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KWAME NKRUMAH UNIVERSITY OF

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

CE 261: PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN


A REPORT ON WASTE MANAGEMENT IN
THE UNIVERSITY HALL
BY: GROUP 1
NOVEMBER 2015

GROUP ONE MEMBERS

NAMES
SIGNATURE

1. OJO DAVID
2. ESHUN JULIUS
3. YEBOAH AFIA SERWAA
4. ABBEY NATHANIEL NII KWEI
5. MIREKU SASU SAMUEL
6. JIKIEMI OMOLADE BABALOLA
7. OSE MICHAEL BONSU
8. BOATENG KOFI AGYENIM
9. SULEMANA MOHAMMED HABIB
10.
MOHAMMED IBRAHIM
11.
OBENG YEBOAH EMMANUEL

INDEX NUMBER

2218014
2215814
2219814
2210014
2217214
2216914
2218614
2214814
2219414
2216614
2217614

INTRODUCTION
Generation of waste is a byproduct of human activities. Since this cannot be
avoided, the one thing we can do is to manage the disposal so that it does not
affect our environment and living conditions.
OBJECTIVE OF SURVEY

The objective of this report is to investigate the waste management and disposal
system of the University Hall of KNUST. This report also illustrates the composition
of the waste produced in the hall and the routes that it takes to the transfer site.
SCOPE
This report is focused primarily on the system for solid waste disposal in the
University Hall, and the route it takes to the transfer site.

CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID WASTE


This is the process by which we categorized the composition of our samples when
sorting. We sorted our samples into three broad categories namely compostable,
recyclable and residual.
COMPOSTABLE: These are waste organic materials which decompose under the
action of micro and macro organisms which catalyse their breakdown. This type of
waste is useful especially in the production of fertilizer for crops since it and
contains large amounts of macro nutrients that enrich the soil.
Examples include: food residue, fruit and vegetable leftovers, plant cuttings like
flowers, leaves and branches.
RECYCLABLE: This type of waste contains materials that can be changed into other
forms and used for a different purpose. They mostly contain inorganic materials
which take a long time to decompose. Their chemical composition allows them to be
subjected to change by either the application of heat or other chemical processes.
Examples include: plastics, ferrous scrap metals, glass, aluminium office papers and
tin cans

RESIDUAL: This type of waste is economically unfriendly and thus non-compostable and non-

recyclable. It is mainly residue of clothes and contains materials like cotton, and fiber materials.

METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION


During our investigation, we employed various means of obtaining data. The
methods we adopted involved interviews, visual inspections and collection of
samples for analysis
INTERVIEWS
In the course of our investigation, we visited the sanitation chairman of the hall,
Master Tzidi to find out the nature of the sanitation management system in the hall.
He was very helpful in providing information. He also highlighted some of the
challenges that he faces in his duties as the sanitation chairman.
We also interviewed other members of the sanitation staff who were also very
insightful in helping us understand the management and disposal of waste in the
hall.
VISUAL INSPECTION
At this stage in our investigation, we explored the distribution of the waste bins in
the hall, and the transfer site for the garbage.
SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS
We also collected samples over a period in order to analyze the composition of the
garbage produced in the hall. After collecting our samples, we weighed and
recorded the mass of each sample, and then we sorted them into three categories,
recyclables (composed of plastics and papers), organic and inorganic or residual
waste.

CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTE PRODUCED


The data we collected from our samples is illustrated bellow:
SAMPLE 1

WASTE MATERIALS
PLASTICS & PAPERS
ORGANIC
INORGANIC
TOTAL

MASS(kg)

PERCENTAGE (%)
29.42
19.34
51.24
100

MASS(kg)

PERCENTAGE (%)
44.41
23.82
31.76

1.05
0.69
1.84
3.58

SAMPLE 2

WASTE MATERIALS
PLASTICS & PAPERS
ORGANIC
INORGANIC

1.51
0.81
1.08

TOTAL

3.40

100

SAMPLE 3

WASTE MATERIALS
PLASTICS & PAPERS
ORGANIC
INORGANIC
TOTAL

MASS(kg)

PERCENTAGE (%)
40.4
40.1
18.69
100

MASS(kg)

PERCENTAGE (%)
17.10
33.25
49.64
100

1.60
1.62
0.74
3.96

SAMPLE 4

WASTE MATERIALS
PLASTICS & PAPERS
ORGANIC
INORGANIC
TOTAL

0.72
1.40
2.09
4.21

DATA ANALYSIS
According to the results of our investigation, there are about three hundred and
thirty rooms in the hall, with about thousand three hundred residents in the hall.
The hall produces about nine thousand liters of solid waste per day. And from our
analysis of the waste produced by the hall, the solid waste is composed mostly of
recyclable waste, and lesser amounts of organic waste. The hall also produces
moderate amounts of inorganic residual waste.

DISPOSAL ROUTE
When garbage leaves the rooms, it goes either to small perforated litter bins
located along the corridors of the hall or larger barrels located underneath the
stairs. Every morning, the cleaning staff collects all of these and convey them in
larger dustbins with wheels to the transfer site which is located behind the hall. And
every week, a garbage truck comes to collect the garbage.

EVALUATION AND CONCLUSION


The majority of the garbage the hall produces is mostly inorganic and recyclable
materials. Also the small waste bins that are placed along the corridors are
inefficient since they cannot contain the smaller grains of solid waste like dust.
Besides these, the cleaning crews only work in the mornings and therefore as the
day goes by, and filth accumulate in other places in the hall, it remains until the
cleaning crew comes by the next day.
From the above information it is safe to conclude that the existing system needs to
be improved to account for the short comings in the system.

RECOMMENDATION

There can be separate bins for the recyclable materials since they make up a
significant portion of the waste produced by the hall.
Also, the perforated dust bins that occupy the corridors can be exchanged for
ones without holes in them to avoid the problems of the escaping of smaller
grains.