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0 More NextBlog» CreateBlog SignIn Saturday,June5,2010 ChronologyofIndia'sFreedomStruggle 1905

Saturday,June5,2010

ChronologyofIndia'sFreedomStruggle

1905

PartitionofBengalannouncedtocomeinforcefromOct151906.

ThedecisiononthePartitionofBengalwasannouncedon19July1905bythen Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon.Thepartitiontookeffecton16October1905.Duetothehighlevelof politicalunrestgeneratedbythe partition, the eastern and western parts of Bengal were reunited because of Hindu pressure in 1911.

1906DEC31

MuslimLeaguefoundedat Dacca.

BengalPresidency,in1906,wasapoliticalpartyinBritishIndiathatplayedadecisiveroleduring

1940sintheIndianindependencemovement and developed into the driving force behind the creation of PakistanasaMuslimstateontheIndiansubcontinent. After the independence of Indiaand Pakistan,theLeaguecontinuedasaminorpartyinIndia,especiallyin Kerala,whereitisoftenin governmentwithinacoalitionwithothers.

1908July22

Tilaksentencedtosixyearsjailonchargesofsedition.

HewasarrestedonMay25,1908,convictedbyjurytrialonJuly22,1908,andsentencedtosix

years'imprisonmentinthecase­popularlyknownas 'Second Sedition Case'.

1908 August, 11

KhudiramBoseexecuted.

He joined Jugantar /Yungatar ­thepartyofrevolutionaryactivists. Khudiram and Prafulla Chaki weresent to Muzaffarpur,Bihartoassassinate Kingsford,the CalcuttaPresidencyMagistrate,andlater,magistrateofMuzaffarpur,Bihar.KhudiramandPrafulla watchedtheusualmovementsofKingsfordandpreparedaplantokillhim.OntheeveningofApril

30,1908,theduowaitedinfrontofthegateoftheEuropeanClubforthecarriageofKingsfordto

come.Whenavehiclecameoutofthegate,theythrewbombsandblewupthecarriage.However, thevehiclewasnotcarryingKingsfordandinsteadtwoBritishladies­MrsandMissKennedy(the wifeanddaughterofbarristerPringleKennedy)werekilled. Prafulla committed suicide. Khudiram was sentenced to death

1909May21

MintoMorleyreformsOfIndianCouncilAct1909

TheActof1909wasimportantforthefollowingreasons:

IteffectivelyallowedtheelectionofIndianstothevariouslegislativecouncilsin Indiaforthefirsttime.PreviouslysomeIndianshadbeenappointedtolegislativecouncils. ThemajoritiesofthecouncilsremainedBritishgovernment appointments. Moreover the electoratewaslimitedtospecificclassesofIndiannationals;

The introduction of the electoral principle laid the groundwork for a parliamentarysystemeventhoughthiswascontrarytotheintentofMorley.Asstatedby BurkeandQuraishi­

Muslims had expressed serious concern that a firstpastthepost’Britishtypeof electoralsystemwouldleavethempermanentlysubjecttoHindumajorityrule.TheActof

1909stipulated,asdemandedbytheMuslimleadership

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thatIndianMuslimsbeallottedreservedseatsintheMunicipaland

DistrictBoards,intheProvincialCouncilsandintheImperialLegislature;

thatthenumberofreservedseatsbeinexcessoftheirrelativepopulation

(25percentoftheIndianpopulation);and,

thatonlyMuslimsshouldvoteforcandidatesfortheMuslimseats('

separateelectorates').

1911

ThecoronationorDelhiDurbarheldatwhichthePartitionofBengalwascancelled.

1912

DelhibecomesthenewcapitalofIndia.

1912Dec23

BombthrownonLordHardingeonhisstateentryinIndia.

1913Nov1

GhadarPartyformedatSanfranscisco.

TheGhadarPartywasanorganizationfoundedbyIndiansoftheUnitedStatesandCanadain June, 1913 with the aim to liberate India from British rule. It was also known as the Hindi AssociationofthePacificCoast. ThefirstissueoftheGhadar,theirpaperwaspublishedfromUniversityofCaliforniainBerkeley inNovember1,1913,inits Har Dayal wrote:"Todaytherebeginsinforeignlands,butinour country'stongue,awaragainsttheBritishRaj Whatisourname?Revolution.Whatisour work?Revolution.Wherewillbetherevolution?InIndia.Thetimewillsooncomewhen riflesandbloodwilltaketheplaceofpensandink."

GhadarParty

Ghadar Flag.png
Ghadar Flag.png

Founded :1913

Dissolved:1919

Precededby:PacificCoastHindustanAssociation

Ideology:RevolutionarySocialismIndianNationalism

Officialcolours:Red,SaffronandGreen

1914June16

B G Tilak ReleasedfromJail.

TilakwasreleasedonJune8,1914.Afterhisrelease,BalGangadharTilaktriedtobringthetwo

factionsofCongresstogether.Buthiseffortsdidnotbearmuchfruit.In1916, Tilak decided to build a separate organization called the 'Home Rule League'. Its goal was swaraj. Tilakwentfromvillagetovillage,andexplainedtheaimofhisleaguetothe farmersandwontheirhearts.Hetraveledconstantlyinordertoorganizethepeople.Whilefighting

forpeople’scauseBalGangadharTilakdiedonAugust1,1920.

1914Aug4

OutBreakoftheFirstWorldWar.

Outbreak of the First World War

WorldWarIbrokeoutbyaccident.NoEuropean

government

wantedageneralwar,butmostoftheEuropeanpowers

preferredtofightratherthanbackdowninthefaceof

diplomaticprovocationfromtheirrivals.

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Thesparkwhichprovidedtheexcusetosetthearmies marchingwastheassassinationoftheheirtothe

Austrianthroneinthesummerof1914.Austria

immediatelyaccusedSerbiaofinstigatingthemurderers andissuedanultimatum,whereuponRussiadeclaredher supportofSerbia.OncetheRussiansorderedgeneral mobilization(andthey'hadto'becausetheyneededmore timetomovetheirforcestothefrontiersthentheir enemies)Austrian, French, and German mobilization orders followed in quick succession, each triggered by the other.

Mobilizationplansquicklychangedintowarplans,

becausetohaltpartwaythroughthedeploymentof

militaryforceswouldsimplycreatechaos;andchaos

invitedenemyattack­exactlywhatmobilizationwas

supposedtoprevent!Civilianleadershipwasdisplaced

bymilitaryleadership,andrivalarmiesplungedacross

Europeanfrontiers'accordingtoplan'

GermanyandAustriastruckatFranceandRussiaand

Serbia;theGermanarmiesmarchingthroughBelgium,

Britainimmediatelycameintowaronthesideof

Belgium,bringinginJapan,asherally,andverysoon

TurkeyfollowedontheGermanandAustrianside.

Germany'saimwastoencircleParisanddefeatFrance

withinthefirstfewweeksofthewar,inorderto

concentratelateragainstRussiaontheEast.Therewasa

tremendousrushoftheGermansuponParisandan

invasionofEastPrussiabytheRussians.Bothattacks

wereheldandturned.

Thenthepowerofthedefensivedeveloped;therewasa

rapidelaborationoftrenchwarfareuntiltheopposing

armieslayentrenchedinlonglinesacrossEurope,unable

tomakeanyadvanceswithoutenormouslosses.It

becameapparentthattheprogressofmoderntechnical

sciencehadchangedthenatureofwarfare,achangethat

themostcarefullyadvancedwarplansdidnotanticipate.

Noonehadexpectedfouryearsofstalemateandthe

brutalbutcheringofindustrialwar.

1914Sep29

KomagatushipreachesBudgeBudge

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki pedia/commons/thumb/7/7c/Gop al_krishan_gokhale.jpg/200px- Gopal_krishan_gokhale.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki

pedia/commons/thumb/7/7c/Gop

al_krishan_gokhale.jpg/200px-

Gopal_krishan_gokhale.jpg

Place of birth: Kothluk, Ratnagiri Dist., Maharastra, India Place of death: Bombay, India Movement: Indian Independence movement Major organizations: Indian National Congress, Deccan Education Society

Rivalry between Gokhale and Tilak : T Tilak was an advocate of civil

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BasicQuiz(Indian
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Struggle)
THE
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AS
Chronologyof
India's
Freedom
Struggle
PAHUL

agitation and direct revolution to overthrow the British Empire, whereas Gokhale was a moderate reformist. As a result, the Congress Party split into two wings and was largely robbed of its effectiveness for a decade. The two sides would later patch up in 1916 after Gokhale died. Tilak was an advocate of civil agitation and direct revolution to overthrow the British Empire, whereas Gokhale was a As a result, the Congress Party split into two wings and was largely robbed of its effectiveness for a decade. The two sides would later patch up in 1916 after Gokhale died.ilak was an advocate of civil agitation and direct revolution to overthrow the British Empire, whereas Gokhale was a moderate As a result, the Congress Party split into two wings and was largely robbed of its effectiveness for a decade. The two sides would later patch up in 1916 after Gokhale died.al Gangadhar Tilak

Rivalry Tilak

On May 23, 1914, 376 British Subjects (12 Hindus, 24 Muslims and 340 Sikhs) of Indian origin arrived in Vancouver harbor aboard the Komagata Maru, seeking to enter Canada. 352 of the passengers were denied entry and forced to depart on July 23, 1914.

In 1914 the Komagata Maru was an outright challenge to these exclusionist laws. The KomagataMaruwasaJapanesesteamlinercharteredbyanaffluentbusinessman, Gurdit Singh,tobringIndianimmigrantstoCanada.

1915Jan

GandhiarrivesinDelhi.

In1915GandhireturnedfromsouthAfricaafterhavingwonapartialvictoryagainstGeneral

Smut’sRegimethere&setupanashramatAhmadabadonthebanksoftheSabarmatitoteach

Indianstheideals&methodsofSatyagraha.

1915Feb19

Death of Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

Gokhalecontinuedtobepoliticallyactivethroughthelastyearsofhislife.Thisincludedextensive

travellingabroad:inadditiontohis1908triptoEngland,healsovisitedSouthAfricain1912,

wherehisprotégéGandhiwasworkingtoimproveconditionsfortheIndianminoritylivingthere. Meanwhile,hecontinuedtobeinvolvedintheServantsofIndiaSociety,theCongress,andthe LegislativeCouncilwhileconstantlyadvocatingtheadvancementofIndianeducation.Allthese

stressestooktheirtoll,however,andGokhalediedinFeb191915atforty­nineyearsofage.

1916April28

Tilak found the Home Rule League with its HQ at Poona.

The Indian political scene was overshadowed those days by two important persons – Bal GangadharTilakandAnnieBesant.TheyhadsetupHomeRuleLeagues,Tilak’sinMaharashtra andBesant’sinotherpartsofthecountry. Both the leagues had the same president, Dadabhai Naoroji.

SomeoftheleadersoftheCongresslikeSurendranathBanerjithoughtthatthegrowthofthe HomeRuleMovementwouldeatintotheprospectsoftheCongress.ButtheMovementcaughton andAnnieBesantwasinvitedtopresideovertheCongresssessionin Calcutta in 1916.

1917 April

Gandhi Launches the Champaran Campaign in Bihar to focus attention on the grievancesofindigoplanters.

InChamparan, a district in state of Bihar,tensofthousandsoflandlessserfs,indentured laborersandpoorfarmerswereforced to grow indigo andothercashcropsinsteadofthefood cropsnecessaryfortheirsurvival.Thesegoodswereboughtfromthemataverylowprice

Buildingontheconfidenceofvillagers,hebeganleadingtheclean­upofvillages, building of schoolsandhospitalsandencouragingthevillageleadershiptoundopurdah,untouchabilityandthe suppressionofwomen.HewasjoinedbymanyyoungnationalistsfromalloverIndia,includingDr. SriKrishnaSinha, RamarshiDeoTrivedi"RishiJi", BrajkishorePrasad,Dr. Rajendra Prasad,Dr. AnugrahNarayanSinhaand Jawaharlal Nehru.

(Dr. Rajendra Prasad(Sittingleft)& Dr.AnugrahNarayanSinha(sittingright)

during1917Champaran

Satyagrahamovement) Buthismainassaultcameashewasarrestedbypoliceonthechargeofcreatingunrestandwas orderedtoleavetheprovince.Hundredsofthousandsofpeopleprotestedandralliedoutsidethejail, police stations and courts demanding his release, which the court unwillingly did. Gandhi led organized protests and strike against the landlords, who with the guidance of the British government,signedanagreementgrantingmorecompensationandcontroloverfarmingforthe poorfarmersoftheregion,andcancellationofrevenuehikesandcollectionuntilthefamineended. It was during this agitation, that Gandhi was addressed by the people as Bapu (Father) and Mahatma(GreatSoul).

1917Aug20

TheSecretaryofStateforIndia,Montagu,declaresthatthegoalofBritishGovtin

IndiaistheintroductionofResponsibleGovt.

Inlate1917,MontaguwenttoIndiatomeetupwithLordChelmsford,theViceroyofIndia,tomeet

withleadersofIndiancommunitysuchasMohandasKaramchandGandhiandMuhammed Ali Jinnahtodiscusstheintroductionoflimitedself­governmenttoIndiaandprotectingtherightsof minoritycommunitiessuchasMuslimsandSikhs.

Thechangesattheprovinciallevelweresignificant,astheprovinciallegislativecouncilscontained a considerable majority of elected members. In a system called "dyarchy," the nation­building departmentsofgovernment—agriculture,education,publicworks,andthelike—wereplaced underministerswhowereindividuallyresponsibletothelegislature.Thedepartmentsthatmadeup the"steelframe"ofBritishrule—finance,revenue,andhomeaffairs—wereretained by executivecouncilorswhowerenominatedbytheGovernor.Theywereoften,butnotalways, Britishandwhowereresponsibletothegovernor.

1918

BeginningofTradeUnionMovement in India.

1918 April

RowlattCommitteeSubmitsitsReport.RowlattBillintroducesinFeb1919.

TheRowlattActwasalawpassedbytheBritishincolonialIndiainMarch1919,indefinitely

extending "emergency measures" (of the Defence of India Regulations Act) enacted during the FirstWorldWarinordertocontrolpublicunrestandrootoutconspiracy.Passedonthe recommendationsofthe Rowlatt commission,namedforitschairman,Britishjudge Sir Sidney Rowlatt, thisacteffectivelyauthorizedthegovernmenttoimprison,withouttrial,any personsuspectedofterrorismlivingintheRaj.TheRowlattActsgaveBritishimperialauthorities powertodealwithrevolutionaryactivities.

MahatmaGandhi,amongotherIndianleaders,wasextremelycriticaloftheActandarguedthatnot everyoneshouldbepunishedinresponsetoisolatedpoliticalcrimes.TheActledtoindignation fromIndianleadersandthepublic,whichcausedthegovernmenttoimplementrepressivemeasures.

Gandhiandothersfoundthatconstitutionaloppositiontothemeasurewasfruitless,soonApril6,a

"hartal"wasorganizedwhereIndianswouldsuspendallbusinessandfastasasignoftheirhatred forthelegislation.Thiseventisknownasthe Rowlatt Satyagraha.

1919April6

AllIndiaHartaloverRowlattBill.

OnApril6,a"hartal"wasorganizedwhereIndianswouldsuspendallbusinessandfastasasignof

theirhatredforthelegislation.Thiseventisknownasthe Rowlatt Satyagraha.

However,thesuccessofthehartalin Delhi,on30March,wasovershadowedbytensionsrunning high,whichresultedinriotinginthe Punjab and other provinces. DecidingthatIndianswerenot readytomakeastandinconsistencewiththeprincipleofAhimsa(non­violence),anintegralpart ofSatyagraha,Gandhisuspendedtheresistance.

TheRowlattActcameintoeffectinMarch1919.InthePunjabtheprotestmovementwasvery

strong,andonApril10,twooutstandingleadersofthecongress Dr. Satya Pal and Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew, werearrestedandtakentoanunknownplace.

AprotestwasheldinAmritsar,whichledtotheMassacreof1919.

1919April13

JallianwalaBaghTragedy.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipe dia/commons/thumb/b/bd/Jallianw alaBaghmemorial1227.JPG/450px-

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipe

dia/commons/thumb/b/bd/Jallianw

alaBaghmemorial1227.JPG/450px-

JallianwalaBaghmemorial1227.JPG

An hour after the meeting began as scheduled at 4:30pm, Brigadier-General Reginald Dyermarchedagroupofsixty­fiveGurkhaandtwenty­fiveBaluchisoldiersintotheBagh,fifty ofwhomwerearmedwithrifles.Dyerhadalsobroughttwoarmoredcarsarmedwithmachine guns,howeverthevehicleswerestationedoutsidethemaingateastheywereunabletoenterthe Baghthroughthenarrowentrance.

TheJallianwala Baghwasboundedonall sidesbyhousesandbuildingsandhad few narrow entrances,mostofwhichwerekeptpermanentlylocked.Themainentrancewasrelativelywider, butwasguardedbythetroopsbackedbythearmoredvehicles.GeneralDyerorderedtroopstoopen firewithoutwarningoranyordertodisperse,andtodirectfiretowardsthedensestsectionsofthe

crowd.Hecontinuedthefiring,approximately1,650roundsinall,untilammunitionwasalmost

exhausted.

Apartfromthemanydeathsdirectlyfromthefiring,anumberofdeathswerecausedbystampedes atthenarrowgatesasalsopeoplewhosoughtshelterfromthefiringbyjumpingintothesolitary wellinsidethecompound.Aplaqueinthemonumentatthesite,setupafterindependence,saysthat

120bodieswerepluckedoutofthewell.

Dyerwascalledtoappearbefore the Hunter Commission,acommissionofinquiryinto themassacrethatwasorderedtoconveneby Secretary of State for India Edwin

Montagu,inlate1919.Dyeradmittedbeforethecommissionthathecametoknowaboutthe

meetingattheJallianwalaBaghat12:40hoursthatdaybuttooknostepstopreventit.Hestated

thathehadgonetotheBaghwiththedeliberateintentionofopeningfireifhefoundacrowd

assembledthere.

1919Dec5

TheHouseofCommonsPassedtheMontaguChelmsfordReformortheGovtof

IndiaAct,1919.Thenewreformsunderthisactcameinperationin1921.

TheGovernmentofIndiaAct1919(9&10Geo.Vc.101)wasan Act oftheParliamentofthe

UnitedKingdom.ItwaspassedtoexpandparticipationofthenativesinthegovernmentofIndia. TheActembodiedthereformsrecommendedinthereportof the Secretary of State for India, Sir

Edwin Montagu, and the Viceroy, Lord Chelmsford.TheActcoveredtenyears,from1919to1929.

ThisretractionofBritishimperialismwasaresultofIndia'senthusiasticparticipationinWorldWar

I.

TheActprovidedadualformofgovernment(a"dyarchy")forthemajorprovinces.Ineachsuch

province,controlofsomeareasofgovernment,the"transferredlist",weregiventoaGovernmentof

ministersanswerabletotheProvincialCouncil.The'transferredlist'includedAgriculture,Health

andEducation.TheProvincialCouncilswereenlarged.

Atthesametime,allotherareasofgovernment(the'reservedlist')remainedunderthecontrolofthe

Viceroy.The'reservedlist'includedDefence(themilitary),ForeignAffairs,andCommunications.

The Imperial Legislative Council was enlarged and reformed. It became a bicameral

legislatureforallIndia.ThelowerhousewastheLegislativeAssemblyof144members,of

which104wereelectedand40werenominatedandtenureofThreeyears.Theupperhouse

wastheCouncilofStatesconsistingof34electedand26nominatedmembersandtenureof

five years. This structure allowed Britain to use the Princely States (who were directly representedintheCouncilofStates)tooffsetthegrowingpowerofthenativepoliticalparties.

TheIndianNationalCongresswasunhappyatthesereformsandtermedthemas'disappointing.'A

special session was held in Mumbaiunder Hasan Imamand the reforms were condemned. However,leaderssuchas Surendranath Banerji wereinclinedtoacceptthereforms, sotheylefttheCongressandformed the Indian Liberal Federation,whichplayed aminorroleinsubsequentaffairs.

1920

FirstMeetingoftheAllIndiaTradeUnionCongress.(NarainMalharJoshi)

1920Dec

TheINCadoptstheNonCooperationResolution(StartedinAug311920)

ThefirstNoncooperationmovement

ThefirstSatyagrahamovementurgedtheuseofKhadiandIndianmaterialasalternativestothose

shippedfrom Britain. It also urged people to boycott British educational institutions and law courts; resign from government employment; refuse to pay taxes; and forsake British titles and honours. Although this came too late to influence the framing of the new Government of India Act of 1919, the movement enjoyed widespread popular support, and the resulting unparalleled magnitude of disorder presented a serious challenge to foreign rule. In 1920, the Congress was reorganized and given a new constitution, whose goal was Swaraj(independence).Membershipinthepartywasopenedtoanyone preparedtopayatokenfee,andahierarchyofcommitteeswasestablishedandmaderesponsible for discipline and control over a hitherto amorphous and diffuse movement. The party was

transformedfromaneliteorganizationtooneofmassnationalappealandparticipation.

Gandhiwassentencedin1922tosixyearsofprison,butwasreleasedafterservingtwo.Onhis

release from prison, he set up the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmadabad, on the banks of river Sabarmati,establishedthenewspaperYoungIndia,andinauguratedaseriesofreformsaimedatthe sociallydisadvantagedwithinHindusociety —theruralpoor,andtheuntouchables.

ThiserasawtheemergenceofnewgenerationofIndiansfromwithintheCongressParty,including

C.Rajagopalachari,JawaharlalNehru,VallabhbhaiPatel,SubhashChandraBoseandothers­who

wouldlateroncometoformtheprominentvoicesoftheIndianindependencemovement,whether

keepingwithGandhianValues,ordivergingfromit.

TheIndianpoliticalspectrumwasfurtherbroadenedinthemid­1920sbytheemergenceofboth

India and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. Regional political organizations also continued to represent the interests of non-Brahmins in Madras,Maharsin Maharashtra,andSikhsinPunjab. However,peoplelikeMahakaviSubramanyaBharathi, Vanchinathan andNeelakandaBrahmachari playedamajorrolefromTamilNaduinbothfreedomstruggleandfightingforequalityforall

castesandcommunities.

1920­22

TheNoncooperationMovementsuspendedonFeb1112,aftertheviolentincidents

atChauriChauraonFeb51922.

However,GandhicalledoffthemovementfollowingtheChauriChauraincident,whichsawthe

deathoftwenty­twopolicemenatthehandsofanangrymob.

1922Aug

MoplahrebellionontheMalabarCoast.

Duringthe19thandearly20thcenturies,Mappilaswereknownforactivearmedattacksagainstthe

British,includingthe1921MoplahrebellionwheremanyMappilaslosttheirlives,andmanywere

takenasprisonersmostlytoPortBlair.InthesameMoplahrebellion,Mappilasmurdered,raped, andforciblyconvertedthousandsofHindus.MohommedHajiwasproclaimedtheCaliphofthe MoplahKhalifat(Caliphate)andflagsofIslamicCaliphatewereflown.Ernadand Valluvanad were declared Khalifat kingdoms.

1923Jan1

SwarajistPartyformedbyMotilalNehruandothers.

1924

TheCommunistPartyofIndiastartsitsactivitiesfirstatKanpur.

1925Aug

KakoriTrainConspiracy

On August 9, 1925, the Number 8 Down Train travelling from Shahjahanpur

approachingthetownofKakori(nowinUttarPradesh),whenoneoftherevolutionariespulledthe chaintostopthetrainandoverpoweredtheguard.Itisbelievedthattheylootedmoney­bags belongingtotheBritishGovernmentTreasuryfromtheguard'svanandescapedtoLucknowwhile notasingleIndianwaslooted.Followingtheincident,thepolicestartedanintensemanhuntand

arrestedseveraloftherevolutionariesinvolved.BismilwasarrestedonSeptember26,1925and

Ashfaqullahwasarrestedtenmonthslater.

1927Nov8

TheBritishPMannouncestheappointmentoftheSimonCommissiontosuggest futureconstitutionalreformsinIndia.SimonCommissionarrivesinBombayon

Feb31928andallIndiaHartal.LalaLajpatRaiassaultedbypoliceatLahore.

TheIndianStatutoryCommissionwasagroupofseven British MembersofParliamentthathad beendispatchedto India in1927tostudyconstitutionalreforminthatcolony.Itwascommonly referredtoastheSimonCommissionafteritschairman,SirJohnSimon.Oneofitsmemberswas Clement Attlee, who subsequently became the British Prime Minister who would oversee the grantingofindependencetoIndiaand Pakistan in1947.

Almostimmediatelywithitsarrivalin Bombay onFebruary3,1928,theSimonCommissionwas confrontedbythrongsofprotestors.Theentirecountryobservedahartal(strike),andmanypeople turnedouttogreettheCommissionwithblackflags.SimilarprotestsoccurredineverymajorIndian citythatthesevenBritishMPsvisited.However,oneprotestagainsttheSimonCommissionwould gaininfamyabovealltheothers.

OnOctober30,1928,theSimonCommissionarrivedinLahorewhere,aswiththerestofthe

country,itsarrivalwasmetwithmassiveamountsofprotestors.TheLahoreprotestwasledby IndiannationalistLalaLajpatRai,whohadmovedaresolutionagainsttheCommissioninthe

LegislativeAssemblyofPunjabinFebruary1928.InordertomakewayfortheCommission,the

localpoliceforcebeganbeatingprotestorswiththeirlathis(sticks).Thepolicewereparticularly brutaltowardsLalaLajpatRai,wholaterthatdaydeclared,"Theblowswhichfellonmetodayare

thelastnailsinthecoffinofBritishimperialism."OnNovember17,LajpatRaidiedofhisinjuries

onhishead.

to Lucknow

was

1928

NehruReportRecommendsprinciplesforthenewconstitutionofIndia.AllParties

ConferenceconsiderstheNehruReportAug28

Followingtherejectionoftherecommendationsofthe Simon Commission byIndians,anall­party

conferencewasheldatBombayinMay1928.Thiswasmeanttoinstillasenseofresistanceamong

people. The conference appointed a drafting committee under Motilal Nehru to draw up a constitution for India. The Calcuttasession of the Indian National Congress asked the British government to accord dominion status to India by December 1929, or a countrywide civil

disobediencemovementwouldbelaunched.By1929,however,inthemidstofrisingpolitical

discontentandincreasinglyviolentregionalmovements,thecallforcompleteindependencefrom BritainbegantofindincreasinggroundswithintheCongressleadership.Underthepresidencyof

JawaharlalNehruatitshistoricLahoresessioninDecember1929,TheIndianNationalCongress

adopted a resolution calling for complete independence from the British. It authorised the Working Committee to launch a civil disobedience movement throughout the country. It was decided that 26 January 1930 should be observed all over India as the Purna Swaraj (totalindependence)Day.Many IndianpoliticalpartiesandIndianrevolutionariesofawidespectrumunitedtoobservethedaywith honourandpride.

1928Nov.17

DeathofLalaLajpatRai.

OnNovember17,1928,hesuccumbedtotheinjuriesandleftforhisholyabodebynotleavingthe

freedomstruggleinbetweenbutpassingoverthebatontheyoungergeneration.Thevengeanceof

hisdeathwastakenbyBhagatSinghandhisassociates.

1929

SardaActPassedprohibitingmarriageofgirlsbelow14andboysbelow

18ofagewitheffectfrom1930.

ChildMarriageRestraintAct1929popularlyknownastheSardaActafteritssponsorRaiSahib

HarbilasSardatotheBritishIndiaLegislatureinIndiawaspassedon28September1929fixedthe

ageofmarriageforgirlsat14years.ItwasaresultofsocialreformmovementinIndia.The

legislationwaspassedbytheBritishIndianGovernment.

1929Mar9

All Parties Muslim Conference formulates the Forteen points under the leadership Of Jinnah.

The FourteenPointsofJinnah was proposed by MuhammadAliJinnahasaconstitutionalreform plantosafeguardthepoliticalrightsofMuslimsinaself­governing India.Thereportwasgivenina meetingofthecounciloftheAllIndiaMuslimLeague on March 28, 1929.

TheFourteenPoints

1. Theformofthefuture constitution shouldbe federal withtheresiduarypowersvestedinthe provinces.

2. Auniformmeasureof autonomy shallbegrantedtoallprovinces.

3. All legislatures inthecountryandotherelectedbodiesshallbeconstitutedonthedefinite principleofadequateandeffectiverepresentationofminoritiesineveryprovince without reducingthemajorityinanyprovincetoaminorityorevenequality.

4. IntheCentralLegislature,Muslimrepresentationshallnotbelessthanonethird.

5. Representation of communal groups shall continue to be by means of separate electorate asat present,provideditshallbeopentoanycommunityatanytimetoabandonitsseparate electorateinfavorofajointelectorate.

6. Anyterritorialdistributionthatmightatanytimebenecessaryshallnotinanywayaffectthe Muslimmajorityinthe Punjab, Bengal andtheNorthWestFrontierProvince.

7. Full religious liberty, i.e. liberty of belief, worship and observance, propaganda,associationand education,shallbeguaranteedtoallcommunities.

8. Nobilloranyresolutionoranypartthereofshallbepassedinanylegislatureoranyother

electedbodyifthree­fourthofthemembersofanycommunityinthatparticularbodyoppose

suchabillresolutionorpartthereofonthegroundthatitwouldbeinjurioustotheinterestsof

thatcommunityorinthealternative,suchothermethodisdevisedasmaybefoundfeasible

andpracticabletodealwithsuchcases.

9. SindhshouldbeseparatedfromtheBombayPresidency.

10. ReformsshouldbeintroducedintheNorthWestFrontierProvince(NWFP)andBaluchistan

onthesamefootingasintheotherprovinces.

11. ProvisionshouldbemadeintheconstitutiongivingMuslimsanadequateshare,alongwiththe

otherIndians,inalltheservicesofthestateandinlocalself­governingbodieshavingdue

regardtotherequirementsofefficiency.

12. The constitution should embody adequate safeguards for the protection of Muslim culture and for the protection and promotion of Muslim education, language, religion, personal laws and Muslim charitable institution and for their due share in the grants-in-aid given by the state and by local self-governing bodies.

13. Nocabinet,eithercentralorprovincial,shouldbeformedwithouttherebeingaproportionof

atleastone­thirdMuslimministers.

14. No change shall be made in the constitution by the Central Legislature except with the concurrenceoftheState'scontributionofthe Indian Federation.

1929April8

Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt drops bombs on Central Legislative Assembly.

HindustanSocialistRepublicanAssociationwasformedundertheleadershipof Chandrasekhar Azad. Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threwabombinsidetheCentralLegislativeAssembly on 8 April 1929 protesting against the passage of the Public Safety Bill and the Trade Disputes Bill. Following the trial (Central Assembly Bomb Case), Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru werehangedin 1931. Allama Mashriqi founded Khaksar Tehreek inordertodirectparticularlytheMuslimstowards theindependencemovement.

1929Oct31

Lord Irwin's Announcement that goal of British policy in India was thegrant

ofDominionstatus.

Gandhi–IrwinPactreferstoapoliticalagreementsignedby Mahatma Gandhi andthethen Viceroy of India, Lord Irwin on 5th March 1931.Beforethis,theviceroy Lord Irwin announcedinOctober 1929,a vague offer of 'dominion status' for India in an unspecified future and a Round Table Conferencetodiscussafutureconstitution.ItwassignedaftermeetingsbetweenGandhiandthe Viceroy that spanned over a three week time period. Many Indian citizens were originally unsatisfiedwiththe conditions of this truce. The agreement spelled out certain specific action points,tobeinitiatedbythecolonialGovernmentofIndiaaswellastheIndianNationalCongress. Important action points of the Pact included:

DiscontinuationofthecivildisobediencemovementbytheIndianNational

Congress

ParticipationbytheIndianNationalCongressintheRoundTableConference

Withdrawalofallordinancesissuedbythe British Government imposingcurbs ontheactivitiesoftheIndianNationalCongress

Withdrawalofallprosecutionsrelatingtoseveraltypesofoffensesexceptthose

involvingviolence

Release of prisoners arrested for participating in the civil disobedience movement

Theremovalofthetaxonsalt,whichallowedtheIndianstoproduce,trade,and

sellsaltlegallyandfortheirownprivateuse.

1929Dec31

the Lahore session of INC adopts the goal of complete independece-poorna Swaraj for India.

TheflagofIndiahadbeenhoistedbyCongressPresidentJawaharlalNehruonDecember

31,1929,onthebanksoftheRaviRiverinLahore.TheCongressaskedthepeopleofIndiato

observeJanuary26asIndependenceDay.TheflagofIndiawashoistedpubliclyacrossIndiaby

Congressvolunteers,nationalistsandthepublic. ThePurnaSwarajdeclarationorDeclarationoftheIndependenceofIndiawaspromulgatedby

theIndianNationalCongressonJanuary26,1930,resolvingtheCongressandIndian

nationaliststofightforPurnaSwaraj,orcompleteself­ruleindependentoftheBritishEmpire.

(LiterallyinSanskrit,purna,"complete,"swa,"self,"raj,"rule,"thus"completeself­rule")

1930Feb14

The working committee of the INC meets at Sabarmati and passes the civil Disobedienceresolution.

InApril1930therewereviolentpolice­crowdclashesin Calcutta.Approximately100,000people

wereimprisonedinthecourseofthe Civil disobedience movement (1930–31),whileinPeshawar

unarmeddemonstratorswerefireduponintheQissaKhwanibazaarmassacre.Thelatterevent

catapulted the then newly formed Khudai Khidmatgar movement (founder Khan Abdul

GhaffarKhan,theFrontierGandhi)ontotheNationalscene.WhileGandhiwasinjail,the

firstRoundTableConference was held in London in November 1930, without representation from the Indian National Congress. The ban upon the Congress was removed because of economic hardships caused by the Satyagraha. Gandhi, along with other members of the Congress Working Committee, was released from prison in January 1931.

1930March12

Gandhi Launches the Civil Disobedience movement with his epic Dandi March (March 12 to

April 5),FirstphaseoftheCDMovementMarch121930toMarch51931.

Gandhiemergedfromhislongseclusionbyundertakinghismostfamouscampaign,amarchof

about 400 kilometers from his commune in Ahmadabad to Dandi, on the coast of Gujarat

between12Marchand6April1930.ThemarchisusuallyknownastheDandiMarchorthe

SaltSatyagraha.AtDandi,inprotestagainstBritishtaxesonsalt,heandthousandsoffollowers

brokethelawbymakingtheirownsaltfromseawater.

1930Nov30

FirstroundtableconferencebeginsinLondontoconsiderthereportofSimon.

TheRoundTableConferencewasopenedofficiallybyKingGeorgeVonNovember12,1930

andchairedbytheBritishPrimeMinister,RamsayMacDonald.ThethreeBritishpolitical partieswererepresentedbysixteendelegates.Therewerefifty­sevenpoliticalleadersfromBritish Indiaandsixteendelegatesfromtheprincelystates.However,the Indian National Congress,along withIndianbusinessleaders,keptawayfromtheconference.Manyofthemwereinjailfortheir participationincivildisobedience.

Participants

MuslimLeague:MuhammadAli,MuhammadShafi,theAgaKhan,Muhammad

AliJinnah,MuhammadZafrullaKhan,A.K.FazlulHuq

HinduMahasabha:B.S.MoonjeandM.R.Jayakar

Liberals:TejBahadurSapru,C.Y.ChintamaniandSrinivasaSastri

Sikh:SardarUjjalSingh

DepressedClasses:B.R.Ambedkar

Princely states: Akbar Hydari (Dewan of Hyderabad), Mirza Ismail (Diwan of Mysore), Kailas Narain Haksar of Gwalior, Maharaja Bhupinder Singh of Patiala, Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III ofBaroda,MaharajaHariSinghofJammuandKashmir,Maharaja GangaSinghofBikaner,NawabHamidullahKhan of Bhopal, K.S. Ranjitsinhji of Nawanagar, Maharaja Jai Singh Prabhakar of Alwar and the rulers of Indore, Rewa, Dholpur, Koriya, Sangli andSarila.

The idea of an All­India Federation was moved to the centre of discussion. All the groups attending the conference supported this concept. The responsibility of the Executive to Legislature was discussed, and B. R. Ambedkar demanded a separate electorate for the Untouchables.

1931March5

GandhiIrwinPact signed, CivilDisobedienceMovementSuspended. Gandhi–IrwinPactreferstoapoliticalagreementsignedbyMahatmaGandhiand thethenViceroyofIndia,LordIrwinon5thMarch1931.Beforethis,theviceroy Lord

Irwin announced in October 1929,avagueofferof'dominionstatus'forIndiainanunspecified futureandaRoundTableConferencetodiscussafutureconstitution.Itwassignedaftermeetings betweenGandhiandtheViceroythatspannedoverathreeweektimeperiod.ManyIndiancitizens wereoriginallyunsatisfiedwiththeconditionsofthistruce.Theagreementspelledoutcertain specificactionpoints,tobeinitiatedbythecolonialGovernmentofIndiaaswellasthe Indian National Congress.ImportantactionpointsofthePactincluded:

Discontinuation of the civil disobedience movement by the Indian National

Congress

ParticipationbytheIndianNationalCongressintheRoundTableConference

WithdrawalofallordinancesissuedbytheBritishGovernmentimposingcurbs

ontheactivitiesoftheIndianNationalCongress

Withdrawalofallprosecutionsrelatingtoseveraltypesofoffensesexceptthose

involvingviolence

Release of prisoners arrested for participating in the civil disobedience movement

Theremovalofthetaxonsalt,whichallowedtheIndianstoproduce,trade,and

sellsaltlegallyandfortheirownprivateuse.

1931March23

Bhagat Sing, Sukh Dev and Rajguru Executed.

On23March1931,BhagatSinghwashangedinLahorewithhisfellowcomradesRajguruand

Sukhdev.Hissupporters,whohadbeenprotestingagainstthehanging,immediatelydeclaredhimas

aShaheed ormartyr.Accordingtothe Superintendent of Police at the time, V.N. Smith, the hangingwasadvanced:

Normallyexecutiontookplaceat8am,butitwasdecidedtoactatoncebeforethepubliccould

becomeawareofwhathadhappened

Atabout7pmshoutsof

Inquilab Zindabad were

heard from inside the jail. This was correctly, interpreted as a signal that the final curtain was about to drop.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/co mmons/thumb/e/ed/Bhagat_Singh%27s_ex ecution_Lahore_Tribune_Front_page.jpg/2

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ecution_Lahore_Tribune_Front_page.jpg/2

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bune_Front_page.jpg

1931Sep7

Second Round Table Conference.

The second session opened on September 7 1931. There were three major differences between the first and second Round Table Conferences. By the second:

CongressRepresentation—The Gandhi-Irwin Pact openedthewayforCongress participationinthisconference. Mahatma Gandhi wasinvitedfromIndiaandattendedasthe soleofficialCongressrepresentativeaccompaniedby Sarojini Naidu andalsoMadanMohan Malaviya, Ghanshyam Das Birla, Muhammad Iqbal, S K Dutta and Sir Syed Ali Imam. GandhiclaimedthattheCongressalonerepresentedpoliticalIndia;thattheUntouchables wereHindusandshouldnotbetreatedasa“minority”;andthatthereshouldbenoseparate electoratesorspecialsafeguardsforMuslimsorotherminorities.Theseclaimswererejected bytheotherIndianparticipants.Accordingtothispact,GandhiwasaskedtocallofftheCivil DisobedienceMovement(CDM)andifhedidsotheprisonersoftheBritishgovernment wouldbefreedexceptingthecriminalprisoners,i.e.thosewhohadkilledBritishofficials.He returnedtoIndia,disappointedwiththeresultsandempty­handed.

NationalGovernment—twoweeksearliertheLabourgovernmentinLondon had fallen. Ramsay MacDonaldnow headed a National Government dominated by the ConservativeParty.

Financial Crisis –Duringtheconference,BritainwentofftheGoldStandard furtherdistractingtheNationalGovernment.

During the Conference, Gandhi could not reach agreement with the Muslims on Muslim representation and safeguards. At the end of the conference Ramsay MacDonald undertook to producea Communal Award forminorityrepresentation,withtheprovisionthatanyfreeagreement

betweenthepartiescouldbesubstitutedforhisaward.

Gandhitookparticularexceptiontothetreatmentofuntouchablesasaminorityseparatefromthe restoftheHinducommunity.HeclashedwiththeUntouchableleader,B.R.Ambedkar,overthis

issue:thetwoeventuallyresolvedthesituationwiththePoonaPactof1932.

1931Dec28

1930Mar12GandhiLaunchestheCivilDisobediencemovementwithhisepicDandi

March(March12toApril5),FirstphaseoftheCDMovementMarch121930to

March51931.

1932Jan4

GandhijiArrestedandimprisonedwithoutTrial.

InBombay,atManiBhuvan,Gandhiwasarrestedatthreeinmorning.

1932Aug16

British Prime minister Pamsay Macdonald announces his infamous "Communal Awards".

Mr.MacDonaldannouncedthe'CommunalAward'onAugust16,1932.Accordingto

theAward,therightofseparateelectoratewasnotonlygiventotheMuslimsofIndiabutalsotoall theminoritycommunitiesinthecountry.TheAwardalsodeclareduntouchablesasaminorityand thustheHindudepressedclassesweregivenanumberofspecialseats,tobefilledfromspecial depressedclasselectoratesintheareawheretheirvoterswereconcentrated.UndertheCommunal Award,theprincipleofweightagewasalsomaintainedwithsomemodificationsintheMuslim minorityprovinces.PrincipleofweightagewasalsoappliedforEuropeansinBengalandAssam, Sikhs in the Punjab and North West Frontier Province, and Hindus in Sindh and North West FrontierProvince.

1932Sep20

GandhijiinjailbeginstheepicfastuntodeathagainsttehCommunalAwardsandthe

fatonsep26afterthePoonaPact.

1932Nov17

TheIIIrdRTCbeginsinLondon.

ThethirdandlastsessionassembledonNovember171932.Onlyforty­sixdelegatesattendedsince

mostofthemainpoliticalfiguresofIndiawerenotpresent.TheLabourPartyfromBritainandthe

IndianNationalCongressrefusedtoattend.

In this conference, Chaudhary Rahmat Ali, a college student, coined the name "Pakistan"(whichmeans"landofpureness")asthenamefortheMuslimpartof partitionedIndia.Hetookthe"P"fromPunjab,the"A"fromtheAfghan,the"KI" fromKashmir,the"S"fromSindhandthe"TAN"fromBalochistan.

1933May9

Gandhiji released from prison as he begins the fast for self purification .INC suspends C D Movement but Authorizes Satyagraha by individuals.

1934

Gandhiji withdraws from active politics and Devote himself to Constructive programmes.

1935Aug4

TheGOvtIndiaActPassed.

1937

ElectionsheldinIndia under theActof1935(Feb1937).TheINCcontestelectionand

formsministriesin7provinces.

1938Feb19­20

HaripurasessionofINCSubhasChandraBoseelectedCongressPresident.

1939March10­12

TripurasessionofINC.

1939 April

SubhashChandraBose resigned asthepresidentofINC.

1939Sep3

SecondWorldWar.

1939Oct27

theINCministriesinProvince.

1939Nov5

ThecongressministriesinprovinceresigninprotestagainstthewarpolicyofBritishGovt.

1939Dec22

TheMuslimLeagueobservestheresignationofthecongressministerastheDeliveranceDay.

1940March

LahoresessionoftheMuslimLeaguepassesthePakistanResolution.

1940Aug10

ViceroyLinlithgowannoucestheAugustOffer.

1940Aug18­22

The congress working committe rejects the August Offer.

1941Jauary17

Subhas Chandra bose escapes from India Arrives in Berlin (March 28).

1942 March 11

ChurchillannoncestheCrippsMission

1942Aug7­8

The INC meets in Bombay Adopts Quit India resolution.8

1942Aug9

Gandhiji and other Congress leaders arrested.

1942Aug11

QuitIndiaMovementbeginsthegreatAugustUprising.

1942 Sep 1

SubhasChandraBoseestablishtheIndianNationalarmy(AzadHindFauz)

1943oct21

SubhashChandraboseproclaimstheformationofProvisionalGovernmentoffreeIndia.

1943Dec

KarachisessionoftheMuslimLeagueadoptsthesloganDivideandQuit.

1944June25

WavellcallsSimlaConferenceinabidtoformtheExecutiveCouncilofIndianPoliticalleaders.

1946Feb18

MutinyoftheIndianNavalRatingsinBombay.

1946 March 15

BritishPMAttleeannouncesCabinetMissiontoproposenewsolutiontotheIndianDeadlock

CabinetMissionArrivesinNewDelhi(March14)issueproposal(May16)

1946July6

JawaharlalNehrutakesoverasCongressPresident.

1946Aug6

WavellinvitesNehrutoformanInterimGovernmenttakesoffice.(Sep2).

1946Dec9

FirstsessionofConstituentAssemblystarts.MuslimLeagueboycottsit.

1947Feb20

BritishPMAtleeDeclaredthattheBritishGovtwouldleaveIndianotlaterthanJune1948.

1947March24

LordMountbattenthelastBritishViceroyandGovernor General of India sworn in (March 24 1947 to

June211948).

1947June3

MountbattenPlanforthepartitionofIndiaandtheannouncement(June4)thatthetransferofpower

willtakeplaceonAug15.

1947 Aug 15

IndiawinsFreedom.

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