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# Advanced Surveying Home Work Solutions

Problem 2.2
Discuss the three types of errors and their influence upon survey work.
Blunders: human errors that tend to be noticeable and result in degraded work.
Systematic: mechanical errors due to equipment configuration or maintenance,
these are errors that can be corrected. If uncorrected, they degrade work.
Random: this type of error is inherent to the act of making measurements and is
not preventable, however, it is usually as likely to be on the long side as the short
side and therefore in the overall picture cancels out when multiple measurements
of the same quantity are made.

Problem 2.3
Give examples of systematic and random errors.
Chaining included numerous corrections for systematic error such as for the standard
length of the chain, the tension used, the temperature, the slope and sag all of which
could be modeled mathematically and the measurement made adjusted to compensate for
the error. Random errors can not be modeled physically; they can be modeled
statistically by determining the most probable value and the distribution of measurements

Problem 2.5
Discuss compensating for error in measuring distance and angles.
Common methods of measuring horizontal distance are by chaining or EDM. In
precision chaining all of the adjustments mentioned in Problem 2.3 must be accounted for
(many of these may not be significant to any particular problem, but they should be
considered). When using an EDM, corrections such as offset distances for the EDM and
the prism being used, and corrections for the speed of light due to changes in
temperature, humidity and barometric pressure can be employed. When measuring
angles it is important to insure that the instrument in use is vertical. It is very difficult to
insure this, however, buy measuring the angle first with the instrument in the upright
position and then inverting the scope and repeating the measurement small deviations
from vertical can be cancelled out.

Problem 2.7
Define: Mean, Standard Deviation, Covariance and Correlation.
Mean, the average of a set of values, the most likely value
Standard Deviation, a measure of the range of the expected difference between
measured value and the expected or most likely value (the mean) of a measurement.
Covariance, a measure of variance for measurements involving multiple variables.
Correlation, a measure of the dependency between variables in multivariable situations.

Problem 2.8
Define reference variance.
An arbitrarily selected scale or proportionality factor used to determine measurement
weighting factors.

Problem 2.14
Construct a histogram of the following measurement data using 2mm intervals then
determine the mean median, mode, mid range, variance, standard deviation and the
standard deviation of the mean.
Note: 206 m subtracted from each data point.

Problem 2.14

Sum:
Average:

Data
0.159
0.161
0.145
0.140
0.143
0.139
0.137
0.135
0.144
0.148
0.143
0.137
0.136
0.147
0.142
0.131
0.133
0.140
0.140
0.132
0.129
0.150
0.149
0.152
0.120
3.532
0.14128
(Mean)

x-x'
0.018
0.020
0.004
-0.001
0.002
-0.002
-0.004
-0.006
0.003
0.007
0.002
-0.004
-0.005
0.006
0.001
-0.010
-0.008
-0.001
-0.001
-0.009
-0.012
0.009
0.008
0.011
-0.021
0.000

(x-x')^2
0.000314
0.000389
1.38E-05
1.64E-06
2.96E-06
5.2E-06
1.83E-05
3.94E-05
7.4E-06
4.52E-05
2.96E-06
1.83E-05
2.79E-05
3.27E-05
5.18E-07
0.000106
6.86E-05
1.64E-06
1.64E-06
8.61E-05
0.000151
7.6E-05
5.96E-05
0.000115
0.000453
0.002

Bin
0.120
0.122
0.124
0.126
0.128
0.130
0.132
0.134
0.136
0.138
0.140
0.142
0.144
0.146
0.148
0.150
0.152
0.154
0.156
0.158
0.160
0.162

## Bin Sorted Data

0.120

0.129
0.133

0.132

0.137

0.137

0.140
0.143

0.140
0.143
0.145

0.131
0.135
0.136
0.139
0.140
0.142
0.144
0.147
0.148
0.150
0.152

0.149

0.159
0.161

Occurs Probability
1
4%
0
0%
0
0%
0
0%
1
4%
0
0%
3
12%
1
4%
3
12%
1
4%
3
12%
3
12%
2
8%
1
4%
2
8%
1
4%
1
4%
0
0%
0
0%
1
4%
1
4%
0
0%
25.00

100%

## Problem 2.14 Histogram

8.15E-05
(Variance)

14%

Probability

12%

25
Count
0.141
Mean
0.140
Median
0.140
Mode
0.141
Mid Range
Variance 8.488E-05
0.009
Std Dev
SD of Mea 1.843E-03 (Std Dev of Mean)

10%
8%
6%
4%
2%
0%
1

11 13 15 17 19 21
Distance

Problem 2.20
The following two equations are provided for calculating X and Y distances.
X = Xo + d Sin(A)

Y = Yo + d Cos(A)

Xo and Yo are errorless, the Standard Deviation for d is 0.005m, and the Standard
Deviation for A is 5. Form the Covariance matrix for (X,Y) coordinates when d is 500m
and A is 42 30 30. Calculate the Correlation Coefficient between calculated X and Y
coordinates.

## The covariance matrix

X
J = d
Y
d

A ; JT =
Y
A

= Sin(A) ; X

S x2

S yx

S xy
T
is calculated by J J where
S y2

Y
X
d ; and =
d

A
A

= d Cos(A) ; Y

2
d
dA

= Cos(A) ; Y

dA
2

= -d Sin(A)

## d = 0.005m; A = 5 or 0.0000242 Radians

dA = 0; distance and angle measurements are uncorrelated
Sin ( A) dCos ( A) 0.005 2
=

Cos ( A) dSin ( A) 0

## Cos ( A) 9.125 6.072

Sin( A)
0
=
x10 5

2
0.0000242 dCos ( A) dSin ( A) 6.072 8.066

## Sx2 = 9.125 x 10-5, Sx = 0.009550m

Sy2 = 8.066 x 10-5, Sy = 0.008981m
The correlation coefficient xy = xy/( x y) is estimated as Sxy/(SxSy)

xy =

S xy
SxSy

0.00006072
= 0.707
0.009550(0.008981)

Problem 2.28
Explain the difference between accuracy and precision.
Accuracy is how close a measurement is to the actual or real value.
Precision is how repeatable a measurement is.

Problem 2.29
When does adjustment become necessary in a survey network?
Adjustment is necessary when the network includes redundant data. Redundant data is
data beyond the minimum number of measurements required for a solution. Closure data
is redundant as a solution could be obtained prior to making the closing shot, however, by
collecting the closure data the surveyor is able to insure that the data will clearly show the
presence of any blunders and the magnitude of precision in the work completed. Because
all measurements are subject to error, one should not anticipate closure without an
observable error.

Problem 2.30
What is the basic objective of a survey adjustment?
The purpose of adjusting a survey is to distribute the observed closure error throughout
the survey in a meaningful manner.

Problem 2.31
What is the Least Squares criterion and why is it needed?
The least squares solution is a method of obtaining a solution by the minimization of
deviations between observations and all possible solutions. Using least squares it is quite
possible to assign different weights to each observation and therefore distribute
adjustments anywhere from uniformly using all points to focusing upon specific points
and even a single point. By using mathematically derived weighting functions to control
the adjustment, complex distributions of error are possible. A method of adjustment is
needed anytime redundant data is collected. The least squares method of adjustment is
not well suited to hand calculations.
END OF HW SET ONE

Problem 2.17
For the five given angles compute the standard deviation of a single value and the mean
angle. Determine the 95% confidence interval for the 33 4210 measurement.
The standard deviation of a single value is the typical standard deviation computed for a
set of observed values (using n-1 to calculate the variance). The standard deviation of the
mean is the standard deviation of the population divided by the square root of the number
of observations in the population.
Problem 2.17
Angles given:

Average
Std Dev

Deg
33
33
33
33
33

Min
42
42
42
42
42

33

42

Sec
10
0
15
20
30

DD
33.7028
33.7000
33.7042
33.7056
33.7083

15
33.70417
11.18034 0.003106

To calculate the 95% confidence interval for a single value, use the student t distribution
probability tabulation on page 1149 of the text. Since we are looking for the probability
of a single occurrence, use one degree of freedom at t = 0.95. The number of standard
deviations ranging from 0% (the infinite left side) to 95% of the distribution with 1 dof is
6.31. The confidence interval around the 33 4210 measurement then is 33 4210 +/6.31(11.18); 6.31(11.18) is 1 and 10.55.
Therefore the single value 95% confidence interval is from 33 4100 to 33 4320.
To calculate the 95% confidence interval around the mean, use n-1 dof (4) and because
the interval is symmetric about the mean it runs from 2.5% to 97.5%. The number of
standard deviations between the mean (50% probability) and 97.5% probability to the
right (or 2.5% probability to the left) is 2.78. The confidence interval around the mean is
+/- 2.78(11.18) or 31.08. Therefore the 95% confidence interval around the mean of
33 4215 is from 33 4144 to 33 4246.

Problem 2.19
The estimated standard deviation for measurement of a distance, determined by EDM is
0.005m + 10 ppm of the distance measured. Calculate estimated standard deviations for
distances or 300.05, 30100.60 and 2500.45 m measured with the EDM. Assuming a
reference variance of 1.00, form the covariance and weight matrices for the distances,
which are assumed to be un-correlated.
The standard deviation, S = 0.005 + d (10/1000000), and the variance is S2.
Distance Measured Std Deviation
300.05
0.00800
30100.60
0.30601
2500.45
0.03000

Variance
Inv of Var
6.4008E-05
15623.05
9.3640E-02
10.68
9.0027E-04
1110.78

The covariance matrix () is a 3x3 diagonal matrix (all off diagonal terms are 0.0) since
the distances are un-correlated and is composed of the Variance values shown above.
When the measurements are uncorrelated, the matrix of weights (W) is the inverse of ().

0
0
0
0
0.000064
15623.05

1
0
10.68
0
=
0
0.30601 0 ; and =

0
0
1110.78
0
0
0.03
Problem 2.21
Two sides and the included angle of a plane triangle are measured to give the following
values: side a is 100.000m with S = 0.030m; side b is 200.00m with S = 0.040m and the
included angle C is 45 00 00 with S = 30. These measurements are uncorrelated.
Calculate the area of the triangle formed and the standard deviation of the area.
Convert the standard deviation for the included angle to radians: S = 30/(3600(180));
Derive an equation for the area of the triangle: A = Base x Height; take the base to be
length b and the height to be length a Sin(C).
A = abSin(C)
Calculate SA2 = J JT where J is the matrix of partial differentials.
1
J = bSin (C )
2

1
aSin(C )
2

abCos (C )
2

0.03 2

and = 0
0

0
0.04
0

0.0001454 2
0

## SA2 = {b2Sa2Sin2(C) + a2Sb2Sin2(C) + a2b2SC2Cos2(C)}

SA2 = 0.25(2002 0.032 Sin2(45) + 1002 0.042 Sin2(45) + 1002 2002 0.00014542 Cos2(45))
SA2 = (18 + 8 + 4.231)
SA2 = 7.5577 m2
SA = 2.749 m

## A = 200 100 Sin(45)

A = 7071.068 m2

Problem 2.27
An angle was measured 16 times by repetition and the standard deviation of a single
angle was found to be 4. If the reference variance o is 162, calculate the weight for the
average angle.

The weight for the average angle will be the inverse of the variance of the average angle
divided by the reference variance. The variance of the average angle is the variance of a
single angle divided by the number of observations.
Sx2 = Sx/n
Sx2 = (4)2/16
Sx2 = 12
W = o/ Sx2
W = 16/1
W = 16

Problem 3.2
What factors should be considered by the surveyor when setting the specifications for
accuracy on a given project?

The project tolerances will control the survey. If constructed works need to be located to
+/- 1 foot the survey would not need to supersede that tolerance (common construction
practices today require tolerances on the order of +/- 0.01 feet). The instruments and
methods employed in the survey are a direct result of the precision that is required. One
should not specify precision that is not obtainable with the instruments and methods
employed!
Problem 3.7
A point is to be established on the ground at a distance of 300.00 m from a given point by
means of one linear and one angular measurement. This point is to be established to
within 5 cm of its true location. What angular error could be allowed to achieve this
accuracy in position?

Locate the point 300 meters away within 5 cm or 0.05 m of arc length (r sin(a) or ra,
where a is in radians). a then is 0.05/300 or 1.66x10-4 Radians (or 34).
a = 34

Problem 3.8
A horizontal distance has been measured with a relative precision of 1 part in 25000.
This specification for accuracy in a distance of 500.000 m corresponds to what tolerance
in horizontal angular measurement?
S = 500 (1)/25000
S = 0.02 m
S = ra; r = 500 m
a = S/r
a = 0.02/500
a = a180/
a = 0.00004(180)/
a = 2.2918x10-3 or 8.25

Problem 3.10
An angle of 50 00 00 is measured with a theodolite having a least count of 20.
Assume the maximum error is one-half the least count of the theodolite. What is the
relative precision if the sine, cosine and tangent of the angle are to be used (individually)
in computations?

## Use Figures 3.3 and 3.4 on page 83 of text with S = 10

Precision for Sine is less than 1/20,000 (off the provided chart).
Precision for Cosine is 1/17,000
Precision for Tangent is 1/10,000

Problem 3.17
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of data collectors and the electronic notebook
concept for collecting and processing survey data.

Electronic data collectors and field notebooks allow more data to be collected in a given
amount of time since there is no human read/write interface, the data is manipulated
electronically. Many of these devices also provide the surveyor powerful analysis tools
in the field during the data collection process. This results in fewer opportunities to
transpose information, better legibility of recorded data (as it will all be machine printed),
and fewer trips to the field as many office calculations (and the decisions dependent upon
those calculations) can now be done during the fieldwork.
Electronic data is subject to corruption and loss. In some cases the data is easily
manipulated and difficult to secure. In attempting to protect the original data from
tampering, it is also difficult to amend an errant condition that has been entered into the
logger or notebook (like the wrong prism height on a single shot).
The legality of electronic data is a complicated question with pros and cons. A
suggestion: download electronic data often and file a printed copy of the original field
work in a job folder.
Hand written field notes and sketches should accompany electronic data and notes.
Digital pictures are nice additions to electronic notes.
END OF HOME WORK ASSIGNMENT 2

Problem 10.1

## Define the term Celestial Sphere as used in astronomy.

A spherical surface (fixed radius of celestial proportion) upon which the position of
celestial bodies are projected.

Problem 10.2

Describe how an observers position on the surface of the earth is defined in the earths
equatorial system.
The earth is modeled as a sphere and the position of any point on the surface of this
model can be described by the intersection of two planes, one containing the polar axis
and one perpendicular to the polar axis. The orientation of these two planes is described
by angles from fixed reference planes. For the planes containing the polar axis, the
reference plane is that plane passing through Greenwich, England and the angle is
measured to the West of East and is called longitude. The reference plane perpendicular
to the polar axis is located at the midpoint of the axis and its intersection with the surface
of the sphere is called the equator. Planes parallel to this reference form intersections
with the surface called lines of Latitude and are located by their declination angle from
the equator to the N or S pole.

Problem 10.3

## Define a) Vernal equinox, b) Hour angle, and c) Right ascension.

a) Vernal equinox: that point on the celestial sphere where the sun crosses the
celestial equator. This occurs each year around March 21st.
b) Hour angle: the angular distance measured along the celestial equator between the
meridian of a reference point the meridian of an observer. Common reference
points are Greenwich, England and the Vernal Equinox. Hour angles are
measured positive clockwise (to the West) when observing from the N pole.
c) Right ascension: is the angular distance measured along the celestial equator
between the Vernal Equinox and the hour circle (meridian) through a celestial
body; it is measure positive to the East in either degrees of arc or hours of time.

Problem 10.4

Explain the relationship between the horizon system of spherical coordinates and the
equatorial system.
The equatorial system is defined by extending the polar axis of the earth and the equator
to the celestial sphere. The horizon system is defined by extending an axis in the
direction of gravity from the observers location on earth to the celestial sphere locating a
Zenith and Nadir, and a plane perpendicular to this axis through the center of the earth
which intersects the celestial sphere in a circle called the horizon. North on the horizon is
the meridian of the North pole and Zenith Any point on the celestial sphere may be
located by an angle of altitude from the horizon or the Zenith angle (90-altitude) and an
angle of Azimuth from North on the horizon to the intersection of a vertical circle
through the celestial body and the horizon.

Problem 10.5

On a given day, 0h Greenwich civil time occurs at 5h 17m 30s Greenwich sidereal time.
At that instant, what is the local sidereal time at a place whose longitude is 8h 10m 40s W?
LST = GST West
LST = 5 h1730 - 8 h1040 = -3 h0650
The LST is 3 hours before the current day or 21 h 0650 of the previous day.

Problem 10.6

When the local apparent time is 9 h1030 at a place where the longitude is 961030W,
what is the Greenwich apparent time?
GAT = LAT + West
West = 961030 / 15 degrees per hour
West = 96.175/15 = 6.4117 hours or 6 h2442
GAT = 9 h1030 + 6 h2442
GAT = 17 h3512

Problem 10.10

From an ephemeris find the equation of time for the instant of 2 h1010 PM Pacific
Standard Time on June 10, 2005. If the longitude of the place is 7h4603W, calculate
the local civil and local apparent times.
GCT = PCT + 8 h
GCT = (2 h1010 + 12 h) + 8 h = 22 h1010
EOT June 10, 2005: +00 39.73
EOT June 11, 2005: +00 27.62
Change in EOT: 27.62 39.73 = -12.11
Change in EOT per hour: -12.12/24 = -0.5046 seconds per hour
EOT @ 22h1010: -12.11(22+10/60+10/3600)/24 = -11.19
GAT = GCT + EOT = 22h1010 11.19 = 22h0958.81
LAT = GAT - West
LAT = 22h0958.81 - 7h4603
LAT = 14h2355.81 or 2h2355.81 PM

Problem 10.13
The mean radius of the earth is 3956 miles and the mean distance to the sun is 92,900,000
miles. What is the suns mean horizontal parallax: What is the parallax correction when
the altitude is 25 degrees?

Alpha = 90-25 = 65

## Find Theta 1: r = R Theta 1 when Theta 1 is in radians; Theta 1 = r/R

Theta 1 = 3956/92,900,000 = 4.26x10-5 Radians
Theta 1 = 4.26x10-5 Radians or 4.26x10-5(180/)3600 = 8.8
Theta 1 = 8.8

Cp = Ch Cos(h) = Theta 2
Cp = 8.8 Cos(25)
Cp = 7.96 or 8
Problem 10.14

The observed altitude of a star is 261030. The temperature is 90F and the
atmospheric pressure is 28.70 inches Hg. Find the refraction correction and compute the
true altitude of the star.
Cr = 0.27306 P Tan(z)/(460+T) or 0.27305 P Cot(h)/(460+T)
P = atmospheric pressure in inches Hg
z = Zenith angle
h = altitude angle
T = temperature in degrees Fahrenheit
Cr = 0.27306(28.70)Cot(261030)/(460+90)
Cr = 0.02898 deg or 144.4

h = h - Cr
h = 261030 144.4
h = 260845.6

Problem 10.21

On October 9, 2005 at a place where the latitude is 375221 and the longitude is
1221533W, the following data were recorded for a set of solar observations by the
hour angle method:
Instrument (Wilde T-2 theodolite No. 68730) at point 24, sight taken on point number 49
Sightings taken to center of sun using a solar circle attachement.
PI

BS

24

49

FS

Scope

Horiz Circ

00042

2221359

Cntr Sun

UT1 Time

23h1533.9

(421359)
Cntr Sun

2222402

23h1623.5

(422402)
Cntr Sun

424424

23h1803.5

Cntr Sun

425633

23h1903.5

1800038

49

Using the average UT1 time and average horizontal angle, compute the azimuth of the
sun and the azimuth of line 24 to 49 from North.
Average UT1: 23h1716.1 or 23.2778 hrs; Average Horizontal Circle: 423404.5
Date

Dec

GHA

EOT

Semi Diam

Oct 9, 2005

-61306.4

1830926.5

+12 37.77

16 00.7

-63553.2

1831330.0

+12 54.00

16 01.0

## EOT = GAT GMT

Difference in EOT for Oct 9th: 12 54.00 12 37.77 = 12.9000 12.6295 = 0.2705
EOT correction: 0.2705/24 = +0.01127 min/hr
GMT = UT1

## Correction for time at average observation: +0.01127(23.2878) = 0.2625 or 16.75

EOT @ average time of observation: +12 37.77 + 16.75 = 12 54.52 or 12.91 or
0.2151 hours
GAT = GMT + EOT
GAT = 23.2778 + 0.2151 = 23.4929 hrs or 23h2935
GAT = 23h2935
GHA = GAT - 12h = 11h2935
Convert GHA to degrees: 15(11.4929) = 172.3942 or 172 2339
LHA = GHA West Longitude
LHA = 172 2339 - 1221533 = 500806
LHA = 500806
Change in Declination of sun over the day: -63553.2 - -61306.4 = +2246.8
Declination at time of average observation: -63553.2 + 2246.8( 23h2935)/24 + B
Dec = -63553.2 + 2246.8(0.9789) + B
Dec = -61335.2 + B
B = 0.0000395 Dec0 Sin (7.5 GCTobs) = 0.0000395(-6.2184)Sin(7.5(23.2778))
B = -2.3185x10-5 degrees or -0.08
Dec = -61335.28 or -6.2265
Z = ArcTan(-Sin(LHA)/(Cos(Lat)Tan(Dec) - Sin(Lat)Cos(LHA)))
Z = ArcTan{-Sin(50.1350)/[Cos(37.8725)Tan(-6.2265) Sin(37.8725)Cos(50.1350)]}
Z = ArcTan{-0.7676/[0.7894(-0.1091) 0.6139(0.6410)]} = ArcTan(1.6004)
Z = 58.0011 or 580004
Azimuth sun = 180 + Z = 180 + 580004
Azimuth sun = 238 00 04
Azimuth 24-49 = Azimuth sun Horizontal Circle
Azimuth 24-49 = 238 00 04- 42 34 04.5