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ECE-522 CMOS Integrated Circuits-I

Project report :Design of A Two Stage Miller Compensated Op-Amp


Submitted By: Romesh Kumar Nandwana
Abstract:
In this project A two stage miller compensated Op-Amp has been designed for the given
specifications. Open loop gain of the amplifer is achieved as 68.53dB with the phase margin of
62.27 degree and Unity gain bandwidth of 16.677MHz on 6pF load capacitor .Power Supply
rejection ratio and Input reffered noise voltages have been measured on the Op-Amp .Circuit
simulation was performed using BSIM3 model with Cadence Custom IC Design Suite on 0.18um
process.
Introduction:
Operational Amplifiers are one of the most basic building blocks of the analog circuit. In this
project a miller compensated opamp has been designed for the given specifications.
For designing the compensation network Miller compensation or Pole Splitting technique is used
in which we choose the compensation capacitor value in such a way that the second pole is at
unity gain frequency and the zero of the circuit is pushed to the Left Half plane to provide the
better phase margin.
The designed circuit consist of 8 transistor with a bias current source and comensation Capacitor
and Zero nulling resistor.
Design Approch:
For designing the circuit at first the process parameters are extracted from the model using some
basic techniques. To neglect the short channel effect minimum channel length is choosen as
540nm and W/L ratio of transistors is calculated in the multiplication of this channel length only.
For the determiniation of K and Vt the following relation is used. For small Vds voltage
From here the k and Vt are calculated for NMOS and PMOS.
Similarly from the other relation Id = Io (1+ VDS) We can calculate the value of for both
NMOS and PMOS transistors. The calculated values of the parametes are shown in the table1.

TABLE-1
Parameter
Value
KN
290A/V2
KP
70A/V2
VTN
450mV
VTP
450mV
N
0.085
P
0.085
Now form here we set the overdrive voltage for the design as 200mV and bias current as 20mu
A.Current in the second branch is selected as 5 times of the bias current so that there will be no
major effect of the load capacitance on the slew rate and it will be only dependedent upon the
Compensation capacitance value. Because no information is given about the slew rate in the
design specification so these value is choosen as for the ease of designing the circuit.
Now from the gain constraint we divide our over all gain into two stages such as gm of the
second stage is 5 times then the gm of differencial stage. From here we calculate the gain of the
differential stage with the consideration of Unity gain freq as UGB= Gm1/Cc where gm1 is the
gain of the first stage and Cc is the compensation capacitance which is not known yet. And from
the dc bias current values we can calculate the gain of both stages for the selected W/L ratio.
W/L of M6 is selected in such a manner so that we can avoid the systematic offset error.
And from here the w/l ratio of all the transistors is decided as given in the following table.
To include the effect of junction capacitances in the design source and drain diffusion area is
defined as AD=AS= 0.6 $\mu$ m *W and source and drain periphery is defined as PD=PS= 1.2
$\mu$ m + 2 W where W is the width of the MOS transistor.
Now for miller compensation the second pole is put at the unity gain freq and from this relation
the value of compensation capacitor is calculated.
Cc = gm1/gm2 *CL where gm1 and gm2 are the respective gm of first and second stage and CL
is the load capacitance.
With this value of Cc the unity gain freq value is verified and it is more the the desired
specification.
And AC response is measured in this condition. From here we can see that the gain and unity
gain bandwidth are meeting the desing specifications but the phase margin is low as we have a
right half plane zero.

So to move this zero into the left half plane we put a zero nulling resistor in series with
compensation capacitor and its value is calculated from the formula tha R > 1/gm2 and the value
of R is calculated form here.
Results :
Figure 1 shows the schematic of the designed 2stage opamp and table 2 shows the W/L ratio of
all the transistors.

Parameter
W1
W3
W5
W7
Rz

TABLE-2
Value Parameter
30*L W2
2*L
W4
12*L W6
60*L W8
2.5K Cc

Value
30*L
2*L
21*L
6*L
1.2pF

Figure-1: Opamp Schematic


Table 3 shows the comparison of desired specifications and the simulated results. And The gain
and phase response is shown in figure 2 and the common mode range of the opamp can be seen
in figure 3.

Parameter
Open Loop Gain
Phase Margin
Unity gain freq
ICMR

TABLE-3
Specifications
>68dB
>60o
>12Mhz

Figure :2 Open Loop Response

Figure :3 ICMR

Simulated result
68.35dB
63.5o
16.677MHz
-7.48Vto 1.019V

from figure 5 we can see the PSRR of the opamp.

Figure5-a PSRR due to VDD

Figure5-b PSRR due to VSS

Figure 6 gives us the Input reffered noise voltage at 1KHz and 4MHz.

Figure:6 Input reffered Noise


Conclusion:
The opamp has beed designed successfully and meet the desired specifications.

Refernces :
[1]. Kartikeya Mayaram,Lacture Notes ECE-522,Oregon State University, 2010.

Appendix
NMOS Characterization curves

Id Vs Vgs Curve for VDS=20mV

Id Vs Vds Curve for Vgs=700mV

PMOS Characterisation curves

Id Vs Vgs Curve for VDS=20mV

Id Vs Vds Curve for Vgs=700mV

Pole Zero Summery:

****************
PZ Analysis `pz'
****************
Warning from spectre during PZ analysis `pz'.
BSIM3v3 MOS Transistor - frequency dependent components are present in
the circuit, approximated as AC equivalents at 1.000000e+03Hz for pz
analysis.
Poles (Hz)
Real
1
2
3
4
5

Imaginary

-7.36454e+03
-2.37168e+07
-7.00802e+07
-4.58731e+08
-6.45264e+08

0.00000e+00
0.00000e+00
0.00000e+00
+/- 1.87173e+08
0.00000e+00

Qfactor
5.00000e-01
5.00000e-01
5.00000e-01
5.40019e-01
5.00000e-01

Zeros (Hz)
at V(Out,0)/V7
Real
1
2
3
4
5

Imaginary

-6.24905e+07
-9.90301e+07
-4.51702e+08
6.21998e+08
3.39008e+09

Constant factor =
DC gain =

0.00000e+00
0.00000e+00
+/- 2.68905e+08
0.00000e+00
0.00000e+00
1.40654e-03

2.61611e+03

Qfactor
5.00000e-01
5.00000e-01
5.81893e-01
-5.00000e-01
-5.00000e-01