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1. What type of clauses are adjective, adverb and noun clauses - independent or subordinate?

Answer: subordinate.
2. What is the difference between adjective and adverb phrases & adjective and adverb clauses?
Answer: Adjective and adverb clauses have both a subject and a verb.
3. Identify the italicized clause as independent or subordinate. If subordinate, tell whether it is a
noun, adjective or adverb clause.
Everyone who went to school remembers their favorite teacher.
Answer: subordinate, adjective
4. Identify the italicized clause as independent or subordinate. If subordinate, tell whether it is a
noun, adjective or adverb clause.
I found a quarter and I bought a piece of gum.
Answer: independent
5.Identify the italicized clause as independent or subordinate. If subordinate, tell whether it is a
noun, adjective or adverb clause.
Whoever needs to sleep should go to bed.

Using Adverb Clauses


What is an Adverb Clause?
"He saw Mary when he was in New York" and "They studied hard because they had a test" are
adverb clauses. Adverb clauses express when, why, opposition and conditions and are dependent
clauses. This means that an adverb clause can not stand by itself - in other words, "When he went
to New York." is not a complete sentence. It needs to be completed by an independent clause.
Example: He went to the Guggenheim museum when he was in New York.
Punctuation
When an adverb clause begins the sentence, use a comma to separate the two clauses. Example:
As soon as he arrives, we will have some lunch.. When the adverb clause finishes the sentence
there is no need for a comma. Example: He gave me a call when he arrived in town.

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For more information about how to use these words click on the link for an explanation of the
usage.
List of Words (subordinating conjunctions) Introducing Adverb Clauses

TIME
after, before,
when, while,
as, by the
time (that),
as soon as,
since, until,
whenever,
the first time
(that), the
next time
(that), the
last time
(that), every
time (that) more
information
on adverb
clauses with
time
expressions

CAUSE
AND
EFFECT

because,
since, as, as
long as, so
long as, due
to the fact
that - more
information
on adverb
clauses with
expressions
of cause and
effect

OPPOSITION CONDITION

although, even
though,
though,
whereas, while
- more
information on
adverb clauses
with
expressions of
opposition

if, only if,


unless,
whether (or
not), even if,
providing
(that), in case
(that),
provided
(that), in the
event (that) more
information on
adverb
clauses with
condition
expressions

sing Adverb Clauses with Time Expressions


These type of clauses are often called "time clauses" in English grammar books and follow
specific patterns. Take a look at the chart below to study the various usage of different time
expressions.
Punctuation
When an adverb clause begins the sentence use a comma to separate the two clauses. Example:
As soon as he arrives, we will have some lunch.. When the adverb clause finishes the sentence
there is no need for a comma. Example: He gave me a call when he arrived in town.
For more information about how to use these words click on the link for an explanation of the
usage.
Adverb Clauses with Time

He was talking on
the phone when I
arrived.

When she called, he 'When' means 'at that moment, at that


had already eaten
time, etc.'. Notice the different tenses used
lunch.
in relationship to the clause beginning with
when. It is important to remember that
I washed the dishes 'when' takes either the simple past OR the
present - the dependent clause changes
when my daughter
tense in relation to the 'when' clause.
fell asleep.

When

We'll go to lunch
when you come to
visit.

We will finish before


he arrives.
'Before' means 'before that moment'. It is
important to remember that 'before' takes
either the simple past OR the present.
She (had) left
before I telephoned.

Before

After

While, as

We will finish after


he comes.

'After' means 'after that moment'. It is


important to remember that 'after' takes the
present for future events and the past OR
She ate after I (had)
past perfect for past events.
left.

She began cooking


while I was finishing 'While' and 'as' mean 'during that time'.
my homework.
'While' and 'as' are both usually used with
the past continuous because the meaning of
'during that time' which indicates an action
As I was finishing
my homework, she in progess.
began cooking.

By the time

By the time he
finished, I had
cooked dinner.

We will have
finished our

'By the time' expresses the idea that one


event has been completed before another. It
is important to notice the use of the past
perfect for past events and future perfect
for future events in the main clause. This is
because of the idea of something happening
up to another point in time.

homework by the
time they arrive.

Until, till

Since

I'll wait till you


finish.

He will let us know


as soon as he
decides (or as soon
as he has decided).

Whenever he
comes, we go to
have lunch at
"Dick's".

Whenever,
every time

'Until' and 'till' express 'up to that time'. We


use either the simple present or simple past
with 'until' and 'till'. 'Till' is usually only used
in spoken English.

'Since' means 'from that time'. We use the


I have played tennis
present perfect (continuous) with 'since'.
since I was a young
'Since' can also be used with a specific point
boy.
in time.

As soon as

The first,
second, third,
fourth etc.,
next, last time

We waited until he
finished his
homework.

We take a hike
every time he visits.

The first time I went


to New York, I was
intimidated by the
city.

I saw Jack the last


time I went to San
Francisco.

The second time I


played tennis, I
began to have fun.

'As soon as' means 'when something


happens - immediately afterwards'. 'As soon
as' is very similar to 'when' it emphasizes
that the event will occur immediately after
the other. We usually use the simple present
for future events, although present perfect
can also be used.

'Whenever' and 'every time' mean 'each


time something happens'. We use the
simple present (or the simple past in the
past) because 'whenever' and 'every time'
express habitual action.

The first, second, third, fourth etc., next,


last time means 'that specific time'. We can
use these forms to be more specific about
which time of a number of times something

sing Adverb Clauses with Expressions of Cause and


Effect
These type of clauses explain the reasons for what happens in the main clause. Example: He
bought a new home because he got a better job.. Take a look at the chart below to study the
various usages of different expressions of cause and effect. Note that all of these expressions are
synonyms of 'because'.
Punctuation
When an adverb clause begins the sentence use a comma to separate the two clauses. Example:
Because he had to work late, we had dinner after nine o'clock.. When the adverb clause finishes
the sentence there is no need for a comma. Example: We had dinner after nine o'clock because
he had to work late.
For more information about how to use these words click on the link for an explanation of the
usage.
Adverb Clauses of Cause and Effect

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Because

They received a
high mark on
their exam
because they had
studied hard.
Notice how because
can be used with a
I'm studying
variety of tenses
based on the time
hard because I
want to pass my relationship
between the two
exam.
clauses.
He works a lot of
overtime
because his rent
is so expensive

Since

As long as

'As long as' means


the same as
As long as you
because. 'As long
have the time,
as' tends to be
why don't you
used in more
come for dinner?
informal spoken
English.

As the test is
difficult, you had
better get some
sleep.

'As' means the


same as because.
'As' tends to be
used in more
formal, written
English.

Inasmuch as the
students had
succesfully
completed their
exams, their
parents rewarded
their efforts by
giving them a
trip to Paris.

'Inasmuch as'
means the same as
because.
'Inasmuch as' is
used in very
formal, written
English.

We will be
staying for an
extra week due
to the fact that
we haven not yet
finished.

'Due to the fact


that' means the
same as because.
'Due to the fact
that' is generally
used in very
formal, written
English.

As

Inasamuch
as

Due to the
fact that

'Since' means the


same as because.
Since he loves
'Since' tends to be
music so much, used in more
he decided to go informal spoken
to a
English.
conservatory.
Important note:
"Since" when used
as a conjunction is
They had to
leave early since typically used to
their train left at refer to a period of
time, while
8.30.
"because" implies a
cause or reason.

See More About:

intermediate level English

English grammar

adverb clauses

Using Adverb Clauses to Express Conditions


These type of clauses are often called "if clauses" in English grammar books and follow
conditional sentence patterns. Take a look at the chart below to study the various usage of
different time expressions.
Punctuation
When an adverb clause begins the sentence use a comma to separate the two clauses. Example:
If he comes, we will have some lunch.. When the adverb clause finishes the sentence there is no
need for a comma. Example: He would have invited me if he had known.
More information on the correct tense usage for the conditionals
More information on the correct tense usage for the conditionals

If

Even if

If we win,
we'll go to
Kelly's to
celebrate!

'If' clauses express the


conditions necessary for
the result. If clauses
are followed by
expected results based
She would buy on the condition. More
a house, if she information on the
correct tense usage for
had enough
the conditionals
money.

Even if she
saves a lot,
she won't be
able to afford
that house.

In contrast to
sentences with 'if'
sentences with 'even if'
show a result that is
unexpected based on
the condition in the
'even if' clause.
Example: COMPARE: If
she studies hard, she
will pass the exam AND
Even if she studies
hard, she won't pass
the exam.

Whether
or not

'Whether or not'
expresses the idea that
neither one condition or
another matters; the
result will be the same.
Notice the possibility of
Whether they
inversion (Whether they
have money or have money or not)
not, they
with 'whether or not'.
won't be able
to come.

Unless she
hurries up, we
won't arrive in
time.

We won't go
unless he
arrives soon.

In the case
you need me,
I'll be at
Tom's.

Unless

In case
(that), in
the event
(that)

They won't be
able to come
whether or not
they have
enough
money.

'Unless' expresses the


idea of 'if not'
Example: Unless she
hurries up, we won't
arrive in time. MEANS
THE SAME AS: If she
doesn't hurry up, we
won't arrive in time.
'Unless' is only used in
the first conditional.

'In case' and 'in the


event' usually mean
that you don't expect
something to happen,
but if it does... Both are
I'll be studying
used primarily for
upstairs in the future events.
event he calls.

We'll give you


your bicycle
only if you do
well on your
exams.

Only if you do
well on your
exams will we
give you your
bicycle.

Only if

'Only if' means 'only in


the case that
something happens and only if'. This form
basically means the
same as 'if'. However, it
does stress the
condition for the result.
Note that when 'only if'
begins the sentence
you need to invert the
main clau

Using Adverb Clauses to Show Opposition


These type of clauses show an unexpected or non self-evident result based on the dependent
clause. Example: He bought the car even though it was expensive. Take a look at the chart below
to study the various usages of adverb clauses showing opposition.
Punctuation
When an adverb clause begins the sentence use a comma to separate the two clauses. Example:
Even though the it was expensive, he bought the car.. When the adverb clause finishes the
sentence there is no need for a comma. Example: He bought the car even though it was
expensive.
For more information about how to use these words click on the link for an explanation of the
usage.
Adverb Clauses Showing Opposition

Even
though,
though,
although

Even though it
was expensive,
he bought the
car.

Notice how 'though,


even though' or
'although' show a
Though he loves
situation which is
doughnuts, he
contrary to the main
has given them
clause to express
up for his diet.
opposition. Even
though, though and
Although he
although are all
course was
synonyms.
difficult, he
passed with the
highest marks.

Whereas you
have lots of time
to do your
homework, I
have very little
time indeed.

Mary is rich,
while I am poor.

Whereas,
while

'Whereas' and 'while'


show clauses in
direct opposition to
each other. Notice
that you should
always use a comma
with 'whereas' and
'while'.

Back to ESL Resources | Back to Glossary

subordinate clause: A clause that has a subject and predicate but does not express an
independent idea. Also referred to as a dependent clause. There are three kinds of
subordinate clauses: adjective clauses, adverbial clauses, and noun clauses.
Examples of subordinate clauses:
While you were sleeping,
Even though I am hungry,
Language and Sentence Skills Practice

107

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Review D: Clauses and Sentence


Structure
EXERCISE A Underline the subordinate clause in each of the following sentences.

On the line provided,


identify the clause by writing ADJ for adjective clause,ADV for adverb clause, or N
for noun clause.
Example 1. While we were shopping, we lost one of our packages.
1. The forest fire started because someone had not smothered a campfire.
2. The family that bought the house next door is from Seattle.
3. Did you know that Joel is the new team captain?
4. Mr. OBrien will buy the store if the bank will lend him the money.
5. The girl who won the golf match has practiced diligently.
EXERCISE B For each of the following sentences, underline each independent
clause once and each
subordinate clause twice. Then, identify each sentence according to structure. On
the line provided,
write S for simple sentence,CD for compound sentence,CX for complex sentence, or
CD-CX for compoundcomplex
sentence.
Example 1. Ive enjoyed this class since weve been studying Yellowstone National
Park.
6. Did you know that Yellowstone National Park is the oldest of our national parks?
7. I dont know if you have ever visited Yellowstone, but you should plan to see it
soon.
8. The first recorded trip to the Yellowstone geysers was made in 1807 by John
Colter.
9. Colters reports of rainbow-colored pools, spouting geysers, and boiling mudholes
were dismissed as hallucinations.

10. After 1810, a number of trappers and scouts visited the region, but few people
believed the stories that these explorers brought back.
11. In 1870, an expedition that was headed by Henry D. Washburn and Nathaniel P.
Langford finally discovered the truth behind the stories.
12. The next year, Dr. Ferdinand Hayden, head of the U.S. Geological Survey, led a
scientific
expedition to Yellowstone; he brought with him an artist and a photographer.
13. Their reports captured the interest of the nation, and Congress quickly acted to
preserve the region as a national park.
14. In 1988, much of Yellowstones forest and meadowland was consumed by fire,
which
was allowed to burn unchecked.
15. In the event of fire, park policy is to let nature take its course.
EXERCISE B Identify the underlined clause in each of the following sentences by
writing above it I
for independent clause,ADJ for adjective clause,ADV for adverb clause, or N for
noun clause.
Example 1. Chang never doubts for a moment that he is entitled to go with us on
trips.
11. Aunt Jo has a fox terrier that becomes a nervous wreck on seeing Jo packing for
a vacation.
12. Chang does not quiver a whisker, though, for he believes that cats always go on
vacations.
13. When our car is packed and ready, he hops in cheerfully.
14. He avoids the drivers seat, willingly leaving the driving to whoever wants to
drive.
15. Sleeping is what Chang likes best about a car trip.
16. He slips under the front seat to take the long midday nap that every other
sensible cat takes.
17. He curls up politely and gives whoever is sitting in the front seat plenty of
legroom.
18. That the rest of us remain awake probably baffles him.
19. In his view, the smartest traveler is one who arrives at his or her destination
with the least
worry and trouble.
20. Chang always seems content when we arrive at our destination.
XERCISE A Underline the subordinate clause in each of the following sentences.
Then, identify that
clause by writing above it ADJ for adjective clause,ADV for adverb clause, or N for
noun clause.
Example 1. As soon as we saw the cat, we wanted to adopt him.
1. My family and I adopted a Siamese cat, whom we named Chang.
2. That we have pampered Chang is an understatement.
3. Chang certainly senses that he is an important member of our family.
4. At times, in fact, he treats us as if we were his pets.
5. When we sit down to eat, Chang leaps promptly to the top of a nearby table.
6. Sitting there quietly, he purrs his contentment with the food that we give him.
7. Chang usually will eat what we like to eat.
8. Although he prefers tuna, he also enjoys other kinds of food.

9. Chang does not leave his table until we have cleared away the dishes from our
meal.
10. After eating, Chang lies down in his basket, where he sleeps until snack time.

1. I had an accident and took my car to the garage. My husband asked me where
________.
a. is my car
b. my car was
c. my car is
d. was my car
e. is your car?

2. The old lady next door must have a lot of cats. I don't know how many
_______________.
a. cats does she have
b. does she has cats
c. she has cats
d. cats she has
e. cats has she

3. Do you know ____________ from the earth? I have no idea.

a. how far the moon is


b. how far is the moon
c. how the moon is far
d. if how far the moon is
e. whether how is the moon far

4. Your brother is playing his music too loud. I can't hear what ____________ .
a. is saying your brother
b. that your brother is saying
c. is saying your brother
d. your brother is saying
e. your brother says

5. When I left home, my uncle gave me some advice. He said __________ give up.
a. I shouldn't
b. that shouldn't
c. don't
d. that I don't

e. no

6. Jill didn't want to go to the car show. Her husband insisted that ___________ with
him.
a. she come
b. she came
c. she had come
d. she comes
e. she has come

7. My boss wants this report immediately. He demanded that it ______________ ready


by 5:00.
a. is
b. will be
c. be
d. was
e. should be

8. Did he tell you where __________ the report when you finish?
a. should you put

b. you to put
c. you put
d. to put
e. will you put

9. My friend predicted _____________ receive a lot praise for my work.


a. that I would
b. that I
c. what would I
d. what I
e. me to

10. My friend saw an accident. He told me ____________ at the scene of the accident.
a. if he'd seen
b. what he saw
c. what he'd seen
d. whether he saw

e. that he'd seen

11. Is it true that all movies will be available online? _______ is unbelievable!
a. That all movies will be available
b. All movies will be available
c. Due to the fact that all movies will be available
d. It is that all movies will be available
e. Being available all movies

12. Can you tell me how to fix my computer? That depends on ____________ an old
computer.
a. have you
b. whether you have
c. that have you
d. if have you
e. about your having

13. Is it true __________ people are saying about the new laptops?
a. that what

b. that
c. if
d. whether or not
e. what

14. _______________ light-weight is important.


a. A computer is
b. Is a computer
c. If a computer is
d. Whether or not a computer is
e. Is a computer

15. What are you going to do with your old computer? Nothing! _________ is too
expensive.
a. That I want to do
b. What I want to do
c. That what I want to do
d. What do I want to do

e. If what I want to do
Quizzes

Links

Introduction
A clause is a group of words that contain a subject and a verb. Clauses can
take the place of different parts of speech.
For instance, you are probably familiar with adjective clauses.
The man, who looked sleepy, sat down.
Who looked sleepy is an adjective clause. It is taking the place of an adjective. An adjective is
used to describe nouns and so do adjective clauses.
We could re-write the sentence with an adjective.
The sleepy man sat down.
Similarly, a noun clause can take the place of a noun. This lesson will explain noun clauses, give
examples of noun clauses, and then provide several quizzes to practice forming noun clauses.

Noun Clauses - Explanations & Examples


There are three basic types of noun clauses. These types are 1) noun
clauses that start with a question word (where, how, who, when, why), 2)
noun clauses that start with whether or if, and 3) noun clauses that start with
that.

1. Noun Clauses that Start with a Question


Noun clauses that start with a question are usually used to answer a
question. The following examples should better explain this.

Where does Sarik live?


I don't know where Sarik lives.
"where Sarik lives" is a noun clause. We could answer this question
without a noun clause by saying the following.

I don't know Sarik's address. The noun phrase, Sarik's address,


replaces with the noun clause, where Sarik lives.

What time is it?


I don't know what time it is.
"what time it is" is a noun clause. We could answer this question
without a noun clause by saying the following.
I don't know the time. In this case, the noun phrase, the time, replaces
the noun clause, what time it is.

2. Noun Clauses that Start with Whether or If


Noun clauses that start with whether or if are used to answer yes/no type
questions. Whether and if are usually interchangeable. The following
examples should better explain this.

Does Judy own a Honda?


I don't know if Judy owns a Honda.
"if Judy owns a Honda" is a noun clause. We could answer this
question without a noun clause by saying the following.
I don't know the answer. In this case, the noun phrase, the answer,
replaces the noun clause, if Judy owns a Honda.

Will Sadine be at work on Friday?


I don't know whether Sadine will be at work on Friday.
"whether Sadine will be at work on Friday" is a noun clause. We could
answer this question without a noun clause by saying the following.
I don't know the answer. In this case, the noun phrase, the answer,
replaces the noun clause, whether Sadine will be at work on Friday.

3. Noun Clauses that Start with That.


Noun clauses that start with that are used to answer questions in which
person who is answering is thinking, giving an opinion, or using a mental
activity verb. The following examples should better explain this.

Is Dr. Elimelech a good instructor?


I think that Dr. Elimelech is a good instructor.
"that Dr. Elimelech is a good instructor" is a noun clause. This noun
clause could be omitted by saying the following.
I think so.

Do you know the location of an ATM?

I believe that there is an ATM in the supermarket.


"that there is an ATM in the supermarket" is a noun clause.
Most of the time, native speakers will drop the word that. It is perfectably
acceptable to say the following.
I think that Dr. Elimelech is a good instructor.

OR

I think Dr. Elimelech is a good instructor.

I believe that there is an ATM in the supermarket.

OR

I believe there is an ATM in the supermarket.

Using Clauses as Nouns, Adjectives, and Adverbs


If a clause can stand alone as a sentence, it is an independent clause, as in the following
example:
Independent
the Prime Minister is in Ottawa
Some clauses, however, cannot stand alone as sentences: in this case, they are dependent
clauses or subordinate clauses. Consider the same clause with the subordinating conjunction
"because" added to the beginning:
Dependent
when the Prime Minister is in Ottawa
In this case, the clause could not be a sentence by itself, since the conjunction "because" suggests
that the clause is providing an explanation for something else. Since this dependent clause
answers the question "when," just like an adverb, it is called a dependent adverb clause (or

simply an adverb clause, since adverb clauses are always dependent clauses). Note how the
clause can replace the adverb "tomorrow" in the following examples:
adverb
The committee will meet tomorrow.
adverb clause
The committee will meet when the Prime Minister is in Ottawa.
Dependent clauses can stand not only for adverbs, but also for nouns and for adjectives.

Noun Clauses
A noun clause is an entire clause which takes the place of a noun in another clause or phrase.
Like a noun, a noun clause acts as the subject or object of a verb or the object of a preposition,
answering the questions "who(m)?" or "what?". Consider the following examples:
noun
I know Latin.
noun clause
I know that Latin is no longer spoken as a native language.
In the first example, the noun "Latin" acts as the direct object of the verb "know." In the second
example, the entire clause "that Latin ..." is the direct object.
In fact, many noun clauses are indirect questions:
noun
Their destination is unknown.
noun clause
Where they are going is unknown.
The question "Where are they going?," with a slight change in word order, becomes a noun
clause when used as part of a larger unit -- like the noun "destination," the clause is the subject of
the verb "is."
Here are some more examples of noun clauses:
about what you bought at the mall
This noun clause is the object of the preposition "about," and answers the question "about
what?"
Whoever broke the vase will have to pay for it.
This noun clause is the subject of the verb "will have to pay," and answers the question "who
will have to pay?"
The Toronto fans hope that the Blue Jays will win again.
This noun clause is the object of the verb "hope," and answers the question "what do the fans
hope?"

Adjective Clauses
An adjective clause is a dependent clause which takes the place of an adjective in another clause
or phrase. Like an adjective, an adjective clause modifies a noun or pronoun, answering
questions like "which?" or "what kind of?" Consider the following examples:
Adjective
the red coat
Adjective clause
the coat which I bought yesterday
Like the word "red" in the first example, the dependent clause "which I bought yesterday" in the
second example modifies the noun "coat." Note that an adjective clause usually comes after
what it modifies, while an adjective usually comes before.
In formal writing, an adjective clause begins with the relative pronouns "who(m)," "that," or
"which." In informal writing or speech, you may leave out the relative pronoun when it is not the
subject of the adjective clause, but you should usually include the relative pronoun in formal,
academic writing:
informal
The books people read were mainly religious.
formal
The books that people read were mainly religious.
informal
Some firefighters never meet the people they save.
formal
Some firefighters never meet the people whom they save.
Here are some more examples of adjective clauses:
the meat which they ate was tainted
This clause modifies the noun "meat" and answers the question "which meat?".
about the movie which made him cry
This clause modifies the noun "movie" and answers the question "which movie?".
they are searching for the one who borrowed the book
The clause modifies the pronoun "one" and answers the question "which one?".
Did I tell you about the author whom I met?
The clause modifies the noun "author" and answers the question "which author?".

Adverb Clauses
An adverb clause is a dependent clause which takes the place of an adverb in another clause or
phrase. An adverb clause answers questions such as "when?", "where?", "why?", "with what
goal/result?", and "under what conditions?".

Note how an adverb clause can replace an adverb in the following example:
adverb
The premier gave a speech here.
adverb clause
The premier gave a speech where the workers were striking.
Usually, a subordinating conjunction like "because," "when(ever)," "where(ever)," "since,"
"after," and "so that," will introduce an adverb clause. Note that a dependent adverb clause can
never stand alone as a complete sentence:
independent clause
they left the locker room
dependent adverb clause
after they left the locker room
The first example can easily stand alone as a sentence, but the second cannot -- the reader will
ask what happened "after they left the locker room". Here are some more examples of adverb
clauses expressing the relationships of cause, effect, space, time, and condition:
cause
Hamlet wanted to kill his uncle because the uncle had murdered
Hamlet's father.
The adverb clause answers the question "why?".
effect
Hamlet wanted to kill his uncle so that his father's murder would
be avenged.
The adverb clause answers the question "with what goal/result?".
time
After Hamlet's uncle Claudius married Hamlet's mother, Hamlet
wanted to kill him.
The adverb clause answers the question "when?". Note the change in word order -- an adverb
clause can often appear either before or after the main part of the sentence.
place
Where the whole Danish court was assembled, Hamlet ordered a
play in an attempt to prove his uncle's guilt.
The adverb clause answers the question "where?".
condition
If the British co-operate, the Europeans may achieve monetary
union.
The adverb clause answers the question "under what conditions?"