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Jan Doris C.

Latada , ECE
Holy Cross of Davao College, Inc.

AM Transmission

Low-Level DSBFC AM Tx

High-Level DSBFC AM Tx

Carrier Shift

Block Diagram of Low-Level AM


MODULATING SIGNAL: acoustical transducers

(microphone, magnetic tape, cd or phonograph

PRE-AMP: a sensitive class A linear voltage amplifier
with high input impedance. Use to raise the
amplitude of the source signal to a usable level while
producing minimum nonlinear distortion.
MODULATING SIGNAL DRIVER: a linear amplifier
used to amplify the information signal to an
adequate level to sufficiently drive the modulator.
RF Carrier OSCILLATOR: common used is the crystalcontrolled oscillator for accuracy and stability.

BUFFER AMPLIFIER: a low-gain, high-input impedance

linear amplifier used to isolate the oscillator from the

high-power amplifier. Also provides a relatively constant
load to the oscillator that reduces the occurrence and
magnitude of short-term frequency variations. (usually
emitter follower of IC op-amp)
MODULATOR: modulation takes place
class A or B push-pull modulators to maintain symmetry
in the AM envelope.
COUPLING NETWORK: used for impedance matching of
the final power amp and the transmission line and

Block Diagram of High-Level



same manner as in the low-level Tx in addition of

power amplifier.
HIGH LEVEL TX: The modulating signal and carrier
undergoes additional power amplification prior to
modulator stage to obtain 100% modulation.
MODULATOR: serves as the final power amplifier,
usually a drain-, plate, or collector-modulated class C
amplifier. Function, (1) modulation circuit (2) class C
power amplifier for efficiency, (3) frequency upconverter (translates the LF signal to RF signals to be
efficiently radiated from an antenna.)

Carrier Shift
Sometimes called upward or downward
A form of amplitude distortion introduced
when positive and negative alternations in the
AM signals are not equal (i.e. non-symmetrical
May be either positive or negative.
It is an indication of the average voltage of
an AM modulated signals.

Carrier Shift
Positive Carrier

Negative Carrier

AM Reception

Block Diagram of Simple Rx

Receiver Parameters

DSBFC Receivers

DSBFC Receiver Operations

AM Reception
A receiver must able to:
receive, amplify and demodulate an AM wave.
It must also be capable of bandlimiting the

total RF spectrum to a specific desired band of

frequencies. The selection process called
TUNING the receiver.

Block Diagram of Simple AM Rx

AM Demodulation
RF SECTION: the first stage of the receiver. Aka

receiver front end. Its function are detecting,

bandlimiting, and amplifying the received RF signals.
MIXER/CONVERTER: down converts the received RF
frequencies to intermediate frequencies (IFs)
IF SECTION: amplification and selectivity
AM DETECTOR: demodulates the AM wave and
converts it to the original information.
AUDIO SECTION: amplifies the recovered information

Receiver Parameters
Bandwidth Improvement
Dynamic Range
Shape Factor
Insertion Loss

Receiver Parameters
Used to measure the ability of the receiver to

accept a given band of frequencies and reject

all others.
It is the degree of distinction made by the
receiver between the desired signal and
unwanted signals.
commercial AM, BW = 10kHz; the receiver must limit

its BW to 10kHz.

Receiver Parameters


fr = resonant frequency in Hz

A TRF receiver is to be designed with a single tuned
circuit using a 10H inductor. Calculate the capacitance
range of the variable capacitor required to cover the
entire AM band (535-1605 kHz) and also calculate the
bandwidth at 540 kHz and 1600 kHz (assume Q = 110)

Receiver Parameters
Shape Factor
( )
( )

Where: SF = shape factor (unitless)

B(-60 dB) = bandwidth 60 dB
below maximum signal level
B(-3 dB) = bandwidth 3 dB below
maximum signal level

If a typical AM broadcast-band radio receiver has a 3dB bandwidth of 10 kHz and a -60-dB bandwidth of 20
kHz, compute for the shape factor.

Receiver Parameters
Bandwidth Improvement
Decreasing the BW reduces the noise by the
same proportion, thus increasing the S/N ratio
improving the system performance.


BI = bandwidth improvement
BRF = RF bandwidth (Hz)
BIF = IF bandwidth (Hz)

Receiver Parameters
Noise Figure Improvement
the corresponding reduction in noise figure
due to the reduction in bandwidth

Determine the improvement in the noise figure for a
receiver with an RF bandwidth equal to 200 kHz and an IF
bandwidth equal to 10 kHz.

Receiver Parameters
The minimum RF signal that can be detected
receiver input and still produce a usable
demodulated information signal.
It is the ability of a receiver to reproduce
weak signals expressed in V. Also called receiver
Typical Values (commercial AM):
S/N ratio 10dB
Power output 1/2W (27dBm)

Receiver Parameters
Typical sensitivity for commercial AM is 50V.
Noise power at the input
Noise Figure
Sensitivity of the AM detector
Bandwidth improvement factor
The best way to improve the sensitivity of a Rx is
to reduce the noise level.

Receiver Parameters
Dynamic Range
The input power range over which the
receiver is useful.
The difference in dB between the minimum
input level necessary to discern a signal and the
input level that will overdrive the receiver and
produce distortion.

( )

( )

Receiver Parameters
Dynamic Range
A receiver has a dynamic range of 90 dB. It
has 1.5 nW sensitivity (threshold). Determine the
maximum allowable input signal.

Receiver Parameters
The ability of a communications system to
produce an exact replica of the original source
Any frequency, phase, or amplitude
variations that are present in the demodulated
waveform that were not in the original
information signal are considered distortion.

Receiver Parameters
Phase distortion
is not particularly important for voice transmission but can be
devastating to data transmissions.
Amplitude distortion
occurs when the Amplitude-vs-Frequency characteristics of a
signal at the output of a receiver differ from those of the
original information signal.
Result of non-uniform gain in amplifiers and filters.
Frequency distortion
result of harmonic and intermodulation distortion caused by
nonlinear amplification

Receiver Parameters
Insertion Loss

Associated with the frequencies that fall

within the passband of a filter.

ratio of the power transferred to the load

with filter (Pout) to the power transferred to
the load w/o filter (Pin).

IL dB = 10log

DSBFC Receivers
Tuned Radio-Frequency (TRF) Receiver
Superheterodyne Receiver

DSBFC Receivers
Tuned Radio-Frequency (TRF) Rx
The earliest and simplest design radio receiver
used in single-channel LF applications.

Ganged capacitors

DSBFC Receivers
Tuned Radio-Frequency (TRF) Rx
RF STAGE: 2 or 3 RF amplifier are required to

filter an amplify the received signals to a level

sufficient to drive the detector. Integrated with
transformer-coupled tank circuits
DETECTOR: converts RF signals directly to
AUDIO STAGE: amplifies the information signals
to a usable level

DSBFC Receivers
Tuned Radio-Frequency (TRF) Rx
High sensitivity
TRF Rx are seldom used, except for special-purpose single
station Rx.

DSBFC Receivers
Tuned Radio-Frequency (TRF) Rx
Tracking errors capacitances in the cascaded RF

amplifiers will always have differences in value no matter

how small, and this will affect the resonant frequency.
Inconsistent Bandwidth, resulting to poor Selectivity Caused by Skin Effect.
@ high Frequencies, current flow is limited to the surface of the
This reduces the effective area (A), and increases resistance (R),
and decreases Quality Factor (Q), thus affecting Selectivity.

DSBFC Receivers
Superheterodyne Receiver
Widely used because of its gain, selectivity and
sensitivity characteristics.
invented by Major Edward Armstrong
down converts the incoming RF signal to IF
signal before processing and before the
extraction of the information signal
Heterodyning means mixing two frequencies in a

nonlinear device or translate one frequency to

another using nonlinear mixing.

DSBFC Receivers
Superheterodyne Receiver

DSBFC Receivers
Superheterodyne Receiver
a broad-tuned BPF with
an adjustable center
Provide enough initial bandlimiting to prevent a
specific unwanted RF called the image frequency
from entering the receiver.
Reduces the noise BW to the minimum level.

DSBFC Receivers
Superheterodyne Receiver
RF Amplifier:
Determines the sensitivity of the receiver.
Is the primary contributor of noise
Offers several advantages:
greater gain, thus better selectivity
improved image-frequency rejection
better S/N ratio
better selectivity.

DSBFC Receivers
Superheterodyne Receiver

DSBFC Receivers
Superheterodyne Receiver
Local Oscillator:
Linked to the preselector so that it
varies with the carrier frequency.
A nonlinear device in which
heterodyning takes place
converts RF to IF frequencies.
Common IF in AM broadcast-band Rx
is 455kHz.

DSBFC Receiver Operations


Superheterodyne receiver:
The RF is converted to IF (frequency conversion)
IF is converted to the source information
Intermediate Frequency (IF)
a frequency to which a carrier frequency is shifted as
an intermediate step in transmission or reception
created by mixing the carrier signal with a local
oscillator signal in a process called heterodyning,
resulting in a signal at the difference or beat

DSBFC Receiver Operations

Reasons for using IF

1. At very high (gigahertz) frequencies, signal processing

circuitry performs poorly. Active devices such as
transistors cannot deliver much amplification (gain). So
a high frequency signal is converted to a lower IF for
more convenient processing.
2. Without using an IF, all the complicated filters and
detectors in a radio or television would have to be
tuned in unison each time the frequency was changed,
as was necessary in the early tuned radio frequency

DSBFC Receiver Operations

Reasons for using IF

3. To improve frequency selectivity.

Selectivity is achieved through filtering. But at high
The narrower the bandwidth of the filter, the more
selectivity can be achieved.
Thus, RF is converted to lower frequencies, IF, and
filtering is done at that frequency.

DSBFC Receiver Operations

Frequency Conversion

- In the Mixer/Converter, RF signals are

combined with the LO frequency in a nonlinear
- At the incoming RF signal is mixed with the LO
frequency, and the Mixer/Converter produces the
sum and/or difference of the two signals, which is
the IF.
- During this process, shape of the envelope
remains the same , and BW is unchanged.

DSBFC Receiver Operations

Frequency Conversion
The adjustment for the center frequency of the
preselector and LO are gang tuned (mechanically
tied together).
High-side Injection or High-beat Injection
When LO is tuned above the RF
f LO f RF f IF
Low-side Injection or Low-beat Injection

LO is tuned below the RF

f LO f RF f IF

Where: fLO = local frequency (Hz)

fRF= radio frequency (Hz)
fIF = intermediate frequency (Hz)

DSBFC Receivers Operations

DSBFC Receivers
Superheterodyne Receiver

DSBFC Receivers
Superheterodyne Receiver

IF Section:
Consists of a series of IF amplifiers and BPF often called
the IF strip.
IF is always lower in frequency than the RF because it is
easier and less expensive to construct high-gain, stable
amplifiers for the LF signals.

DSBFC Receivers
Superheterodyne Receiver
IF Section:

It provides most of the receiver gain and

The IF center frequency and BW are constant for
all stations and are chosen so that their frequency
is less than any of the RF signals to be received.
Low frequency IF amplifiers are less likely to
oscillate than their RF counterparts.

DSBFC Receivers
Superheterodyne Receiver
Common Intermediate Frequencies (IF)
AM Broadcast

455 kHz

AM broadcast (automobiles)

262.5 kHz

FM broadcast

10.7 MHz

FM Two-way radios

21.4 MHz

Picture IF

41.25 MHz

Sound IF

45.75 MHz

Radar Tx/Rx
Satellite Rx

30 or 60 MHz
70 MHz

DSBFC Receivers Operations

Any frequency other than the selected RF
carrier that, if allowed to enter a receiver and mix
with the LO, will produce a cross-product frequency
equal to intermediate frequency.

DSBFC Receivers Operations


For high-side injection:

For low-side injection:

= +

= +

DSBFC Receivers Operations

Image-Frequency Rejection Ratio
Measure of the ability of a preselector to reject
the image frequency.



f im
f RF

f RF
f im

NOTE: If more than one tuned circuit is used the

total IFRR is the product of two ratios.

DSBFC Receivers
Superheterodyne Receiver

DSBFC Receivers
Superheterodyne Receiver

Detector Section:
Converts the IF signal back to
the original source information.
called an audio detector or the
second detector
May be a single diode, phaselocked loop or balanced

DSBFC Receivers
Superheterodyne Receiver

DSBFC Receivers
Superheterodyne Receiver
Audio Amplifier Section:
Comprises several cascaded
amplifies the demodulated
information to a level that
will drive one or more