Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 17

1] A handful of basic definitions:

The global balance Law of Mass :

The principle states that the total mass of a medium is conserved as the medium
undergoes a deformation. The law may be stated as: In the absence of sources and
sinks, the total mass of a body before a given deformation is equal to the total mass
of the body after transformation.
This law establishes the continuity of mass of a continuous medium since the total
mass remains unchanged during a deformation. If 0 and dV denote, respectively, the
mass density and the element of volume before deformation and if and dv denote
the corresponding quantities after deformation, then we must have
which implies that the time rate of change of the total mass in
the body is zero.

Differences twixt heat (Q) and temperature (T):

Were quite often confounding heat and temperature, though, even if they are
cognate terms, theyre in fact thoroughly different one from each other
If were placing upon the flame of a gas burner, a pan filled with cold water, the water
temperature is gradually stepping up, while the water is receiving heat from the gas
It might seem legit to suppose that when
an object is receiving heat, his
temperature as a consequence is
increasing too. Yet, this statement is ab
initio rejected; when the water begins to
be boiling around 100C, were observing
that the temperature isnt augmenting
anymore, while heat is still received.
Work, potential & kinetic energy: From
Newtonian mechanics, we know going
from state 1 to state 2 that the work is
done by a force moving through a
distance. The word work was first used
in this sense by the French mechanician
Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis.

This concept was originally introduced in mechanics fields, weve had initially the
kinetic energy, associated with the motion state of a body, then, the potential energy
referring to the position state and the forces deriving from it, videlicet, the state

Thus, we define the mechanic energy m as the summation of the kinetic energy,
and the potential energy associated to the external and internal forces thereof.

m=Wex+Win ; with m= cp,ex p, in

In the aforesaid expression, the mechanical energy and the work are distinct: the first
concept is a state function, which doesnt depend on the path, while the other hinges
around it.
So, the work is said to be, not an energy, but a transfer of energy.
Therefore, the mechanical energy isnt a conservative unit; hence, can we introduce
a new concept that generalizes the previous one, while being conservative?

The answer is precisely given by the first law of thermodynamics, which is a case of
the law of conservation of energy, stating that the total energy of an isolated system
is constant;
W+Q=U [Joules]
With: U, the total change in internal energy of a system
Q is the heat exchanged between a system and its surroundings
W is the work done by or on the system
Internal energy:
This subject of thermodynamics is rather complicated, for there are sundry ways to
describe the same thing. When we want to describe the comportment of a gas, we
can say that the pressure depends on the temperature and the volume. Or, we can
also say that the volume depends on the temperature and the pressure. Or
concerning the internal energy U, we can say that it depends on both temperature
and volume, if these are the variables that we arbitrarily selected but we might just
as well express it through the couples {temperature, pressure}, or {Volume, pressure}
, hence, we can build as much variable functions as we want : U-TS is a volume and
temperature function For ease concerns, well express it with the temperature and
the volume, both regarded as independent variables:

In the Joules experiment: Our tank being thermally isolated, U is equal to zero;
we can expound the first law of thermodynamics to the particular case of the
adiabatic process

What are the definitions at stake with the mechanical equivalent of heat?

2] A smidgen of History
Surprisingly, the energy is a somewhat recent concept. The word was coined in
1807 by T.Young, famous for his contribution in optics fields, it stems from the greek
word nergia meaning action force. It had already been used by W.Leibnitz in
1678, under the form of an amount which was preserved in free fall; the sum of the
momentum (kinetic energy), and the dead force (the potential energy).
Concerning the potential energy, an approximation of the value of G had been
determined through the Henry Cavendish experiment in 1798, thus leading to the
expression of the acceleration of gravity (g), used by James Joules to calculate the
work he was providing to his system with weights attached to pulleys.
Gravity is stretching through whopping distances. Instead of being obliged to gaze
towards the stars, why couldnt we take a lead ball and a bead, and then watch the
bead going straight to the lead ball? The main hindrance of the experiment, put is
such a simple way, is the extreme weakness or sensitivity of the force, so it had to be
done with a thorough minutiae. While measuring the fiber twisting, Cavendish was
then able to express the intensity of the resulting force; heres a simplified view of the
apparatus he used:

In Cavendish's original experiment, the following values

were used:
Mass of large ball M = 158 kg (348 lbs) | Radius of
large ball rM = 30.5 cm (12 in) | Mass of small ball m =
0.73 kg (1.6 lbs) | Radius of small ball rm = 5 cm (2 in) |
Separation of large balls L = 1.86 m (73.3 in) |
Separation of small balls L = 1.86 m (73.3 in) | Distance
between large and small balls R = 0.225 m (8.85 in)
More recent experiments have used other values.
The derived equation for G is: G = 22LRe2/T2M
Where :

The calculated value of G from this experiment is: G = 6.674*1011 m3/kg-s2

Application: Mearth = 5.973 1024 Kg | Rearth=6.378 106m

g= 9,799 [m.s-2]

About the kinetic energy: In 1720, Dutch physicist Willem Gravesande conducted
an experiment in which brass balls were dropped with varying velocity onto a soft
clay surface; Gravesande found in his experiments that a ball with twice the velocity
of another would leave an indentation four times as deep, that three times the
velocity yielded nine times the depth, and so on. He shared these results with Emilie
Gabrielle du Chatelet, and with Voltaire, after which she subsequently corrected
Newton's formula E = mv to E = mv.
In her 1740 Lessons in Physics, Chatelet, supposedly, combined the theories of
Gottfried Leibniz and the practical observations of Dutch physicist Willem
Gravesande to show that the energy of a moving object is proportional not to its
velocity, as had previously been believed by Newton, Voltaire and others, but to the

square of its velocity. Hence it is said that whereas Gravesande provided the
experimental data for the formula of kinetic energy, Chatelet provided the formulaic
explanation. (See eoht.info for more details)

Historical Milestones:

In 1524, Paracelsus adopted Aristotles four element theory, but reasoned that they
appeared in bodies as three principles. Paracelsus saw these principles as
fundamental, and justified them by recourse to the description of how wood burns in
fire. The Parcelsus theory included the cohesive principle, so that when it left in
smoke the wood fell apart, the mercury principle represented the aerial by-products
of the combustion, the sulphur represented the fuel, and utterly the salt represented
the solid by-products
(Besides, the etymology of the word gas stems from Paracelsus use of the word
khaos, in the occult sense of "proper elements of spirits" or "ultra-rarified water".)

1593: Galileo develops a water thermometer

In Circa, 1635, Italian physicist Giovanni Baliani showed that by placing an iron pot
filled with water on a spinning metal disk, it was possible to make water boil. This
experiment is said to have been one of the first references to an experimental
determination of the equivalence between heat and work
In 1669, German physician and chemist Johann Becher updated Paracelsus sulphur
model of how things burn with a terra pinguis model of combustion, wherein terra
pinguis was considered as the fatty, oily material substance of bodies that gives
things the property of combustion.
1744 : The Celsius scale was poised to be used widely

1760s : Joseph Black develops calorimetry

In 1798, the cannon boring experiment conducted by Benjamin Thompson showed

that the work expended by a 2 horsepower engine, turning cannon boring drill bit at a
rate of thirty-two revolutions per minute, inside of a cannon barrel, which itself was
submerged in a tank of water, will generate heat in the cannon barrel to the effect
that it caused the water to boil at 2 hours and 30 minutes.

1824 : Nicolas Lonard Sadi Carnot discusses idealized heat engines.

1840s: James Prescott Joule relates heat and work with its Paddle Wheel
In 1703, German chemist and physician Georg Stahl, one of Bechers students,
updated the terra pinguis model with a phlogiston model of combustion. The
deficiencies of this theory, as shown by experiment in later decades, led French
chemist Antoine Lavoisier in the 1780s to develop the caloric theory of combustion.
The deficiencies of this theory led German physicist Rudolf Clausius in the 1850s to
develop an entropy model replacement for caloric and heat, which in turn gave birth
to the science of thermodynamics (1865).
Thermodynamics has a chequered history, unfortunately, it was not blessed with the
crispness of development that mechanics realized with Newton. In fact, its growth is
filled with false steps, errors and debates.

Its almost till the middle of the XIXth century that were still considering heat as fluid
called the caloric. This massless fluid, capable of pouring from one object to
another one, that cannot be created neither destroyed, provides a rather complete

explanation of many experiences of that time. Julius Robert Mayer, James Prescott
Joules and Hermann Von Helmholtz are historically related to the abandonment of
the caloric theory and the generalization of the principle of energy conservation that
considers thermal phenomena.
------------------------------------------------------------------Mayer was the first to suggest that the various forms of energy, including heat, are
convertible into one another without loss. When a certain amount of a certain kind of
energy disappears, an energetic equivalent is popping up in some other form as a
Alas, Mayer and his idea suffered from a lack of consideration. Having received a
medical training in Germany, he became interested in physics and published his
observations in 1843. The article, written in a metaphysical style, isnt considered to
be particularly convincing. The willy-nilly resistance against Mayer insights is partly
due to the fact that it isnt downright egregious that he understands the laws of
Newton and even less physical concepts intervening in a theory of energy
conservation. (entropy)
James Joules 19th century experiments with beer can be used to illustrate the notion
of entropy. The English brewer, whose name lives on in the standard unit of energy,
sealed beer in a thermally isolated tub containing a paddle wheel that was connected
to weights falling under gravity outside. The wheels rotation warmed the beer,
increasing the disorder of its molecules and therefore its entropy.
But hard as we might try, we simply cannot use Joules set-up to decrease the beers
temperature, even by a fraction of a millikelvin. Cooler beer is, in this instance, a
state regrettably beyond the reach of physics

1] heat>work transformations
A) The most well-known: The Aelopile
A 50AD Alexandrian Hero-type aeolipile rigged to
a pulley contraption so to be able to do
mechanical work: namely the raising of a weight
(mg) by a certain distance in height (h), during
which process a certain quantity of heat Q
converted into a certain quantity of work W
(mgh), in a certain proportionate ratio (J) of work
to heat.

B) insight of the heat>work transformation efficiency

The gist of thermodynamic hinges
essentially on considerations of that ilk:
Because a rubber strip is more rigid at
increased temperatures than lower ones,
it must be possible to haul a weight while
begetting work.

We can envision this machine of a quite foolish aspect to perform exactly the abovementioned function. Its formed of a bicycle wheel in which all
the spokes are rubber-made. If we were to apply heat at one
side of the wheel with a pair of lamps, the rubber strips would
gain some rigidity, causing the gravity center to shift and
therefore entailing a spinning of the wheel. The efficiency of
such a machine would be extremely scant. 400 Watts are
dispelled by the two lamps, but that might scarcely lift a flea!
An interesting question, tough, is to know if we could obtain
more work from the heat in a more efficient way, according to
the Carnots formula, we put:

2] Joules experiment (work>heat transformation)

Under steady conditions:

Measurement & uncertainty:

Before performing a measuring, its appropriate to mull over the following elements:
The measurement principle (scientific basis of a measurement)
The method of measurement (set of practical & theoretical operations to be
implemented during the execution of a measurement)
The procedure (detailed set of the employed methods)
The measurand (particular quantity subject to measurement)
The process variables of influence (quantities influencing the measurement
The equipment: -accuracy error: it will be given by an instrument calibration
-precision error: It may properly come through repetition of measurements of a
same measurand
Process: hardships due to implementation difficulties
Materials: Elastic deformation, surface attrition, global geometry
Environment; the temperature (acting on the measurand or upon the measurement
instrument), the electromagnetic field (electro-magnetic compatibility), the input
tension fluctuations, the vibrations, the atmospheric pressure, etc
People: -reading error (interpolation, interpretation, issues with analogic devices)
-Positioning variability
-visual reflexes (measurement taking, over time)

Uncertainty: The measurement uncertainty is the associated parameter to a

measurement, characterizing the values dispersion which could be reasonably be
attributed to the measurand.

Type-uncertainty of type A: The estimation of that uncertainty is an evaluation

method by the statistical analysis of observations series. Its obtained through a
probability law deducted from an observed distribution.
Most often, the best available estimation of the expected value 0 , of a quantity (q)
varying haphazardly, and for which weve obtained n independents observations q k
in the same conditions is the arithmetic mean value of the n observations :

Type-uncertainty of type B:
The type-uncertainty of type B is used when the type-uncertainty of type A reach little
values, or when the measure wasnt obtained through repeated observations. In the
other cases, it is just added to the type-uncertainty of type A.

Combined Standard uncertainty:

In the worst of all the cases, the uncertainty around the measurement of the
temperature elevation (the most fluctuating parameter) is defined this way:

(1) In order to simplify the calculus, we will consider that the following set of
uncertainties is insignificant in the above formula; {the time, the variation of the
caloric capacity through temperature augmentation, and the inherent masses
of the objects}.
(2) After a few insights weeks, Ive realized that it was more professional to write
the formulas in Latek code, heres a brief overview of what it may looks like in
our case :

Quite handy, isnt it?

Conclusion: Further improvements and remarks:

While weve been apprised of the sliding friction this year (Coulomb law), relative to
the lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contacts, determining the precise amount of
energy delivered by the friction of the beater to the oil, its still a pretty fuzzy step (the
fluid viscosity isnt given, but it ought to have the highest possible value to produce
more heat). We have the formula for the dissipated energy of the trunk, nonetheless,
the developed kinetic energy of the anchor-shaped piece remains to be calculated
(most likely with the maximaV software), and by doing so, this might lead to a pair of
further optimizations, mainly about the ideal dimensions.

Kinetic energy of a cylinder under rotation around an axis:

The kinetic energy density at point x, and at time t, of a body moving with velocity
v(x,t) is defined as .v. v

Where, m is the mass [kg], R, the radius[m] and , the angular velocity.

How could we measure a viscosity? (Dynamic)

The simpler system consists to let falling a bead of a given radius and density in the
concerned fluid in order to measure its viscosity and calculate the time necessary for
the ball to cover a certain distance, once its maximal speed is reached.

Its a simple and fast method, but it is undeniably lacking some accuracy, besides the
obtained value would have to be corrected thereafter (inter alia, with a correction of
the Reynolds number)
Another kind of viscometer is based on the fluid motion through a capillary tube.
Were then measuring the time taken by the flow to pour through the tube under the
action of a differential pressure.

Could we measure more accurately the temperature?

The quartz thermometer is a high-precision, high
accuracy temperature sensor.
It measures temperature by measuring the frequency
of a quartz crystal oscillator.
The oscillator contains a specially cut crystal that
results in a linear temperature coefficient of
frequency, so the measurement of the temperature is
essentially reduced to measurement of the oscillator
Resolutions of .0001 C, and accuracy of .02 C
from 0-100 C are achievable. (Wikipedia)

Remark about the critical radius:

Were now considering a cylinder (our calorimeter), with L being the length and
r=r0+e, if we were to apply an insulation around it, with a thermal conductivity in
W/(k.m), then we would obtain the following formula :

We can demonstrate that the thermal resistance is passing by a

Minimal point called the critical radius

Therefore, if we want to insulate correctly our tank, we need to properly define our
variables, otherwise, we could be increasing the thermal losses.

Are there Alternative methods to an increased thermal

Its possible to use an infrared camera to measure the
losses (U) instead of Q, but as the cylinder cavity isnt
isotropic, the thermal transfer would not be homogenous,
and considering a mathematical point of view, the
realization would be slightly more complicated
Utterly, we could just as well spend some time pondering
the idea of an external regulated environment, in order to
maintain equal temperatures at both sides of the cylinder

Explanatory scheme (with a resistance):

Thereby, we could ascertain that U (mCv) is really equal to

zero, in order to have W=Q.

Bibliography :
Physique & chimie, Magister 2000, Philippe Auzou
Chaptire XI, PHYSIQUE Kane/Sternheim, InterEditions, ISBN 2
7296 0098 1
THERMODYNAMIQUE fondements et applications J.Ph.Prez &
A.M Romulus, Masson, ISBN 2-225-84265-5
Lecture Notes On Thermodynamics Joseph .M Power,
Departement of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University
of Notre Dame
Le cours de physique de Feynman mcanique 2 Editions Duno