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Design of Rolled sections beams by Limit State Method as per IS 800 : 200

Planning for Systematic design of Rolled beams :


Step 1 :

Geometrical properties of the cross-section of the Beam.

Step 2 :

Classfications of cross- sections : (CLAUSE 3.7)


i.e : The local buckling can be avoided before the limit state is achieved by limiting
the width to thickness ratio of each element of a cross-section subjected to
compression due to axial force, moment or shear as per Table 2.
a) Plastic sections
b) Compact sections
c) Semi-compact sections
d) Slender sections

Step 3 :

Reisistance to shear buckling shall be verified as specified in


Clause 8.4.2.1
i.e : d / tw

Step 4 :

>

67

Check for maximum effective slenderness ratios


(Table 15 : Effective length for simply supported beams)

Step 5 :

Section 8 : Design of members subjected to bending


The factored design moment,M at any section, in a beam due to external actions shall
satisfy

Case 1 :

Md

M
Md

Factored design moment

Design bending strength of the section

Laterally supported beam :


A beam may be assumed to be adequately laterally supported if restraint member
is capable of resisting a lateral force not less than 2.5 percent of the maximum
force in the compression flange of the member.

Case 2 :

Laterally unsupported beam

Case 1 :

Laterally supported beam :


when ,

0.6Vd

<

V
Vd

Factored design shear force

Design shear strength of the section

Md

bZpfy / mo

To avoid irreversible deformation under serviceability loads,


1.2 Ze fy / mo
shall be less than
incase of simply supported
beams.
otherwise, when

Step 6 :

>

0.6Vd

Md

Mdv

Mdv

Design bending strength under hogh shear as def

Holes in the tension zone


The effect of holes in the tension and compression flange, in the design bending strength need
not be considered if it satisfies the criteria given in : Clause 8.2.1.4

Step 7 :

Shear lag effects


The simple theory of bending is based on the assumption that plane sections remain plane after
bending.In reality, shear strains cause the section to warp.The higher stresses are produced near
the junction of a web and lower stresses at points away from the web.This phenomenon
is known as shear lag.It results in a non-uniform stress distribution across the width of the flange.
The shear lag effects in flanges may be disregarded provided it validate Clause 8.2.1.5

Case 2 :

Laterally unsupported beam (CLAUSE 8.2.2)

Resistance to lateral torsional buckling need not to be checked seprately in the following cases :

a) Bending is about the minor axis of the section - As you are designing the section for moment about the
minor axis only.
b) Section is hollow or solid bars - These sections has high moment of resistance about both the axis.
c) In case of major axis bending, LT (as defined in laterally unsupported beam design) is less than 0.4
LT
LT

As the value of

sqrt (fy / fcr,b)

, is less than 0.4, it means you are overdesiging your section fo

particular force and moment and then, there is no need to chec


for lateral torsional buckling moment.
The design bending strength of laterally unsupported beam as governed by lateral torsional buckling
is given by:
Md

bZpfbd

Step 8 :

Check for deflection ( Table 6 of IS 800 defines the deflection limits)

Step 9 :

Web buckling and Web crippling (As per 10.11 of Design of steel structures by N.Subramanian)
Web crippling strength of the web also called as the web bearing capacity at supports.

Member subjected to combined forces : (Section 9 of IS 800 2007)


Case 1 :

Combined shear and bending :


when ,

<

V
Vd

Factored design shear force

Design shear strength of the section

Md

>

0.6Vd

otherwise, when
V

0.6Vd

bZpfy / mo

Md

Mdv

Mdv
Design bending strength under hogh shear as defined in 9.2

a) Plastic or Compact section :


Mdv

Md - (Md - Mfd)

1.2 Ze fy / mo

b) Semi-compact section :
Mdv

Case 2 :

Ze fy / mo

Combined Axial force and Bending moment : (Clause 9.3)


Under combined axial force and bending moment, section strength as governed by
material failure and member strength
The Indian code (IS 800 : 2007) provisions are based on the Eurocode provisions and the code
requires the following two checks to be performed :
a) Local capacity check
b) Overall buckling check
a) Section strength : (Local capacity check)
i) Palstic & compact sections
Members subjected to combined axial force (compression & tension) and bending moment, the
following should be satisfied :
(My / Mndy)1 + ((Mz / Mndyz)2
Conservatively,
N / Nd + My / Mdy + Mz / Mdz
ii) Semi-compact sections
In the absence of high shear force, semi-compact section design is satisfactory under combined
axial force and bending, if the maximum longitudinal stress under combined axial force and bending,

fx satisfies the following criteria :


fx

fy / mo

For cross-section without holes, the above criteria reduces to,


N / Nd + My / Mdy + Mz / Mdz
b) Overall member strength : (Overall buckling check)
Members subjected to combined axial force and bending moment shall be checked for overall
buckling failure as given in this section.
i) Bending and axial tension
Meff

(M- T Zec / A)

Md

ii) Bending and axial compression


P / Pdy +

Ky Cmy My / Mdy +

KLT Mz / Mdz

P / Pdy +

0.6 Ky Cmy My/Mdy+

KZ Mz / Mdz

Important Points :
1) For design purpose, the platform beams shall be designed as a laterally unsupported beam.
As there is no slab over these beams (except roof paltform), there exists an unsupported length
Ly , of certain dimensions between two connecting beams which will act as lateral restraint to the
main beam which has to be designed.Laterall bending of main beam will take palce between this
unsupported length Ly.So, the beam will act as a laterally unsupported Beam.
2) When a member is capable of resisting a lateral force not less than 2.5percent of the maximum force
in the compression flange of the member, the member will as a full lateral restraint to the compression
flange of the main beam.

hod as per IS 800 : 2007 :

ved by limiting

ernal actions shall

n moment
strength of the section

pported if restraint member

percent of the maximum

n shear force

rength of the section

Md

case of simply supported

strength under hogh shear as defined in 9.2

sign bending strength need

sections remain plane after

r stresses are produced near

b.This phenomenon

cross the width of the flange.

ate Clause 8.2.1.5

ately in the following cases :

g the section for moment about the

resistance about both the axis.

ed beam design) is less than 0.4

ou are overdesiging your section for a

and then, there is no need to check it

rned by lateral torsional buckling

uctures by N.Subramanian)

pacity at supports.

ction 9 of IS 800 2007)

ar as defined in 9.2

2 Ze fy / mo

as governed by

de provisions and the code

) and bending moment, the

satisfactory under combined

mbined axial force and bending,

hall be checked for overall

1
1

ally unsupported beam.

xists an unsupported length


act as lateral restraint to the
will take palce between this

2.5percent of the maximum force

ateral restraint to the compression

Design of Plate girders as per IS 800 : 2007 (Limit state method) : Beam
Lateral status of the beam
Mz
=
Vz
=

=
11739 kN-m L/C = 3
300 kN

44.31 mm

fyf

240 Mpa

fyw

=
=

240 Mpa
2.0E+05 Mpa

7.4E+04 mm

Izz

5.21E+10 mm

Iyy

4.28E+08 mm4

Zzz

4.78E+07 mm3

Zyy

2.14E+06 mm3

rzz

839.43 mm

ryy

76.06 mm

Lz

24.3 m

Ly

2.509 m

1.5 m

c/d
flange

0.71

1.02

web

1.02
=

h,act

Axial force, Fa

=
=

2-flange

(400mm x

1-web

= (2100mm
x
y
400mm

2180mm
z
tw = 20mm

top flange about z-z axis =

400mm
y

Check for minimum web thickness : (As per clause

Condition :
When only transverse stiffene
,d/tw
Case 1:
when 3d c d
,c/tw
Case 2:
when 0.74d c < d

Depth of neutral axis from


1090 mm

Case 3:

200 mm

neutral axis about z-z axis

760.68 mm

C.G. of the compression section from the


neutral axis about y-y axis

46.08 mm

Plastic modulus of section about


3
z-z axis, (Zpzz)
=
5.63E+07 mm
Plastic modulus of section about
3
y-y axis, (Zpyy)
=
3.41E+06 mm
24.3 m
2.51 m

KLz

KLy

KLz /rzz

28.95

KLy / ryy

33

c > 3d

Governing case :

C.G. of the compression section from the

,d/tw

when c < 0.74d

Case 4: when

Depth of neutral axis about


y-y axis

Section used =

Compact section
Compact section

Buckling class about


y-y axis

Plastic section

Section classification =
Buckling class about
z-z axis

Vh

Flange classification =
Web classification

Member no. = 8

v,act

E
At

Unsupported
My

Web shall be considere

,d/tw

c < 0.74d
270 w

105

275.4

Web satisfies the Serviceability crite


Check for compressiom flange buckling requireme
clause 8.6.1.2(b) :

Condition :
When transverse stiffeners
Checked to prevent the comp. flange from buckling into
when

c 1.5d

,d/tw

when
Governing case :

c < 1.5d

,d/tw

Case 1:
Case 2:

,d/tw

c < 1.5d
345 f

105

351.9

Member is within Slenderless limit


Compression flange buckling requirement is
Check for shear buckling before yielding : (As per clause 8.2.1.1)
d/tw

105

67w

68.34

Shear buckling analysis is required

Check for resistance to shear buckling : (As per clause 8.4.2)


d / tw
Kv

=
=
67w Sqrt(Kv/5.35)=

105.00
14.61
112.93

web with stiffeners

Shear Buckling design methods :


Simple post-critical method :
a)
Poissons ratio,

cr ,e

k v
12 1

0.3

Factored maximum shear force


=

= 239.54 Mpa Shear carrying capacity


=

t w

=sqrt(240/(sqrt(3)x239.54)) =
b
=

Nominal shear strength, Vn =Vcr =


Shear area abt. major axis ,
Vdz =

Check for shear (at support)

therefore,
Vn / mo

Avz

0.76
138.56 Mpa
Av x b
42000sqmm

Vn = Vcr =

5819.52 kN

5290.47 kN

Section is safe in shear


Section is in low shear
Shear area abt. minor axis ,
Vdy =

Therefore,
Vn / mo

Avy

32000sqmm

Vn = Vcr =

4433.92 kN

4030.84 kN

Section is safe in shear


Section is in low shear
Classification of the section based on shear capacity :
About major axis z-z

Section is in low shear

About minor axis y-y


=
Section is in low shear
Check for design capacity of the section :
Simply supported beam
Md
where, b = 1
= b . Zp . fbd
fbd
LT

=
=

Mcr

fcr,b
Mcr

=
=

LT

LT fy / mo
LT
,
sqrt( b Z pfy / Mcr)

2
2
0.5
1
, LT = 0.5[1 + LT + (
1 / {LT+ [ LT - LT] }
sqrt(1.2 Zefy/Mcr)
=
otherwise, LT

(2EIy hf)/(2L2LT) [1+ (1/20){(LLT/ry)/(hf/tf)}2]0.5


(1.1 E)/(LLT/ry)
2

1.01E+11N-mm
0.37

, LLT

[1+ (1/20){(LLT/ry)/(hf/tf)} ]

, LT
, fcr,b

2 0.5

0.37

or

LT

3012 mm

=
0.49
= 1.40E+03N-mm
=
0.41

Therefore, LT

0.37

Member may be designed as laterally suppo

For laterally supported beam :


Mdzz =

12281.52 kN-m
Mdzz =
12281.52 kN-m
Mdzz > Mz
Mz/Mdzz

Safe in bending
= 11739/12282
0.956

Mdyy
Mdyy

12524.8kNm

0.956

<

=
=

744.0kNm
560.38 kN-m

Mdyy > My

Section is safe

Check for Deflection :


Unfactored moment abt z-z axis, M =
v,act
=
L
/
325
max,per.=
=
z

7826.00kNm
44.31 mm
74.77 mm

Safe in Deflection

Symbols:
Mz

Factored moment about major axis z-z.

My

Factored moment about minor axis y-y.

Vz

Maximum shear stress in the transverse direction paralel to y-y axis.

Vh

Maximum shear stress in the lateral direction paralel to z-z axis.

v,act.

Actual deflection in the transverse direction parallel to y-y axis.

h,act.

Actual deflection in the lateral direction parallel to z-z axis.

fy

Yield strength of steel.

Youngs modulus of steel.

At

Total cross-section area.

Izz

Moment of inertia of the section about z-z axis.

Iyy

Moment of inertia of the section about y-y axis.

Zzz

Elastic modulus of the section about z-z axis.

Zyy

Elastic modulus of the section about y-y axis.

rzz

Radius of gyration about z-z axis.

ryy

Radius of gyration about y-y axis.

Lz

Span of the beam about z-z axis.

Ly

Unsupported length of the compression flange.

KLz

Effective length about z-z axis.

KLy

Effective length about y-y axis.

Depth of web.

tw

Thickness of web.

mo

Partial safety factor.

Vn = Vp

Plastic shear resistance under pure shear.

Avz

Shear area about z-z axis.

Overall depth of the section.

tf

Thickness of flange.

bf

Width of flange.

Avy

Shear area about y-y axis.

Md

Design moment of the whole section disregarding high shear force effect.

Mdzz

Design moment capacity of the section disregarding high shear force effect about

Mdyy

Design moment capacity of the section disregarding high shear force effect about

Mdv

Design moment capacity of the section under high shear.

Mdvzz

Design moment capacity of the section under high shear about z-z axis.

Mdvyy

Design moment capacity of the section under high shear about y-y axis.

Mfd

Plastic design strength of the area of the cross-section excluding the shear area.

fcd

Design compreesive stress of axially loaded compression members.

Ae

Effective sectional area

Stress reduction factor for different buckling class,slenderness ratio and yield stre

Imperfection factor

KL/r

Effective slenderness ratio

Ag

Gross area of cross-section

Mdz

Design moment capacity of the section about z-z.

Mdy

Design moment capacity of the section about y-y.

Mndy , Mndz

Design reduced flexural strength under combined axial force and the respective
uniaxial moment acting alone.

1 , 2

Constants

Cmy , Cmz

Equivalent uniform momemt factor.

Pdy , Pdz

Design strength under axial compression as governed bu buckling about minor(y)


major(z) xais respectively.

ny , nz

ratio of actual applied axial force to the design axial strength for buckling about th
& z axis respectively.

CmLT

Equivalent uniform momemt factor lateral torsional buckling.

) : Beam B1
0 kN-m
0 kN
0.00 mm
0 kN

ed =
40mm)
20mm)

For E250
STEEL

40mm

2100mm
=d
z

40mm=tf
=b

s per clause 8.6.1.1(b)

se stiffeners are provided


200 w

200 w

270 w

be considered as unstiffened

bility criteria
requirement : (As per

stiffeners are provided


uckling into the web.

345 f2

345 f

uirement is satisfied

1554 kN
5290 kN
Hence safe

, mo

1.1

[1 + LT + ( LT - 0.2) + LT 2]
sqrt( fy/fcr,b)
,hf

3N-mm

2140mm

ally supported beam

560.4kNm
Safe in bending

ffect.

effect about z-z.


effect about y-y.

shear area.

and yield stress.

respective

out minor(y) &

kling about the y

Design of Plate girders as per IS 800 : 2007 (Limit state method) : Beam
Lateral status of the beam
Mz
=
Vz
=

=
381 kN-m L/C = 3
77 kN

13.89 mm

fyf

250 Mpa

fyw

=
=

250 Mpa
2.0E+05 Mpa

1.5E+04 mm

Izz

6.57E+08 mm

Iyy

7.21E+07 mm4

Zzz

2.65E+06 mm3

Zyy

4.80E+05 mm3

rzz

208.11 mm

ryy

68.9 mm

Lz

8.48 m

Ly

2.7 m

1.35 m

c/d
flange

2.9

web

1
=

h,act

Axial force, Fa

=
=

Section used =
2-flange

(300mm x

1-web

(465mm
y x
300mm

497mm
z
tw = 12mm

top flange about z-z axis =

300mm
y

Check for minimum web thickness : (As per clause

Condition :
When only transverse stiffene
,d/tw
Case 1:
when 3d c d
,c/tw
Case 2:
when 0.74d c < d

Depth of neutral axis from


248.5 mm

Case 3:

150 mm

neutral axis about z-z axis

194.83 mm

C.G. of the compression section from the


neutral axis about y-y axis

48.53 mm

Plastic modulus of section about


3
z-z axis, (Zpzz)
=
2.96E+06 mm
Plastic modulus of section about
3
y-y axis, (Zpyy)
=
7.37E+05 mm
8.48 m
2.7 m

KLz

KLy

KLz /rzz

40.75

KLy / ryy

39.19

c > 3d

Governing case :

C.G. of the compression section from the

,d/tw

when c < 0.74d

Case 4: when

Depth of neutral axis about


y-y axis

Plastic section
Plastic section

Buckling class about


y-y axis

Compact section

Section classification =
Buckling class about
z-z axis

Vh

Flange classification =
Web classification

Member no. = 54

v,act

E
At

Unsupported
My

,d/tw

38.75

Web shall be considere

3d c d
200 w
200

Web satisfies the Serviceability crite


Check for compressiom flange buckling requireme
clause 8.6.1.2(b) :

Condition :
When transverse stiffeners
Checked to prevent the comp. flange from buckling into
when

c 1.5d

,d/tw

when
Governing case :

c < 1.5d

,d/tw

Case 1:
Case 2:

,d/tw

c 1.5d
345 f2

38.75

345

Member is within Slenderless limit


Compression flange buckling requirement is
Check for shear buckling before yielding : (As per clause 8.2.1.1)
d/tw

38.75

67w

67

Shear buckling analysis is not required

Factored design shear force,Vz


=
77.00kN
Design strength,Vdz (abt. major axis)=
Vn / mo
mo
=
1.1
Vn = Vp = Avzfyw/sqrt(3) =
(d.tw.fyw)/sqrt(3)
Vp
=
805.40kN
Vdz
=
732.18kN

Factored design shear force,Vy


Design strength, Vdy (about minor axis)
mo
=
1.1
Vn = Vp = Avy fyw/sqrt(3)
=
Vp
=
Vdy
=

Section is safe in shear


Section is in low shear

Section is in low shear

Classification of the section based on shear capacity :


About major axis z-z

Section is in low shear

About minor axis y-y


=
Section is in low shear
Check for design capacity of the section :
Simply supported beam
Md
where, b = 1
= b . Zp . fbd
fbd
LT

=
=

Mcr

fcr,b
Mcr

=
=

LT fy / mo
LT
,
sqrt( b Z pfy / Mcr)

(2EIy hf)/(2L2LT) [1+ (1/20){(LLT/ry)/(hf/tf)}2]0.5


(1.1 E)/(LLT/ry)
2

3.45E+09N-mm
LT =
0.46
Therefore, LT
=

, LLT

[1+ (1/20){(LLT/ry)/(hf/tf)} ]

, LT
, fcr,b

2 0.5

0.46

For laterally unsupported beam :


LT
=
, LT
0.67
Mdzz =
584.79 kN-m
>

0.48

or

LT

= 381/585
0.652

3240 mm

=
0.49
= 1.04E+03N-mm
=
0.49

Member shall be designed as laterally unsupp

= 0.87

, fbd

381.00kNm Mdyy =
Mdyy > My
Safe in bending

Mdzz > Mz
Mz/Mdzz

2
2
0.5
1
, LT = 0.5[1 + LT + (
1 / {LT+ [ LT - LT] }
sqrt(1.2 Zefy/Mcr)
=
otherwise, LT

0.652

<

Section is safe

197.73
131.03 kN-m

Check for shear (at support)


Factored maximum shear force
=

Check for Deflection :


Unfactored moment abt z-z axis, M =
v,act
=
Lz / 325
max,per.=
=

Shear carrying capacity


254.00kNm
13.89 mm
26.09 mm

Safe in Deflection

) : Beam B3
0 kN-m
0 kN
0.00 mm
0 kN

ed =
16mm)
12mm)

For E250
STEEL

16mm

465mm
=d
z

16mm=tf
=b

s per clause 8.6.1.1(b)

se stiffeners are provided


200 w

200 w

270 w

be considered as unstiffened

bility criteria
requirement : (As per

stiffeners are provided


uckling into the web.

345 f2

345 f

uirement is satisfied

xis)

0.00kN
Vn / mo

(2b.tf.fyw)/sqrt(3)
1385.64kN
1259.67kN
Section is safe in shear

, mo

1.1

[1 + LT + ( LT - 0.2) + LT 2]
sqrt( fy/fcr,b)
,hf

481mm

3N-mm

ally unsupported beam

Mpa
>

0kNm

Safe in Bending

201 kN
732 kN
Hence safe

300
465

16
12

200
457

20
16

497

unit wt
L
125.6
94.2
157
125.6

nos
8.38
8.38

2 631.5168
1 367.0691

8.38
8.38

2 526.264
1 481.0053

998.5859

0.651
8.683356

1007.269

0.835

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