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ADAPT-ABI v5

GETTING STARTED GUIDE

Copyright ADAPT Corporation 2007 all rights reserved


info@adaptsoft.com
Redwood City, California, USA, Tel: +1 (650) 306-2400
Kolkata, West Bengal, India, Tel: +91-33-30286580

www.adaptsoft.com

ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


Contents
1

ADAPT-ABI v5 USER INTERFACE ....................................................................................4

2
TUTORIAL 1: MODELING OF SINGLE SPAN BRIDGE WITH MOVING LOAD IN
DIFFERENT STAGES ..................................................................................................................5
2.1

GENERATE THE MODEL ...........................................................................................6

2.2

DEFINE THE LOADING ............................................................................................ 14

2.3

DEFINE CONSTRUCTION STAGES ......................................................................... 18

2.4

ANALYZE THE STRUCTURE................................................................................... 20

2.5

REVIEW THE RESULTS GRAPHICALLY................................................................ 21

2.5.1
3

Bending Moment. ................................................................................................. 21

TUTORIAL 2: STRUCTURAL MODELING OF BRIDGE SUPPORTS............................. 23


3.1

GENERATE THE MODEL ......................................................................................... 24

3.2

MESH AND DEFINE CONSTRUCTION STAGES .................................................... 34

3.3

ANALYZE THE STRUCTURE................................................................................... 37

3.4

RESULT DISPLAY ..................................................................................................... 38

ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


Getting Started
Thank you for choosing ADAPT-ABI v5. This getting started guide is intended to provide you
with a brief overview of the capabilities of this product. In following through the tutorials below,
you will learn how to model a structure and perform the necessary design steps. For more details
about the program please refer to the ADAPT-ABI user manuals.

ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


1

ADAPT-ABI v5 USER INTERFACE


Toolbars

Modeling Space

Menu Bar

Status Bar
Command Line

ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


2

TUTORIAL 1: MODELING OF SINGLE SPAN BRIDGE WITH MOVING LOAD


IN DIFFERENT STAGES
The objective of this tutorial is to model a single span bridge girder with moving load.
The cross section used is a single cell box girder with 1 m depth and 5 m width
(Fig. 2-1).

FIGURE 2-1
Span Section

Single cell box girder cross section of 5000 mm width and 1000
mm depth.

Pier Section

Rectangular cross section of 1000 mm width.

Loadings

Point load of 4 kN will be applied at a distance of 10 meters from


left end.

Moving Loads

1. ABI_MIXED
2. ABI_TRUCK

Material
Properties

1. Concrete: default ACI concrete model

Support

Fixed supports are used at the both ends.

Tendon

200 KN stressing at both ends.

Analysis

Run ABI Analysis and view analysis results graphically and in text
format

2. Mild Steel: default material properties

ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


2.1

GENERATE THE MODEL


To model and analyze a segmental bridge in ABI v5 follow the following steps:
1. Go to Start menu in Windows, select ADAPT-Builder ABI 5.00 under ADAPT
Application program group. ABI v5 will appear on the screen.
2. Program will display ADAPT-ABI Configuration dialog box as shown in Figure 2.12.

FIGURE 2.1-2
3. Select SI unit and click OK. It is recommended to keep the file names less than eight
characters.
4. At this point if required please go to User Interface menu (Fig. 2.1-3) and turn on any
or all required toolbar(s) for your operation. However for beginners this step is not
recommended.

ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide

FIGURE 2.1-3

5. On the Snap Toolbar

click on Grid Setting

tool and the program will display the dialog box on your screen as shown in
Figure 2.1-4.
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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide

FIGURE 2.1-4
6. Let us specify 5 m for both Horizontal Spacing and Z spacing. Now click OK.
7. Then click on Snap to Grid

on the Snap toolbar to view the grid lines and create

point only at the intersections of the grid lines.

on the Setting toolbar

8. Then click on Display WCS

to view the

WCS on your screen.


9. Click on Create a Reference Lin

icon on the Model toolbar (Fig. 2.1-5).

FIGURE 2.1-5
10. Enter first point and last point at a distance of 40 m in X direction, then Press C
from the key board. Program will display the reference line on the screen as shown in
Figure 2.1-6.

ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide

FIGURE 2.1-6
11. Go to Development View

on the Camera and View ports toolbar (Fig. 2.1-7).

FIGURE 2.1-7
12. Click on Create/Identify a span

on the Model toolbar.

13. Enter first point and last point at a distance of 20 m on the reference line, then Press
C on key board. ABI v5 will display one span on your screen as shown in
Figure 2.1-8.

FIGURE 2.1-8
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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


14. Click on Define Section

on the Model toolbar. The program will display the

Section Manager on your screen same as shown in Figure 2.1-9.

FIGURE 2.1-9
15. In Section Manager go to Properties and select Single cell girder. Put Bf = 5000 mm,
B = 2000 mm, t = 300 mm, Hf = 300 mm, H= 1000 mm, a = 600 mm. Then click on
the green check mark. Again go to Properties and select Rectangular. Put width b =
1000mm, height h = 1000 mm and click on Add. Then press OK to save sections in
section manager.
16. Double click on the span and the program will display the dialog box named Span on
your screen as shown in Figure 2.1-10. In that box go to Section tab, select Section 1
for Starting Cross Section and Ending Cross Section. Then click on the green check
mark and exit the property box.

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide

FIGURE 2.1-10
17. Click on Create/Identify a Column or Pier

on the Model toolbar.

18. Enter Most Left End and Most Right End of the span respectively to create two
columns of 5 m height.
19. Double click on the 1st column and program will display the dialog box named
Pier/Column on your screen same as shown in Figure 2.1-11 on that Box go to
Section Tab, select Section 2 for both Starting Cross Section and Ending Cross
Sections respectively. Then click on the green check mark and exit. Follow the same
steps for 2nd column as well.

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide

FIGURE 2.1-11

20. Click Concrete under Material menu bar. Program will display the dialog box as
shown below. Select ACI 1978 on the Concrete Model tab (Fig. 2.1-12).

FIGURE 2.1-12
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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


21. Click on Create a Point Support

on the Model toolbar and enter the point position

of support by clicking on the end points of each column.


22. Double click on 1st support, program will display the property box Point Support as
shown in Figure 2.1-13. On General tab select Fixed and then click on green check
mark and exit. Follow the same steps for 2nd point support as well.

FIGURE 2.1-13
23. Click on Create a Tendon menu under Model toolbar. Enter the Left End and Right
End points of span respectively and Press C on your key board. Program will
display the tendon in the structure as shown in Figure 2.1-14.

FIGURE 2.1-14

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


2.2

DEFINE THE LOADING


24. Click Load Case Library (Fig. 2.2-1) under the Loading menu bar. The Program will
display the dialog box as shown below. Click on Add button. Put the name in label as
DL for LC_3. Then click OK.

FIGURE 2.2-1
25. Click on Create Point Load

on the Load toolbar. Enter the point to apply the point

load at a distance of 10 meter from left end.

FIGURE 2.2-2
26. Double Click on the point load and the program will display the property box named
Point Load as shown below. On General tab put the value Fz = - 4.000 KN and
change the load case name as DL (Fig. 2.2-3). Click on the green check mark and
exit.

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide

FIGURE 2.2-3
27. Click on Add Selfweight

on the Load toolbar. Put the value Gz = -1.00 (Fig. 2.2-

4). Press OK.

FIGURE 2.2-4
28. Go to Travel Path option under Moving Load menu. Enter the 1st point and 2nd point
as Left End and Right End points of the span respectively. Program will display the
travel path in yellow on the structure.
29. Go to Moving Load Library option under Moving Load menu. Check all the moving
load trains in the existing library.
30. Go to Load Case option on the Moving Load menu and the program will display the
dialog box named Moving Load Cases on your screen same as shown in Figure 2.2-5.
Click ADD button twice to create two load cases. Rename the label as Case1 &
Case2 respectively. Go to Case1. Select ABI_MIXED under Load Trains. Select
Load_Path1 in the Load Paths box. Click on Both under Factors and travel
directions. Click ADD button in Combinations List.

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide

FIGURE 2.2-5
31. To create 2nd load case, go to Case2. Select ABI_TRUCK under Load Trains. Select
Load_Path1 in the Load Paths box. Click on Both under Factors and travel
directions. Click ADD button in Combinations List. Program will display both load
cases in the list named Moving Load Cases on your screen same as shown in Figure
2.2-6.

FIGURE 2.2-6

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


32. Click Load Combinations / Envelopes in the Loading menu. Delete everything from
Combinations List, Envelopes list, Current Selection and Combination Parts. Select
Case1 in Load Cases combo box, click Add. Select DL in Load Case combo box,
click Add. Put a level name as CA. Save it in Combinations List. Then delete Case 1
in Combination Parts. Select Case2 in Load Case combo box, click Add. Put a level
name as CB. Save it in Combinations List. Delete DL in Combination Parts. Now
select Case1 in Load Case combo box, click Add. Put a level name as CC. Save it
in Combinations List. Program will display all three load combinations in the dialog
box as shown in Figure 2.2-7. Then click OK.

FIGURE 2.2-7

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


2.3

DEFINE CONSTRUCTION STAGES


33. Click Create Mesh in the Process menu. Program will display the dialog box as
shown in Figure 2.3-1. Put the value 2 m for Suggested cell size. Then click OK.

FIGURE 2.3-1
34. In the Stage toolbar (Fig. 2.3-2), Put 1, 10, 20, 30 and 40 in Day option and click on
Add a Stage

respectively to define various stages.

FIGURE 2.3-2
35. Go to Day 0/ Stage-1. Select all structures then right click on your mouse and select
the Remove Components option.
36. Go to Day 1/ Stage-2. Select all columns and supports, then right click on your
mouse and select the Add Components option.
37. Go to Day 10/ Stage-3. Select six segments of span, three from left end and three
from right end respectively. Use Ctrl key on your key board to select multiple
structures at a time. Then right click on your mouse and select the Add Components
option.
38. Go to Day 20/ Stage-4. Select the remaining segments and then right click on your
mouse and select the Add Components option.
39. Go to Day 30/ Stage-5. Select the tendon, travel path and the point load then right
click on your mouse and select the Add Components option.

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


40. Double Click on the tendon. The program will display the dialog box named Tendon
as shown in Figure 2.3-3. On Stressing tab select Day 30 and define the stress value
as 200 N/mm. Put the value 6 mm for both Seating loss at first end and Seating loss
at last end and then click on the green check mark and exit.

FIGURE 2.3-3
41. Click on Select Events to be Performed

on the Stage toolbar to define the events

that you plan for each stage.


42. The Program will display the dialog box on screen as shown in Figure 2.3-4. Click
on Day 1 and click on the + signs next to Change Structure, Loading and Output to
expand the tree. Check the check marks next to Install Segment, Install Support,
Install Restraint under Change Structure. Check the check box next to Apply Self
weight under Loading. Check the check box next to Solve and Output. Then Click the
arrow button

. Now Click on Day 10 and unmark Install Support, Under Change

Structure then click the arrow button. Now click on Day 20 and click the arrow
button. Now click on Day 30 and check the check boxes next to Apply User Load
under Loading and uncheck Install Segment under Change Structure. Then check the
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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


check box next to Tendon 1 under Stress Tendon under Change Structure and then
click the arrow button. Now click on Day 40 and uncheck all options except Solve
and Output then click the arrow button. The program will show those selected events
on the right side of the dialog box as shown in Figure 2.3-4. Press OK.

FIGURE 2.3-4
2.4

ANALYZE THE STRUCTURE


43. Select Generate ABI Input Data in the Process menu.
44. Select Generate Input Data For ABI-GEN in the Process menu.
45. Select Generate Input Data For Moving Load in the Process menu.
46. Select Input Data Validation in the Process menu.
47. Select Moving Load Validation in the Process menu.
48. Select Run ABI in the Process menu.
49. Select Run ABI GEN in the Process menu.
50. Select Run ABI Moving Load in the Process menu.

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


2.5

REVIEW THE RESULTS GRAPHICALLY


51. Click on Display Result in the Process menu to open the result viewer.

2.5.1 Bending Moment.


in the Action and Stresses
52. Click on Bending Moment
toolbar. Program will display the bending moment diagram as shown in Figure 2.5-1
for Stage 5 which you can select either from the drop down box or you can walk
through the stages with the help of the vertical blue arrows.

FIGURE 2.5-1
53. You can view the bending moment for a load combination. Go to CC in the Right
Side Post Construction Combo Box (Fig. 2.5-2) and observe the moment diagram
(Fig. 2.5-3).
In the same manner, you can display shear forces, axial forces, pre-stressing forces,
stresses, and torsion moments. Simply select the desired option from the Action and
Stresses toolbar.

FIGURE 2.5-2

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide

FIGURE 2.5-3

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


3

TUTORIAL 2: STRUCTURAL MODELING OF BRIDGE SUPPORTS


This tutorial is based on the ABI example ABI-EX51. The tutorial illustrates the
structural modeling of the most common bridge support connections. The model is shown
in Figure 3-1.

Deck on
roller

Deck cast
monolithically

Deck free to
rotate

Fixed
Pin

Internal
Roller
Internal Roller
Pin

Fixed

FIGURE 3-1
Span Section

Rectangular cross section with 3000mm width and 2000mm height.

Pier Section

Rectangular cross section with 1500mm width and 3000mm height.

Loadings

Selfweight will be applied.

Material
Properties

Concrete: default ACI concrete model

Support

Various support types are used.

Analysis

Run ABI Analysis and view analysis results graphically.

Mild Steel: default material properties

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


3.1

GENERATE THE MODEL


1. Open ABI v5 and select SI on the ADAPT-ABI Configuration screen (Fig. 3.1-1)

FIGURE 3.1-1
2. Save the model on your computer with a name consisting of not more than six
characters.
3. Ensure that you are in the Top View

4. Open the Grid Settings in the Snap toolbar and set the horizontal and vertical spacing
to 10 m. Then hit OK and select Snap to Grid in the same toolbar. The grid that is
displayed consists of squares with the dimension of 10x10m. For all modeling
actions, the mouse will snap to the intersections of the grid.
5. Open the Section Manager
in the Model toolbar and define two rectangular cross
sections (Figure 3.1-2).
One cross section with a width of 2000mm and a height of 3000mm. Once you
specified the values in the width and height fields in the Properties section simply
click on the green check mark to save the cross section.
Click Add to add another cross section in the table. The default cross section type will
be a rectangular shape. Specify 1500mm for the width and 3000mm for the height
and click on the green check mark.

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide

FIGURE 3.1-2
6. Select Create a reference line
in the Model toolbar and draw a reference line with
a length of at least 150m (Fig. 3.1-3).

FIGURE 3.1-3
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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide

7. In the Camera and Viewports toolbar select the Developed View

and create a span

with a length of 120m using Create/identify span


in the Model toolbar. To create
the span, you select a point with a mouse click in the very left part of the reference
line as the start point of the span. The start point will automatically be at a grid
intersection. Then you select a point 120m which is 12 squares to the right on the
reference line with another mouse click.
8. Double click on the span to open its property box (Fig. 3.1-4) and ensure that the
starting and ending cross sections are both set to Section 1 (Rectangular). Check the
green check mark to confirm and close the property box. Your model should look like
shown in Figure 3.1-5.

FIGURE 3.1-4

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide

FIGURE 3.1-5
9. Create a column using Create/identify a column or pier in the Model toolbar. Click on
that button and make a left mouse click on the upper left corner of the span which
was also your starting point of the span. The column will be placed underneath the
span and will have a default length of 3m.
10. Click on the lower end of the column and drag it with the mouse down to the second
grid intersection so that the column will have a length of 17m (Fig. 3.1-6).

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide

FIGURE 3.1-6
11. In the same manner, place two more columns underneath the span so that they have
an equal distance of 30m from each other (Fig. 3.1-7). Ensure that the three columns
have Section 2 (Rectangular) defined as their cross section. For this, open the
property box for each column and check the cross section in the Section tab (see also
step 8).

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide

FIGURE 3.1-7
12. As a next step, you will place the supports. Select the Create a point support button
on the Model toolbar and click with your mouse on the lower ends of each column.
Also, click on the upper right corner of your span which is also located on the
reference. A fifth point support you will place 40m (2 squares) left next to the upper
right corner of your span. You will see that the two supports that you place at the span
are dropped to the middle of the span. You will probably also recognize that your
supports are very small.
13. To enlarge the support symbols, click on the eyeglasses button Select/Set View Items
on the Selection toolbar (Fig. 3.1-8). Click on All on the bottom of the Display
column to check everything in that column. Specify the Symbol size of support to
2000mm and click on OK. The support symbols are now displayed larger on the
screen.
Also, set the symbol size for Restraint and Node to 300mm.

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide

FIGURE 3.1-8
14. The supports under the three columns are by default hinged. You can observe this in
the model: your supports have an empty circle on top. If they were fixed supports, the
circles were solid circles.
You need to change them to be fixed. Select all three supports by holding down the
Ctrl key and selecting them with your mouse. Next, you go to the Modify menu and
select Modify Item Properties (Fig. 3.1-9). In the Modify Item Properties window,
select the Point Support tab and check the check box left next to Degree freedom box
to activate the tab. Select Fixed in the Degree freedom box and click OK.
You will now see that the supports have a solid circle on top.
The Modify Item Properties box allows you to change properties of several same
items at once.

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide

FIGURE 3.1-9
15. You need to specify the support on the very right as a roller. To change the support
condition you can use the Point Support toolbar. If it is not activated, make a right
click on the toolbar area and select the Point Support toolbar which is on the lower
third of the list that appears.
Select the very right support and click on the Change Selected Point Supports to
rollers in X-Direction
. The support appears now as a roller on your screen (Fig.
3.1-10).

FIGURE 3.1-10

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


16. As a next step, you will need to insert restraints / hinges at four places. You select
Create a Node Hinge
on the Model toolbar and place it first slightly underneath
the top of the left column. The easiest is to turn off the Snap to Grid button for this
operation to take complete control of the mouse movement. Then simply click with
your mouse on the target location and the node hinge will be placed where desired.
The model should look like shown in Figure 3.1-11.
Double click on the node hinge to open its property box, select the General tab and
select Free to move for the Translation in X-direction. Also, select Free to rotate
for Rotation about Y axis.

FIGURE 3.1-11
17. In the same manner, you place a node hinge slightly underneath the top of the third
column from the left.
Double click on the node hinge to open its property box, select the General tab and
select Free to rotate for Rotation about Y axis.
18. In the next step, you will model the internal pin in the span between the third column
from the left and the second support from the right. Therefore, place a node hinge in
the middle of the span about 15m right next to the third column from the right.
Double click on the node hinge to open its property box, select the General tab and
select Free to rotate for Rotation about Y axis.

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


19. In a final step, you will model the internal roller between the internal pin and the
second support from the right. Select the Create a Node Hinge button in the Model
toolbar and click in the middle of the span between the internal pin and the second
support from the right.
Double click on the node hinge to open its property box, select the General tab and
select Free to rotate for Rotation about Y axis. Also, select Free to move for the
Translation in X-direction.
Your model should now look like shown in Figure 3.1-12.

FIGURE 3.1-12

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


3.2

MESH AND DEFINE CONSTRUCTION STAGES


20. In a next step, you will discretize your model into mostly equally sized elements. Go
to the Process menu and select Create Mesh. In the Automatic Mesh Generation
window, you can either leave the default Suggested cell size as is or change it. In this
case, modify it to 5m and click OK.
Your model includes now elements with a length of maximum 5m (Fig. 3.2-1)

FIGURE 3.2-1
21. You will now define 3 construction stages.
In stage 1 (day 0), the entire structure is created except a part between the third
column from the right and the second support from the left including the two node
hinges.
In stage 2 (day 10), the missing part between the third column and the second support
is created.
For stage 3 (20 years) we let the program calculate the reactions.
To add a stage, you use the Stage toolbar. In the field right next to Day you enter 10
for the second stage, then click the Add Stage button
. You see that in the drop
down box right next to the Day field, Stage 2 appears (Fig. 3.2-2).

FIGURE 3.2-2

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


Enter now 7300 in the Day field and click the Add Stage button. You see that Stage 3
appears. Select now Stage 1.
22. In this step, you will allocate elements to stages. First, select the entire structure by
creating a selection box around your structure. Click in the modeling environment on
a random point that is located above the structure and to its left. Keep the left mouse
button pressed and drag your mouse to a point that is located to the right of your
structure and below. The dashed box that you create should include your entire
structure. If you let go the mouse, all structural elements should be selected and
appear in red (Fig. 3.2-3).

FIGURE 3.2-3
While all elements are selected, click on your right mouse button and select in the
upcoming menu the very last item Remove Components. Your model appears now in
grey color.
Select all elements on the left side of you structure including the three columns an the
one element to the right next to the third column from the left. While these elements
are selected, press your Ctrl button and select with your mouse the fife elements on
the very right of the structure including the supports. Your model should then look
like in Figure 3.2-4.

FIGURE 3.2-4
You can now either press the Add Segments button
on the Build/Assemble
Structure toolbar, or you can make a right click with your mouse and select the item
Add Components.
Select now Stage 2 and select the missing four elements including the two node
hinges, make a right click with your mouse and select Add Components.
You have now allocated all structural elements to construction stages.
23. In this step you will specify the events for each stage. For this, you will need the
Event Manager. Click on the Select Events to be Performed button
in the Stage
toolbar.
In the Event window, click on the plus sign right next to Change Structure, Loading
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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


and Output to expand the tree. Ensure that Day 0 is selected. Check the check boxes
next to the following items: Install Segment, Install Support, Install Restraint, Apply
Selfweight, Solve, Output. Then hit the arrow button
to list your selection in the
right list box.
Select Day 10 and check now the check boxes next to the following items: Install
Segment, Install Restraint, Apply Selfweight, Solve, Output. Uncheck any other
check boxes if necessary. Hit the arrow button.
Select Day 7300 and check the check boxes next to the following items: Solve and
Output and hit the arrow button.
Your Event window should look like shown in Figure 3.2-5. Click OK on the Event
window.
You have now specified the events for each stage.

FIGURE 3.2-5

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


3.3

ANALYZE THE STRUCTURE


24. ADAPT-ABI is now ready to create the input data for the analysis. Go to the Process
menu and select Generate ABI Input Data. Select Yes for the Confirmation message
that appears and asks you Are you sure that the structural model is ready for
analysis?. ABI v5 now creates an input file. Shortly after a message informs you
where the file is stored. You can close this message by clicking OK.
Observe in your model that the program automatically places restraints between each
column and the span.
25. You now need to validate the input data. Go to the Process menu and select Input
Data Validation. The ADAPT-ABI Input Data Validation window appears and on the
bottom of the window there should be two lines written saying: Validation completed,
No errors detected. You can close the window by clicking on the X on the upper right
corner.
26. You are now ready to analyze the structure. Go to the Process menu and select Run
ABI. The ADAPT-ABI window that appears will close automatically if the analysis is
performed successfully. Else, a message will appear in the window.

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ADAPT-ABI v5 Getting Started Guide


3.4

RESULT DISPLAY
27. You can now view the results. Go to the Process menu and select Display Results.
The ADViewer window shows up and you can select Day 0 Stage 1 from the drop
down box. Observe that the part that you selected to be constructed in stage 2 is
missing. You can step through the stages by clicking on the blue vertical arrows.
You can click on the Bending Moment button
to display the bending moment.
You may have to resize the moment curve by clicking on the Values with Default
Scale button
. The moment diagram changes as you step through the stages by
either clicking on the blue, vertical arrows or by selecting a different stage from the
drop down box. Figure 3.4-1 shows the bending moment diagram for stage 3.
In the same manner, you can display shear forces, axial forces, pre-stressing forces,
stresses, and torsion moments. Simply select the desired option from the Action and
Stresses toolbar.

FIGURE 3.4-1

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