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Higher
Mathematics

HSN24400
Course Revision Notes
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Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

Contents
Unit 1 – Mathematics 1
Straight Lines 1
Functions and Graphs 2
Differentiation 5
Sequences 6
Unit 2 – Mathematics 2
Integration 8
Trigonometry 9
Circles 12
Unit 3 – Mathematics 3
Vectors 12
Further Calculus 15
Exponentials and Logarithms 16
The Wave Function 18

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Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

Straight Lines
Distance Formula
Distance = ( x2 − x1 ) + ( y2 − y1 ) between points ( x1, y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 )
2 2

y2 − y1
m= between the points ( x1, y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 ) where x1 ≠ x2
x 2 − x1

eg x = 2
eg y = 4
Lines with the sam e gradient are parallel
eg The line parallel to 2 y + 3 x = 5
has gradient m = − 32 since 2 y + 3 x = 5
2 y = −3 x + 5
y = − 32 x + 25 (m ust be in the form y = mx + c )
Perpendicular lines have gradients such that m × mperp. = −1
eg if m = 23 then mperp. = − 23

m = tan
y
is the angle that the line m akes with
positive direction the positive direction of the x-axis
x

## Equation of a Straight Line

The line passing through ( a, b ) with gradient m has equation:
y − b = m( x − a )

Medians
B x1 + x 2 y1 + y2
M is the m idpoint of AC, ie M = ,
2 2
BM is not usually perpendicular to AC, so m1 × m2 = −1
A C cannot be used
M
To work out the gradient of BM, use the gradient form ula

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Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

Altitudes
B
D is not usually the m idpoint of AC
BD is perpendicular to AC, so m1 × m2 = −1 can be used to
A C work out the gradient of BD
D
Perpendicular Bisectors

D
CD passes through m idpoint of AC
A B
C CD is perpendicular to AB, so m1 × m2 = −1 can be used to
C B find the gradient of CD
Perpendicular bisectors do not necessarily have to appear
D within a triangle – they can occur with straight lines
A

## Functions and Graphs

Composite Functions
Example
If f ( x ) = x 2 − 2 and g ( x ) = 1x , find a form ula for
(a) h ( x ) = f ( g ( x ) )
(b) k ( x ) = g ( f ( x ) )
and state a suitable dom ain for each.
(a) h ( x ) = f ( g ( x ) ) (b) k ( x ) = g ( f ( x ) )
= f ( 1x ) = g( x 2 − 2)

= ( 1x ) − 2
2 1
=
x −2
2

1
= −2 Dom ain: { x : x ∈ , x ≠ ± 2 }
x2
Dom ain: { x : x ∈ , x ≠ 0}
You will probably only be asked for a dom ain if the function involved a fraction or an
even root. Rem em ber that in a fraction the denom inator cannot be zero and any
num ber being square rooted cannot be negative
eg f ( x ) = x + 1 could have dom ain: { x : x ∈ , x ≥ −1}

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Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

Graphs of Inverses
To draw the graph of an inverse function, reflect the graph of the function in the
line y = x
y y=x

y = g( x )

y = g−1 ( x )

O x

## Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Exponential Logarithmic
y y y y = loga x
y = ax, a >1 y = ax, 0 < a <1

( a ,1)
O x
1 (1, a ) 1 (1, a ) 1

O x O x

Trigonometric Functions
y = sin x y = cos x y = tan x
y y y
1 1

O x O x O x
–1 –1
180° 360° 180° 360°
180° 360°
Period = 360° Period = 360° Period = 180°
Am plitude = 1 Am plitude = 1 Am plitude is undefined

Graph Transformations
The next page shows the effect of transform ations on the two graphs shown below.
( 2, 2 ) y = g ( x )
y y
1

O x
–1 0 3 x –1
180° 360°

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Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

## Function Effect Effect on f ( x ) Effect on sinx °

f ( x ) + a Shifts the graph y y = g( x ) + 1 y y = sin x ° + 1
a up the ( 2, 3 ) • 2
y-axis
1
• • ( 3,1)
( −1,1) 0 x
0 x 180° 360°

## f ( x + a ) Shifts the graph y y = g ( x + 1) y y = sin ( x − 90 ) °

−a along the •
(1, 2 ) 1
x-axis
0 x
–2 0 2 x –1
180° 360°
− f (x) Reflects the y y y = − sin x °
y = − g( x )
graph in the 0 1
x-axis –1 3 x
0 x
• ( 2, − 2 ) –1
180° 360°

## f (−x ) Reflects the ( −2, 2 ) y y = g( −x ) y = sin ( − x ° ) y

graph in the •
1
y-axis
0 x
–3 0 1 x –1
−360° −180°
kf ( x ) Scales the graph y ( 2, 4 ) y = 2 g ( x ) y y = 12 sin x °
vertically •
1
Stretches if 2
k >1 − 12
0 x
Com presses if –1 0 3 x
k <1 180° 360°

## f ( kx ) Scales the graph y (1, 2 ) y = g(2x ) y y = sin 2 x °

horizontally •
1
Com presses if
k >1 0 x
Stretches if x
− 12 0 3 –1
k <1 2 180° 360°
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Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

Differentiation
Differentiating
If f ( x ) = ax n then f ′ ( x ) = anx n −1
Before you differentiate, all brackets should be m ultiplied out, and there should be no
fractions with an x term in the denom inator (bottom line), for exam ple:
3 −2 1 − 12
1
= x
1 −2 = 3x = x
3x 2 3 x2 x

Equations of Tangents
Tangents are straight lines, therefore to find the equation of a tangent, you need a point
on the line and its gradient to substitute into y − b = m ( x − a )
You will always be given one coordinate of the point which the tangent touches
Find the other coordinate by solving the equation of the curve
Find the gradient by differentiating then substituting in the x-coordinate of the point

Example

Find the equation of the tangent to the graph of y = x 3 at the point where x = 9 .
y = x3 y = x3 At x = 9, m = 32 × 9 2
1
y − b = m(x − a)

= 93 = x2
3
= 32 9 y − 27 = 92 ( x − 9 )

= 32 × 3 2 y − 54 = 9 x − 81
= 33 dy 3 12
= x 2 y = 9 x − 27
= 27 dx 2 = 92
( 9, 27 )
dy
Stationary points occur at points where =0
dx
You m ust justify the nature of turning points or points of inflection

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Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

## Graphs of Derived Functions

y y y
0
0 0
– +
+ –
+ – + –
0 +
x x x
0 0

y y y

+ +
+
x – – x
– + +
x

Optimisation
These types of questions are usually practical problem s which involve m axim um or
m inim um areas or volum es
Rem em ber you m ust show that a m axim um or m inim um exists

Sequences
Linear Recurrence Relations
A linear recurrence relation is in the form un+1 = aun + b . Also be aware that this m ay be
written as un = aun−1 + b
b
If −1 < a < 1 then a lim it l = exists. You m ust state this whenever you use the lim it
1− a
form ula

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Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

Polynomials
The degree of a polynom ial is the value of the highest power, eg 3 x 4 + 3 has degree 4
Synthetic division (nested form ) can be used to factorise polynom ials

Example
4 x 3 − 7 x 2 + 11
Find .
x +2
–2 4 –7 0 11 Rem em ber to put in 0
if there is no term
–8 30 –60
4 –15 30 –49

4 x 3 − 7 x 2 + 11
= 4 x 2 − 15 x + 30 rem ainder − 49
x +2
ie 4 x 3 − 7 x 2 + 11 = ( x + 2 ) ( 4 x 2 − 15 x + 30 ) − 49

## If the divisor is a factor then the rem ainder is zero

If the rem ainder is zero then the divisor is a factor

## Completing the Square

The x 2 term m ust have a coefficient of one. If it does not, you m ust take out a com m on
factor from the x 2 and x term , but not the constant
In the form y = a ( x + p ) + q the turning point of the graph is ( − p, q )
2

Example
Write 3 x 2 − 12 x + 7 in the form a(x + p)2 + q .
3 x 2 − 12 x + 7
= 3( x 2 − 4x ) + 7
= 3 ( x 2 − 4 x + ( −2 )2 − ( −2 )2 ) + 7
= 3 ( ( x − 2 )2 − 4 ) + 7
= 3 ( x − 2 )2 − 12 + 7
= 3 ( x − 2 )2 − 5
Note that in this exam ple, the graph is ∪ -shaped since the x 2 coefficient is positive; and
the turning point is ( 2, − 5 ) .

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Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

The Discriminant
The discrim inant is part of the quadratic form ula and can be used to indicate how m any
roots a quadratic has. For the quadratic ax 2 + bx + c :

## If b 2 − 4 ac > 0 , the roots are real and unequal (distinct) 2 roots

If b 2 − 4 ac = 0 , the roots are real and equal (ie repeated roots) 1 root

If b 2 − 4 ac < 0 , the roots are not real; they do not exist no roots

The discrim inant can also be used to calculate the num ber of intersections between a
line and a curve. To use it, you m ust first equate them and set equal to zero, before
using the discrim inant
Rem em ber if b 2 − 4 ac = 0 , the line is a tangent

Integration
Integrating
ax n +1
ax n dx = +c
n +1
As with differentiation, all brackets m ust be m ultiplied out, and there m ust be no
fractions with an x term in the denom inator

Examples
dx x 2 + 5x 7
1. Find . 2. dx
8
x5 x2
dx 1 x 2 + 5x 7
= dx 2
dx = x −2 ( x 2 + 5 x 7 ) dx
8
x5 8
x5 x
= x
− 58
dx = x 0 + 5 x 5 dx

x8
3
= 1 + 5 x 5 dx
= 3 +c
8 = x + 56 x 6 + c
3
= 83 x 8 + c
= 38 8 x 3 + c

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Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

## The Area under a Curve

b
If F ( x ) is the integral of f ( x ) , then f ( x ) dx = F (b ) − F ( a )
a
y
y = f (x)

a b x

Rem em ber that areas split by the x-axis m ust be calculated separately and any negative
signs ignored; these just show that the area is under the axis.

## The Area between two Curves

b
The area between the graphs of y = f ( x ) and y = g ( x ) is defined as a
f ( x ) − g ( x ) dx
y
y = g( x )

## If the lim its are not given, f ( x ) and g ( x )

should be equated to find a and b
x
a b y = f (x)

Trigonometry
Background Knowledge
You should know how to use all of the inform ation below:
SOH CAH TOA
sin x
tan x =
cos x
sin 2 x + cos2 x = 1
a b c
The sine rule: = =
sin A sin B sin C
b2 + c 2 − a2
The cosine rule: a = b + c − 2bc cos A or cos A =
2 2 2

2bc

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Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

## The area of a triangle, A = 12 ab sin C

CAST diagram s
Exact values:

2 30°
2 45° 3
1
45° 60°
1 1

You should know how to convert between radians and degrees:

## 360° = 2 90° = 2 45° = 4 ÷ 180 × → Radians

Degrees 
180° = 60° = 3 30° = 6 × 180 ÷ → Degrees
5 × 180
eg 56 = = 150°
6

Trigonometric Equations
Look at the restrictions on the dom ain, eg 0 ≤ x ° < 360, or 0 ≤ x <
Be aware of whether the answer is required in degrees or radians
Rem em ber a CAST diagram whenever you are asked to “solve”

Examples
1. Solve 3sin 2 x° = 1 where 0 ≤ x ° < 360 .
3sin 2 x ° = 1
3 ( sin x ° ) = 1
2

( sin x ° )2 = 13
sin x ° = ± 13
S A
x ° = sin −1
( ± 13 ) T C

## x° = 35.3° x° = 180 − 35.3 x° = 180 + 35.3 x° = 360 − 35.3

= 144.7° = 215.3° = 324.7°
Solution set = {35.3°, 144.7°, 215.3°, 324.7°}

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Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

## 2. Solve 2 sin 2 x − 1 = 0 , 0 ≤ x < 2 .

2 sin 2 x − 1 = 0
2sin 2 x = 1
sin 2 x = 12 S A
2 x = sin −1 ( 12 ) T C

## 2 x ° = 30° 2 x ° = 180° − 30°

x ° = 15° 2 x ° = 150°
x ° = 75°
2 x ° = 360° + 30° 2 x ° = 360° +180° − 30°
2 x ° = 390° 2 x ° = 510°
x ° = 195° x ° = 255°
15
15° = 180 75
75° = 180 195
195° = 180 255
255° = 180
= 36
3 = 15
36 = 36
39 51
= 36
= 12 5
= 12 = 12
13 = 17
12

{5 , 13 , 17
Solutions set = 12 , 12 12 12 }
Compound Angle Formulae
cos ( A ± B ) = cos A cos B sin A sin B
sin ( A ± B ) = sin A cos B ± cos A sin B
These are given on the form ula sheet

## Double Angle Formulae

sin 2 A = 2sin A cos A
cos 2 A = cos2 A − sin 2 A
= 1 − 2 sin 2 A
= 2 cos 2 A − 1
These are given on the form ula sheet

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Circles
Equations of Circles
A circle with centre ( a,b ) and radius r has the equation ( x − a )2 + ( y − b ) = r2
2

## Note that if a circle has centre ( 0, 0 ) then the equation is x 2 + y 2 = r2

The equation can also be given in the form x 2 + y 2 + 2 gx + 2 fy + c = 0 where the centre
is ( − g,− f ) and the radius r = g2 + f 2 − c
You do not have to rem em ber any of these equations, since they are all given in the
exam

You will have to rem em ber the distance form ula, d = ( x2 − x1 ) + ( y2 − y1 ) , since this
2 2

## two intersections one intersection (tangency) no intersections

Rem em ber, a tangent and a line from the centre of a circle will m eet at right angles,
which m eans that m1 × m2 = −1 can be used

Vectors
Basic Facts
A vector is a quantity with both m agnitude (size) and direction
A vector is nam ed either by using a directed line segm ent (eg AB ) or a bold letter
(eg u written u)
A vector m ay also be defined in term s of i, j and k, the unit vectors in three
perpendicular directions:
1 0 0
i= 0 j= 1 k= 0
0 0 1

a
The m agnitude of vector AB = b is defined as AB = a 2 + b 2

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Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

a1 b1 a1 ± b1 a1 ka1 0
a2 ± b2 = a2 ± b2 k a2 = ka2 where k is a scalar Z ero vector: 0
a3 b3 a3 ± b3 a3 ka3 0

OA is called the position vector of the point A relative to the origin, written a
AB = b − a where a and b are the position vectors of A and B
If AB = k BC where k is a scalar, then AB is parallel to BC . Since B is com m on to both
AB and k BC , then A, B and C are collinear

## Dividing Vectors in a Ratio

The point P can also be worked out from first principles, or
U sing the section form ula. If P divides AB in the ratio m : n , then:
n m
p= a+ b where p is the position vector OP
m+n m+n

Example
P is the point ( −2, 4, − 1) and R is the point ( 8, − 1,19 ) . Point T divides PR in the ratio
2:3. Work out the coordinates of point T.
2:3
P R
T
U sing the section form ula From first principles
The ratio is 2:3, so let m = 2 and n = 3 PT 2
=
n m TR 3
t= p+ r
m+n m+n 3PT = 2TR
= 35 p + 25 r ( )
3 t − p = 2 (r − t )

(
= 15 3 p + 2r ) 3t − 3 p = 2r − 2t
3t + 2t = 2r + 3 p
−6 16
= 15 12 + −2 16 −6
−3 38 5t = −2 + 12
38 −3
10
= 15 10 10
35 5t = 10
35
2
= 2 2
7 t= 2
7
Therefore T is the point ( 2, 2, 7 ) . Therefore T is the point ( 2, 2, 7 ) .

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Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

## The Scalar Product

The scalar product a.b = a b cos , where is the sm allest angle between a and b
Rem em ber that both vectors m ust point away from the angle, eg

a b

a1 b1
If a = a2 and b = b2 then a.b = a1b1 + a2b2 + a3b3
a3 b3
a.b ab +a b +a b
cos = or cos = 1 1 2 2 3 3
ab a b
If a and b are perpendicular then a.b = 0
If a.b = 0 then a and b are perpendicular

Example

8 4
If u = 0 and v = 0 , calculate the angle between the vectors u + v and u − v .
4 1

Let a = u + v Let b = u − v
8 4 8 4
a= 0 + 0 b= 0 − 0
4 1 4 1
12 4
a= 0 b= 0
5 3

a.b
cos =
ab
(12 × 4 ) + ( 0 × 0 ) + ( 5 × 3 )
=
122 + 02 + 52 4 2 + 02 + 32
63
=
169 25
63
= cos −1
169 25
= 14·3°

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Further Calculus
Trigonometry
D ifferentiation
This is straightforward, since the form ulae are given on the form ula sheet:

f (x) f ′( x )

sin ax a cos ax
cos ax − a sin ax
Integration
Again, the form ulae are provided in the paper:

f (x) f ( x ) dx

sin ax − 1a cos ax + c

cos ax 1 sin ax + c
a

Examples
1. Differentiate x 3 + cos3 x with respect to x.
( )
d x 3 + cos3 x = 3 x 2 − 3sin3 x
dx

2. Find 4 x 3 + sin3 x dx .
4x 4 1
4 x + sin3 x dx =
3
− 3 cos3 x + c
4
= x 4 − 13 cos3 x + c

## Chain Rule Differentiation

n −1 n −1
If f ( x ) = ( ax + b )n then f ′ ( x ) = n ( ax + b ) × a = an ( ax + b )
or
n −1
If f ( x ) = ( p ( x ) ) then f ′ ( x ) = n ( p ( x ) )
n
× p′ ( x )
“The power m ultiplies to the front, the bracket stays the sam e, the power lowers by one
and everything is m ultiplied by the differential of the bracket”

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Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

Examples
1
1. G iven f ( x ) = + x − sin3 x , find f ′ ( x ) .
x2
1
f ( x ) = x −2 + x 2 − sin3 x
−1
f ′ ( x ) = −2 x −3 + 12 x 2 − 3cos3 x
2 1
=− 3 + − 3cos3 x
x 2 x

2. G iven f ( x ) = ( 3 x 2 + 2 x + 1) , find f ′ ( x ) .
3

f ′ ( x ) = 3 ( 3 x 2 + 2 x + 1) × ( 6 x + 2 )
2

= 3 ( 6 x + 2 ) ( 3 x 2 + 2 x + 1)
2

## 3. Differentiate y = cos 2 x = ( cos x )2 with respect to x.

dy
= 2 ( cos x ) × ( − sin x )
dx
= −2cos x sin x
n
Integration of (ax + b)
( ax + b )n+1
( ax + b ) dx =
n
+c
( n + 1) × a

Example
Find ( 3 x + 5 )4 dx .
( 3 x + 5 )5 ( 3 x + 5 )5
( 3 x + 5 ) dx =
4
+c = +c
5× 3 15
It is possible for any type of ‘further calculus’ to be exam ined in the style of a standard
calculus question (eg optim isation, area under a curve, etc)

## Exponentials and Logarithms

An exponential is a function in the form f ( x ) = a x
Logarithm s and exponentials are inverses
y = a x ⇔ loga y = x
On a calculator, log is log10 and ln is loge

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Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

Laws of Logarithms
loga x + loga y = loga xy (Squash)
loga x − loga y = loga xy (Split)
loga x n = n loga x (Fly)

Examples
1. Evaluate log2 4 + log2 6 − log2 3
log2 4 + log2 6 − log2 3
4×6
= log2
3
= log2 8
=3 (since 23 = 8)
2. Below is a diagram of part of the graph of y = ke 0.7 x
y
y = ke 0.7 x

3
0 x =1 x

## (a) Find the value of k

(b) The line with equation x = 1 intersects at R. Find the coordinates of R.
(a) At ( 0, 3 ) , y = ke 0.7 x
3 = ke 0.7×0
3 = ke 0
k =3
(b) x = 1 y = 3e 0.7×1
= 6.04

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Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

## The Wave Function

Example
1. Express 6 sin x ° − 2 cos x ° in the form k cos ( x − a ) ° where 0 ≤ a ° < 360 .
k cos ( x − a ) ° = k cos x ° cos a ° + k sin x ° sin a °
= k cos a ° cos x ° + k sin a ° sin x °
k sin a °
k cos a ° = − 2 (− 2 )
2 2
k= + 6 tan a ° =
k cos a °
k sin a ° = 6
= 2+6 6
=−
S A = 8 2
T C =2 2 =− 3
a ° = 180° − tan −1 ( 3 )
= 180° − 60°
= 120°
Therefore 6 sin x ° − 2 cos x ° = 2 2 cos ( x − 120 ) ° .

## 2. Express cos x − sin x in the form k sin ( x + ) where 0 ≤ < 2 .

k sin ( x + ) = k sin x cos + k cos x sin
= k cos sin x + k sin cos x
k cos = −1 k = ( −1)2 + 12 k sin
tan =
k sin = 1 = 2
k cos
= −1
S A
° = 180° − tan −1 (1)
T C
= 180° − 45°
= 135°
135
= 180
= 34

## Therefore cos x − sin x = 2 sin x + 34 ( ).

The m axim um value of an expression in the form k cos ( x ± a ) occurs when
cos ( x ± a ) = 1 ; and sin ( x ± a ) = 1 for k sin ( x ± a )
The m inim um value of an expression in the form k cos ( x ± a ) occurs when
cos ( x ± a ) = −1 ; and sin ( x ± a ) = −1 for k sin ( x ± a )