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MECH 529

Dynamic System Modeling


Presentation Part 3
Dr. Clarence W. de Silva, P.Eng.
Professor of Mechanical Engineering
The University of British Columbia
e-mail: desilva@mech.ubc.ca
http://www.sites.mech.ubc.ca/~ial
C.W.

de Silva

Plan
Graphical Interpretation
Analytical Linearization (statespace and input-output models)

Linearization using Experimental


Data
Illustrative Examples

Nonlinear Analytical Models:


State-space Models
Input-Output Models

Model linearization
Real systems are nonlinear
They are represented by nonlinear analytical models
Common techniques (e.g., response analysis, frequency
domain analysis, eigenvalue problem analysis, simulation,
control) use linear models
Method: Linearize each nonlinear term (1st order Taylor
series approximation)
Note: A nonlinear term may be a function of more than one
independent variable.

Graphical Illustration
Nonlinear function f(x) of a single independent variable x

Linearization About an Operating Point

Steps:
1. Express each nonlinear term at an operating point (or, reference condition
2. Select (small) increments of the independent variables from the operating
condition
3. Express Taylor series expansion of nonlinear term about operating point
4. Retain O(1) terms
Note: We need the first-derivatives (local slopes) at operating condition
Example: A nonlinear function f(x,y) of two independent variables x and y

f ( xo , yo )
f ( xo , yo )
f ( x, y ) f ( xo , yo )
x
y with x xo x, y yo y
x
y
or
f ( x , y )
f ( x , y )

f ( x x, y y ) f ( x , y )
x
y
x
y
Note: ( ) or ( )o denotes operating condition
( ) or ( ) denotes a small increment about that condition.

Nonlinear State-Space Models


General nonlinear, time-variant, nth-order system
n first-order nonlinear differential equations (generally coupled
and time variant):
dq1
f1 q1, q2 ,..., qn , r1, r2 ,..., rm , t
dt

dq 2
f 2 q1 , q 2 , . . ., q n , r1 , r2 , . . ., rm , t
dt

dq n
f n q1 , q 2 , . . ., q n , r1 , r2 , . . ., rm , t
dt

State Vector q q1, q2 ,..., qn T


T
Input Vector r r1 , r2 ,. . ., rm
Vector Notation: q f (q, r , t )

(a)

(b)

State Model Linearization

(c)

Equilibrium states q 0
Note: At equilibrium (operating point) response (sate vector)
remains steady
Equilibrium states q : Solving n equations f(q, r, t) = 0 for steady
input r
Slightly Excite from Equilibrium State:
If response builds up and deviates further unstable
equilibrium state
If returns to original operating point stable equilibrium
state
If it remains at new state neutral equilibrium state

(a) Stable

(b) Neutral

(c) Unstable

State Model Linearization (Contd)


Linearize about equilibrium point
q

f
f
(q , r , t ) q
(q , r , t ) r
q
r

(q , r )

for small variations q and r:

or x Ax Bu

Note: Higher-order terms are negligible for small q and r


T
Incremental state vector q x x1 , x2 ,. . ., xn
T
u
,
u
,.
.
.,
u

r
=
u

Incremental input vector


1
2
m
f
Linear system matrix A(t) = q (q , r , t )
f
Input gain (distribution) matrix B(t) = r (q , r , t )
Note 1: For a stationary (i.e., constant-parameter) system, for time
period of interest, A and B are constant
Note 2: A linear model is acceptable when the resulting error is small
(typically when response variations about operating point are small
compared to operating range).

Linearization About a Steady Operating Point


Results
df ( x )
f f ( x x) f ( x )
x or
dx

f df ( x ) x
dx

Note: ( ) = operating point; () = increment from operating point


Linear Term: f ax f ax
Also,

dx
x x ;
dt

d 2 x
x 2 x ; etc.
dt

Linearization Steps
d ()
1.Set all dt terms to zero, and solve the resulting algebraic

equations Steady operating conditions


2.Determine derivatives of all nonlinear terms wrt
independent variables, at operating point
3.For each term in original nonlinear equations, write
increment from operating point

Practical Considerations
(b)

(c)

Saturation
Level

-d

Device Output

Saturation
Level

Linear
Range

(d)

d
Device Output

Device Input

Frictional
(Resistance)
Force

Dynamic
Frictional Force

Device
Input

Device Output

(a)

Device Input

What are practical examples of


these nonlinearities?

Device Input
(Applied Force)

(a) Saturation; (b) Dead band (backlash); (c) Hysteresis


(d) Coulomb friction

Illustrative Examples

Example 1

Induction Motor-Pump Combination in Spray Painting System of Automobile Assembly Plant


Light gear with efficiency and speed ratio 1:r; flexible shaft torsional stiffness kp
Moments inertia of motor rotor and pump impeller: Jm and Jp
Dissipation in motor and bearings: viscous damping of damping constant bm
Pump load (paint load plus dissipation): viscous damping constant bp
T0 q0 (0 m )
T

Magnetic torque Tm of induction motor m


(q 2 2 )
0

m = motor speed; T0 depends quadratically on phase voltage supplied to motor;


0 line frequency of the AC supply; q > 1.0

Related Questions
(a) Comment about the model accuracy
(b) State variables: motor speed m , pump-shaft torque Tp, pump speed p . Derive three
state equations nonlinear state model. What are the inputs to the system?
(c) What do parameters 0 and T0 represent with regard to motor behavior? Determine
Tm Tm
Tm
,
and . Verify that first is -ve and other two are +ve. Note: Under normal
m T0
0
operating conditions, we have 0 m 0 (i.e., slip)

(d) Consider steady-state operating point: steady motor speed m . Obtain expressions for
p , T p , and T0 (at operating point), in terms of m and 0
Tm

Tm

Tm

(e) Let b , T 1 , and 2 at operating point.


m
0
0
Voltage control: Vary T0; Frequency control: Vary 0 .
Linearize state model about operating point and express it in terms of incremental
variables m , Tp , p , T0 , 0 . Let (incremental) output variables be incremental pump
speed p and incremental angle of twist of the pump shaft. Obtain linear state space
model A, B, C and D.
(f) For frequency control ( T0 = 0) obtain input-output differential equation relating p and
d 3 p

0 . Show that if 0 is suddenly changed by step 0 then


will instantaneously
dt 3
rk
change by step 2 p 0 , but no lower derivatives of p will change.
Jm J p

Solution
(a) Backlash and inertia of gear transmission neglected (not accurate in general). Gear efficiency
is assumed constant but usually varies with speed
There is some flexibility in the shaft (coupling) between gear and drive motor
Energy dissipation (in pump load, bearings) is lumped into a single linear viscous-damping
element (In practice nonlinear and distributed)
d p
d m

(b) Motor speed m


; Load (pump) speed p
; m = motor rotation;

p = pump rotation

dt

dt

Power = torque speed; Tg = reaction torque on motor shaft from gear; r = gear ratio r m =
output speed of gear Gear efficiency

Tp r m
Tg m

Output Power
Input Power

Tg

Tp

(i)

Constitutive Equations (State-Space Shell):


Newtons 2nd law for motor: J mm Tm Tg bmm (ii)
J p p Tp bp p
Newtons 2nd law for pump:
(iii)
Hookes law for flexible shaft: Tp k p (rm p )

(iv)

State Equations: State vector = [m Tp p ]T


Subst. (i) into (ii):
Input Tm

r
J mm Tm bmm Tp

T0 q0 (0 m )
(viii)
(q02 m2 )

rotating magnetic field

(ii)

Nonlinear model; Note: Strictly, two inputs: 0 (= speed of

line frequency); T0

(phase voltage)2

Induction Motor Characteristic Curve

Solution (Contd)
(c) From (viii): When m 0 Tm = T0 T0 = starting torque of motor
From (viii): When Tm = 0 m 0 0 = no-load speed = synchronous speed
Note: Under no-load conditions, no slip
Actual speed of induction motor = speed 0 of rotating magnetic field
Differentiate (viii) wrt T0 , 0 , and m :

Tm q0 (0 m )

1
T0
(q02 m2 )

(at O) (ix)

Tm T0 q[(q02 m2 )(20 m ) 0 (0 m )2q0 ] T0 qm [(0 m )2 (q 1)02 ]

2
0
(q02 m2 )2
(q02 m2 )2

Tm T0 q0 [(q02 m2 )(1) (0 m )(2m )]


T0 q0 [(q 1)02 (0 m ) 2 ]

b
m
(q02 m2 )2
(q02 m2 )2

(at O)

(at O)

(x)
(xi)

Note: 1 > 0 ; 2 > 0 ; b > 0


(d) Steady-state operating point rates of changes of state variables = 0
Set m 0 Tp p in (ii) (iv)

p rm (xii);

Tp bp rm

r
0 Tm bm m Tp ; 0 k p (rm p ) ;

0 Tp bp p

(xiii)

T q ( )
Tm bmm r 2 bpm 0 0 2 0 2 m (from (viii))
(q0 m )

m (bm r 2 bp )(q02 m2 )
T0
q0 (0 m )

(xiv)

Note: For the steady operating point, steady inputs T0 and 0 are known. We have 3
equations (xii), (xiii), and (xiv) for the 3 unknowns Tp , m , and p .

Solution (Contd)
(e) Take increments of state equations (v) (vii):
r
J m m bm m Tp b m 1T0 2 0 (xv); Tp k p (r m p ) (xvi); J p p Tp bp p (xvii)

Note:

T
T
T
Tm m m m T0 m 0 b m 1T0 2 0
m
T0
0

Linearized State Equations: (xv)-(xvii)


T

State vector x m Tp p ; Input vector u T0 0 ; Output vector y p Tp k p


T

A=

(b bm ) J m

rk p

r ( J m )
0
1 Jp

k p ;

bp J p
0

1 J m

B= 0
0

2 Jm
0
0

; C =

0
0
0 1 k
p

1
0

; D=0

(f) For frequency control, T0 0

Substitute (xvi) into (xv) to eliminate m ; Substitute (xvii) into the result to eliminate T p
Input-Output Differential Equation:
Jm J p

d 3 p
dt

[ J mbp J p (bm b)]

d 2 p
dt

[k p ( J m

r2J p

) bp (bm b)]

d p
dt

kp(

r 2b p

bm b) p 2rk p 0

(xix)

3rd order differential equation; system is 3rd order; state-space model is also 3rd order.

Solution (Contd)
Observation From (xix):
When 0 is changed by finite step 0 RHS of (xix) will be finite
d 2 p
d 3 p
If as a result, dt 2 or lower derivatives change by a finite step dt 3 should
change by an infinite value (Note: derivative of a step = impulse)

LHS will be infinite


Contradicts RHS of (xix) is finite
d 2 p d p

2 ,
dt , and p will not change instantaneously
dt

Note: These three may be considered state variables (which, by definition, cant
change instantaneously, without infinite input)
Only
of 0

d 3 p
dt 3

will change instantaneously by a finite value due to finite step change

From (xix): Resulting change of

d 3 p
dt

2 rk p

is J J 0
m p

Electro-Mechanical Coupling
Mechanical damping constant bm comes from bearing
friction and other mechanical sources
Electrical damping constant b comes from the
electromagnetic interactions in the motor
The two occur together (and should be treated
together, in model analysis, simulation, design,
control, etc.).
E.g., whether the response is underdamped or
overdamped depends on the sum bm +b and not the
individual components
Electro-mechanical coupling

Main Concepts Illustrated in


Example 1
1. Electro-mechanical coupling in damping
2. Mechanical damping and electrical damping should be treated
together. System behavior depends on the combined effect a
case for integrated analysis, simulation, design, control, etc.)
3. System nonlinearity can come from nonlinear coupling of
inputs and state variables
4. A state variable cannot change instantaneously
5. When an input changes instantaneously, the highest derivative
of the response changes with it (instantaneously); and the
lower derivatives dont change.
Note: These lower derivatives may be taken as state variables.

Example 2

A Wood Cutting Machine


Jm = axial moment of inertia of motor rotor
bm = equivalent viscous damping constant of motor bearings
k = torsional stiffness of flexible shaft; Jc = axial moment of inertia of cutter blade
bc = equivalent viscous damping constant of cutter bearings; Tm = magnetic torque of motor

m = motor speed; Tk = torque transmitted through flexible shaft;

c =

cutter speed

TL = load torque on cutter from workpiece (wood).


Note: In comparison with flexible shaft, coupling unit is rigid; shafts are light
Cutting load TL c c c
Constant parameter c depends on depth of cut and material properties of workpiece

Related Questions
(a) Use Tm = input; TL = output; m Tk c = state vector. Develop a
complete (nonlinear) state model. What is the system (model) order?
(b) From state model, obtain a single input-output differential equation, with
Tm = input and c = output.
(c) Steady operating conditions: Input and state variables are all constant.
Express operating point values m , Tk , c , and TL in terms of Tm and
model parameters only. Consider cases: Tm > 0 and Tm < 0.
(d) Consider incremental change Tm in motor torque and corresponding
changes , T , , T . Determine a linear state model (A, B, C, D) using
T

x = [ m

Tk

k
T

c ]

as state vector, u =

Tm

as input and y =

TL

as output.
(e) In incremental model, if twist angle of flexible shaft ( m c ) is output
determine a suitable state model. What is the system order then?
(f) In the incremental model, if c is the output, how should the state model
in Part (a) be modified? Then what is the system order?

Solution
bcc

Jc

Tk

TL c c c

System Free-Body Diagram


(a) Constitutive equations for the three elements State Equations:
J mm Tm bmm Tk (i); Tk k (m c ) (ii); J cc Tk bcc c c c (iii)
T
State vector = m Tk c ; Input vector = Tm ; Output vector = TL = [c c c ]
3rd order system (3 state equations)

d
d
(b) Note: c c sgn c ( c c ) (c 2 sgn c ) 2cc sgn c 2 c c
dt

dt

(iv)

d2
( c c ) 2 c c 2c2 sgn(c ) (v) Note: Since sgn(c ) 1 for c 0; 1 for c 0; it is a constant
2
dt

Substitute (ii) in (i), to eliminate m : J m [Tk k c ] Tm bm [Tk k c ] Tk


Substitute (iii) in this equation, to eliminate Tk (use properties (iv) and (v)):
Tk J cc bcc 2c c c ; Tk J cc bcc 2c c c 2c c2 sgn(c )

Jm
b
J cc bcc 2c c c 2c c2 sgn(c ) J mc Tm m J cc bcc 2c c c bmc J cc bcc c c c

k
k
Jm Jc

d 3c
d 2c
d 2c
d
dc
d

(
J
b

J
b
)

2
cJ

( J m k J c k bmbc ) c 2bmc c
2cJ m sgn(c )( c ) 2 k (bm bc )c kc c c kTm
m
c
c
m
m
c
3
2
2
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt

Solution (Contd)
(c) Operating Point: 0 Tm bmm Tk (vi); 0 k (m c ) (vii); 0 Tk bcc c c c (viii)
m c ; Tk (bc c c )c ; Tm (bm bc c c )c Signs of m , c , and Tm are identical
Case 1: Tm > 0 c > 0
2
2
Eliminate Tk using (vi) and (viii): 0 Tm bmm bcc cc cc (bm bc )c Tm 0

(bm bc ) (bm bc )2 4cTm


2c

Positive root: c

(bm bc )2 4cTm
2c

(bm bc )
m
2c

(b b )2 4cT
(bm bc )
m
c
m

From (vi): Tk Tm bm
2c
2c

(b b )2 4cT
(bm bc )
m
c
m

From (viii): TL c c c Tm (bm bc )


2c
2c

2
2
Case 2: Tm < 0 c < 0 (vi)-(viii): 0 Tm bmc bcc cc cc (bm bc )c Tm 0

(bm bc ) (bm bc )2 4cTm


2c

; Note: Tm < 0. Use the negative root

(bm bc )2 4cTm
(bm bc )
c

. The rest follows as in Case 1.


2c
2c

Note: In view of the rotational symmetry of the problem, Case 2 can be derived from the
results of Case 1 (i.e., in the expression for c in case 1, change the sign of Tm and then change
the sign of the entire result.

Solution (Contd)
(d)

Linearize:

J m m = Tm bm m Tk

Tk

= k ( m c )
J c c = Tk bc c 2c c c

Note:

d
dc

( c c )

d
dc

(c 2 sgn c ) 2c sgn c 2 c

with x = [ m Tk c ] and u = Tm

bm J m

A= k
0

1 J m
0
1 Jc

k
;
(bc 2c c ) J c
0

1 J m
0
B=

and y = TL = 2c c c C = 0 0 2c c

and D = [0]

Tk
k
Exactly the same state equations plus this new output equation System order = 3

(e) y m c

(f) y c

c cannot be expressed as an algebraic equation of the 3 previous state variables.


A new state variable c has to be defined (Note: Not a natural state variable for Jc; Presence of
Here,

rigid-body mode) Additional state equation:

d c
c
dt

System order = 4

Main Concepts Illustrated in


Example 2
1. Analysis of nonlinearities that involve the signum
function (sgn(.)).
2. Proper choice of state variables.
3. The natural state variable for a rigid-body mode is
velocity (not position). When this is violated,
inconsistency in system order may result.

Example 3

A Simplified Model of an Elevator


J = moment of inertia of cable pulley; r = radius of pulley
K = stiffness of cable; m = mass of car and occupants

Related Questions
(a) Which system parameters are variable? Explain.
(b) Damping torque Td ( ) at pulley bearing is nonlinear in angular speed of pulley.
T
State vector x [ f v]
f = tension force in cable; v = velocity of car (positive upwards)
Input vector u [Tm ]T
Tm = torque applied by motor to pulley (positive in direction shown in Figure)
Output vector
y = [v]
Obtain a complete, nonlinear, state-space model for the system.
(c) With Tm = input; v = output, convert state model into a nonlinear I/O differential
equation model. What is the system order?
(d) Obtain an equation whose solution steady-state operating speed v of elevator car.
(e) Lienarize the I/O differential-equation model for small changes Tm of input and v of
output, about an operating point.
Note: Tm = steady-state operating-point torque of motor (assumed known).
dTd
Hint: Denote d by b().

(f) Linearize the state model and determine model matrices A, B, C, and D.
Obtain linear I/O differential equation from this state-space model
Verify that it is identical to the result in Part (e)

Solution
(a) r is a variable due to winding/unwinding of cable around pulley; m varies with
occupancy.
(b) State Equations: Apply Newtons 2nd law to two inertia elements and Hookes law
to spring element: J Tm rf Td ( ) (i); f k (r v) (ii); mv f mg (iii)
Output y =v
(c) Eliminate f by substituting (iii) into (i) and (ii):
J Tm r m(v g ) Td ( ) (iv); mv k (r v) (v)
1 m

1 m

From (v): r ( k v v) r ( k v v)
Substitute these into (iv), to eliminate :

J m
1 m
( v v) Tm r m(v g ) Td ( ( v v))
r k
r k

(vi)

3rd order model (Highest derivative in (vi) is 3rd order).


(d) At Steady State: v 0 v 0 and v 0 as well. Substitute into (vi)
v
T

r
mg

T
(
) 0 Solve steady-state operating speed
Steady-state Equation: m
d
r

Note 1: Tm = steady-state value of input Tm.


Note 2: Same result is obtained from state equations (i)-(iii) under steady-state
conditions: 0 Tm rf Td ( ); 0 k (r v ); 0 f mg
Convert into a single equation by eliminating f and

Solution (Contd)
J m
(e)Linearize (vi): r ( k v v) Tm r mv b( ) (vii)

From (v): mv k (r v)

J m
b( )m
J
b( )
v
v ( rm)v
v Tm
r k
rk
r
r

J m
1 m
( v v) Tm r mv b( ) ( v v)
r k
r k

(f) Linearize (i)-(iii): J Tm rf b( ) (ix);


Output y v ; Input u Tm ; State vector x = [
b( )
J

rk
A =
0

r
J
0
1
m

dTm ( )
d

(viii)

Substitute (viii) into (vii), to eliminate :

where b( )

k
;
0

f k (r v) (x); mv f (xi)
f v]T

1 J
0
B= ; C = 0 0 1 ;
0

D=0

Substitute (xi) into (ix) and (x), to eliminate f : J Tm rmv b( ) ; mv k (r v)


Eliminate same result as before, for the input/output equation

Main Concepts Illustrated in


Example 3
1. Linearize a state-space model and then convert it into
a linear input-output model
2. Convert a nonlinear state-space model into a
(nonlinear) input-output model and linearize
3. Results of 1 and 2 are the same (as long as same
forms of nonlinearity are used and the same
linearization procedures are used)

Example 4
Vertical
Direction

Y
Spacecraft
Mass m

(X, Y)

f(t)
X
Horizontal on Earths
Surface

Coordinate System for the Spacecraft Problem.

Example (Contd)
A rocket-propelled spacecraft of mass m is fired vertically up (in the Ydirection) from earths surface (see Figure).
Vertical distance of spacecraft centroid (altitude) = y
(measured from earths surface)
Upward thrust force of rocket = f(t)
R
mg
R y
Gravitational pull on spacecraft =

g = acceleration due to gravity at earths surface


R = average radius of earth ( 6370 km).
Magnitude of aerodynamic drag force resisting motion of spacecraft
ky 2e y

Note: Exponential term represents loss of air density at higher elevations,


k and r are positive and constant parameters;

dy
.
dt

Related Questions
(a) Derive the input-output differential equation for the system.
f = input; y = output.
(b) Spacecraft accelerates to altitude yo and maintains a constant speed vo
(still moving in the same vertical (Y) direction)
Determine an expression for rocket force needed for this
constant-speed motion.
Express answer using yo, vo, time t, and system parameters m, g, R, r, k.
Show that this force decreases as the spacecraft ascends.
(c) Linearize the I-O model (Part (a)) about steady operating condition
y and y in position and speed
(part (b)), for small variations
of spacecraft, due to a force disturbance

f (t ) .

Related Questions (Contd)


(d) Uing y and y as state variables and y as the output, derive a complete
(nonlinear) state-space model for vertical dynamics of the spacecraft.

(e) Linearize state-space model (d) about steady conditions (b) for small
variations

disturbance

and

in position and speed of spacecraft, due to force

f (t ) .

(f) From linear state model (e) derive the linear input-output model and
show that the result is identical to what you obtained in Part (c).

Solution
2

R
y r
my

mg
f (t ) (i)

k y ye
(a) Newtons 2nd law in Y-direction:
R y

Note: Gravity ~ nonlinear spring y can serve as its state variable


d

(b) At constant speed vo: y vo (ii); y dt vo 0 (iii)


Integrate (ii) and use IC y yo at t = 0.
Position under steady conditions: y vot yo
(iv)
mg
( v t y ) r
0

k
v
v
e
f s (t )
o
o
2
Substitute (ii)-(iv) in (i):
vot yo
1 R

where f s (t ) = force of rocket at constant speed vo.


o

vo > 0

f s (t )

mg
vot yo
1 R

kvo2e(vot yo )

Note: This expression decreases as t increases, reaching zero in the limit


(1st term: quadratically; 2nd term: exponentially).

Solution (Contd)
(c) Derivatives needed for linearization (O(1) Taylor series terms):
y y y r
d
1
2
1

y r
y r
y

;
y
ye

e
;
y
ye

2
y
e
2
3
dy
R
y
r
y
y
y
1

R
R

Linearized I-O equation:

my

2mg
1
k

y ye y r y 2k y e y r y f (t )
3
R
r
y
1

(v)

(Note: Steady terms cancel out because they satisfy the steady operating condition)
Note: y is given by (iv) and is time-varying.
2mg
1
k 2 y r

vo e
y 2kvo e y r y f (t )
3
R
r
y
1

Steady state : y y vo 0 my
Note: Unstable system.
(d) State vector x x1

x2 y

(i) State equations:

x1 x2
x2

Output equation :

(vi)
g

x1
1
R

y1 x1

k
1
x2 x2e x1 r f (t )
m
m

(vii)

(v)

Solution (Contd)
(e) To linearize, use derivatives (local lopes) as before:
x2 x2 x1
d
1
2
1

x1 r

;
x
x
e

e
2 2
dx1 x1 2
R x1 3 x1
r
1
1
R
R

x2 x2e x1 r 2 x2 e x1
x2

at steady operating (constant speed) conditions: x1 vot yo and x2 vo 0


Linearized state-space model: x1 x2
(viii)
x2

Output equation:

2g
x
R 1 1
R

x1

k 2 ( x1 ) r
k
1
vo e
x1 2 voe x1 r x2 f (t )
mr
m
m

(ix)

y1 x1 (x)

(f) Substitute (viii) in (ix)

x1

2mg
x
R 1 1
R

x1

k 2 ( x1 ) r
k
1
vo e
x1 2 voe x1 r x1 f (t )
mr
m
m

(Identical to (v), since x1 y )

Main Concepts Illustrated in


Example 4
1. Handling of gravitational pull as a nonlinear
spring two state variables: velocity for inertia and
position (which gives spring force) for nonlinear
spring. Compare with simple pendulum (needs two
state variables: velocity and position corresponding to
the nonlinear spring of gravitational pull) and freefalling mass under gravity (needs only one state
variable: velocity; gravity appears as a constant
external force, not a nonlinear spring).
2. Time-varying operating state.
3. Linearization concepts, as illustrated in Example 3

Graphical Solution to
Linearization:
Use of Experimental Operating
Curves

Graphical Linearization Using


Experimental Characteristic Curves
1. Linearization is done by finding the local slopes
(derivatives with respect to the independent
variables) of experimental characteristic curves
2. As a matter of experimental feasibility, the curves are
determined by varying one variable at a time
(keeping the other variables constant at some
operating condition)
3. On a two-axis coordinate frame, only two such
variables can be represented

Graphical Linearization
(Two-variable Case)
1. Keep one variable constant at some operating condition and
vary the other variable in steps
2. Plot the data curve
3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 by changing the operating condition of
the first variable by a small step. Obtain a series of
characteristic curves in this manner
4. Linearization: For a specific operating condition, find the
slope of the curve passing through it (i.e., with the first
variable kept constant); Also find the vertical increment of two
adjacent curves enclosing the operating point (i.e., with the
second variable is kept constant)
5. Slopes with respect to the two independent variables are
obtained from the two values in Step 4.

Graphical Linearization
(Two-variable Case)
Response
y

y y ( x1, x2 )

x2+x2

y
y
y x1
x2
x1
x2

Note: Partial derivatives


(Only one variable changes)

y
b

Slope at O wrt x1:


x1

Slope at O wrt x2:

y
x1

x1
x2

or y bx1 kx2

y
x2

x2
1

x1 Variable
x2 constant

y
x2

x1 constant

y
x2

x2 b x1 k x2
x1

Linearized model of motor.

DC Motor Example
(Control Circuit and Mechanical Loading)

(a) Equivalent circuit of a dc motor (separately excited); (b) Armature mechanical loading diagram

DC Motor Operating Curves

Torque-Speed Curves: (a) Shunt-Wound; (b)Series-Wound; (c) Compound-Wound; (d) General Case
Note: In each curve, excitation voltage vc is maintained constant

Linear Model for Motor Control


Figure (d): One curve is at control voltage vc and the at vc+vc.
Tangent drawn at a selected point (operating point O).
Magnitude b of slope (negative)
Tm
b

Damping Constant (including electrical and mechanical damping effects):


m

vc constant

Note: Mechanical damping included in this b depends on mechanical damping present in the
measured torque during test (primarily bearing friction)
Draw a vertical line through operating point O Torque intercept Tm between two curves
Note: Vertical line is a constant speed line
kv

Voltage Gain:
T

m
Tm
m

Tm
vc

m
vc

m constant

Tm
vc

Tm
vc

vc bm kv vc or Tm b m kv vc Linearized model of motor.

Note: Torque needed to drive rotor inertia is not included in this equation
(because steady-state curves are used in determining parameters)
Inertia term is explicitly present in Mechanical Equation of motor rotor (See Figure (b)):
dm
d m
Jm
Tm TL Linearized (incremental) model: J m
Tm TL b m kv vc TL
dt
dt
Note: Tm and b include overall damping (both electrical and mechanical) of motor.

Linearization Steps
1. Keep one variable constant at some operating condition and
vary the other variable in steps
2. Repeat for an increment of the variable that was kept constant
3. Plot the successive operating curves obtained in this manner
4. Determine the local slopes at an operating point
5. The rest is the same as with analytical linearization

Example

For Gas Turbine :

Water Out

Fuel input rate = Q (gal/s)


T , Q

Moment of inertia of rotor= J t 0.1 k g m 2


Mechanical damping constant : = bt 0.5 Nm/rad/s

Jt

Fuel Rate

bt

Tk

Jp

bp

For Shaft :
Torional stiffness k 20.0 Nm/rad
Torque in the shaft =Tk

Gas Turbine

(Gas turbine operating a


water pump)

Centrifugal Pump

Torque T (N.m)

For Centrifugal Pump :


Moment of inertia of rotor J p 0.05 k g m 2

may include added mass due to fluid load


Mechanical damping constant of pump bt 3.0 Nm/rad/s

linear viscous;may include fluid load

Water In

Fuel Input
Rate
Q (gal/s)

160

10
140 9

120

100

8
7
6
5
4

80
60

Steady-state
operating curves

40
20

200

400

600

800

Speed (rpm)

Example (Contd)

Related Questions:

(a) Determine a complete state-space model for the system.


Use: T (, Q) = generated torque of the turbine;
[ , Tk , p ] = state variables; Q = input; p = output.
(b) Linearize the model about an operating point.
Incremented variables: , T , , and Q q
Operating point: Q 8 gal/s and 400 as the.
k

T , Q

Tm

Tk

Jp

Jt

Tk

Shaft

bt
Gas Turbine Rotor

Tp

p
bp p

Pump Rotor

Example (Contd)
State-space Model (Linearized)
x [, k , p ]T ; u [q]

Incremental state vector,


State-space model,
x Ax Bu
y Cx Du
where,
(b bt ) / J t

A
k

C (0 0 1);

1/ J t
0
1/ J p

D (0)

k ;
bp / J p
0

kq / J t

B 0
0

Example (Contd)
Local Slopes (from Experimental Curves)
b = slope at operating point on the Q 8 gal/s curve

(130 80)(Nm)
50

1.326 Nm/rad/s
2
2
(560 200)
(rad/s) 360
60
60

k q = increment of T over the change in Q from7 to 9 gal/s with kept constant at 400
rpm

(110 92)(Nm)
9.0 Nm/gal/s
(9 7)(gal/s)

With the given parameter values,


b bt 1.326 0.5

18.26 s -1
Jt
0.1
1
10.0 (kg.m 2 )-1
Jt
1
1

20.0 (kg.m 2 ) 1
J p 0.05
bp
Jp
kq
Jt

3.0
60.0 s-1
0.05
9.0 (N.m/gal/s)
90.0 gal/s3
2
0.1 (kg.m )

Torque T (N.m)

Fuel Input
Rate
Q (gal/s)

160

10
140 9
120

8
7

6
100 5
4
80
60

40
20

200

400

600

800

Speed (rpm)

Example (Contd)
State-space Model (Linearized)
x [, k , p ]T ; u [q]

Incremental state vector,


State-space model,
x Ax Bu
y Cx Du
where,

0
18.26 10.0

A 20.0
0
20.0 ;
0
20.0 60.0

C (0 0 1);

D (0)

90.0

B 0
0

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