) : As, M =

v R

2r

Now v r2 so, 1 = = = 4

r

v

r

or v1 = 4 v

6. (a) : If h is the initial height of liquid in drum

above the small opening, then velocity of efflux,

v = 2 gh . As the water drains out, h decreases,

hence v decreases. This reduces the rate of drainage

of water. Due to which, as the draining continues,

a longer time is required to drain out the same

volume of water. So, clearly, t1 < t2 < t3.

7. (a) : Since points A and C are in the same horizontal

line but separated by distance l and liquid tank is

moving horizontally with acceleration a, hence

PC PA = l r a or PC = PA + l r a

l

h

\ PB PC = h r g

or PB (PA + l r a) = h r g

or PB PA = h r g + l r a

1/ 2

A

8. (c) : Surface area, A = 4pr2 or r =

4p

3/2

4 3 4 A

pr = p = kA3/2

3

3 4p

4p

1

w here

= k = constant

3 (4 p)3/2

Volume V =

P1V1 = P2V2

(10 + h) kA13/ 2

PV

or P2 = 1 1 =

V2

kA23/ 2

A

or P2 = (10 + h) 1

A2

3/2

1

= (10 + h)

4

=

As P2 = 10 m of water, so

10 + h

10 =

or 80 = 10 + h

8

or h = 70 m

9. (b) : Density of water =

Density of solid

3/2

10 + h

8

immersed volume

V

5

\ r1 = r 4 = r

4

V

5

V

And density of liquid, r2 = r = r

V

5

\ r1 = r2

4

4

4

or r2 = r1 = 1000 = 800 kg m 3

5

5

10. (c) : Gravitational force remains constant on the

falling spherical ball. It is represented by straight

line P. The viscous force (F = 6 phrv) increases

as the velocity increases with time. Hence, it is

represented by curve Q. Net force = gravitational

force viscous force. As viscous force increases,

net force decreases and finally becomes zero. Then

the body falls with a constant terminal velocity. It

is thus represented by curve R.

11. (b) : As per Bernoullis theorem,

1

1

P1 + rv12 = P2 + rv22

2

2

1

2

or P1 P2 = r (v2 v12 )

2

1

or P1 P2 = 1[402 322 ] = 288 dyne cm 2

2

288

=

= 0.02 cm of Hg

13.6 980

\ P2 = P1 0.02 = 2 0.02

= 1.98 cm of Hg

12. (b) : According to continuity equation,

v2 A1

p (0.1)2

25

...(i)

=

=

=

2

v1 A2 p (0.04)

4

1

1

P1 + rv12 = P2 + rv22

2

2

2(P1 P2 )

2

2

i.e., v2 v1 =

r

(2 10)

i.e., v22 v12 =

= 16 103 m2 s 2 ...(ii)

3

(1.25 10 )

Substituting the value of v2 from equation (i) in (ii)

i.e., v1 = 0.02 m s1

So rate of flow through the tube

= A1v1 (= A2v2)

= p (0.1)2 0.02

= 6.28 104 m3 s1

13. (d)

14. (b) : Volume of candle = area length

2

d

= p 2L

2

Weight of candle = weight of liquid displaced

Vrg = Vrg

d2

d2

2L r = p

L r

or p

4

r 1

...(i)

=

r 2

Since, candle is burning at the rate of 2 cm h1, then

after an hour, candle length is 2L 2

\ (2L 2)r = (L x)r

r

Lx

\

=

r 2(L 1)

1

Lx

(using (i))

or

=

2 2(L 1)

\ x = 1 cm

Hence, it also decreases 1 cm outside, so, it falls at

the rate of 1 cm h1.

15. (c) : Surface energy = surface tension surface area

or U = S 2A

A

New surface energy, U1 = S 2 = S A

2

% decrease in surface energy

U U1

2SA SA

=

100% =

100% = 50%

U

2SA

1

16. (b) : According to Wiens law, lm .

T

From the figure, (lm)1 < (lm)3 < (lm)2, therefore

T1 > T3 > T2

Physics for you | november 15

27

dT sA 4

=

(T T04 )

dt mcJ

Here, fall in temperature of body

dT = (200 100) = 100 K, temperature of surrounding

T0 = 0 K, initial temperature of body T = 200 K

17. (b) :

18.

19.

20.

21.

s 4 pr 2

100

(2004 04 )

=

4 3

dt

pr rcJ

3

rrcJ

rrc 4.2

106 s =

\ dt =

48s

s 48

7 r rc

=

ms

80 s

(a) : Here, DT = 20 15 = 5C

a = 0.000012C1 = 12 106 C1

1

Time lost per day = a(DT ) 86400 s

2

1

= 12 106 5 86400 s

2

= 2.592 s 2.6 s

(d) : According to Newtons law of cooling

T2 T1

T + T

= K 2 1 T0

t

2

60 50

60 + 50

\

=K

25 = 30 K

10

2

1

or K =

30

For next 10 min

50 T

T T

50 + T

=K

25 = K =

10

2 60

2

300

= 42.8 C

or 70T = 3000, T =

7

DQ ( Dx )

(b) : Dt =

KA (DT )

When two rods of same length are joined in parallel

Dx

A = 2A and Dx =

2

Dt 1

= 12 s = 3 s

\ Dt =

4 4

(d) : For a spherical black body of radius r at T K,

Power radiated = energy radiated per second

P = 4pr2 (sT4)

\

2 4

P2 r2 T2

=

P1 r12 T14

2

P2

1

= (2)4 = 4

450 2

P2 = 4 450 = 1800 watt

28

T1 T2

T + T

= K 1 2 T0

t

2

61 59

61 + 59

\

=K

30 = 30 K

4

2

or 60 K = 1 K = 1/60

51 49

51 + 49

=K

30 = 20 K

Now

t

2

1 1

= 20

=

60 3

\ t = 3 2 = 6 min

23. (a) : Here, lm = 289.8 nm = 289.8 109 m

s = 5.67 108 W m2 K4

b = 2898 mm K = 2898 106 m K

If T is the temperature of star, then

according to Wiens law, lm T = b

2898 106

b

=

= 104

9

lm 289.8 10

From Stefans law, E = sT4

= 5.67 108 (104)4 = 5.67 108 W m2

24. (a) : Temperature on Celsius scale and Fahrenheit

scale are related as

TC 0 TF 32

=

100

180

If the temperature is T at which the readings of two

scales coincide, then from

T

T 32

=

\ T = 40 C

100

180

T=

Here, T is temperature of the black body and T0 is

temperature of surrounding.

P2 T24 T04

P2 (1500)4 (500)4

\

=

\

=

4

4

P1 T1 T0

60 (1000)4 (500)4

80

or P2 =

60 = 320 W

15

26. (a) : Here, Dx = 4 mm = 4 103 m,

A = 5 cm2 = 5 104 m2, DT = 32C

Heat transmit per hour

DQ

= 200 kcal h 1

Dt

200 1000 4.2 1

=

J s = 233.33 J s1

60 60

As

DQ

DT

= KA

Dx

Dt

29

DQ / Dt

K=

A(DT / Dx )

233.33 4 103

or K =

= 58.33 W m1C1

4

5 10 32

Using law of calorimetry,

heat lost by copper = heat gained by ice

\ 2 400 (500 0) = x 3.5 105

or

x=

2 400 500

8

= kg

7

3.5 105

28. (a) : According to Wiens displacement law

lmaxT = constant

time :

a

t

a

rop

d

e

p and

n

a

O

e

h

c

,

ifier

r

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A fast

p

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l max

T

= 1

T2

l max

1

l max

4

2000

20

or l max = 4

= 3.3 mm

2

2400

24

29. (c)

30. (c) : As

C

F 32

=

100

180

9

F = C + 32

5

Thus the graph between C and F is a straight line

with positive intercept on y-axis as shown in the

figure above.

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30

ElEctrostatics

Electrostatics is the branch of science that deals with the

study of electric charges at rest. Here we study the forces,

fields and potentials associated with static charges.

Electric charges

charge. The charge developed on a glass rod when rubbed

with silk is positive charge. The charge developed on a

plastic rod when rubbed with wool is negative charge.

Charge is transferable : If a charged body is put

in contact with an uncharged body, the uncharged

body becomes charged due to transfer of electrons

from one body to the other.

Charge is always associated with mass, i.e., charge

can not exist without mass though mass can exist

without charge. So, the presence of charge itself is a

convincing proof of existence of mass.

Quantization of charge : Total charge on a body is

always an integral multiple of a basic unit of charge

denoted by e and is given by q = ne where n is any

integer, positive or negative and e = 1.6 1019 C.

The basic unit of charge is the charge that an electron

or proton carries . By convention the charge on

electron is e (1.6 1019 C) and charge on proton is

+e (1.6 1019 C).

Additivity of charge : Total charge of a system is

the algebraic sum (i.e. sum is taking into account

system.

Conservation of charge : Total charge of an

isolated system remains unchanged with time. In

other words, charge can neither be created nor be

destroyed. Conservation of charge is found to hold

good in all types of reactions either chemical or

nuclear.

Charge is invariant : Charge is independent of the

frame of reference.

Like charges repel each other while unlike charges

attract each other.

charging of a Body

from one body to the other. A body can be positively

charged by losing some of its electrons and it can be

negatively charged by gaining electrons.

Methods of charging : A body can be charged by

Friction

Induction

Conduction

Charging by induction is preferred because one charged

body can be used to charge any number of uncharged

bodies without any loss of charge. If q be the source

of charge, then charge induced on a body of dielectric

1

constant K is given by q = q 1

K

For metals, K = \ q = q

Physics for you | november 15

31

of conductors. In general, magnitude of induced charge

is less than that of inducing charge.

coulombs law

stationary charges is proportional to the product of

magnitude of charges and inversely proportional to the

square of the distance between them.

i.e., F 1 2 2

r

1

. 1 2

F=

4 pe0 r 2

1

= k = 9 109 N m 2C 2

Here

4pe 0

is proportionality constant.

e0 = 8.854 1012 C 2 N1 m2 is permittivity of free space.

Vectorially Coulombs law can be written as

q1q2

1

F12 =

(r r )

4pe 0 | r1 r2 |3 1 2

(The force on charge q1 due to charge q2)

q1q2

1

(r r )

and F21 =

4pe 0 | r1 r2 |3 2 1

(The force on charge q2 due to charge q1)

where the position vectors of charges q1 and q2 are

r1 and r2.

The Coulombs force between two charged particles in

a medium is

1 q1q2

1 q1q2

Fmedium =

=

4pe r 2

4pe 0e r r 2

F

Fmedium = vacuum

er

KEY POINT

Permittivity is a measure of how an electric field

gravitational force are as follows :

32

force

and

same inverse square law.

Coulomb force can be attractive or repulsive while

gravitational force is always attractive.

Coulomb force between the two charges depends

on the medium between two charges while

gravitational force is independent of the medium

between the two bodies.

The ratio of coulomb force to the gravitational

force between two protons at same distance apart is

e2

= 1.3 1036

4pe 0Gm pm p

Physics for you | november 15

two charges is independent of the presence of all other

charges.

Electrical force is a vector

quantity therefore, the net

force on any one charge is

the vector sum of all the

forces exerted on it due to each

of the other charges interacting

with it independently i.e,

Total force on charge q,

F = F1 + F2 + F3 + .......

continuous charge Distribution

as linear charge density. It is denoted by symbol l.

Charge

l=

Length

Its SI unit is C m1.

Surface charge density : Charge per unit area is known

as surface charge density. It is denoted by symbol s.

Charge

s=

Area

Its SI unit is C m2.

Volume charge density : Charge per unit volume

is known as volume charge density. It is denoted by

symbol r.

Charge

r=

Volume

Its SI unit is C m3.

SELF CHECK

x = a on the x-axis. A particle of mass m and charge

q

q0 = is placed at the origin. If charge q0 is given a

2

small displacement (y < < a) along the y-axis, the

net force acting on the particle is proportional to

1

(a)

(b) y

y

1

(c) y

(d)

y

(JEE Main 2013)

2. Shown in the figure are two point charges +Q and

Q inside the cavity of a spherical shell. The charges

are kept near the surface of the cavity on opposite

sides of the centre of the shell. If s1 is the surface

charge on the inner surface and Q1 net charge on it

and s2 the surface charge on the outer surface and

Q2 net charge on it then

permittivity e, can be calculated by imagining a very small

charge +q to be placed at P.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

s1 0, Q1 0 ; s2 0, Q2 0

s1 0, Q1 = 0 ; s2 0, Q2 = 0

s1 0, Q1 = 0 ; s2 = 0, Q2 = 0

s1 = 0, Q1 = 0 ; s2 = 0, Q2 = 0

ElEctric fiElD

experiences a force. If a very small, positive point

charge Q is placed at any point in an electric field and it

experiences a force F, then the electric field at that point

is defined as

E=

F

Q

direction is that of F(i.e., of the force which acts on a

positive charge). Thus, electric field is a vector quantity.

If F is in newton (N) and Q is in coulomb (C) then the

unit of E is newton per coulomb (N C1).

1 qq0 , F E = 1 q0

E=

F=

4 pe r 2

q

4pe r 2

E is directed away from +q

0

q0 is replaced by +q0, E would be directed towards

q0 since unlike charges attract.

Electric field lines

by electric field lines. These are drawn so that, the field

lines at a point, (or the tangent to it if it is curved) gives

which positive charge would move and the number of

lines per unit cross-section area is proportional to E.

The field lines are imaginary but the field it represents

is real.

+q

(i)

(ii)

The friction caused by rapidly rising and falling currents of moving air creates electrical charges within

a cloud. Water droplets and ice pellets fall, carrying charged electrons to the lower portion of the

cloud, where a negative charge builds. A positive charge builds up near the top of a cloud.

most of the electrical energy in a thunderstorm is dissipated within the clouds, as lightning

hops between the positively and negatively charged areas. Lightning becomes dangerous,

though, when it reaches earth. When the negative charge in the cloud becomes great

enough, it seeks an easy path to the positively charged ground below. The current

looks for a good conductor of electricity, or a tall structure anchored to the ground.

As negative charges collect at the bottom of a storm cloud, a change happens on

the ground below. electrons on the ground feel the power of the clouds negative

charges. The electrons are pushed away from the area underneath the cloud. The

ground and the objects on it are left with a positive charge.

If you were standing on the ground below a storm cloud, you wouldnt be able

to see electrons move. but you might feel your skin tingle or your hair stand

on end.

As the ground becomes positively charged, the attraction between the cloud

and the ground grows stronger. Suddenly, electrons shoot down from the cloud.

They move in a path that reaches out in different directionslike the branches

of a tree. each branch, or step, is about 45 m long. This branching path is called

a stepped leader. After the first electrons have blasted their way through the air,

other electrons from the cloud follow and make new branches. A stepped leader

cuts through the air very quickly. Its average speed is about 1.2 105 m s1. As the

stepped leader nears the ground, a positive streamer reaches up for it. only then, once

this channel is made, does the visible lightning happen. A return stroke runs from the

ground to the clouds in a spectacular flash. Though the bolt appears continuous, it is actually a

series of short bursts. most lightning strikes occur in less than a half second and the bolt is usually

less than 5 cm in diameter.

33

represented by straight lines originating from the charge

as shown in figure (i).

The electric field due to a negative point charge is

represented by straight lines terminating at the charge

as shown in figure (ii).

The lines of force for a charge distribution containing

more than one charge, is such that from each charge we

can draw the lines isotropically. The lines may not be

straight as one moves away from a charge.

The shape of lines for some charge distribution is shown

below.

=

E dS

where represents closed integral done for a closed

surface.

The SI unit of electric flux is N m2 C1 and its dimensional

formula is [ML3T3A1].

ElEctric DiPolE

by a small distance.

Electric Dipole Moment

product of the magnitude of either charge and distance

negative charge to positive charge.

The SI unit of electric dipole moment is C m and its

dimensional formula is [M0LAT]. The practical unit of

electrical dipole moment is debye.

Electric field intensity on axial line (End on Position)

of the Electric Dipole

which help us to visualise the nature of electric field in

the region. They have no physical existence.

The number of lines originating or terminating on

a charge is proportional to the magnitude of charge.

In rationalised MKS system (1/e0) electric lines are

associated with unit charge. So if a body encloses a

charge q, total lines of force associated with it (called

flux) will be q/e0.

Lines of force per unit area normal to the area of a

point represents magnitude of intensity, crowded lines

represent strong field while distant lines represent weak

field.

Electric flux

surface is said to have flux linked with it. It is given by

d = E dS

The area vector of a closed surface is always in the

direction of outward drawn normal.

The total flux linked with whole of the body

34

1

2 pr

dipole, E =

.

4pe 0 (r 2 a 2)2

2p

4pe 0r 3

The direction of the electric field on axial line of the

electric dipole is along the direction of the dipole

moment (i.e. from q to q).

At very large distance i.e., (r > > a), E =

Position) of Electric Dipole

1

p

dipole, E =

.

4pe 0 (r 2 + a 2)3/2

At very large distance i.e., r > > a,

1 p

E=

.

4pe 0 r 3

The direction of the electric field on equatorial line of

the electric dipole is opposite to the direction of the

dipole moment (i.e. from q to q).

Dipole

dipole,

1 p

E=

1 + 3 cos 2 q

4pe 0 r 3

Electric field intensity due to a charged ring

torque on an Electric Dipole Placed in a uniform

Electric field

and is given by

t = pE

or t = pE sin q

Torque acting on a dipole is maximum (tmax = pE)

when dipole is perpendicular to the field and minimum

(t = 0) when dipole is parallel or antiparallel to the field.

KEY POINT

1

qr

E=

When a dipole is placed in a uniform electric field,

4pe 0 (r 2 + a 2)3/2

it will experience only torque and the net force on

where q is the charge on the ring and a is the radius of

the dipole will be zero while when it is placed in a

the ring.

non uniform electric field, it will experience both

1 q

At very large distance i.e. r >> a, E =

2

torque and net force.

4pe 0 r

List of formula for electric field intensity due to various types of charge distribution :

Name /Type

Formula

kq ^

E = 2 r

|r |

Note

f

f

E=

l ^ 2kl r^

r=

2pe 0r

r

s ^

E=

n

2e 0

E=

kQx

2

(R + x 2)3/2

Ecentre = 0

f

f

Graph

q is a source charge.

charge to the test point.

outwards due to +ve charges and

inwards due to ve charges

l is linear charge density (assumed

uniform).

r is perpendicular distance of point

from line charge.

r^ is radial unit vector drawn from

the charge to test point.

s is surface charge density (assumed

uniform).

^

E

r

E

/20

r

x = distance of point on the axis

from centre of the ring.

Electric field is always along the

axis.

E

Emax

R

2

35

s^

E= n

e0

(i) For r R,

kQ ^

E= 2r

|r |

f

f

E=0

f

(i) For r R,

kQ ^

E= 2r

|r |

(ii) For r < R,

kQ

E= 3r

R

sphere to the point.

sphere to the point.

f

f

placed at the centre for points

outside the sphere.

4 3

Q is total charge r 3 pR

(r = volume charge density)

Inside the sphere, E r

1

Outside the sphere, E 2

r

SELF CHECK

charge s in the upper half and negative surface

charge s in the lower half. The electric field lines

around the cylinder will look like figure given in

(Figures are schematic and not drawn to scale)

(a)

(c)

+ + ++

+

+

+ + ++

+

+

(b)

+ + ++

+

+

(d)

36

E

kQ/R2

placed at centre for points outside

the sphere.

Q is the total charge (= s4pR2)

/0

to the surface.

(assumed uniform).

kQ/R

a concentric hole of radius

a in it (see figure). It carries

uniform surface charge s on

it. If the electric field on its axis

at height h (h < < a) from its

centre is given as Ch then value

of C is

(a)

s

ae 0

(b)

s

2ae 0

(c)

s

4ae 0

(d)

s

8ae 0

(JEE Main 2015)

5. A wire, of length L(= 20 cm), is bent into a semicircular arc. If the two equal halves of the arc, were

each to be uniformly charged with charges Q,

[|Q| = 103 e0 Coulomb where e0 is the permittivity

(in SI units) of free space] the net electric field at the

centre O of the semi-circular arc would be

no charge is enclosed by the surface.

In the situation when the surface is so chosen that there

are some charges inside and some outside, the electric

field (whose flux is calculated) is due to all the charges,

both inside and outside the surface. However, the term

(q) represents only the total charge inside the closed

surface.

KEY POINT

Gausss law is true for any closed surface, regardless

3

on distance.

ElEctric PotEntial

Electric field is

done in bringing a unit positive charge from infinity to

that point. It is denoted by symbol V.

W

V=

q

Electric potential is a scalar quantity. The SI unit

of potential is volt and its dimensional formula is

[ML2T3A1].

U = pE(cosq2 cosq1)

Gausss law

surface S is 1/e0 times the total charge enclosed by S.

q

E dS = e 0

where q is charge enclosed by the closed surface S.

from the charge is

q

V=

4pe 0r

Electric potential due to various charge distributions are given in table below :

Name /Type

Point charge

Ring (uniform/

non-uniform

charge distribution)

Formula

V=

kq

r

kQ at centre

,

R

kQ

V=

, along the axis

R2 + x 2

V=

Uniformly

charged

kQ

hollow conducting/ For r R , V = r

non-conducting/solid

For r R, V = kQ

conducting sphere

R

Note

f

f

f

f

f

f

Graph

q is source charge.

r is the distance of the point

from the point charge.

x is the distance of the point

on the axis.

R is radius of sphere

r is the distance from centre

of sphere to the point

Q is total charge = s4pR2

37

Uniformly

charged

kQ

solid non-conducting For r R, V = R

sphere

kQ(3R 2 r 2)

For r R, V =

2R 3

r

=

(3R 2 r 2)

6e 0

f

f

f

f

f

f

Not defined

sheet

Not defined

Infinite charged

conducting thin

sheet

Not defined

f

f

SELF CHECK

potential V0 (measured with respect to ) on its

surface. For this sphere the equipotential surfaces

3V 5V 3V

V

with potentials 0 , 0 , 0 and 0 have radius

2

4

4

4

R1, R2, R3 and R4 respectively. Then

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2R < R4

R1 = 0 and R2 > (R4 R3)

R1 0 and (R2 R1) > (R4 R3)

Equipotential surface

value of potential at all points on the surface.

Properties of an equipotential surface

Electric field lines are always perpendicular to an

equipotential surface. Work done in moving an electric

38

R is radius of sphere

r is distance from centre to

the point

3

Vcentre = Vsurface

2

4

Q is total charge = r pR 3

3

Inside sphere potential varies

parabolically

Outside potential varies

hyperbolically.

Absolute potential is not

defined.

Potential difference between

two points is given by formula

VB VA = 2kl ln (rB/rA)

Absolute potential is not

defined

Potential difference between

two points is given by formula

s

VB VA =

(r r )

2e 0 B A

Absolute potential is not

defined

Potential difference between

two points is given by formula

s

VB VA = (rB rA)

e0

charge from one point to another on an equipotential

surface is zero. Two equipotential surfaces can never

intersect one another.

E = V

where = i^ + ^j + k^

x

z

y

of decreasing potential.

Electric Potential Energy

total amount of work done in bringing the various

charges to their respective positions from infinitely large

mutual separations. The SI unit of electrical potential

energy is joule.

Electric potential energy of a system of two charges is

1 q1q2

U=

4pe 0 r12

Electric potential energy of a system of n point charges

q jqk

1

U=

r

4pe 0 all

pairs jk

Note in this summation, we should include only one

term for each pair of charges.

conductors and insulators

in two classes, conductors and insulators.

In conductors, electric charges are free to move

throughout the volume. Insulators do not have free

charges to move.

Basic electrostatics properties of a conductor

Inside a conductor, electric field is zero.

At the surface of a charged conductor, electric field

must be normal to the surface at every point.

The interior of a conductor can have no excess

charge in the static situation.

Electric potential is constant throughout the volume

of the conductor and has the same value (as inside)

on its surface.

Electric field at the surface of a charged conductor

s

E = n^

e0

where s is the surface charge density and n^ is a unit

vector normal to the surface in the outward direction.

Electrostatic shielding : It is the phenomenon of

protecting a certain region of space from external

electric field.

Polar and non-Polar Molecules

Dielectrics : Dielectrics are non conducting substances.

In contrast to conductors, they have no (or negligible

number of) charge carriers.

Polar molecule : A polar molecule is one in which the

centres of positive and negative charges are separated

(even when there is no external field). A polar molecule

has a permanent dipole moment e.g., water (H2O) and

HCl.

Non-polar molecule : A non-polar molecule is one

in which the centres of positive and negative charges

coincide. A non-polar molecule has no permanent

dipole moment. e.g., oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2).

Polarisation : The dipole moment per unit volume

isotropic dielectrics P = c e E ,

where ce is a constant characteristic of the dielectric

and is called the electric susceptibility of the dielectric

medium.

capacitor

consists of conductors of any shape and size carrying

charges of equal magnitudes and opposite signs and

separated by an insulating medium.

Capacity of capacitor (Capacitance)

Capacitance (C) of a capacitor is the ratio of charge(Q)

given and the potential (V) to which it is raised.

C=

Q

V

1 millifarad (mF) = 103 farad

1 microfarad (mF) = 106 farad

1 picofarad (pF) = 1012 farad.

Capacitance is a scalar quantity. The dimensional

formula of capacitance is [M1L2T4A2].

Capacitance of spherical conductor

Capacitance of a spherical conductor of radius R is

C = 4pe0R

Taking earth to be a conducting sphere of radius

6400 km, its capacitance will be

6.4 106

C = 4pe 0R =

= 711 m F

9 109

Capacity of capacitor depends upon

Total outer surface area

Dielectric constant of the medium around the

capacitor.

Presence of another capacitor in the near about

region.

Capacity of capacitor does not depend upon

Charge

Potential

Shape of capacitor

Material of capacitor

types of capacitors

d

(when air is between the plates)

e KA

(when dielectric is between the plates)

C= 0

d

Here, A is area of each plate and d is separation between

the two plates.

ab

ba

Here, a and b are the radii of inner and outer coatings

(spherical shells) of the spherical capacitor.

Spherical capacitor : C = 4pe 0

39

Cylindrical capacitor :

l

l

C = 2pe 0

= 2pe 0

b

b

log e

2.303 log10

a

a

Here, a and b are the radii of the inner and outer

coatings (cylindrical shells) and l is the length of the

either curved surface of the cylindrical capacitor.

combination of capacitors

Capacitors in series

q

C1

V1

C2

C3

V2

V3

Different potential difference exists across each

capacitor.

V = V1 + V2 + V3

1 1

1

1

= + +

C C1 C2 C3

The resultant capacity C is less than the smallest

capacitor joined in series. The ultimate effect is to

reduce the capacitance in a circuit.

Capacitors in parallel

Different charges flow through each capacitor.

q = q1 + q2 + q3

C = C1 + C2 + C3

The resultant capacity C is greater than the greatest

capacitance joined in parallel. Thus the ultimate effect

is to enhance the capacitance in a circuit.

Energy stored in a capacitor

capacitor in the form of its electrostatic potential

energy.

1

1

1 Q2

U = CV 2 = QV =

2

2

2 C

Electric Energy Density (uE )

between the plates is called energy density.

1

s2

u E = e 0E 2 =

.

2

2e 0

40

sharing of charges

connected by a conducting wire, charge flows from the

one at higher potential to the other at lower potential

till their potentials become equal. This equal potential is

called common potential (V), where

Total charge Q1 + Q2 C1V1 + C2V2

V=

=

=

Total capacity C1 + C2

C1 + C2

It should be clearly understood that in sharing charges,

there is absolutely no loss of charge. Some energy is,

however, lost in the process which is given by

C C (V V )2

U1 U 2 = 1 2 1 2

2(C1 + C2)

This energy is potential energy.

Effect of dielectric

introduced between the plates of a charged parallel plate

capacitor and the charging battery remains connected,

then, potential difference between the plates remains

constant i.e., V = V0

Capacitance C increases i.e., C = KC0

Charge on a capacitor increases i.e., Q = KQ0

Electric field between the plates remains unchanged i.e.,

E = E0

Energy stored in a capacitor increases

i.e., U = KU0

When a dielectric slab of dielectric constant K is

introduced between the plates of a charged parallel

plate capacitor and the charging battery is disconnected,

then, charge remains unchanged i.e., Q = Q0

Capacitance increases i.e., C = KC0

Potential difference between the plates decreases i.e.,

V

V= 0

K

Electric field between the plates decreases

E

i.e., E = 0

K

Energy stored in the capacitor decreases

i.e., U = U 0

K

where Q0 , C0 , V0 , E0 and U0 represents the charge,

capacitance, potential difference, electric field and

energy stored in the capacitor of a charged air filled

parallel plate capacitor.

Van de Graaff generator

A Van de Graaff generator consists of a large spherical

conducting shell (a few metres in diameter). By

is continuously transferred to the shell, and potential

difference of the order of several million volts is built up,

which can be used for accelerating charged particles.

SELF CHECK

changes as C is varied from 1 mF to 3 mF. Q2 as a

function of C is given properly by (figures are

drawn schematically and are not to scale)

1 F

2 F

E

Charge

Charge

(a) Q2

(b)

1 F 3 F

Q2

1 F 3 F

Charge

(c) Q2

1 F 3 F

Charge

C

(d) Q2

1 F

3 F

8. In figure is shown a system of four capacitors

connected across a 10 V battery. Charge that will

flow from switch S when it is closed is

1A =1

C

s

Drift Velocity

electrons get drifted towards the positive end of the

conductor under the influence of an external electric field.

Drift velocity of electrons is given by

eE

vd =

t

m

where e is the charge and m is the mass of an electron,

time. The value of drift velocity of an electron is about

104 m s1 and value of relaxation time is about

1014 second.

The direction of drift velocity of electrons in a metal

Drift velocity depends on electric field as vd E. So

greater the electric field, larger will be the drift velocity.

The thermal speed or rms speed of electrons at room

temperature is about 105 m s1, which is very large as

compared to the drift velocity of electrons.

mean free path

Relaxation time =

rms speed of electrons

relationship between current and drift velocity

I = nAevd

where n is the number density of electrons or number

of electrons per unit volume of the conductor and A is

the area of cross-section of the conductor.

Mobility

(a) 5 mC from b to a

(c) 5 mC from a to b

(b) 20 mC from a to b

(d) zero

currEnt ElEctricity

Electric current

wire per unit time. If the moving charges are positive,

the current is in the direction of motion of charges. If

they are negative the current is opposite to the direction

of motion of charges.

Instantaneous current is the current at any point of time

dq

q

=

and average current = .

dt

t

electric field. It is denoted by symbol m.

v

qEt / m qt

m= d =

=

E

E

m

where q, t and m are charge, relaxation time and mass

of a charge carrier respectively.

Mobility is positive for both electrons and holes although

their drift velocities are opposite to each other.

The SI unit of mobility is m2 V1 s1 and its dimensional

formula is [M1L0T2A].

ohms law

Ohm in 1828. It states that the current (I) flowing

through a conductor is directly proportional to the

potential difference (V) across the ends of the conductor,

Physics for you | november 15

41

temperature, mechanical strain etc. are kept constant.

V I or V = RI

where the constant of proportionality R is called

resistance of the conductor.

V

The graph between potential

difference (V) and current (I)

through a metallic conductor is

slope = tan

a straight line passing through

I

the origin as shown in figure.

O

The slope of V-I graph gives resistance.

V

R = = tan q (slope of V -I graph)

I

Electrical resistance

The resistance of a conductor is the obstruction posed

by the conductor to the flow of current through it.

Resistance of a conductor (R) is defined as the ratio

of potential difference (V) applied across the ends of

conductor to the current (I) flowing through it.

V

R=

I

Resistance is a property of the conductor and is not related

to the circuit in which the conductor is connected. The

V

equation R =

can be used to calculate the current in

I

a conductor if we know the resistance and the potential

difference across the conductor. The SI unit of resistance

is ohm (W) and its dimensional formula is [ML2T3A2].

The resistance of a conductor not only depends on the

material of the conductor but also on the dimensions of

the conductor.

The resistance of a conductor is proportional to its

length and inversely proportional to its area of crosssection.

l

l

R

or R = r

A

A

where constant of proportionality r is called resistivity.

The SI unit of resistivity is W m and its dimensional

formula is [ML3T3A2].

m

The resistivity of a conductor is r = 2

ne t

where m is the mass and e is the magnitude of charge of

an electron, n is the number density of electrons, t is the

relaxation time.

The resistivity of a conductor is independent of its

dimensions but depends on the material of the conductor.

A perfect conductor would have zero resistivity and a

perfect insulator would have infinite resistivity.

42

rl

radius r, then its resistance is R = 2 .

pr

If a conductor has mass m, volume V and density d,

then its resistance R is

rl rl 2 rl 2 rl 2d

R= =

=

=

A Al V

m

If a wire of resistance R is cut into n equal parts, then

resistance of each part = R/n.

If length of a given metallic wire of resistance R is

stretched to n times, its resistance becomes n2R.

If radius of the given metallic wire of resistance R

becomes n times, its resistance becomes (1/n4)R.

If the area of cross-section of the given metallic wire

of resistance R becomes n times, then its resistance

becomes (1/n2)R.

A cylindrical tube of length l has inner and outer radii r1

and r2 respectively. The resistance between its end faces

rl

is R =

.

2

p r2 r12

If a rectangular conducting cube having dimensions

l b h, then

when current passes through the length side, the

rl

resistance offered by cube =

bh

when current passes through breadth side, the

rb

resistance offered by cube =

lh

rh

resistance offered by cube = .

lb

current density, conductance and conductivity

Current density at a point inside the conductor is

defined as the amount of current flowing per unit area

around that point of the conductor, provided the area is

held in a direction normal to the current. It is denoted

by symbol J.

I

J=

A

If area A is not normal to the current but makes an angle

q with the direction of current, then

I

J=

or I = JA cos q = J A

A cos q

formula is [M0L2T0A].

Current density is a vector quantity. Its direction is that

of the flow of positive charge at the given point inside

the conductor.

KEY POINT

Current density is a characteristic property of a

the whole conductor.

Current is the flux of current density.

velocity

each of charge q, and vd is the drift velocity of the charge

carriers. For electrons q = e.

Conductance : The reciprocal of resistance is called

conductance. It is denoted by symbol G.

1

G=

R

The SI unit of conductance is ohm1 which is called mho

and is represented by the symbol ( ). The unit mho is

also called siemen (S) and its dimensional formula is

[M1L2T3A2].

Conductivity : The reciprocal of resistivity is called

conductivity or specific conductance. It is denoted by

symbol s.

1 ne 2t

v d et

s= =

= nem

As m = E = m

r

m

The SI unit of conductivity is W1 m1 or S m1

or mho m1 and its dimensional formula is

[M1L3T3A2].

relationship between J, s and E

J = sE

It is a microscopic form of Ohms law.

ohmic and non-ohmic conductors

Ohms law are called ohmic conductors, e.g. metals. For

Ohmic conductors, V-I graph is a straight line passing

through the origin.

Non-ohmic conductors : Those conductors which do

not obey Ohms law are called non-ohmic conductors

e.g. diode valve, junction diode. For non-ohmic

conductors V-I graph is non-linear.

Effect of temperature on resistance

increase in temperature.

The resistance of a conductor at temperature TC is

given by

RT = R0 (1 + aT + bT2)

where RT is the resistance at TC, R0 is the resistance at

0C and a and b are the characteristics constants of the

material of the conductor. If the temperature TC is not

sufficiently large, b is negligible, the above relation can

be written as

RT = R0 (1 + aT)

where a is the temperature coefficient of resistance. Its

unit is K1 or C1. For metals, a is positive, therefore

resistance of a metal increases with rise in temperature.

For insulators and semiconductors, a is negative

therefore their resistance decreases with rise in

temperature. For alloys like manganin and constantan,

the value of a is very small as compared to that for

metals. Due to high resistivity and low temperature

coefficient of resistance, these alloys are used in making

standard resistance coils.

thermistors

changes very rapidly with change of temperature.

colour code for resistors

and its percentage accuracy. Every resistor has a set of

coloured rings on it. The first two coloured rings from

the left end indicate the first two significant figures of

the resistance in ohms. The third colour ring indicates

the decimal multiplier and the last colour ring stands for

the tolerance in percent. The colour code of a resistor is

as shown in the table.

Colour

Number

Multiplier

Tolerance

(%)

Black

0

100

Brown

1

101

Red

2

102

Orange

3

103

Yellow

4

104

Green

5

105

Blue

6

106

Violet

7

107

Gray

8

108

White

9

109

Gold

101

5

2

10

Silver

10

20

No colour

Suppose a resistor has green, red, orange and gold rings

as shown in the figure below. The resistance of the

resistor is (52 103 W) 5%.

43

combination of resistors

SELF CHECK

resistors in series

they are connected as shown in the figure.

R1

R2

V2

V1

R3

V3

I

length 0.1 m, the drift speed of electrons is 2.5 104 m s1.

If the electron density in the wire is 8 1028 m3, the

resistivity of the material is close to

(a) 1.6 106 W m

(b) 1.6 105 W m

8

(c) 1.6 10 W m

(d) 1.6 107 W m

(JEE Main 2015)

The equivalent resistance of the combination of resistors

is Rs = R1 + R2 + R3

As current through each resistor is same so

V1 V2 V3

=

=

R1 R2 R3

or V1 : V2 : V3 = R1 : R2 : R3

Series combinations of resistors are used in resistance

box and decorative bulbs.

resistors in parallel

V-I graph for a wire made of such a material is best

given by

V

(a)

(b)

I

(c)

(d)

I

R1

R3

I3

Electric cell

R2

I2

I

+

(say V).

The equivalent resistance of the combination of resistors is

1

1

1

1

= +

+

R p R1 R2 R3

V

V

V

As I1 = , I 2 =

and I 3 =

so,

R1

R2

R3

1 1 1

I1 : I 2 : I 3 = : :

R1 R2 R3

All the domestic appliances in a house are connected in

parallel combination.

KEY POINT

If n wires each of resistance R are connected in

If n wires each of resistance R are connected in

parallel, the equivalent resistance is R/n.

44

if they are connected as shown in figure below.

I1

flow of charge in a circuit by a chemical reaction.

Electromotive force (emf) of a cell

two terminals of a cell in an open circuit i.e., when no

current flows through the cell. It is denoted by symbol e.

The SI unit of emf is J C1 or volt and its dimensional

formula is [ML2T3A1].

The emf of a cell depends upon the nature of electrodes,

nature and the concentration of electrolyte used in the

cell and its temperature.

terminal potential difference of a cell

terminals of a cell in a closed circuit i.e. when current

is flowing through the cell. It is generally denoted by

symbol V and is measured in volt.

internal resistance of a cell

and electrodes of a cell when the current flows through it.

Internal resistance of a cell depends upon the following

factors:

The nature of the electrolyte

The nature of electrodes

Area of the electrodes, immersed in the electrolyte

KEY POINT

n

I

I

R

Grouping of cells

Equivalent internal resistance of the cells is req = nr

ne

Current in the circuit, I =

R + nr

Special cases :

ne e

If R < < nr, then I =

= .

nr r

ne

If R > > nr, then I = .

R

KEY POINT

When one cell is wrongly connected in series of

n identical cells, each of emf e, it will reduce the

total emf by 2e i.e. effective emf = ne 2e.

The total internal resistance of cells = nr i.e. there is

no effect on the total internal resistance of the cells.

In series grouping of cells their emf s are additive

or subtractive while their internal resistances are

always additive.

Parallel grouping

If m identical cells each of

emf e and internal

m

resistance r are connected

to the external resistor of

I

I

resistance R as shown in

figure, they are said to

R

be connected in parallel grouping.

Equivalent emf of the cells is eeq = e

r

Equivalent internal resistance of the cells is req = .

m

e

Current in the circuit, I =

.

r

R+

m

Special cases :

r

e

If

<< R, then I = .

m

R

r

e

If

>> R, then I = m .

m

r

Series grouping

If n identical cells each of emf e and internal resistance

r are connected to the external resistor of resistance R

as shown in the figure, they are said to be connected in

series grouping.

said to be connected in mixed grouping. Let there be

n cells in series in one row and m such rows of cells in

parallel. Suppose all the cells are identical. Let each cell

be of emf e and internal resistance r.

current.

The emf is not a force.

connected to an external resistance R as shown in the

figure.

r

I

R

e

R+r

Internal resistance of a cell,

e V

e

r=

R = 1 R

V

V

eR

(R + r)

difference = emf of a cell voltage drop across the

internal resistance of a cell i.e. terminal potential

difference across it is lesser than emf of the cell. The

direction of current inside the cell is from negative

terminal to positive terminal.

During charging of a cell, terminal potential difference

= emf of a cell + voltage drop across internal resistance of

a cell i.e. terminal potential difference becomes greater

than the emf of the cell. The direction of current inside

the cell is from positive terminal to negative terminal.

When the cell is short circuited, i.e., R = 0, the

maximum current is drawn from a cell whose value is

e

given by I max =

r

Mixed grouping

45

I1 I2 I3 I4 + I5 = 0 I1 + I5 = I2 + I3 + I4

This law is based on conservation of electrical charge.

n

m

I

I

R

Equivalent internal resistance of the cells is

nr

m

ne

Current in the circuit, I =

nr

R+

m

req =

will be maximum, when

R=

nr

m

of all cells

Potential Divider

potential difference V is applied across them, and an

output taken from the point P, at the joint of the two

resistors, and the opposite end of R2, the arrangement

is known as a potential divider. The potential difference

across R2 is V2 where V2 = R2 V .

R1 + R2

SELF CHECK

R1

V

P

R2

Output (V2)

Kirchhoffs Laws

determination of potential difference and current in

different branches of any complicated network.

first law (Junction rule)

meeting at any junction is zero.

I2

Sum of the currents entering

I3

the junction is equal to sum

I1

of the currents leaving

I5

the junction.

SI = 0

48

algebraic sum of potential drop is zero.

SIR + Se = 0

This law is based on law of conservation of energy.

While moving from negative to positive terminal

inside the cell, emf is taken as positive while moving in

the direction of current in a circuit the potential drop

(i.e., IR) across resistance is taken as negative.

When we move through a resistor in the same direction

as current, the IR term is negative because the current

goes in the direction of decreasing potential.

When we move through a resistor in the direction

opposite to the assumed current, the IR term is positive

because this represents a rise of potential.

According to sign convention while traversing a closed

loop (in clockwise or anti-clockwise direction), if

negative pole of the cell is encountered first then its

emf is positive, otherwise negative. The product of

resistance and current in an arm of the circuit is taken

positive if the direction of current in that arm is in

the same sense as one moves in a closed loop and is

taken negative if the direction of current in that arm is

opposite to the sense as one moves in the closed loop.

I4

the current in the 1 W

resistor is

(a) 0.13 A, from Q to P

(b) 0.13 A, from P to Q

(c) 0.3 A, from P to Q

(d) 0 A

6V

P 2

1

9V

Q 3

resistance 1 W and a 15 V battery

with internal resistance 0.6 W

are connected in parallel to

a voltmeter (see figure). The

reading in the voltmeter will

be close to

(a) 11.9 V

(b) 12.5 V

(c) 13.1 V

(d) 24.5 V

10 V

15 V

0.6

through the 4 W resistor in the arm EB, the potential

difference between the points A and D will be

(a) 3 V

(c) 5 V

(b) 4 V

(d) 6 V

potential per unit length of the given wire.

comparison of emfs of two cells by using

potentiometer

Wheatstones Bridge

It is an arrangement of four

resistances P, Q, R and S connected

as shown in the figure. Their values

are so adjusted that the galvanometer

G shows no deflection.

The bridge is then said to be balanced. When this

happens, the points B and D are at the same potential

and no current flows through galvanometer and it can

P R

be shown that =

Q S

This is called the balancing condition. If any three

resistances are known, the fourth can be found.

e1 l1

=

e 2 l2

wire for the emfs e1 and e2 of two cells respectively.

Determination of internal resistance of a cell by

potentiometer

l1 l2

R

Internal resistance of cell, r =

l2

where l1 = balancing length of potentiometer wire

corresponding to emf of the cell, l2 = balancing length of

potentiometer wire corresponding to terminal potential

difference of the cell when a resistance R is connected

in series with the cell whose internal resistance is to be

determined.

Joules Law of heating

100 l

where l is the balancing length of metre bridge.

Potentiometer

that the fall of potential across any portion of the wire

is directly proportional to the length of that portion

provided the wire is of uniform area of cross-section

and a constant current is flowing through it.

i.e., V l (If I and A are constants)

or V = Kl

amount of heat produced (H) in a conductor of

resistance R, carrying current I for time t is

H = I2Rt (in joule)

I 2Rt (in calorie)

or H =

J

where J is Joules mechanical equivalent of heat

(= 4.2 J/cal).

Electric Power

source of emf in maintaining the current in the electric

circuit.

Physics for you | november 15

49

Electric power, P =

Time taken

V2

P = VI = I 2R =

.

R

The SI unit of power is watt (W).

The bigger unit of power is kilowatt (kW).

1 kilowatt = 1000 watt.

The commercial unit of power is horse power (hp)

1 hp = 746 watt.

Electric energy

It is defined as the total electric work done or energy

supplied by the source of emf in maintaining the current

in an electric circuit for a given time.

Electric energy = electric power time

V2

= Pt = VIt = I 2Rt =

t

R

The SI unit of electrical energy is joule (J).

The commercial unit of electric energy is kilowatt-hour

(kWh), or Board Trade Unit (BTU).

1 kWh = 1000 Wh = 3.6 106 J

Number of units of electricity consumed

watt hour

= No. of kWh =

1000

Maximum power transfer theorem

It states that the power output across load due to a cell or

battery is maximum if the load resistance is equal to the

effective internal resistance of cell or battery.

fuse wire

It is generally made up of tin-lead alloy. It should have

high resistivity and low melting point. It is used in series

of the electrical installations to protect them from strong

currents.

50

series with source of rated voltage V, the effective power

consumed is

1 1 1

1

= + + + ......

PS P1 P2 P3

If P1, P2, P3.... are the powers of electric appliances in

parallel with a source of rated voltage V, the effective

power consumed is

PP = P1 + P2 + P3 + .....

SELF CHECK

5 bulbs of 100 W, 5 fans of 80 W and 1 heater of

1 kW. The voltage of the electric mains is 220 V. The

minimum capacity of the main fuse of the building

will be

(a) 14 A (b) 8 A

(c) 10 A (d) 12 A

(JEE Main 2014)

15. The supply voltage to a room is 120 V. The resistance

of the lead wires is 6 W. A 60 W bulb is already

switched on. What is the decrease of voltage across

the bulb, when a 240 W heater is switched on in

parallel to the bulb?

(a) 10.04 V

(b) zero V

(c) 2.9 V

(d) 13.3 V

(JEE Main 2013)

ansWEr KEys (sELf chEcK)

1. (b)

2. (c)

6. (a,b) 7. (d)

11. (a) 12. (c)

3. (c)

8. (a)

13. (c)

4. (c)

9. (b)

14. (d)

5. (b)

10. (c)

15. (a)

nn

up to 100 V. A 2 mm thick plate is inserted between

the plates, then to maintain the same potential

difference, the distance between the capacitor plates

is increased by 1.6 mm. The dielectric constant of

the plate is

(a) 5

(b) 1.25 (c) 4

(d) 2.5

2. In the circuit shown in figure, resistance of each

resistor is R. The value of current I is

10V0

B

(a)

7R

R

R R

15V0

R

R

(b)

A

C

7R

E

I

R

7V0

R R

(c)

8R

V0

D

15V0

(d)

8R

3. One plate of a capacitor is

connected to a spring as

shown in figure. Area of

both the plates is A.

In steady state, separation between the plates is

0.8 d (spring was unstretched and the distance

between the plates was d when the capacitor was

uncharged). The force constant of the spring is

approximately

6 0 V 2

4 0 AV 2

(a)

(b)

Ad 3

d3

(c)

0 AV 3

(d)

2 0 AV

d2

2d

4. Six charges, three positive and three negative of

equal magnitude are to be placed at the vertices of

a regular hexagon, such that the electric field at O

is double the electric field when only one positive

charge of same magnitude

P

Q

is placed at R, as shown

in figure. Which of the U

O

R

following arrangement of

charges is possible for P, Q,

S

R, S, T and U respectively?

T

3

(a) + + +

(c) + + +

(b) + + +

(d) + + +

A second point charge q2 = 0.42 mC and of mass

3.2 104 kg is placed on the x-axis 0.96 m from

the origin. The second point charge is released at

rest. What is its speed when it is 0.24 m from the

origin?

(a) 2.4 m s1

(b) 9.6 m s1

(c) 26 m s1

(d) 48 m s1

6. At room temperature, copper has free electron

density of 8.4 1028 m3. The electron drift velocity

in a copper conductor of cross-sectional area of

106 m2 and carrying a current of 5.4 A, will be

(a) 4 m s1

(b) 0.4 m s1

1

(c) 4 cm s

(d) 0.4 mm s1

7. A battery of emf 2.1 V and internal resistance

0.05 W is shunted for 5 s by a wire of constant

resistance 0.02 W, mass 1 g and specific heat

0.1 cal g1C1. The rise in the temperature of the

wire is

(a) 10.7C

(b) 21.4C

(c) 107C

(d) 214C

8. Two small spheres of masses M1 and M2 are

suspended by weightless insulating threads of

lengths L1 and L2. The spheres carry charges Q1 and

Q2 respectively. The spheres are suspended such that

they are in level with one another and the threads

are inclined to the vertical at angles of q1 and q2

as shown. Which one of the following conditions is

essential, if q1 = q2?

(a) M1 M2, but Q1 = Q2

(b) M1 = M2

(c) Q1 = Q2

(d) L1 = L2

9. A solid conducting sphere

of radius a having a

charge q is surrounded by

a concentric conducting

spherical shell of inner

radius 2a and outer radius

3a as shown in figure.

S

3a

2a

51

closed.

1

Here, k = 4 e

0

kq2

(a)

2a

(c)

(b)

kq2

4a

(d)

as shown in figure. The resistivity of the material of

wire is r. The resistance of the wire between its two

ends is

kq2

3a

kq2

6a

shown in figure. The electric field at point P is

(a)

(c)

4rl

2

(b)

(a + b )

4rl

(d)

(a + b)2

4rl

ab

16rl

(a + b)2

dimensions (a 2a 4a) as shown in figure.

Resistance across AB is R1, across CD is R2 and

across EF is R3. Then

2

k

e0

4

k

(c)

e0

2

k

e0

4

k

(d)

e0

(b)

(a)

of a parallel plate capacitor at an angle a with the

plates and leaves at an angle b to the plates, the ratio

of its kinetic energy while entering the capacitor to

that while leaving will be

sin b

(a)

sin a

cos b

(b)

cos a

sin a

(d)

sin b

cos a

(c)

cos b

2a

E

(a) R1 = R2 = R3

(c) R2 > R3 > R1

(d) R1 > R3 > R2

(a) x

x (b) x

52

R1 is 32 W

R2 is 35 W

total resistance of circuit is 48 W

total resistance of circuit is 75 W

Physics for you | November 15

4a

at four corners of a square with its centre at origin

and lying in y-z plane. A fifth charge +Q is moved

along x-axis. The electrostatic potential energy (U)

varies on x-axis as shown in figure.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(c) x

x (d) x

1 mF and each one of which gets punctured if a

potential difference just exceeding 500 V is applied,

are provided. An arrangement suitable for giving

capacitance of 2 mF across which 3000 V may be

applied requires at least

(a) 6 component capacitors

(b) 12 component capacitors

(c) 72 component capacitors

(d) 2 component capacitors

17. A charge q is placed at the centroid of an equiliateral

triangle. Three charges equal to Q are placed at the

vertices of the triangle. The system of four charges

will be in equilibrium if q is equal to

(a) Q 3

(b) Q/3

(c) Q / 3

(d) Q/ 3

Two point charges are inside the shell and two are

outside the shell. If we apply Gausss law over the

LHS of Gauss equation is due to

q2 q

(a) q1 and q2 alone

3

q1

(b) all charges q1, q2, q3 and q4

q4

(c) q1, q2 and q3 alone

(d) We cannot take the non-conducting shell as a

Gaussian surface

19. Three concentric spherical conductors are arranged

as shown in the figure. The potential at point P will

be

1 Q1 Q2 Q3

+

+

(a)

r

r

4 e0 r

(b)

1 Q1 + Q2 Q3

+

c

4 e0 r

Q3

Q2

Q1

C B A a

b

c

Q1 Q2 Q3

a + b + c

Q1 Q2 Q3

c + c + c

connected by a massless spring of force constant k.

They are placed over a smooth horizontal surface.

They are released when the separation between

them is r and spring is unstretched. If maximum

extension of the spring is r, the value of k is (neglect

gravitational effect)

1

(c)

4 e0

1

(d)

4 e0

(a)

(b)

(c)

q2

8e0r 3

q2

4e0r 3

q2

(d)

e0r 3

4q 2

e0r 3

of area of cross section A. The ring has a uniform

charge Q distributed on it. A charge q0 is placed at

the centre of the ring. If Y is the Youngs modulus of

the material of the ring and DR is the change in the

radius of the ring then

q0Q

(a) DR =

(b) DR = 2 0

4e0 RAY

4 e RAY

0

q0Q

q0Q

(d) DR = 2

8 e0 RAY

82 e20 RAY

22. Uniform electric field exists in a region and is

A(a, 0), B(0, a), C(a, 0) and D(0, a) lying in x y

plane. Which of the following is the correct relation

for the electric potential ?

(a) VA = VC > VB = VD (b) VA = VB > VC = VD

(c) VA > VC > VB = VD (d) VA < VC < VB < VD

(c) DR =

a resistor R and two light bulbs

A and B as shown in figure.

If the filament in light bulb

A burns out, then which

of the following is true for

light bulb B?

(a) It is turned off.

(b) Its brightness does not change.

(c) It gets dimmer. (d) It gets brighter.

24. Charges +q and q are

placed at points A and

B respectively which are

at distance 2L apart,

C is the midpoint between A and B. The work done

in moving a charge +Q along the semicircle CRD is

(a) 2 e L

(b) 6 e L

0

0

(c)

(d)

4 e0 L

6 e0 L

Physics for you | November 15

53

order to balance the bridge, we must have

(a) R1 = 3 W; R2 = 3 W

(b) R1 = 6 W; R2 = 15 W

(c) R1 = 1.5 W; R2 = any finite value

(d) R1 = 3 W; R2 = any finite value

26. A resistance of 4 W and a wire of length 5 m and

resistance 5 W are joined in series and connected

to a cell of emf 10 V and internal resistance 1 W.

A parallel combination of two identical cells is

balanced across 3 m of the wire. The emf E of each

cell is

(a) 1.5 V

(b) 3.0 V

(c) 0.67 V

(d) 1.33 V

27. In the circuit shown, A and V are ideal ammeter

and voltmeter respectively. Reading of the voltmeter

will be

2V

(a) 2V

(b) 1 V

A V

(c) 0.5 V

1 1

(d) zero

28. In the figure, a carbon resistor has bands of different

colours on it as shown in the figure. The value of the

resistance is

Red

Silver

White Brown

(c) (5.6 5%) kW

(d) (9.1 10%) kW

heating element is 100 W. What is the temperature

of the element if the resistance is found to be

117 W given that the temperature coefficient of the

material of the resistor is 1.70 104 C1 ?

(a) 300C

(b) 627C

(c) 1027C

(d) 1700C

54

voltage V is applied in all conditions mentioned in

column I. Match this column I with column II in

which actual total power consumed is given.

Column I

P. Two bulbs are connected

in parallel.

Q. Two bulbs are connected

in series.

R. Two bulbs are conncected

in parallel and one bulb

in series with this

combination.

S. A group of two-two bulbs

in parallel are mutually

connected in series.

(a) P 2, Q 3, R 1, S 4

(b) P 3, Q 2, R 4, S 1

(c) P 2, Q 3, R 4, S 1

(d) P 3, Q 2, R 1, S 4

Column II

1.

P

2.

2P

3.

P

2

4.

2P

3

sOLUTIONs

1. (a) : Here, t = 2 mm, x = 1.6 mm

As potential difference remains the same, capacity

must remain the same.

1

\ x = t 1

K

1

K

2. (b) : In the given circuit, potential at B = potential at D.

Therefore, points B and D can be joined together.

Due to it, the arm AB will be parallel to arm AD. The

arm BE will be parallel to arm ED and arm BC will

be parallel to arm CD. The equivalent circuit will be

as shown in figure.

The resistance of arm BE is parallel to resistance of

arm BCE. The effective resistance between B and E

R R

+ R

3R

=

= 2 2

R R

8

+ + R

2

2

R 3R 7 R

= +

=

2 8

8

7R

V0

+ R

8

15V0

\ Current, I =

=

7R

7R

R

8

3. (b) : In equilibrium, electrostatic force of attraction

between the plates = restoring force in the string

q2

= kx

2e0 A

m = 1 g and s = 0.1 cal g1C1

As per question,

or

(CV )2

= k(d 0.8d ) = 0.2kd

2e 0 A

C 2V 2

2e0 A(0.2d )

e A

Now C = 0

0.8d

\

k=

k=

DT = 214C

8. (b) :

e20 A2

4e0 AV 2

V2

=

0.64d 2 2e0 A(0.2d )

d3

to P and S will cancel. Again electric fields at O due

to Q and T will cancel. Electric fields at O due to U

and R will add up to give double the electric field.

5. (c) : From conservation of mechanical energy, we

have decrease in gravitational potential energy

= increase in kinetic energy.

or

I 2 Rt

4. 2

2

e

Rt

m s DT = R + r

4. 2

2.1 2.1 0.02 5

1 0.1 DT =

0.07 0.07

4. 2

90

900

DT =

=

0 . 1 4 . 2 4. 2

m s DT =

q q 1 1

1 2

mv = U i U f = 1 2

2

4 e0 ri r f

T1 cos q1 = M1g

and T2 sin q1 = F1

F

\ tan q1 = 1

M1 g

F2

M2 g

F is same on both the charges, so q will be same

only if their masses are equal.

9. (c) :

Similarly for sphere 2, tan q2 =

q q r f ri

= 1 2

4e0 ri r f

or

=

v=

q1q2 r f ri

2e0m ri r f

(0.24)(0.96)

3.2 104

= 26 m s1

I

5. 4

v=

=

28

neA 8.4 10 1.6 1019 106

= 0.4 103 m s1 = 0.4 mm s1

Heat produced = Ui Uf

= (U1 + U2) U2 = U1

=

kq2

q2

q2

=

=

2C

a 2a 4a

2 4 e0

a a

2

{ }

field, the total electric field intensity at P due to

various plane sheets of charge will be

Physics for you | November 15

55

EP =

(k ) +

( k ) +

(k )

2e 0

2e 0

2e 0

2

= k

e0

u = velocity of electron while entering the field

v = velocity of electron while leaving the field

As electric field is perpendicular to the plates,

component of velocity parallel to plates will remain

unchanged.

\ u cos a = v cos b

2

Ke u2 cos b

u cos b

=

\

=

=

or

v cos a

K l v 2 cos a

12. (c) : Potential difference across C and D

= 0.05 120 = 6 V

Potential difference across B and E = Potential

difference across C and D = 6 V

6

\ R2 =

= 30 W

0. 2

Potential difference across R1 = 12 6 = 6 V

= (0.05 + 0.2) R1

6

= 24 W

or R1 =

0.25

Total resistance of the circuit

R R

30 120

= R1 + 2 3 = 24 +

= 48 W

R2 + R3

30 + 120

13. (b) : Area of cross-section of the conical wire,

A = geometric mean of the area of two end faces

of the wire, i.e.,

a2 b2 ab

=

4

4

4

\ Resistance of conical wire,

A=

R=

rl

rl

4rl

=

=

A ab / 4 ab

rl

14. (b) : As R =

A

So R1 =

r(4a) 2r

=

(2a)(a) a

is zero. But at x = 0, the charge

U

+Q is in unstable equilibrium.

Therefore, potential energy

is maximum. On either side

of x-axis, potential energy

x

x

O

decreases as shown in figure.

16. (c) : Minimum number of condensers in each row

= 3000/500 = 6.

If Cs is capacity of 6 condensers in a row,

1 1 1 1 1 1

= + + + + =6

Cs 1 1 1 1 1

1

or Cs = mF

6

Let there be m such rows in parallel.

Total capacity = m Cs

1

or 2 = m

\ m = 12

6

17. (c)

qin

18. (b) : In Gauss theorem,

E

dS = e0

on surface is due to all the charges present in space.

to all four charges.

19. (b) : Point P is outside the spheres A and B and

inside C. By applying principle of superposition,

potential at point P,

Q3

Q1

Q2

V=

+

+

4 e0r 4 e0r 4 e0c

20. (b) : By conservation of energy

q2

1 2

1 q2 q2

kr =

=

2

4 e0 r r + r

8 e0r

56

r(a)

r

=

\ R1 > R2 > R3

(4a)(2a) 8a

q2

4e0r 3

Q

21. (d) : Linear charge density of ring, =

2 R

q

qQ

F = 0 = 20 2

4 e0 R 8 e0 R

r(2a)

r

R2 =

=

(4a)(a) 2a

and R3 =

k=

F

Stress

Y=

= A

Strain DR

R

q0Q

DR =

82 e0 RAY

E0

D

E0

E=

10 30

=

or R1 = 3 W

R1 9

When this bridge is balanced, no current flows in

arm BD. Therefore, R2 can have any finite value.

dV

dx

Also due to symmetry

VA = VB, VC = VD

\ VA = VB > VC = VD

23. (d) :

2

I 2r

I

; P = I 2 r

P1 = r =

2

4 2

P1 =

1 q 1

q

1 =

4 e0 L 3 6 e0 L

Work done in moving charge +Q along the

semicircle CRD is given by

q

qQ

W = [VD VC ](+Q) =

0 (Q) =

6 e0 L

6 e0 L

=

e2 r

e r

e

=

;P =

r

r 4 (2R + r )2 2 R + r

R +

2

2

P2 2R + r

=

> 1 or P2 > P1

P1 R + r

emf E l

or E = kl

where k is a constant.

IR

Also E =

l

L

E

R

\ E=

l

(R1 + R2 + r ) L

10

5

\ E=

3=3V

5 + 4 +1 5

27. (d) : Resistance in parallel with voltmeter is zero.

28. (d)

R R0

,

29. (c) : Using the relation, a = T

R0 DT

a=

R

24. (c) :

+q

or

or

q

C

2L

From figure, AC = BD = BC = L

\ AD = 3L

Potential at C is given by

1 q (q )

1 q q

VC =

+

=

=0

4 e0 AC BC 4 e0 L L

Potential at D is given by

VD =

1 q (q )

1 q q

+

=

4 e0 AD BD 4 e0 3L L

RT R27

R27 (T 27)

R R27

117 100

= 1000

=

T 27 = T

R27 a 100 1.7 104

t = 27 + 1000 = 1027C

V2

R

R

2V 2

Now, RP = , \ PP =

= 2P

2

R

\

P=

RQ = 2R, \ PQ =

V2 P

=

2R 2

3R

2V 2 2P

, \ PR =

=

2

3R

3

V2

RS = R, \ PS =

=P

R

RR =

nn

57

JEE

ADVANCED

PRACTICE PAPER

2 16

CLASS

XII

Section-1

This section contains 6 questions. Each question, when worked

out will result in one integer from 0 to 9 (both inclusive).

two identical parallel-plate

capacitors A and B connected

to a battery with the switch

S closed. The switch is now

opened and the free space between the plates of

the capacitors is filled with a dielectric of dielectric

constant 3. The ratio of the electrostatic energies

stored in both the capacitors before and after

introduction of the dielectric is x : 10. Find the

value of x.

2. An equiconvex air lens of radius of curvature

10 cm is made in an extended glass medium having

refractive index m = 3/2. Find the refractive index of

the material to be filled in, so that the power of the

lens changes without change in its magnitude.

3. A vibration magnetometer consists of two identical

bar magnets placed one over the other such that

they are mutually perpendicular and bisect each

other. The time period of oscillation in a horizontal

magnetic field is 4 s. If one of the magnets is taken

away, the period of oscillation of the other in the

same field is 2x/4 s. Find the value of x.

4. A particle is uncharged and is thrown vertically

upward from ground level with a speed of

height h. The particle is then given a positive

charge +q and reaches the same maximum height

h when thrown vertically upward with a speed of

13 m s1. Finally, the particle is given a negative

58

(in m s1) with which the negatively charged particle

must be thrown vertically upward, so that it attains

exactly the same maximum height h ?

5. A neutron of energy 2 meV and mass 1.61027 kg

passes a proton at such a distance that the angular

momentum of neutron relative to proton approximately

equals 41034 J s. The distance of closest approach

neglecting the interaction between particles is given by

a31016 m. Find the value of a.

6. Twelve identical resistors of

resistance R each

are

connected as shown in the

figure.

A

Equivalent resistance

between points A and E is

xR . Find the value of x.

12

B

F

G

H

D

Section-2

This section contains 6 multiple choice questions. Each

question has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) out of which

ONE or MORE THAN ONE are correct.

charges Q and 2Q. Between these spheres a neutral

conducting sphere of radius 2R is connected. The

separation between the sphere is considerably large.

Then

Q

sphere is .

3

(b) The decrease in electric potential energy of

sphere of radius R is

35kQ 2 .

72R

37kQ 2 .

72R

(d) The final electric potential on sphere of radius

kQ .

3R will be

6R

sphere of radius R is

Then choose the correct

statement(s).

(a) If positions of battery

and galvanometer are

interchanged, then

galvanometer will still

show zero deflection.

(b) Rate of heat dissipation through R1 will change

if position of battery and galvanometer are

interchanged.

(c) If emf e is doubled, still no deflection is shown

by galvanometer.

(d) If galvanometer is not ideal, it will show

deflection if emf is doubled.

9. A lens made from a material of refractive index 1.5

behaves as a converging lens in air. When placed in

liquid of refractive index 8/5, it will

(a) still behave as a converging lens

(b) behave as a diverging lens

(c) have its focal length increased

(d) have its focal length decreased

10. Figure shows a square loop of side 10 cm in the x-y

plane with its centre at the origin. An infinite wire

is at z = 12 cm above y-axis.

(a) Resultant magnetic force on loop due to infinite

wire is 6 103 N.

(b) magnetic force on wire segment AB due to

infinite wire is in positive x-direction.

(c) magnetic force on wire segment CD due to

infinite wire is in negative x-direction.

(d) Torque on loop due to magnetic force is

7.2 105 N m.

11. The switches in figures (a) and (b) are closed at t = 0.

Then

(b) The charge on C long after t = 0 is eC.

(c) The current in L just after t = 0 is e/R.

(d) The current in L long after t = 0 is e/R.

12. A microammeter has a resistance of 100 and a full

scale range of 50 mA. It can be used as a voltmeter

or as a higher range ammeter provided a resistance

is added to it. Pick the correct range and resistance

combinations(s).

(a) 50 V range with 10 k resistance in series.

(b) 10 V range with 200 k resistance in series.

(c) 5 mA range with 1 resistance in parallel.

(d) 10 mA range with 1 resistance in parallel.

Section-3

This section contains 1 paragraph, describing theory,

experiments, data etc. Two questions relate to the paragraph.

Each question has only one correct answer among the four

given options (a), (b), (c) and (d).

Uniform electric and magnetic fields with strength

E and induction B, respectively, are along y-axis as

shown in figure. A particle with specific charge q/m

leaves the origin O in the direction of x-axis with an

initial non-relativistic velocity v0.

Physics for you | november 15

59

y-axis for the nth time is

(c)

qB2

2 2 mn2 E

(d)

3qB2

3.

Deviation in the

light ray is equal

to 90

S.

60

n=1 i

mn E

qB2

32 mn2 E

qB2

and velocity along y-axis at that moment is

3v B

(a) tan 1 0

2 nE

v B

(b) tan 1 0

nE

1 v0 B

(c) tan

2 nE

v B

(d) tan 1 0

2 nE

lists. Choices for the correct combination of elements from

Column-I and Column-II are given as options (a), (b), (c) and

(d), out of which one is correct.

the magnitude of total deviation (between incident

ray and finally refracted or reflected ray) to lie

between 0 and 180. Here n represents refractive

index of medium.

Column II

1.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

P

1,4

2,4

1

2

Q

2

1

2,4

3,4

R

3,4

1,4

2

3

S

2

3

1,4

2,4

SolutionS

1. (6) Charge on capacitor A, qA = CV

1

1

U i = CV 2 + CV 2 = CV 2

2

2

When S is opened, capacitor B will be disconnected

from the battery while capacitor A will remain

connected to the battery. In such a case, potential

difference across A remains the same , V while

the charge on B remains the same i.e., CV.

Since the space between the plates of the capacitors

A and B is filled with a dielectric of dielectric

constant k(=3), capacitance of each capacitor is kC.

1

(CV )2

U f = UA + UB = (kC )V 2 +

2

2(kC )

Deviation in the

light ray is greater

than 90

1

1 1

1 5

= CV 2 k + = CV 2 3 + = CV 2

2

k

2

3 3

Thus,

60

60

Codes

P.

4.

Charge on capacitor B, qB = CV

Section-4

Column I

60

Speed of finally

reflected

or

refracted

light

is

i em

erg

same

as

speed

of

en

tr

ay

incident light.

n= 2

n=2

en

t ra

y

(b)

R.

nc

id

2 mn E

Deviation in the

light ray is less

than 90

zin

gi

2.

gra

(a)

Q.

Ui

3 x

CV 2

=

= =

x=6

2

5 10

U f (5 / 3)CV

lens.

1

1 ma

1 2 1

1

= 1 +

=

1

f m g

R

R

3

10

10

1

2

15 cm. In opposite case, it will behave as

convergent lens of focal length 15 cm.

Let mm be the refractive index of the material to be

filled.

1 mm 1

1

=

1

f m g

R

R

1

2

v23

= 250 169 = 81 v 3 = 9 m s1

L

lmin =

2mK

4 1034

=

2 1.6 1027 2 106 1.6 1019

= 1.25 1014 m = 125 1016 m

a3 = 125 or a = 5

6. (7) Points B and D have same potential, similarly F

and H have same potential. The equivalent circuit is

shown in figure.

1 1

2m

= m 1 +

10 10

3

1 2

1

mv3 = 2mgh mv22

2

2

v32 = 2v12 v22

1 2m m 1

=

1 m m = 2

5

15 3

magnetic field,

I

MB

T = 2

...(i)

to each other, so resultant magnetic moment,

M0 = M 2 + M 2 = 2 M

and I 0 = I + I = 2 I

So, T0 = 2

2I

( 2 )MB

= 2

( 2 )I

MB

...(ii)

oscillate with period given by eqn (i), so dividing

eqn (i) by (ii),

T

1

= 1/ 4

T0 (2)

or

4. (9)

T=

T0

1/ 4

(2)

1/ 4

(2)

= 27 / 4 s

1 2

mv = mgh

2 1

1 2

mv = mgh + qEh

2 2

1 2

mv = mgh qEh

2 3

...(i)

...(ii)

7. (a, b, d) : Finally, potential on all spheres will be equal.

kQ1 kQ2 kQ3

i.e.,

=

=

R

2R

3R

and Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = (Q) + (2Q) = Q

Q

Q

Q

, Q2 =

, Q3 =

Q1 =

6

3

2

Change in electric potential energy of sphere of

radius R = Ui Uf

k

k

(qi )2 (q f )2

2R

2R

2

k

35kQ 2

2 Q

=

Q

=

2R

36

72R

Potential on sphere of radius 3R

k Q

kQ

=

=

3R

2

6R

=

battery, since still R1R4 = R2R3,

i.e. Wheatstone bridge condition is satisfied.

...(iii)

Physics for you | november 15

61

No deflection in galvanometer.

Initially current through R1 is

e

I1 =

R1 + R2

Now current through R1 after interchanging

e

I2 =

R1 + R3

Since current has changed,

Rate of heat dissipation changes.

Since current through galvanometer is zero,

It will always show zero deflection for any

value of emf.

9. (b, c) As per lens makers formula,

1

1

1

= ( a m g 1)

fa

R1 R2

fa = focal length of lens in air

L

1

1 ( m g 1) 1

1

L

= ( m g 1) = a

fL

R1 R2 ( m g 1) f a

3/2

15

1

1 1

1

1 1

8/5

=

= 16

= .

1

fa

8 fa

3 f

1 a

2

2

f L = 8 fa

10. (a, d)

11. (b, d) : As switch in figure (a) is closed, capacitor

starts charging such that charge on C at any time t

is given by

q = eC (1 e t /CR ) .

after t = 0 (t ) is C.

As switch in figure (b) is closed, that grows a current

such that current in L at any time t is

e (

I=

1 e tR / L ) .

R

Current in L just after t = 0 is zero and long after

e

t = 0 (t ) is .

R

12. (b, c) : In order to increase the range of ammeter,

a low resistance is connected in parallel with the

ammeter. Let S be the low resistance.

62

Ig

Ig

S

=

or S = G

I Ig

G I Ig

or S = (100)

50 106

5 103 50 106

or

100 50 106

5 103

Option (c) is correct.

or S = 1 .

resistance is connected in series with the ammeter.

Let the high resistance be R.

I g (R + G ) = V

V

10

G or R =

100

Ig

50 106

or

R=

or

13. (a) : Particles acceleration is in y-direction,

dv y qE

=

= constant

dt

m

The motion of the particle is equivalent to circular

motion in xz plane with uniform acceleration in

y-direction.

Hence, v02 = v x2 + v z2 = constant

The magnetic force cannot change the magnitude

of v0 .

qE

The y-component of velocity, vy =

t

m

1 qE 2

t

2 m

The time period of circular motion in xz plane,

2m

T=

qB

The particle crosses y-axis after n rotations, then

2mn

t = nT =

qB

2

qE 2 mn

2 2 mn2 E

Thus, yn =

=

2m qB

qB2

The y-coordinate at time t, y =

qE 2 mn 2 nE

14. (d): As v y = a y t =

=

m qB

B

Thus, tan a =

v0

v B

= 0

vy 2 nE

1 v0 B

a = tan

2 nE

15. (a): P 1, 4 ; Q 2 ; R 3, 4 ; S 2

nn

63

Series 3

CHAPTERWISE UNIT TEST : Gravitation | Properties of Matter

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.

Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.

Q. no. 11 to 17 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.

Q. no. 18 is a value based question and carries 4 marks.

Q. no. 19 and 20 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.

Use log tables if necessary, use of calculators is not allowed.

weightlessness but a person standing on Moon has

weight though Moon is also a satellite of Earth. Why?

2. A wire of length L and cross-sectional area A is

made of material of Youngs modulus Y. What is the

work done in stretching the wire by an amount x?

3. The velocity of water in a river is less on the bank

and large in the middle; why?

4. A blackened platinum wire, when gradually heated,

first appears dull red, then blue and finally white.

Explain why.

5. Why iron rims are heated red hot before being put

on the cart wheels?

6. When the tension in a metal wire is T1, its length is

l1. When the tension is T2, its length is l2. Find the

natural length of wire.

7. The excess pressure inside a soap bubble is thrice

the excess pressure inside a second soap bubble.

What is the ratio between the volume of the first

and the second bubble?

8. A simple pendulum has a time period T1 on the

earths surface, and T2 when taken to a height R

above the earths surface, where R is the radius of

the earth. What will be the value of T2/T1?

64

OR

An astronaut on the Moon measures the acceleration

due to gravity to be 1.7 m s2. He knows that the

radius of the Moon is about 0.27 times that of the

Earth. What is his estimate of the ratio of the mass

of the Earth to that of the Moon? (Take, acceleration

due to gravity on the Earths surface as 9.8 m s2)

9. A cable is replaced by another of the same length

and material but of twice the diameter. (a) How

does this affect its elongation under a given load?

(b) How many times will be the maximum load

it can now support without exceeding the elastic

limit?

10. Explain why:

(i) A balloon filled with helium does not rise in

air indefinitely but halts after a certain height

(Neglect winds).

(ii) The force required by a man to raise his limbs

immersed in water is smaller than the force for

the same movement in air.

11. If an isotropic solid has coefficients of linear

expansion, ax, ay and az for three mutually

perpendicular directions in the solid, what is the

coefficient of volume expansion for the solid?

a gravitational force of attraction F1 on a particle

placed at P. The distance of P from the centre of the

R

sphere is 2R. A spherical cavity of radius is now

2

made in the sphere. The sphere (with cavity) exerts

a gravitational force F2 on the same particle at P.

F

Calculate the ratio 1 .

F2

R/2

O

l1, l2 and l3 are fitted horizontally to the bottom of a

long cylinder containing a liquid at a constant head

and flowing through these tubes. Find the length of

the single overflow tube of the same radius r which

can replace the three capillaries.

15. (a) Is it necessary that all black coloured objects

should be considered black bodies?

(b) Due to the change in mains voltage, the

temperature of an electric bulb rises from 3000 K

to 4000 K. What is the percentage rise in electric

power consumed?

OR

(a) The line that joins the Saturn to the Sun sweeps

areas A1, A2 and A3 in time intervals of 6 weeks,

3 weeks and 2 weeks respectively as shown in the

figure. What is the correct relation between A1, A2

and A3?

3 weeks

A2

Sun

Saturn

stress F / A

F l

=

=

strain Dl / l A(Dl)

The value of E depends upon nature of material. A

material with higher value of E is said to be more

elastic.

(i) Which is more elastic, steel or rubber? Why?

(ii) What values of life do you learn from this

concept?

19. The distance between the centres of two stars is

10 a. The masses of these stars are M and 16 M and

their radii a and 2a respectively. A body of mass

m is fired straight from the surface of the larger

star towards the smaller star. What should be its

minimum initial speed to reach the surface of the

smaller star? Obtain the expression in terms of G,

M and a.

OR

A steel wire of length 2l is clamped between two

points P and Q which are 2l apart. A body of

mass M is suspended exactly from the middle of

the wire. The cross-sectional area of the wire is A

and its Youngs modulus is Y. In the equilibrium

position, each half of the steel wire is inclined with

the horizontal at an angle q. Find q.

20. A sphere is dropped under gravity through a fluid

of viscosity h. Taking the average acceleration as

half of the initial acceleration, show that the time

to attain the terminal velocity is independent of the

fluid density.

OR

Two rods of different materials having the same area

of cross-section A are placed end to end between

E=

2R

of 15 cm2 and a height of 3 cm. When a shearing

force of 0.50 N is applied to the upper surface, the

upper surface displaces 4 mm relative to the bottom

surface. What are the shearing stress, shearing strain

and the shear modulus for the gelatin?

6 weeks A1

What will be time period if the separation between

the Earth and the satellite is increased to 4 times the

previous value?

16. Find the velocity of efflux of water from an orifice

near the bottom of a tank in which pressure is

500 gf/sq cm above atmosphere.

17. A drop of liquid of density r is floating

half-immersed in a liquid of density d. If S is the

surface tension, then what is the diameter of the

drop of the liquid?

18. Read the passage and answer the following questions.

The property of a body by virtue of which it tends

to regain its original configuration as soon as the

deforming forces applied on the body are removed

is called elasticity. Coefficient of elasticity,

A3

2 weeks

65

coefficient of linear expansion a1 and Youngs

modulus Y1. The corresponding quantities for the

second rod are l1, a2 and Y2. The temperature of

both the rods is now raised by T degrees.

(a) Find the force with which the rods act on each

other at the higher temperature.

(b) Also calculate the length of the rods at the

higher temperature.

solutions

of Earth, the gravitational attraction on him due

to Earth (i.e., his weight on Earth) provides the

necessary centripetal force. Since the net force acting

on him is zero, the person feels weightless. But when

he is standing on Moon, the gravitational attraction

acting on him due to Moon, is left unbalanced,

which accounts for his weight on Moon.

2. Work done = elastic potential energy of stretched wire

1

= Y (strain)2 volume

2

2

1

x

YAx 2

= Y

(A L) =

2

L

2L

3. In the river, water flows in the form of streams.

The force of adhesion is less on the streams in the

middle of river than those near the bank. Due to it,

the velocity of streams near the bank is least and is

maximum in the middle of river.

()

l1 l T1

If tension is T2, then

l2 l T2

l1 l T1

=

or l1T2 lT2 = l2T1 lT1

l2 l T2

or

or

l=

4S 3 4S

=

r1

r2

or r2 = 3r1

4 3

3

3

r

\ V1 = 3 1 = r1 = 1 = 1 : 27

V2 4 3 r2 3

r

3 2

8. When pendulum is on the earths surface,

\

66

F

= constant or Dl F

Dl

If tension is T1, then

Physics for you | november 15

4S

r

g1 =

GM

R2

g2 =

or

of the cart wheel. When the iron rim is heated,

its size becomes larger than the wheel. After the

rim has been planted on the wheel and is allowed

to cool, it fits tightly on the wheel due to thermal

contraction.

=

T2 T1

T1 T2

7. Given : P1 = 3P2

Fl

ADl

...(ii)

blackened platinum wire is gradually heated, it first

emits radiations of longer wavelengths, so it appears

red. At higher temperatures, it emits blue radiations

more strongly than red and appears blue. At very

high temperatures, it emits all radiations strongly

and appears white.

6. Y =

...(i)

GM g 1

=

(2R)2 4

As T2 = 2

T2

=

T1

l

l

and T1 = 2

g2

g1

g1

=

g2

g1

=2

g1 / 4

OR

g e M e Rm 2

GM e

GM m

ge =

;

g

=

\ g = 2M

m

Re

m

m

Re 2

Rm 2

2

9.8 Re 2

Me

g R 2 9.8 Re

= e e2=

=

M m g mRm 1.7 Rm 2

1.7 (0.27 Re )2

9. 8

=

79

1.7 0.27 0.27

4 Mgl

Mgl

Mgl

=

Y= 2

=

2

r Dl

D 2 Dl

D

Dl

2

where D is the diameter of the wire.

()

4 Mgl

1

i.e., Dl 2

2

D Y

D

Clearly, if the diameter is doubled, the elongation

will become one-fourth.

D 2 Dl Y

i.e., Mg D 2

(b) Load, Mg =

4l

Clearly, if the diameter is doubled, the wire can

support 4 times the original load.

Elongation, Dl =

air as long as the weight of the air displaced by it

(i.e., upthrust) is greater than the weight of filled

balloon. We know that the density of air decreases

with height. Therefore, the balloon halts after

attaining a height at which density of air is such that

the weight of air displaced just equals the weight of

helium filled balloon.

(ii) Water exerts much more upthrust on the limbs

of man than air. So the net weight of limbs in water is

much less than that in air. Hence the force required

by a man to raise his limbs immersed in water is

smaller than the force for the same movement in

air.

11. Lx = L0(1 + ax DT), Ly = L0(1 + ay DT)

and Lz = L0(1 + az DT)

Thus, V = LxLyLz

Neglecting higher order terms such as axay, ayaz,

azax and axayaz, we get

V = V0[1 + (ax + ay + az) DT]

\ Coefficient of volume expansion of the solid

= ax + ay + az

12. F1 =

GMm GMm

=

(2R)2

4R 2

4 R

1

Mass removed, M = r = M

3 2

8

Force due to hollow sphere,

F2 = Force due to solid sphere Force due to

removed mass

M

GMm G 8 m

F2 =

2

4R 2

3R

2

or

F2 =

GMm 1

4

R 2 4 9 8

or

F2 =

GMm 1 1

R 2 4 18

F2 =

GMm 9 2

R 2 36

7 GMm

36 R 2

F 9

F GMm 36R 2

Now, 1 =

1=

2

F

7

7

F2

GMm

4R

2

or

F2 =

Dl = 4 103 m

F

0.50

Stress = =

N m 2 = 333.3 N m2

A 15 10 4

3

Dl 4 10

Strain = =

= 0.133

l 3 10 2

Shear modulus,

3 10 2

stress

0.50

=

=

N m 2

strain 15 10 4 4 10 3

1. 5

=

105 N m 2 = 2500 N m 2

60

4

4

Pr

Pr 4

14. V1 = Pr , V2 =

...(i)

and V3 =

8hl1

8h l2

8h l3

Total rate of flow,

V = V1 + V2 + V3

...(ii)

If l be the length of the single overflow tube, then

Pr 4

8h l

From eqns. (i), (ii) and (iii),

V=

...(iii)

Pr 4 Pr 4 1 1 1

=

+ +

8h l

8h l1 l2 l3

or

4

Now, mass of complete sphere, M = R 3r

3

( )

( )

or

1 1 1 1

= + +

l l1 l2 l3

or l =

l1l2l3

l1l2 + l2l3 + l3l1

objects should be considered as black bodies. For

example, if we take a black surface which is highly

polished, it will not behave as a perfect black body.

On the other hand, the sun, which is a shining hot

sphere, behaves as perfect black body.

(b) Electric power consumed in first case,

P1 = sT14 = s(3000)4

Electric power consumed in second case,

P2 = sT24 = s(4000)4

4

\ P2 = (4000) = 256

P1 (3000)4 81

Physics for you | november 15

67

P2 P1 P2

256

175

= 1=

1=

P1

P1

81

81

\

P P

175

= 2 1 100% =

100% = 216%

81

P

1

OR

(a) According to Keplers second law, the areal

velocity of planet around the sun is constant.

Therefore,

A1 > A2 > A3 and A1= 2A2, A1 = 3A3.

(b) Here, time period of a satellite of Earth is 5 h.

By Keplers third law,

...(i)

T2 r3

If separation is increased to 4 times, then time

period, T2 (4r)3

...(ii)

Dividing eqn. (ii) by eqn. (i)

T 2 (4r)3 T 2

T

= 3 , 2 = 64 or

=8

2

T

T

r

T

\ T = 8 T = 8 5 = 40 h

This is because E

(Dl)steel < (Dl)rubber

\ Esteel > Erubber

(ii) In day to day life, elasticity corresponds to

adjustability of the person, which depends on his

nature.

stress

stress

From, E =

, we find, strain =

.

strain

E

For a given stress in life, strain will be minimum

when E is maximum. It implies that a person with

adjustable/flexible nature will undergo minimum

strain (tension) due to stresses (ups and downs) of

life.

19. Let the gravitational field due to the two stars be

zero at some point O lying at a distance x from the

centre of smaller star.

10a

500

=

9.8 (100)2 N m 2 = 500 98 N m 2

1000

Let h be the depth of orifice below the surface.

As, P = h r g,

P 500 98

\ h=

=

=5m

rg 103 9.8

The velocity of efflux,

v = 2 gh = 2 9.8 5 = 9.899 m s 1

17. As per question,

Force due to surface tension + weight of liquid

displaced = Weight of liquid drop

1 4 3

4

r dg = r 3 rg

2 3

3

3

r g

2rS =

[4r 2d]

3

3 2S

r2 =

g[4r 2d]

3S

r2 =

g (2r d)

\ 2rS +

or

or

or

68

3S

g (2r d)

or

r=

Diameter = 2r =

12S

g (2r d)

1

(Dl)

8a

m

O

a

x

2a

16 M

Threshold

Then,

(16 M)m

Mm

G 2 =G

(10 a x)2

x

1

16

=

or

2

x

(10 a x)2

or 16x2 = (10a x)2

or 4x = (10a x)

The negative sign is inadmissible, so x = 2a

The body of mass m when fired from point P lying on

the surface of heavier star must cross the threshold

(the point O), otherwise it would return back.

The gravitational potential energies when the body

of mass m lies at positions P and O are given by

65 GMm

GMm G 16 M m

Up =

=

8a

2a

8a

G

16

M

m

5

GMm

GMm

Uo =

=

2a

8a

2a

\ Increase in potential energy,

5 GMm 65 GMm 45 GMm

DU = U p U o =

+

=

2a

8a

8a

If v is the minimum speed with which the body is

fired from P so as to reach O, then

45 GMm

1 2

mv = DU =

2

8a

or

v=

45 GM 3 5 GM

=

4 a

2

a

OR

or 2T sin q = Mg

Mg

or T =

...(i)

2 sin q

T

Mg

Stress = =

...(ii)

A 2 A sin q

Change in length = PCQ PQ = 2CP PQ

=

1 cos q

2l

2l = 2l

cos q

cos q

OP

l

l

as cos q = CP = CP or CP = cos q

2l(1 cos q) / cos q

Longitudinal strain =

2l

1 cos q

=

cos q

stress

As, Y =

longitudinal strain

Mg cos q

2A sin q (1 cos q)

Mg

Mg

or Y =

= 3

2

2A(q) (q / 2) Aq

[as q is small, sin q q, cos q 1,

(1 cos q) = 2 sin2 (q/2) 2(q/2)2 q2/2]

or

Y=

( )

1/3

Mg

Mg

q3 =

or q =

YA

YA

20. Let r = radius of the sphere

r, s = densities of the sphere and fluid respectively

a = initial acceleration of the sphere when it just

enters the fluid

vt = terminal velocity of the sphere

Net downward force (F) acting on the sphere as it

just enters the fluid

or

70

by the sphere

i.e., F = 4 r 3 rg 4 r 3 sg = 4 r 3 g(r s)

3

3

3

4 3

r g (r s) (r s)g

F

Thus, a = = 3

=

r

m

4 3

rr

3

When the sphere attains terminal velocity, its

acceleration becomes zero. Thus,

a+0 a

average acceleration =

=

2

2

Let t be the time taken by the sphere to attain

terminal velocity (vt)

at

From v = v0 + at, vt =

2

(as initial velocity v0 of the sphere is zero, v = vt)

2r 2(r s)g

2

4r 2r

2v

9h

or t = t =

=

9h

a

(r s)g / r

Hence, t is independent of s (the fluid density).

OR

(a) When heated in free state, total expansion,

Dl = Dl1 + Dl2

or Dl = a1l1T + a2l2T = (a1l1 + a2l2)T

When the rod are placed end to end between the

massive walls and if Dl1 and Dl2 are the compressions

in the two rods,

Fl

Fl

Dl1 = 1 , Dl2 = 2

AY1

AY2

Fl

l

Total compression = Dl1 + Dl2 = 1 + 2

A Y1 Y2

Since the total length remains unchanged,

Dl1 + Dl2 = Dl1 + Dl2

or

F l1 l2

+

= (a1l1 + a 2l2)T

A Y1 Y2

or

F=

AT (a1l1 + a 2l2)

(l1 / Y1 + l2 / Y2)

= l1 + Dl1 Dl1

Fl

= l1 + a1l1T 1

AY1

l T (a l + a 2l2)

= l1 + a1l1T 1 1 1

Y1(l1 / Y1 + l2 / Y2)

Similarly, length of the second rod at T C

l T (a1l1 + a 2l2)

= l2 + a 2l2T 2

Y2(l1 / Y1 + l2 / Y2)

nn

distance of 0.16 m. A small body of mass M = 0.10 kg

is released from a point P equidistant from the two

masses and a distance 0.06 m from the line joining

them, as shown in figure.

passes through point Q.

(b) Compute the acceleration of this body at P and Q.

2. A cosmic body P coming from infinity with velocity

v0 is approaching the Sun of mass M, with its line

of motion at distance d from the Sun as shown in

figure. When it gets closest to the Sun, i.e. at point

O, what will be its distance from the Sun?

of semi-major axis a and eccentricity e. If the mass

of the Sun is M, find the velocity of the planet at the

perigee and apogee.

distance d apart. Initially 2m is given a velocity u

away from m and m is at rest. Find the minimum

separation between the particles.

5.

r. Find the gravitational field intensity at centre O of

the semicircle ?

6. Light from a massive star suffers gravitational red

shift, i.e., its wavelength changes towards the red

end due to the gravitational attraction of the star.

Obtain the formula for this gravitational red shift

using the simple consideration that a photon of

frequency u has energy hu and mass = hu/c2.

7. Two equal masses m each are hung from a balance

whose scale pans differ in vertical height by h. Find

the error in weighing, if any, in terms of earths

density r.

SOLUTIONS

energy between P and Q, we have

KEP + PEP = KEQ + PEQ

*Randhawa Institute of Physics, S.C.O. 208, First Fl., Sector-36D & S.C.O. 38, Second Fl., Sector-20C, Chandigarh, Ph. 09814527699

Physics for you | November 15

71

the body, r is the distance of closest approach and

v is the velocity at O. Since the angular momentum

of the body about the Sun will remain conserved,

therefore,

(mv0)d = mvr v0d = vr

...(ii)

From (i), and (ii), we get

GMm 1 v0d

1

mv02 =

+ m

r

2

2 r

GMm GMm

0 +

r

r

2

v 2d

GM

0

Solving, we get, r =

1 + GM 1

v02

1

GMm GMm

Mv 2 +

2

0.08

0.08

where v is the velocity of M at point Q

=

\

1

v2

1

= 2Gm

2

0

.

08

0

.1

v = 6.5 105 m s1

(b) Since the gravitational force due to two

masses at point Q is zero. So, at point Q, there is no

acceleration of the body.

When the body is at point P, then there are two

forces of equal magnitude along PA and PB. The

magnitude of either force is

GMm

F= 2

r

The resultant force along PQ is given by

FR = Fcosq + Fcosq = 2Fcosq,

0.06 0.06

where, cosq =

=

= 0.6

r

0.1

FR = 1.2F =

=

1.2 GMm

r2

1.2 6.67 1011 0.1 6.4

= 5.12

(0.1)

109

at the perigee and apogee, we get, mvprp = mvara

v p ra a + c

or

= =

...(i)

va rp a c

Using conservation of total mechanical energy, we

get,

GMm 1

GMm

1

mv 2p

= mva2

rp

ra

2

2

1 1

v 2p va2 = 2GM

rp ra

r

Putting v p = va a , we get,

rp

va =

KEi + PEi = KEf + PEf

1

1

GMm

0 + mv02 = mv 2

2

2

r

Physics for you | November 15

...(ii)

GM a c

GM 1 e

=

a a + c

a 1 + e

= 5.12 108 m s2.

72

...(i)

Similarly, vp =

GM

a

c

)

a

1 + e

1 e

of mass m will increase and mass 2m will decrease.

Suppose at minimum separation r, velocity of both

momentum, 2mu + 0 = mv + 2mv

v = 2u/3

...(i)

According to conservation of energy, m

Gm(2m)

1

(2m) u2

d

2

Gm(2m)

1

1

= mv 2 + (2m)v 2

r

2

2

2m

d

where

u

element of length rdq as shown in figure. The mass

of this element is

y

d O

r

c2

dI =

Gm

r 2

r2

...(i)

dq

(using (i))

dq

component along negative x-axis is dIsinq

The resultant field intensity is given by

Gm

I = dI sin q =

I=

Gm

r

sin q dq =

[ cos + cos 0] =

^

\ I = (2Gm / r 2 ) i

2Gm

r 2

Gm

r

c c GM

=

1

Rc 2

earth surface as

2h

g (h) = g 1

R

Gdm

u or

GM

GM

= 1 + 2 or | |=

Rc

Rc 2

m

m

(rdq) = dq

r

element is dI =

Rc

GM

or = 1 2

Rc

GM

If

< < 1, then using binomial theorem

Rc 2

h1

dm =

GM

(rd)

hu

GM hu

,

R c 2

or u = u

2Gm2 3 2

2Gm2

mu

= m u

d

r (using (i))

2 3

1

r=

1

u2

d 6Gm

2

hu = hu

[ cos q]0

of gravitational attraction and hu is the energy after

the red shift, then

h2

h h

and W2 W1 = mg2 mg1 = 2 mg 1 2

R R

GM h

or W2 W1 = 2m

R2 R

GM

As g = 2 and (h1 h2 ) = h

R

2mhG 4 3

or W2 W1 =

R r

3

R3

4 3

M = r R

3

8

\ W2 W1 = rGhm

3

nn

giving up. The most certain

way to succeed is always to

try just one more time

-Thomas A. Edison

73

Series 6

CHAPTERWISE PRACTICE PAPER :

Semiconductor Electronics - materials devices and simple circuits | Communication Systems

Time Allowed : 3 hours

Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(ii) This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.

(iii) Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions of two marks each, Section C

contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D contains one value based question of four marks and Section

E contains three questions of five marks each.

(iv) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks, one question

of three marks and all the three questions of five marks weightage. You have to attempt only one of the choices in such

questions.

section-A

1. Define the term critical frequency in relation to sky

wave propagation of electromagnetic waves.

2. Name two factors on which electrical conductivity

of a pure semiconductor at a given temperature

depends.

3. Give one example each of a system that uses the

(i) Skywave

(ii) Space wave

mode of propagation.

4. What happens to the width of depleting layer of a

p-n junction when it is

(a) forward biased

(b) reverse biased?

5. If the base region of a transistor is made large as

compared to a usual transistor, how does it affect

(a) the collector current

(b) current gain of this transistor ?

section-b

limited to frequencies above 40 MHz?

7. A semiconductor is known to have an electron

concentration of 8 1013 per cm3 and a hole

concentration of 5 1012 per cm3.

74

(ii) What is the resistivity of the sample if the

electron mobility is 23,000 cm2 V1 s1 and

hole mobility is 100 cm2V1s1?

8. A diode detector, with a load resistance R = 250 kW

in parallel with a capacitor C = 100 pF, is used

to detect an amplitude modulated carrier. Find

the highest modulation frequency that can be

detected without excessive distortion.

9. The output of an AND gate is connected to

both the inputs of a NAND gate. Draw the logic

circuit of this combination of gates and write its

truth table.

10. In half-wave rectification, what is the output

frequency if the input frequency is 50 Hz ?

What is the output frequency of a full-wave

rectifier for the same input frequency?

OR

A Zener of power rating 1 W is to be used as

a voltage regulator. If Zener has a breakdown of

5 V and it has to regulate voltage which

fluctuates between 3 V and 7 V, what should

given figure?

section-c

carrier waves are employed for transmission?

12. From the output characteristics of common emitter

circuit shown in figure, calculate the values of bac

and bdc of the transistor when VCE is 10 V and

IC = 4.0 mA.

modulator and explain briefly how amplitude is

modulation achieved.

14. State the factor, which controls (i) wavelength of

light and (ii) intensity of light, emitted by a LED.

Write two advantages of LED over incandescent lamp.

15. Write the symbol and truth table of an AND gate.

Explain how this gate is realised in practices by

using two diodes.

16. Consider the circuit arrangement shown in figure (i)

for studying input and output characteristics of

n-p-n transistor in CE configuration.

76

VBE = 0.7 V, so that the transistor is operating at

point Q as shown in the characteristics shown in

figure (ii).

Given that the input impedance of the transistor

is very small and VCC = VBB = 16 V, also find the

voltage gain and power gain of circuit making

appropriate assumptions.

OR

If each diode in given figure has a forward bias

resistance of 25 W and infinite resistance in reverse

bias, what will be the values of the current I1, I2, I3

and I4?

A

C

E

I1

G

I4

125

I3

125

I2

125

25

5V

B

D

F

H

figure, when the input

voltage of the base

resistance is 10 V, VBE

is zero and VCE is also

zero. Find the values

of IB, IC and b.

18. Suppose a n-type wafer is created by doping

Si crystal having 5 1028 atoms per m3 with 1ppm

concentration of As. On the surface 200 ppm

concentration of Boron is added to create p region

in this wafer. Considering ni = 1.5 1016 m3,

(i) Calculate the densities of the charge carriers in the

n and p regions. (ii) Comment which charge carriers

would contribute largely for the reverse saturation

current when diode is reverse biased.

19. Write the truth table for the circuits given in figure

consisting of NOR gates only. Identify the logic

operations (OR, AND, NOT) performed by the two

circuits.

Calculate (i) the percentage modulation, (ii) peak

carrier voltage and, (iii) peak value of information

voltage.

V

20 V

100 V

t

in which collector supply is 8 V and the voltage-drop

across the load resistor of 800 W connected in the

collector circuit is 0.8 V. If the current amplification

factor is 25, determine collector-emitter voltage

and base current. If the internal resistance of the

transistor is 200 W, calculate the voltage-gain and

power-gain.

22. An amplitude modulated wave is represented as

cm(t) = 5(1 + 0.6 cos 6280 t) sin 211 104 t, volts.

(i) What are the minimum and maximum

amplitudes of the A.M. wave?

(ii) What frequency components are contained in

the modulated wave?

(iii) What are the amplitudes of the components?

section-D

23. Two students namely Shobit and Amit were asked

to take up a project on efficient lighting for road

ways, cycle paths and bus lanes. They found LED

is the best source for the above said reasons. They

collected the information from various sources and

submitted the project about its working, advantages

and its applications by presenting with a good

working model.

(a) By seeing these two students, what kind of

qualities do you want to adopt from them?

(b) Explain LED with neat diagram and draw its

symbol.

section-e

how V-I characteristics of a p-n junction diode are

obtained in (i) forward bias, and (ii) reverse bias.

Draw the shape of the curves obtained.

OR

Discuss common emitter amplifier, using n-p-n

transistor. Find its current gain, voltage gain and

power gain.

n-type semiconductors. Explain with a circuit

diagram the working of full-wave rectifier.

OR

What are energy bands? How are these formed?

Distinguish between a conductor, an insulator

and a semiconductor on the basis of energy band

diagram.

26. Draw a labelled circuit diagram of a common emitter

amplifier using a p-n-p transistor. Explain how the

input and output voltages are out of phase by 180

for a common-emitter transistor amplifier. Define

the term voltage gain and write an expression for

it.

OR

Explain briefly, with the help of a circuit diagram,

how a p-n junction works as a half wave rectifier.

Explain with the help of a circuit diagram how a

Zener diode works as a dc voltage regulator. Draw

its I-V characteristics.

solutions

1. Critical frequency is the highest frequency of the

radiowaves which when sent normally towards

the given layer of ionosphere gets reflected from

ionosphere and returns to the earth. It is given by

uc = 9 (Nmax)1/2

where Nmax is the maximum number density of

electrons in the given layer of ionosphere.

2. (a) Width of the forbidden gap (Eg).

(b) Intrinsic charge carrier concentration (ni).

3. (i) Short wave broadcast

(ii) Television transmission.

4. (a) Decreases (b) Increases.

the charge carriers coming from emitter will

be neutralized in the base by the electron-hole

combination. Due to this (a) collector current

decreases and as a result of this (b) current gain also

reduces.

6. At frequencies above 40 MHz, communication is

limited to line-of-sight communication. At these

frequencies, the sizes of transmitting and receiving

antennas are relatively smaller and can be placed

at heights of many wavelengths above the ground.

During line of sight communication, the waves

coming directly from transmitting antenna towards

receiving antenna get blocked at some point by the

curvature of the earth.

Physics for you | November 15

77

7. (i) Given

ne = 8 1013 cm3, nh = 5 1012 cm3

Since ne > nh, the semiconductor is n-type.

(ii) As me = 23,000 cm2 V 1s1, mh = 100 cm2 V 1s1

s = e(neme + nhmh)

+ (5 1012) 100]

1

1

= 0.29448 W cm

1

1

Thus, = =

= 3.396 W cm

s 0.29448 W1 cm 1

C = 100 pF = 100 1012 F = 1 1010 F

1

For satisfactory detection,

> RC

uc

or uc <

1

1

=

= 40 kHz

5

RC (2.5 10 W)(1010 F)

detected with permissible distortion is 40 kHz.

9. The logic circuit for the given combination of gates

is shown in the figure.

Y = A.B

A

B

AND Gate

OR

Given P = 1 W, Vz = 5 V

Vi(max) = 7 V

P 1

Iz =

= = 0.2 A

Vz 5

For safe operation,

Vi(max) Vz 7 5

2

Rs =

=

=

= 10 W

Iz

0.2

0.2

11. A carrier wave is an electromagnetic wave of

high frequency and of constant amplitude, which

is employed to carry the audio signals from one

location to other on the surface of earth.

For the transmission of audio signals, the high

frequency carrier waves are used, because the

effective power radiated by a longer wavelength

2

NAND Gate

Truth table

A

Y = A B

Y = Y .Y

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

l

base-band signal should be small as P .

and hence we need high frequency carrier waves to

carry the base-band signal (message signal).

12. Consider any two characteristics for two values

of IB which lie above and below the given value of

IC. Here IC = 4.0 mA, therefore we select the two

characteristics for IB = 20 mA and 30 mA.

per cycle in the output.

= input frequency = 50 Hz

In full wave rectification, two ripples are obtained

per cycle in the output.

Output frequency = 2 input frequency

= 2 50 = 100 Hz

78

DIB = (30 20) mA = 10 mA

DIC = (4.5 3.0) mA = 1.5 mA

DIC 1.5 mA

=

= 150

Therefore, bac =

DIB

10 m

At VCE = 10 V, either (i) IB = 30 mA and IC = 4.5 mA

or (ii) IB = 20 mA and IC = 3 mA.

Therefore

4.5 mA

I

= 150

For (i), bdc = C =

IB

30 mA

3 mA

IC

=

= 150

For (ii), bdc =

IB 20 m

13. The block diagram is shown here.

Bandpass AM

x(t)

Square y(t)

m(t)

wave

filter

+

law device

Am sin mt

centred at c

c(t)

(Modulating

Ac sin ct

2(t)

Bx

(

t

)

+

Cx

signal) (Carrier wave)

wave of high frequency. Let the signal produced be

x(t) = Amsinwmt + Acsinwct

...(i)

The resultant wave so obtained is sent to square law

device which produces wave

y(t) = Bx(t) + Cx2(t)

...(ii)

where B and C are arbitrary constants.

From equations (i) and (ii), we get

C 2

y(t) = BAmsinwmt + BAc sinwct +

(Am+ A2c )

2

C

C 2

Am

cos 2wmt Ac2 cos 2wct

2

2

+ CAmAccos(wc wm)t CAmAccos(wc + wm)t

C 2

( A + Ac2 ) and

2 m

sinusoidal waves of frequencies wm, 2wm, wc, 2wc ,

(wc wm) and (wc + wm).

This is finally sent to bandpass filter which rejects

dc and sinusoids of frequencies wm , 2wm and 2wc

allows the frequencies wc, wc wm and wc + wm. The

output of bandpass filter is an amplitude modulated

wave.

In this equation, there is dc term

nature of semiconductor.

(ii) Intensity of light emitted depends on the

forward current.

Advantages of LED over incandescent lamp are as

follows

(a) low operational voltage and less power.

(b) fast action and no warm-up time required.

B

0

1

0

Y=A.B

0

0

0

+5V

+5V

(a) When A = 0, B = 0

Both the diodes D1 and D2 conduct. Potential

at Y is zero as most of potential falls across the

resistance R.

(b) When A = 1, B = 0.

Diode D1 do not conduct but D2 conducts.

Voltage of 5 V drop across R. Now potential at

Y is 0.

(c) When A = 0, B = 1.

D1 conducts, D2 do not conduct. Voltage drop

of 5 V across R. Potential at Y is 0.

(d) When A = 1, B = 1

D1 and D2 both do not conduct, no current flow

through R. Hence output Y = 1

16. From the output characteristics at point Q,

VCE = 8 V and IC = 4 mA

VCC = ICRC + VCE

16 8

V VCE

, RC =

= 2 kW

RC = CC

IC

4 103

Since, VBB = IBRB + VBE

16 0.7

RB =

= 510 kW

30 106

I

4 103

= 133

Now, b = C =

I B 30 106

R

2 103

Voltage gain, AV = b C = 133

= 0.52

RB

510 103

R

Power gain, AP = b AV = b2 C

RB

A

A

0

0

1

= (133)2

2 103

510 103

= 69

79

OR

I3 is zero as the diode in that branch is reverse

biased. Resistance in the branch AB and EF are each

(25 + 125) W = 150 W.

A

C

E

I1

G

17.

I4

125

I3

125

I2

125

25

5V

B

D

F

H

150

= 75 W

effective resistance is

2

\ Net resistance in the circuit = (75 + 25) W

= 100 W.

5

= 0.05 A

\ Current I1 =

100

As resistances of AB and EF are equal,

0.05

\ I2 = I4 =

= 0.025 A

2

RC = 3 kW = 3 103 W, VBE = 0

VCE = 0, VCC = 10 V

As Vi VBE = RBIB

\ 10 0 = (400 103)IB

10

IB =

= 25 106 A = 25 mA

3

400 10

and VCC VCE = ICRC

10

IC =

= 3.33 103 = 3.33 mA

3 103

I

3.33 103

b= C =

= 133

IB

25 106

18. (i) For n-type region,

1

ne = ND =

5 1028 = 5 1022 m3

6

10

1

1 ppm =

106

As nenh = ni2,

80

n 2 (1.5 1016 m3 )2

nh = i =

= 0.45 1010 m3

ne

5 1022 m3

For p-type region,

200

25 3

nh = NA =

5 1028 = 1 10 m

6

10

ni2 (1.5 1016 m 3 )2

=

Now, ne =

= 2.25 107 m3

nh

1 1025 m 3

(nh = 0.45 1010 m3) would contribute more to

reverse saturation current than minority carrier

electrons of pregion wafer (ne = 2.25 107 m3)

when p n junction is reverse biased.

19. Boolean expression for logic circuit (a)

Y=A

A

short circuit input is acting as

0

1

NOT gate. Its truth table is

Boolean expression for logic circuit (b)

1

0

So by De-Morgans theorem

Y = A + B = AB = AB

Hence, the logic circuit acts like AND gate.

Its truth table is

A

0

0

1

1

B

0

1

0

1

Y

0

0

0

1

Vmax =

V

100

20

= 50 V , Vmin =

= 10 V

2

2

20 V

100 V

(i)

Vmin

V

100

P = max

Vmax + Vmin

50 10

2

=

100 = 100 = 66.7%

50 + 10

3

(ii) Peak carrier voltage, Vc = Vmax + Vmin

2

50 + 10

=

= 30 V.

2

(iii) Peak information voltage = Vm = mVc

2

= 30 = 20 V.

3

21. Here, VCC = 8 V, RC = 800 W, ICRC = 0.8 V,

b = 25, ri = 200 W

0.8 V

= 1.0 103 A

As ICRC = 0.8 V, IC =

800 W

Further, VCE = VCC ICRC = 8 V 0.8 V = 7.2 V

I

I

1.0 103

Since b = C , I B = C =

A

IB

b

25

= 0.04 103 A = 40 mA

800 W

R

Voltage gain, AV = b out = 25

= 100

Rin

200 W

(As Rout = RC = 800 W and Rin = ri = 200 W)

Power gain, AP = bAV = 25(100) = 2500

22. Given the A.M. wave,

cm(t) = 5(1 + 0.6 cos 6280 t) sin 211 104 t, volts.

Comparing with the standard A.M. wave,

cm(t) = Ac(1 + m cos wm t) sin wc t,

we get Ac = 5 V, m = 0.6

w

6280

Modulating frequency, fm = m =

= 1 kHz

2

2

w

211 104

Carrier frequency, fc = c =

= 336 kHz

2

2

(i) Minimum amplitude of A.M. wave

= Ac mAc = 5 0.6 5 = 2 V.

Maximum amplitude of A.M. wave

= Ac + mAc = 5 + 0.6 5 = 8 V.

(ii) Frequency components of the A.M. wave are

fc fm, fc, fc + fm i.e., 336 1,336,336 + 1

or 335 kHz, 336 kHz, 337 kHz.

(iii) The amplitudes of the three components are

mAc

mA

0. 6 5

0. 6 5

, Ac , c i.e.,

, 5,

2

2

2

2

or 1.5 V, 5 V, 1.5 V.

community service.

(b) Light emitting diode (LED)

is a junction diode made of

gallium arsenide or indium

phosphide in which when holeelectron pairs recombine at

forward biased p-n junction,

energy is released in the form of light.

The principle on which LED works is spontaneous

emission of radiation, when an electron jumps

from higher energy level to lower energy level in

a semiconductor atom. At forward biased p-n

junction, free electrons of n-type combine with

holes of p-type semiconductor. As free electrons lie

in conduction band and holes lie in valence band, so

electron falls from the higher to lower energy level

containing holes and the energy is released in the

form of radiation. The energy of radiation emitted

by LED is equal to or less than the forbidden energy

band gap Eg of the semiconductor used, and is given

hc

by hu =

= Eg .

depends upon the band gap energy Eg of the

semiconductor used. The intensity of emitted

radiation in LED depends upon the forward current

flowing through the LED. More the forward current

flowing through the LED, more the hole-electron

pairs combine at forward biased p-n junction,

releasing more number of photons and hence larger

will be the intensity of emitted radiation.

24. Refer point 9.3(4,5) page no. 588 (MTG Excel in

Physics).

OR

Physics).

25. Refer point 9.2, (2 (a, b)) page no. 585 and point

9.3(6(ii)) page no. 588 (MTG Excel in Physics)

OR

Refer point 9.1 (3,4,5,6) page no. 583 (MTG Excel

in Physics)

26. Refer point 9.4 (9) page no. 595 (MTG Excel in

Physics)

OR

Refer point 9.3(6(i), 7(i)) page no. 589 (MTG Excel

in Physics)

nn

Physics for you | November 15

81

Y U ASK

WE ANSWER

Do you have a question that you just cant get

answered?

Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the

bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly,

the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the

questions, easy and tough.

The best questions and their solutions will be printed in

this column each month.

groceries and then carry the bag by the loops at

the top of the bag, why will the loops initially

withstand the load but then, several minutes

later, begin to stretch, perhaps to the point of

tearing?

Akash Jain (UP)

a spring hanging from a ceiling, the spring will

stretch by a certain amount and then stay stretched.

Plastic, which consists of polymers, is different. If

you suspend a load from the lower end of a plastic

strip, the strip will initially stretch like the spring

but thereafter it will gradually stretch more in

what is called viscoelastic creep. The mechanism

of this creep can vary from polymer to polymer.

The polymer consists of many long and entangled

molecules. When the polymer is put under load,

these molecules gradually disentangle somewhat

because very are pulled in the direction of the

load. The gradual reorientation of the molecules

allows the plastic to gradually stretch.

Q2. What causes the tides? Why do most shore

locations have two high tides per day but others

have only one?

Sahil Verma (Delhi)

gravitational pull on Earths oceans even though

that force is not strong enough to lift the water.

Because the force varies over Earths surface

(strongest on the side facing the Moon, weakest

on the opposite side), the force reshapes the water

distribution by stretching it parallel to the line

connecting Earth and the Moon. The stretching

82

one on the side facing the Moon and one on the

opposite side. If Earth did not rotate, then a shore

location in the bulge facing the Moon would have

high water (high tide) all day and a shore location

in the opposite bulge would as well. However,

Earths rotation means that a shore location rotates

through both bulges in about a day and will thus

have two high-water intervals.

The bulges are not exactly positional on a line

through Earth and the Moon because the water

motion encounters friction within the water and

against shorelines. The friction delays the waters

response to the stretching by the Moon. So, the

high-water point in a port city may occur an hour

or more after the Moon is highest in the sky.

Another complicating factor is that the gravitational

force from the Sun also tends to stretch the water

distribution. However, the solar effect is, roughly

less than half the lunar effect. Although the Sun is

much larger than the Moon, it is also much farther

from Earth. During New Moon and Full Moon, the

Sun and Moon are aligned and their tidal effects

sum to give larger tides called spring tides. When

the directions to the Sun and Moon are separated

by 90, the sum gives neap tides. Because of these

various complications some shore locations can

have only one noticeable tide per day.

Q3. When an airplane flies somewhat overhead and

close enough to be heard, lower your head by

stooping to the ground. Why does the frequency

of the airplane noise increases as you lower your

head ?

Shreyas (Haryana)

directly to you from the airplane and the sound

that reflects to you from the ground. The two sets of

sound waves undergo interference at your ears and

you hear primarily the waves that constructively

interfere, they reinforce one another rather than

cancel one another. The height above the ground

at which constructive interference occurs depends

on the wavelength, greater wavelength requires

greater height. As you lower your head, you move

down to the heights at which shorter wavelengths

or higher frequencies, undergoes constructive

interference. So, as you stoop, the sound you hear

increases in frequency.

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long-held

Mars colonies by 2030

Live Physics

ize 2015

Nobel Pr e in P h y s ic s

own satellite navigation:

IRNSS

all countries in the world is controlled by USA

Govt. American monopoly on satellite based

navigation is all set to end now, as Indian Space

Research Organisation will launch Indias own

satellite based navigation next year. Christened

as Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System

or IRNSS, this navigation system would be

controlled by Indian Govt.

Scientists at ISRO started a series of meetings

with various location and navigation device

manufacturers, mobile phone companies and

global information system (GIS) technology

developers from all over the world, to explain

them the advantages and benefits of using

IRNSS.

As per reports coming in, ISRO will offer two

types of services via IRNSS; Standard Positioning

Service (SPS), which would be available for all

users, mobile phones, e-commerce services,

digital services and Restricted Service (RS),which

would be exclusively for defense users.

decades. Moving to have Earth independent colonies on the Red

Planet will be the end point of years of research, the agency has said,

but it plans for that to be complete by the 2030s. NASA laid out the plans

in a large document: NASAs Journey to Mars -Pioneering Next Steps in

Space Exploration. The document lays out the three stages of NASAs

plan to get to Mars. The first is Earth Reliant; the second is Proving

Ground, where the operations will be tested out in deep space, but in

an environment that allows humans to get back to Earth in days.

NASA hopes that those two first stages allow it to get to the Earth

independent stage. It sees the Earth independent colonies as being a

global achievement that marks a transition in humanitys expansion as we

go to Mars not just to visit, but to stay. While there, humans will live and

work within habitats that support human life for years, with only routine

maintenance. Theyll harvest resources to create fuel, water, oxygen and

building materials and use advanced communication systems to send

information back with only a 20-minute delay .

NASA has expressed such interest before, most recently proposing

to send a small greenhouse to the planet in order to experiment with

cultivating plant life, something that would be essential to establishing a

permanent colony in the future. Although Mars does not currently seem

to be a great habitat for existing life. It is still possible, things may be

living beneath the surface something that can only be explored effectively

by humans, not robots.

83

84

Readers can send their responses at editor@mtg.in or post us with complete address by 25th of every month to win exciting prizes.

Winners' name with their valuable feedback will be published in next issue.

across

agency. (5)

3. An abnormal transient electrical disturbance in a

conductor. (5)

5. Rotating part of electric motor or generator. (8)

7. A penlike device attached to a VDU by which

information may be input to a computer. (5, 3)

8. A manually operated device by which people

communicate with computer. (8)

9. A mechanical device that prevents any sudden or

oscillatory motion of a moving part of any piece of

apparatus. (7)

13. A device that allows microwave radiation to pass

in one direction, while absorbing it in the reverse

direction. (8)

15. The converse of compression. (11)

17. A type of circuit having two stable states. (8)

19. A thread like body, particularly the conductor of

metal or carbon in an incandescent lamp. (8)

22. X-rays of long wavelength produced when electrons

are accelerated by voltages of 25 kV or less. (5, 4)

24. A conductor or group of conductors used for

the transmission and/or distribution of electrical

power. (4)

25. A device incorporated in an electrical or other

indicating instrument to provide the necessary

damping. (6)

down

frequency power between a radio aerial and a

transmitter or reciever, with minimum loss. (6)

2. A planoconcave lens placed between the objective

and eyepiece in a telescope to increase magnification.

(6, 4)

4. Process of boiling. (10)

6. The adjustment of tuning of the notes of a keyboard

instrument to give a near diatonic scale for all

keys. (11)

Cut Here

1

2

3

11

12

10

13

14

15

16

18

17

20

19

21

22

23

24

25

and propagation of sound wave. (9)

11. A device used for stabilizing voltage, consisting of a

sensitive metallic resistor whose resistance increases

with temperature. (9)

12. To bring neutrons into thermal equilibrium with

surrounding. (10)

14. The number of hydrogen (or equivalent) atoms that an

atom will combine with or displace. (7)

16. The study of the production and effects of very low

temperatures. (10)

18. A unit of work or energy equal to one watt operating

for one hour. (4, 4)

20. An acronym for allied submarine detection

investigation committee. (5)

21. The disappearance of signals for short time due to

variations in the height and density of ionisation of

ionosphere. (6)

23. A missile or space vehicle powered by ejecting

gas. (6)

85

86

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