Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 11

Al Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy

The Knights of Knowledge and the Pioneers of Success

Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy r.a.h (260-324 AH) is the Imam of Ahl us-Sunnah, the man
who refuted and defeated the leaders of the groups of misguidance and extinguished the fires
of their bad innovations. He defended the Religion of Allah by the methodology of the Prophet
s.a.w. He was an extremely well-known and famous scholar; was so skillful in producing
airtight proofs in defense of the Creed of Ahl us-Sunnah.

Known as Abul-Hasan, Imam al-Ash`ariyy is `Aliyy the son of Isma`il, the son of Abu Bishr
Ishaq, the son of Salim, the son of Ismail, the son of Abdullah, the son of Musa, the son of
Bilal, the son of Abu Burdah, the son of Abu Musa Abdullah, the son of Qays, the son of
Haddar, al-Ash`ariyy, al-Yamaniyy. "Al-Ash`ariyy" is in reference to his tribe, (the Asha`irah)
and "al-Yamaniyy" is in reference to his home country, Yaman.

The Prophet s.a.w praised the tribe of the Asha`irah in more than one hadith. He said about
them: "If they were in a certain location and some fell short in their supply of food, they
would get together, join what food every individual had, then distribute the sum equally
among all of them." Al-Hakim related the Prophet s.a.w, in praising them, said:

‫نهم‬9‫ى وأنا م‬A‫ن‬9‫هم م‬


which means: “They follow my methodology, and I am pleased with their action“

In Surat al-Ma’idah, Ayah 54, Allah said:

{ G‫ه‬I‫ن‬J‫ب‬9‫ح‬G‫ ي‬I‫م و‬G‫ه‬J‫به‬9‫ح‬G‫ ي‬N‫وم‬I‫ق‬9‫ى ال ب‬9‫أت‬I‫ ي‬I‫وف‬I‫س‬I‫} ف‬

which refers to a group of people guided by Allah, who love Allah, and Allah loves them... It
was narrated, at the time this verse was revealed, the Prophet pointed at Abu Musa al-
Ash`ariyy and said: "Those are His people" - an explicit reference to the tribe of the
Asha`irah, to whom Imam Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy belongs.
Imam Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy was born in the year 260 after the Emigration (Hijrah)
according to some, and according to others, in the year 270. Nonetheless, he was born prior to
the year 300 and lived most of his life before that, so he belongs to the people of the Salaf.

He was raised in a family of Ahl us-Sunnah, although later on he became a student of al-
Jubba’iyy, one of the leaders of the faction of the Mu`tazilah, and associated with him for a
period of time. Although Al-Jubba’iyy was well-known and famous among the Mu^tazilah,
Imam al-Ash`ariyy did not accept everything he heard from him. Al-Jubba’iyy used to believe
in and repeat a blasphemous belief famous among the Mu`tazilah. He said, "It is obligatory
on Allah to do that which is most benefiting for the slaves."

Ibn `Asakir narrated in his book, Tabyin Kadhib al-Muftari, that once, Imam Abul-Hasan al-
Ash`ariyy questioned al-Jubba’iyy about this belief: He inquired, "What do you say about
three people: a believer, a boy (i.e., a person who did not reach the age of puberty), and a
blasphemer?"

Al-Jubba’iyy answered him: "The believer is among the people who will have high ranks in
the Hereafter. The blasphemer is among the people who will be losers in the Hereafter. As for
the boy, he will be among the people who will be saved, however, his status will not reach the
status of that believer."

Al-Ash`ariyy then asked al-Jubba’iyy: "Would the rank of the boy attain the rank of the
believer?"

Al-Jubba’iyy answered, "No. The pious believer attained that status because of his worship
and obedience, and the boy does not have the obedience and worship of that believer."

Al-Ash`ariyy asked al-Jubba’iyy, "What if the boy says, ‘This is not a shortcoming on my
part. O Allah, if You had willed for me to live long enough in this life, I would have done as
much obedience and worship as the pious believer’."

Al-Jubba’iyy’s answer to that was, "Allah would tell that boy, ‘I knew that if you had lived
longer, you would have sinned, and you would have been tortured; so I made you die before
the age of puberty’."

Al-Ash`ariyy said to al-Jubba’iyy: "What if the blasphemous person then said, ‘O Allah, You
knew about me. Why did you not do that which is most benefiting to me, and make me die
before the age of puberty, as You did the boy?’"

Al-Jubba’iyy was silenced; he did not know how or what to respond. He could not defend his
belief as is the case with all those who build their conclusions on false premises.

Al-Jubba’iyy came to his conclusion about the status of those three people in the Hereafter
based on his false conviction that it is obligatory on Allah to do that which is most benefiting
to the slave, and this is why he reached the stage where he could not defend his statement.
Rather, the correct premise, the one which is airtight and easily defended is to say as Ahl us-
Sunnah say: ""Allah is not obligated to do anything. When Allah rewards the believers, this is
out of His generosity, and when Allah punishes the sinners, this is justice from Him."

Ibnu `Asakir also narrated that Imam Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy saw the Prophet s.a.w in a
dream ordering him to support the school of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaah. In his dream, Abul-
Hasan asked the Prophet s.a.w, "How should I do that? How should I back the school of Ahl
us-Sunnah when I have spent so many years associating with the school of the Mu`tazilah?"
The Prophet s.a.w told him: "If I did not know that Allah would support you with a special
support enabling you success in this matter, I would teach you myself and detail for you every
single aspect of how to do it."

Later, Imam Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy said, "I would be present in a session debating
opponents, those who oppose Ahl us-Sunnah, and a case I had not heard the answer to would
arise. All of a sudden, the perfect answer would be clear in my mind, and I would use it to
discredit those people. I knew this was Allah’s special support the Prophet s.a.w informed me
about."

After he saw that dream, Imam Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy publicly declared he was clear of the
school of the Mu`tazilah, and that he was following Ahl us-Sunnah. It was mentioned he
climbed to the top of the mimbar in the mosque one Friday and declared he was clear of the
school of the Mu^tazilah and committed himself to refute them and expose their falsehood.

From then on, he worked diligently to spread the school of Ahl us-Sunnah by producing the
crystal clear textual and intellectual proofs in support of their methodology. He authored new
books refuting books he had authored previously when he was still following the Mu`tazilah.
For each book he authored while he was with the Mu`tazilah, he authored a refutation from
the school of Ahl us-Sunnah.

The Faqih, Abu Bakr as-Sayrafiyy said: "The Mu`tazilah had raised their heads up high until
al-Ash`ariyy stood up against them and trapped them in the most tiny corner." The Hafidh
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadiyy in Tarikh Baghdad said: "Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy is one who
defended the creed and one who authored books and works refuting the atheists and others
among the Mu`tazilah, Jahmiyyah, Khawarij, and all other innovators of misguidance."

Shamsud-Din Ibn Khillikan in his book, Al-A`yan, said: "Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy is the
forefather in explaining the essentials of the belief, the one who supported the school of Ahl
us-Sunnah; the Ash`ariyysare named in reference to him, and his fame is beyond lengthy
description."

Imam Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy was astonishing in his ability to produce the proofs to
discredit the innovators of misguidance. Abu Sahl as-Su`lukiyy, who was among the great
scholars and God-fearing people said: "We attended a debate between Imam al-Ash`ariyy
and some of the heads of the Mu`tazilah at the house of a prominent man in al-Basrah.

Imam al-Ash`ariyy debated them all and defeated every one of them! He dealt with them one
by one until he silenced each one of them. After that, they agreed on another session of debate.
When Imam al-Ash`ariyy showed up at the specified time, he found none of the Mu`tazilah
dared to show their faces. Imam al-Ash`ariyy told the house-boy to write on the door, "They
escaped."

Imam Abu `Abdullah Ibn Khafif, who was one of the great waliyys said: "When I was a young
man, I went to al-Basrah to meet Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy because I heard about him. When
I first entered al-Basrah, I saw a handsome shaykh. I asked him, "Where is the residence of
Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy?"

He said, "What do you want from him?" I said: "I would like to meet him." This shaykh told
me, "Come back tomorrow morning to this same location, and I shall help you with that."
I came the next morning, and went with that shaykh to a session in the house of a prominent
person. Present in that session were several scholars and knowledgeable people. When the
people saw that shaykh come in, they treated him respectfully and seated him in the best and
most prominent location in that session.

Then, one of the people there was asked a question pertaining to the creed. When that person
started responding, this shaykh interfered and began to debate the one who was asked the
question until he silenced him. I was astonished by the extent of that shaykh’s knowledge, so I
asked some of those who were near to me who this shaykh was. They told me this was Abul-
Hasan al-Ash`ariyy.

When the session was over and the people left, I followed him. He looked at me and asked,
"Young man, how did you find Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy?"

I said, "Just as I have heard about him, and I am your servant." Then I asked Imam al-
Ash`ariyy, "Why did you not start talking yourself?" Imam al-Ash`ariyy said, "I do not
initiate talking with those innovators of misguidance."

Imam al-Ash`ariyy did not initiate talking with innovators because he did not want to open a
door for them to speak unlawful words. He would not, however, allow them to get away with
speaking unlawful words should they initiate them. Rather, he would debate them and refute
them in accordance with what Allah obligated us to do in forbidding the unlawful (munkar)
and ordering the obligatory (maaruf). This showed a great level of understanding and
comprehension.

Some scholars said, "Al-Ash`ariyy had a strong insight." At first, Imam al-Ash`ariyy did not
reveal his identity to Ibn Khafif because, knowing the effect of the first impression on the
relationship between a shaykh and his student, he wanted Ibn Khafif’s first impression of him
to be very remarkable, which he established in the session of debate. This incident shows the
truthfulness of scholars’ saying that Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy was a great Sufi and a master in
the matters and secrets pertaining to the heart, in as much as he was a master in the fields of
the religious knowledge.

The Ustadh Abu-Ishaq al-Isfarayiniyy, who in his own right, was a great imam, said: "Next to
Imam Abul-Hasan al-Bahiliyy, I am like a drop in the ocean. I heard Imam al-Bahiliyy say
that compared to al-Ash`ariyy he was like a drop in the ocean." Before Abul-Hasan al-
Bahiliyy became a student of al-Ash`ariyy, he used to be one of the imams of the Shiah sect.
Imam al-Ash`ariyy debated him, and as a result, he left that which had had been following
and became a student of Imam al-Ash`ariyy. After that, he became one of the great scholars of
Ahl us-Sunnah.

The Judge: Abu Bakr Ibn al-Baqillaniyy said about himself, "I will be in the best of the levels
of my knowledge if I can understand the words of al-Ash`ariyy." Abu Bakr Ibn al-Baqillaniyy
reached a stage among the scholars of the school of Imam al-Ash`ariyy, such that if one said,
"the Judge said," without specifying further, the people would understand "the Judge" is Abu
Bakr Ibn al-Baqillaniyy.

He had a very sharp intelligence and clearly witnessed once when the caliph sent a message
with him to the King of the Romans. That Roman king had been told that al-Baqillaniyy
would not bow to a kafir, so he would not bow to that king. Thinking he was smart, that king
devised a way to make al-Baqillaniyy bow for him when he entered the room. He made the
doorway entrance so low, such that if one wanted to enter, he would have to bow down.
When al-Baqillaniyy arrived, he was so keen and quick that he immediately realized what was
intended. He turned around and entered backwards! At another time, al-Baqillaniyy entered
the session of that king when the king had the monks and their head priest with them.

Al-Baqilaniyy addressed their head priest mockingly by saying, "How is the wife doing, and
the children?" To that, the king said, "The caliph who sent you to us said you were among the
knowledgeable ones and among the great scholars of your nation. How is it you ignore the fact
the priests do not get married, they do not have children, and we clear them from that?"

Al-Baqillaniyy told him, "You clear the priests and monks from these things, and you do not
clear Allah from that? It is as if you hold them in a greater status than Allah!" The king, the
monks, and their head priest were dumbfounded! If this great, intelligent man, Imam al-
Baqillaniyy, used to say, "I would be in the best of the levels of my knowledge if I comprehend
the words of Imam al-Ash`ariyy," what would be the status of al-Ash`ariyy?

The endeavors of Imam al-Ash`ariyy in performing worship are astonishing. Some of his
companions mentioned that for almost twenty (20) years he prayed Fajr Prayer with the
ablution (wudu’) he performed for the Isha’ Prayer, i.e., he did not sleep. Imam al-Ash`ariyy
used to sustain himself from the proceeds of a village which his grandfather, Bilal, the son of
Burdah, left for his descendants with the intention they finance their needs from that village.

Imam al-Ash`ariyy’s share from that waqf was 17 dirhams for the entire year, amounting to
less than one and one-half dirham each month. Though this was so little, it was sufficient for
him for the entire month. That this sustained him for the month is an indication of the extent
of his detachment from this world.

In addition to his vast knowledge of tawhid, Imam al-Ash`ariyy was very skillful in the areas
of the fiqh and the hadith. He followed the school of Imam ash-Shafi`iyy and studied in that
area with Imam Abu Ishaq al-Marwaziyy, as it was mentioned by both: Imam Abu Bakr Ibn
Furak and Imam Abu Ishaq al-Isfarayiniyy.

Imam Abu Mansur al-Baghdadiyy said: "I heard Abdullah, the son of Mahmud the son of
Tahir, the Sufiyy say the following: “I saw Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy in the mosque of al-
Basrah after he had just silenced the Mu`tazilah in front of the people. One of those present
said to him, "We have acknowledged that you have knowledge as vast as the ocean in the area
of the creed (tawhid) I want to ask you a question pertaining to the fiqh."

Imam al-Ash`ariyy told him, "Ask whatever you want." This man chose to ask, "What do you
say about the one who prays without reciting the Fatihah?"

Immediately, Imam al-Ash`ariyy answered: "Zakariyya, the son of Yahya as-Suddiyy, told us
Abdul Jabbar told us, Sufyan told us, az-Zuhriyy told me, from the route of Mahmud, the son
of ar-Rabi, from the route of Ubadah the son of Samit, from the Prophet s.a.w, who said:

{ 9‫تاب‬9‫ الك‬9‫ة‬I‫ح‬9‫فات‬9‫أ ب‬I‫قر‬I‫ن لم ي‬I‫م‬9‫ ل‬I‫لة‬I‫} ل ص‬


which means: “The prayers are not valid for the one who does not recite the Fatihah“

Imam al-Ash`ariyy continued. He said, "Zakariyyah narrated to us, Bindar narrated to us,
Yahya, the son of Said narrated to us, from the route of Jaafar, the son of Maymun and Abu
Uthman, from the route of Abu Hurayrah r.a, who said: ‘The Prophet s.a.w ordered me to call
out in al-Madinah the prayers are invalid for the one who does not recite the Fatihah’."

The person who asked the question was silenced with astonishment at the vastness of Imam
al-Ash`ariyy’s knowledge in fiqh as well.

Imam al-Ash^ariyy narrated the hadith from the route of many shaykhs, among them:
Zakariyyah as-Sajiyy, Abu Khalifah al-Jumahiyy, Sahl, the son of Nuh, and others.

Abu Bakr Ibn Furak counted more than one hundred (100) authored books for Imam al-
Ash`ariyy, may Allah raise his rank. Al-Juwayniyy, the Imam of the Haramayn, at his time,
said the authored works of Imam al-Ash`ariyy were in excess of two hundred (200), among
which was the interpretation of the Qur’an. It was mentioned this interpretation of the
Qur’an was composed of 200 volumes. Among Imam al-Ash`ariyy’s authored works are:
1. Risalatu Istihsan al-Khawd fi `Ilm al-Kalam (The Praise worthiness of Practicing the
Knowledge of Kalam);
2. Kitab ar-Radd `alal-Mujassimah (A Refutation of Those who Attribute Bodily
Attributes to Allah);
3. An-Naqdu `ala al-Jubba’iyy (A Refutation of al-Jubba’iyy--the man who was his
teacher from the Mu`tazilah);
4. Kitabus-Sifat (The Attributes of Allah). In this book he refuted one of his own authored
works written at the time he was still following the madhhab of the Mu`tazilah);
5. Jawazu Ru’yatillahi Taala bil Absar (The Validity of Seeing Allah Taala);
6. Adab al-Jadal (The Manners of Debating);
7. Al-Ibanah (The Clarification) This is among his most famous books. However, today
you cannot find authentic printed copies of it. One of the unauthentic copies is
published today by the Mushabbiha and spread among the people It contains a great
deal of the Wahhabiyy’s misguidance, including an expression by which they claimed
that all the Muslims, upon making supplication to Allah, say: "O Lord, the One Who
inhabits the skies." This is ugly misguidance. Every person knows such a statement is
far from the truth. No one heard the Muslims say such a statement--nor was such an
expression found in any of the books Imam Abul-Hasan al-Ash^ariyy actually
authored. No such thing was found in the publications or the books authored by the
students of Imam Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy, nor the students of his students, nor the
students of the students of his students, nor any of the people who follow his school
(madhhab). This expression cannot be found among the scholars or the laymen. This,
in itself, is sufficient to prove this expression a falsehood! Let us all be warned about
this.

Due to the strength of the Ash`ariyys in the religion and their vast knowledge to refute and
expose those who deviate from the true path, many factions of misguidance, like the
Mu`tazilah,tried to defame and discredit the Ash`ariyys. However, the great scholars of Ahl
us-Sunnah managed to bury their misguidance. Nowadays, the Wahhabiyys who oppose the
millions of Muslims of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaah and declare them as blasphemers for
clearing Allah from bodily attributes, directions, places, manners of being, and all non-
befitting attributes, have launched slanderous statements and defamation at the Ash`ariyys
because the majority of Ahl us-Sunnah are Ash`ariyys.

The Mushabbiha accuse the Ash`ariyys of blasphemy, yet, when they teach they cannot
surpass quoting the great Ash`ariyys such as al-Bayhaqiyy. They cannot escape saying, "al-
Bayhaqiyy said," "an-Nawawiyy said," or "al-Bukhariyy said," because the scholars of Ahl
us-Sunnah, whether Maturidiyys or Ash`ariyys, are the ones who enjoy a continuous chain of
narration all the way back to the Prophet, whereas the Wahhabiys cannot claim the same.
Their chain of narration, from their ill school of thought, stops at their forefather, Ibn
Taymiyyah, who lived seven hundred years ago. As in the past, God willing, the scholars of
Ahl us-Sunnah will bury their misguidance.

The Judge of Judges, Abu Abdullah ad-Damghaniyy al-Hanafiyy replied to the following
question he received in Baghdad: "What do the honorable syhakhs say about a group of
people who joined to damn the Ash`ariyys and declare them as blasphemers?" He replied by
saying: "Such people have innovated an innovation of misguidance and committed a
forbidden matter. The people in charge should denounce such people and discipline them
satisfactorily so that others do not imitate them."

Shaykh Abu Ishaq ash-Shiraziyy commented on this reply by saying: "The Ash`ariyys are the
elite of Ahl us-Sunnah and the supporters of the laws of the Religion. They stood up to refute
the innovators of misguidance among the Qadariyyah and others. The one who slanders them,
in fact, slanders Ahl us-Sunnah. The one in charge of Muslims has to discipline such people in
a way to stop others from imitating them."

The great scholar, Diya’uddin Abu al-ˆAbbas Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn ^Umar Ibn Yusuf
Ibn Umar al-Qurtubiyy compiled a treatise which he called: Zajrut-Muftari `ala Abil-Hasan
al-Ash`ariyy, which means: Restraining the One Who Fabricates about Abul-Hasan al-
Ash`ariyy. In it, he refuted some innovators of misguidance who slandered Imam al-
Ash`ariyy. When Shaykh Taqiuddin ibn Daqiq al-^Id read it, he eulogized it.

Ustadh Abul-Qasim al-Qushayriyy said: "The people of hadith are all in agreement that Abul-
Hasan al-Ash^ariyy was an Imam of Hadith and his school is the same as the people of hadith.
He presented the essentials of the Religion according to the methodology of Ahl us-Sunnah
and he refuted the factions of misguidance. He was a drawn sword against the Mu^tazilah,
the innovators, and the apostates. The one who slanders him or defames him, in fact, speaks ill
of the entire Ahl us-Sunnah."

Imam al-Ash`ariyy’s reputation was widespread. He became very famous, and his students
spread throughout the different countries. His followers increased in numbers, including those
who took from him directly and those who took from him through others, until the people of
Ahl us-Sunnah became either Ash`ariyys or Maturidiyys.

Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy was not the first among the scholars of Ahl us-Sunnah to stand up
and defend the creed, but rather he followed the path of the scholars before him among the
scholars of Ahl us-Sunnah. Backing and supporting the school of Ahl us-Sunnah was known
long before Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy, however, he contributed to adding clarity and
clarification to the people about the creed of Ahl us-Sunnah.

Those who came after Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy followed his path. Since they identified
themselves with him, they are called "Ash`ariyys." A special school was not innovated for
them, rather, their school is the school of Ahl us-Sunnah. The way they support and back the
creed of Ahl us-Sunnah is the methodology of Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy.

Imam Al-Bayhaqiyy said: "Our Shaykh, Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy, did not make innovations
in our Religion. Rather, he took the sayings of the Companions and their followers and those
who came after them among the imams of the Essentials of Belief and he supported their
sayings by clarifying them further. "
Ibnus-Subkiyy said in his book, At-Tabaqat: "Know that Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy did not
innovate a personal opinion and did not start a new school. Rather, he confirmed the schools
of the Salaf and strove to carry out what the Companions of the Prophet had followed." When
one attributes himself to al-Ash`ariyy it is because Imam al-Ash`ariyy adhered to the
methodology of the Salaf and he produced the proofs in its support. Hence nowadays the one
who follows in the steps of al-Ash`ariyy in adhering to the methodology of the Salaf and
propagating the proofs in its support is referred to as an "Ash`ariyy."

Ibnus-Subkiyy, in the same book, reported the following saying of al-Ma’ayariqiyy al-
Malikiyy: "Abul-Hasan was not the first to speak the methodology of Ahl us-Sunnah. Rather,
he followed the steps of others in doing so. He supported a well-known school and contributed
to its credibility. Hence, he did not innovate a saying or a school of his own. Do you not see
that the school of the people of al-Madinah was attributed to Imam Malik? Hence, the one
who follows the school of the people of al-Madinah is called a Malikiyy. Imam Malik had only
followed the course of those who came before him and closely adhered to their method.
However, because Imam Malik shed light on the school and explained it clearly, it was
attributed to him. Likewise is the case of Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy; he only explained and
promoted the school of the Salaf and authored works in supporting it." This is why those who
genuinely follow the true school of Ahl us-Sunnah are called Ash`ariyys.

As for the one who wishes to review the books pertaining to the life and the writings of Imam
Abul Hasan al-Ash`ariyy, let him refer to what the Shaykh of ash-Sham and its historian:
Abul-Qasim Ibn Asakir wrote in his book, Tabyin Kadhib al-Muftari. In this book there are
details about the life of Imam Abul Hasan al-Ash`ariyy, the books which he authored, the
people who followed his madhhab,and his students.

He who looks thoroughly into this matter would realize the Ash`ariyys are the cavaliers in
bringing about achievements for the Muslims. He who looks thoroughly into the issues, the
matters, and the cases would realize the Ash`ariyys were the leaders and the pioneers in the
areas of religious knowledge and the areas of jihad. The scholars of hundreds of millions of
Muslims were Ash`ariyys.

Following are some of the prominent Ash`ariyys:

· Abu Ishaq al-Isfarayiniyy; famous for the title al-ustadh, "the very skillful one";
· The hafidh: Abu Nu`aym al-Asbahaniyy, the author of the book, Hilyat al-Awliya’;
· The famous Malikiyy judge: Abdul-Wahhab;
· Shaykh Abu Muhammad al-Juwayniyy , who was the one whose hand lit up after he died,
because he had written so many authentic religious judgments (fatwas);
· Abdul-Malik Abul-Ma^ali al-Juwayniyy , who is the son of Abu Muhammad al-Juwayniyy
and the famous imam of the Haramayn, the Haram of Makkah and the Haram of al-
Madinah;
· Abu Mansur at-Tamimiyy, the author of Al-Farqu Baynal-Firaq and ‘Usul ud-Din;
· The hafidh: al-Ismailiyy, who authored the book: Al-Mustakhraj `AlaSahih al-Bukhariyy;
· The famous hafidh: al-Bayhaqiyy;
· The hafidh: ad-Daraqutniyy ; who was among the giants of the hafidhs of hadith;
· The hafidh:, al-Khatib al-Baghdadiyy, who authored the famous book, The History of
Baghdad;
· The ustadh: Abul-Qasim al-Qushayriyy, the author of Ar-Risalah al-Qushayriyyah, a famous
book in Sufism;
· His son, known as Abun-Nasr;
· The shaykh: Abu Ishaq ash-Shiraziyy , who was a famous Shafi`iyy scholar who authored
At-Tanbih, Al-Muhadhdhab, and Al-Luma;
· The famous Shafi`iyy faqih: Nasr al-Maqdisiyy;
· Imam al-Ghazaliyy;
· Al-Farawiy y;
· Abul-Wafa' Ibn `Aqil al-Hanbaliyy;
· The Hanafiyy judge: ad-Damghaniyy, who was the judge of all judges in his era;
· Imam Abul-Walid al-Bajiyy, a famous Malikiyy scholar;
· The Imam, the Master: Ahmad ar-Rifa`iyy;
· The hafidh: Abul-Qasim Ibn Asakir;
· Ibnus-Sam`aniyy, who acquired the knowledge through about 1000 shaykhs and authored
the book: Al-Ansab;
The hafidh: as-Silafiyy;
· Al-Qadi `Iyad al-Malikiyy the author of Ash-Shifa;
· Imam an-Nawawiyy;
· Imam Fakhrud-Din ar-Raziyy, the author of the famous book of interpretation;
· Al-Qurtubiyy, who is also famous for his book of interpretation;
· The Shafi`iyy shaykh: Izzud-Din Ibnu Abdis-Salam, who was known for being strict in
bidding that which Allah made lawful and forbidding that which Allah made unlawful;
· The Malikiyy scholar, linguist, and faqih: Abu Amr Ibnul-Hajib;
· Al-Qadi Ibnu Daqiq al-`Id, who, according to some sayings, reached the level of ijtihad;
· Imam Ala’ud-Din al-Bajiyy, a famous Malikiyy scholar;
· The judge of the judges: Taqiyyuddin as-Subkiyy;
· The hafidh of Jerusalem: al-Ala’iyy;
· The hafidh: Zaynud-Din al-Iraqiyy, and his son, the hafidh, Abu Zur`ah;
· The Seal of the hafidhs: Ibn Hajar al-Asqalaniyy;
· The seal of the linguists, Imam Murtada az-Zabidiyy, who was a follower of the school
(madhhab) of Imam Abu Hanifah;
· The judge of the judges, the famous later Shafi`iyy scholar,: Zakariyya al-Ansariyy;
· The Sufi shaykh: Baha’ud-Din ar-Rawwas;
· The Mufti of the city of Makkah: Ahmad Ibn Zayni Dahlan , who authored a famous book:
The History of Islamic States;
· The famous Indian scholar: Waliyyullah ad-Dahlawiyy;
· The Mufti of Egypt, the shaykh: Muhammad Ulaysh al-Malikiyy;
· The shaykh of the Azhar Mosque in Egypt, who lived about 100 years ago: Shaykh Abdullah
ash-Sharqawiyy;
· The famous shaykh from Tripoli: Abul Mahasin al-Qawuqjiyy, who died less than 100 years
ago in Egypt. Much of the narration which has reached us today was narrated through him;
· Imam Husayn al-Jisr at-Tarabulsiyy of Tripoli, who is known for his books: Ar-Risalah al-
Hamidiyyah and Al-Husun al-Hamidiyyah, both authored to defend the Religion of Islam
against the atheists at the time of the Ottoman Sultan, ^AbdulHamid II;
· Our shaykh: Abdullah al-Harariyy, who is the shaykh of the Shafi`iyy madhhab and the
Rifa`iyy tariqah today.

These aforementioned are among the most famous scholars of this nation--and they are the
followers of Imam Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariyy. Others, not mentioned, like at-Tahawiyy and
other scholars of the Hanafiyy school were followers of Imam al-Maturidiyy, who, like Imam
Abul-Hasan al-Ash`ariy, supported the methodology of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaah.

Some of followers Imam al-Ash`ariyy among the Sultans and officials:

· The famous government minister: Nidham al-Mulk, who was among the first to establish
Islamic schools in the countries of the Muslims, the one who built the great school known as
al-Madrasah an-Nidhamiyyahin Baghdad, Iraq;
· The just sultan and hero: Salahud-Din al-Ayyubiyy, who defeated the Crusaders in the battle
of Hittin, and drove them out of Jerusalem. Salahud-Din al-Ayyubiyy ordered the matters of
the creed, according to the methodology of Imam al-Ash^ariyy to be recited on the top of the
minarets every morning after the call (adhan) for the Subh prayer. Ibnu Hibah al-Makkiyy, a
famous Ash`ariyy scholar, authored a book pertaining to the creed--in poetry--which he
presented as a gift to Salahud-Din al-Ayyubiyy. Salahud-Din al-Ayyubiyy ordered this book
taught to the children in the schools. Despite the fact Salahud-Din al-Ayyubiyy was so
occupied with fighting the battles he was renowned to have fought, he took the time each day
to teach his small children from a book of the Aqidah. He used to ask his children to recite
before him what they had memorized from this book--even though he would be in the front
lines, preparing for the battle, to ensure they held the proper creed.
· The king: al-Kamil al-Ayyubiyy, who defeated the Crusaders in Dimyat and took the King of
France and other kings as prisoners of war;
· The Sultan: al-Ashraf Khalil, the son of al-MansurSayf ad-Din Qalawun, the one who
completely uprooted the Crusaders from the countries of ash-Sham;
· All the sultans of the Mamluks were known to be followers of Imam Abul Hasan al-
Ash`ariyy;
· The Sultan: Muhammad al-Fatih al-Uthmaniyy, who conquered Constantinople, and about
whom Imam Ahmad related the Prophet s.a.w said: “Constantinople shall be opened, and
praised is the army and its leader who shall open it.“ ;
· All the Uthmaniyy sultans who ruled were followers of Imam al-Ash`ariyy.

So, let it be known, the people of Ahl us-Sunnah are either followers of Imam al-Ash`ariyy or
Imam al-Maturidiyy. For the Shafi`iyys, the Malikiyys, the Hanafiyys, and the noble among
the Hanbaliyys, when talking or writing about the matters of the Religion or the Essentials of
the Belief, they used and are still using the expressions of Imam al-Ash`ariyy.

It was by following the methodology of Imam al-Ash`ariyy that these aforementioned


defended the Religion of Islam. Imam Abu Nasr al-Qushayriyy said: "I clear myself from the
person who opposes me in two matters: The love that I have for Abu Bakr, and following the
creed of Imam al-Ash`ariyy."

Those are the scholars of the Religion, and all of them are Ash`ariyys. The scholars who were
not Ash`ariyy were Maturidiyys and between the Ash`ariyys and the Maturidiyys, there are
no differences in what pertains to the Essentials of the Belief. Although many Ash`ariyy
scholars were mentioned, we did not intend to mention every single Ash`ariyy. After all, who is
able to count the stars in the sky, and who can count the sand particles of the desert?

The Ash`ariyys are the Knights of Knowledge and the Pioneers of Success. What has been
mentioned gives one an indication of what was intended, in as much as the title of a book
reflects the essence of its content.

Imam al Ash`ariyy died in the year 324 AH. The people of Ahl us-Sunnah wept for his death.
May Allah raise his rank and endow upon us the ability to follow his example.

Allah knows best.

Darulfatwa - The Islamic High Council of Australia

Похожие интересы