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UNIT I

CULTURAL CHAMELEONS
Word list
competitive
abroad
gradutes
foreign country
to relocate
work placement
employer
straightforward
throughout
customary
degree subject
Wireless Network Systems
cover letter
approaches
to get shortlisted
culture clash
withdraw
adapt
mirror
appearance
UNIT I Exercises
I Question forms. Work with a partner.
1. ________________________________________________
From a small village in south-west France called Marsac.
2. ________________________________________________
Usually at 9am but sometimes at about 8.45.
3. ________________________________________________
Languages? English and French quite fluently and also a bit of Chinese.
4. ________________________________________________
In a small apartment near the centre of town.
5. ________________________________________________
Usually by bus, but if the weather is really good Ii sometimes walk.
6. ________________________________________________
I usually go on holiday in June.
7. ________________________________________________
Sometimes in the company canteen, but more often I go to the caf around the corner.
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II Make expressions about working in a foreign country.


1 spend
____ the career ladder
2 climb
____ the culture of the country you wish to work in
3 draw
____ an application for a job if you think the company is not serious
4 respect
____ time abroad
5 withdraw
____ trust by adapting to the local culture
6 win
____ attention to relevant sections on your CV
III Work in groups to fill in the missing letters in these paragraphs about everyday
problems when living abroad.
1 Your em_ _ _ _ er might help you to find an apartment, or you can use the Internet to find
places to r _ _ t. View the apartment first before you s _ _ n a contract and give a dep_ _ _ t to the
lan _ _ _ _ d. Check whether the b _ _ _ s are included in the rent, and also how much n_ _ ice
you need to give when you want to m_ _ _ o_ _.
2 To open a bank a _ _ _ _ nt, you will need to show proof of ea _ _ _ _gs, and that this salary
will be paid into this account. If you spend more than you earn, you may have to pay for the over
_ _ _ _t on your account. You will get a credit card from your bank, but check the rules carefully
before you s _ _ _ u _.
3 If you need medical t _ _ _ _ ment you will be treated by the national health s _ _ _ _ ce of the
country where you live. Your employer might give you the chance to join an in _ _ _ _ _ce
scheme that helps to pay for private treatment.
4 When buying a mobile phone, you choose the pr _ _ _ _er and then pay for a monthly contract.
Alternatively, you can have a prepaid p_ _ _ _ge that allows you to make regular t_ p u_s.
These days, many providers also offer wireless internet access, so you wont need a l_ _d_ _ne in
your aparment.

UNIT I GRAMMAR
THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
PREZENT

TO BE
Affirmative +

(Short
form)

Negative -

(Short
form)

Interrogative ?

I am
You are
He is
She is
It is

I'm
You're
He's
She's
It's

I am not
You are not
He is not
She is not
It is not

I'm not
You aren't
He isn't
She isn't
It isn't

Am I?
Are you?
Is he?
Is she?
Is it?

We are
You are
They are

We're
You're
They're

We are not
You are not
They are
not

We aren't
You aren't
They
aren't

Are we?
Are you?
Are they?

TO DO
Affirmative +

Negative -

(short form)

Interrogative ?

I do
You do
He does
She does
It does

I do not
You do not
He does not
She does not
It does not

I don't
You don't
He doesn't
She doesn't
It doesn't

Do I?
Do you?
Does he?
Does she?
Does it?

We do
You do
They do

We do not
You do not
They do not

We don't
You don't
They don't

Do we?
Do you?
Do they?

For example (na primer): to drive - voziti


Affirmative +

Negative -

(Short form)

Interrogative ?

I drive
You drive
He drives
She drives
It drives

I do not drive
You do not drive
He does not drive
She does not drive
It does not drive

I don't drive
You don't drive
He doesn't drive
She doesn't drive
It doesn't drive

Do I drive?
Do you drive?
Does he drive?
Does she drive?
Does it drive?

We drive
You drive
They drive

We do not drive
You do not drive
They do not drive

We don't drive
You don't drive
They don't drive

Do we drive?
Do you drive?
Do they drive?

The Simple Present Tense is formed by the infinitive of the verb. For the third person singular, - s
is added (eg. he talks).

es is added for the third person singular for verbs that end in s, - ss, -sh, -ch, -x, and z. es
is also added to some verbs that end in o (eg. go, do).
Verbs ending in y preceded by a consonant change in the third person singular into ie before
the ending s.
For example:
He always misses the television show because he falls asleep.
She brushes her teeth thoroughly three times a day.
Jerry catches the ball every time.
Sally quizzes her daughter before a test.
She goes to Spain every year to visit different conferences.
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She tries to win over and over again.

USE

The Present Simple Tense is used:


for things that happen regularly, ie. for repeated actions:
They often go for long walks in the evening.
for facts or generalizations:
The earth rotates around the sun.
Babies like milk.
for future scheduled events:
The bus leaves the station at 9 pm.
The following time adverbials are often used with The Present Simple:
always, often, sometimes, every day/month/year, rarely, ever, never, usually, occasionaly,
frequently etc:
I always drink coffee first thing in the morning.
They frequently go to the gym.
She never goes to school unprepared.

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE


TRAJNI PREZENT
BE + V + ING
The present continuous tense is formed by the present simple tense of the verb to be and
ing added to the verb infinitive.
For example: to talk - priati
Affirmative +
I am talking
You are talking

Negative I'm not talking


You aren't talking

Interrogative ?
Am I talking?
Are you talking?
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He is talking
She is talking
It is talking

He isn't talking
She isn't talking
It isn't talking

Is he talking?
Is she talking?
Is it talking?

We are talking
You are talking
They are talking

We aren't talking
You aren't talking
They aren't talking

Are we talking?
Are you talking?
Are they talking?

USE
The Present Continuous Tense is used:
for an action happening at the moment of speaking, ie. now:
She cannot talk to you right now. She is taking a shower.
for longer actions which are in progress now:
Are you doing any special projects at work?
They are preparing for the exams.
for future scheduled events:
They are getting married next spring.
I am seeing my dentist this Friday.
with 'always' for repeated actions, which are sometimes irritating:
sa 'always' za radnje koje se ponavljaju, koje su ponekad iritirajue:

He is always complaining about his problems at the office.

Now, at the moment, currently, presently etc are some of the time advrbials that we often use
with The Present Continuous Tense:
I'm presently working on a thesis.
She's washing the dishes now.

PRESENT SIMPLE VS PRESENT CONTINUOUS

I Make a negative and an interrogative sentence.


1. Michael is pretending to be someone else.
a) ____________________________________________
b) ____________________________________________
2. Marcia sells many articles during the day.
a) ____________________________________________
b) ____________________________________________
3. Students attend all the classes where Mr Jones gives lectures.
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a) ____________________________________________
b) ____________________________________________
4. They are studying biology at the university.
a) ____________________________________________
b) ____________________________________________
5. Monkeys like bananas.
a)____________________________________________
b)____________________________________________
6. She is leaving on Wednesday.
a) ____________________________________________
b) ____________________________________________
7. He is always playing the piano at midnight! It's very annoying!
a) ____________________________________________
b) ____________________________________________
8. The sun is shining.
a) ____________________________________________
b) ____________________________________________
9. They live in Belgrade.
a) ____________________________________________
b) ____________________________________________
10. Your English class begins at 10 am.
a) ____________________________________________
b) ____________________________________________
II Work in pairs to choose the correct forms of the verbs in brackets.
Mark: _______________ (you/look) for someone?
Alan: Yes, _______________ (I/need) to speak to Nei. He isnt in his office.
Mark: _______________ (he/talk) to the boss at the moment. _______________ (I/think) they
_______________ (discuss) money.
Alan: Oh, right. And what about you? _______________ (you/look) for someone too?
Mark: Yes, Linda. _______________ (you/know) where she is?
Alan: Oh, she isnt here today. She only _______________ (work) four days a week.
_______________ (she/not/work) on Fridays. Shell be here on Monday.
Mark: Thank you. _______________ (you/know) a lot about Linda.
Alan: Well, most days _______________ (I/give) her a lift, or _______________ (she/give) me
one. _______________ (she/live) quite close to me. _______________ (it/save) petrol.
Mark: Yes, of course. Good idea. Yes, _______________ (I/agree). Well, _______________
(I/waste) my time here then. Ill get back to my computer.
III Complete the sentences.
1. ______________________ (I/write) to my parents. ______________________ (I/write) to
them every weekend.
2. ______________________ (it/snow) outside. ______________________ (it/come) down quite
hard, look.
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3.
Normally
______________________
(I/start)
work
at
8
oclock,
but
______________________ (I/start) at seven this week. Were very busy at the moment.
4. The sun ______________________ (rise) in the east, remember. Its behind us so
______________________ (we/travel) west.
5. Im afraid I have no time to help just now. ______________________ (I/write) a report. But
______________________ (I/promise) Ill give you some help later.
6. ______________________ (I/want) a new car. ______________________ (I/save) up to buy
one.
IV Pay attention to the positive, negative and interrogative forms!
1. We always travel by bus. We ______________________ (own) a car.
2. I dont want to go out. Look, it ______________________ (rain).
3. Rachel is in her jeans. She ______________________ (wear) her new dress.
4. Matthew is good at badminton. He ______________________ (win) every game.
5. No breakfast for Mark, thanks. He ______________________ (eat) breakfast.
6. The earth ______________________ (slowly/get) warmer.
7. Dont try to ring the bell. It ______________________ (work).
8. Ive got four cats and two dogs. I ______________________ (animals).
9. What ______________________ (you/do) at the moment?
10. I must go back to the office. We ______________________ (work) on a new project.
V Permanent vs temporary situations
1. He joined the company 25 years ago and he still __________________ (work) for us.
2. We __________________ (not/send) out any orders this week because were waiting for the
new lists.
3. I __________________ (deal) with Mr Matsumis clients this week because he is away.
4. Go down this road, turn right, and the road __________________ (lead) straight to the
industrial estate.
5. Because of the Euro/Dollar exchange rate, EU exports __________________ (not/do) very
well at the moment.
6. The stock market is risky because the price of shares __________________ (vary) according
to economic conditions.
7. I __________________ (learn) French because Im going to be based in the Paris office next
year.
8. Hello. Im Heinrich Brandt, Im German, and I __________________ (come) from a small
town near Munich.
VI Stative verbs
1. We are __________________ (interview) people from outside the company for the new post in
the export department, but I __________________ (think) we ought to give the job to Mr
Janousek.
2. At the moment we __________________ (carry) out a survey to find out what sort of aftersales service our customers __________________ (want).
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3. Weve got a competition on at work to find a name for our new range of cusmetics. The
marketing people __________________ (try) to find a brand name that __________________
(sound) natural and sophisticated.
4. __________________ (you/know) what Mrs Ericson __________________ (do)? Shes not in
her office and nobody has seen her since lunch.
5. Could you help me? I __________________ (try) to translate this letter from a Spanish client
and I dont know what this word __________________ (mean).
6. I __________________ (apply) for a transfer to our London office, but I dont know if Ill be
successful. It all __________________ (depend) on whether or not they have any vacancies.
7. Their new own brand instant coffee __________________ (taste) very good, so it isnt
surprising that it __________________ (become) more and more popular.
VII General activities vs current projects
We set up the company in 2002 with a grant from the local government. We 1)
__________________ (provide) IT backup and support for a number of small and medium-sized
businesses in the area. We also 2) __________________ (design) web sites for local companies,
and we 3) __________________ (look) after them by doing regular maintenance, and so on.
When we 4) __________________ (get) a new customer, we always 5) __________________
(spend) a long time talking to them to find out their needs. At the moment we 6)
__________________ (set up) a website for a large local travel agency, and in fact our chief
programmer is in charge of the project. She 7) __________________ (have) discussions with
them to find out what sort of features they 8) __________________ (require).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME
IN/ON/AT
In English, at is used as a time preposition in the following cases:
With exact points of time:
AT

6 oclock
7.30 p.m.
dawn
noon
midnight
With ages:
AT

fifteen (the age of fifteen)


forty (the age of forty)
With phrases that contain the words: beginning or end:
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AT

the beginning of October


the end of the book
the beginning of the month
the end of the year
Pay attention (obratiti panju)!
However, this should not be confused with in the beginning/end which means at first and
finally respectively. For example:
In the beginning I didnt realise what he was talking about.
In the end, she managed to learn the poem by heart.

(at first) (u poetku)

(finally) (konano)

With the names of short holidays:


Christmas
Easter
New Year
the weekend
In American English, as well as spoken British English now, we use ON the weekend
AT

With mealtimes:
AT

breakfast
lunch
dinner

With longer periods of time time such as: months, seasons, years, decades, centuries. For
example:
IN

the summer
1976
January
the 1960s
the 19th century

With parts of the day:


IN

the morning
the afternoon
the evening

but:
AT

night

When we are talking about a time period that is going to pass before something happens:
IN

a few minutes
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a week
three months
four years
With phrases starting with the middle of:
IN the middle of

the night
February
2002
We use on to talk about a partcular day of the week or date:

ON

Monday
Thursday
3rd August
23 May

EXERCISES
I Work in groups to complete the paragraph using prepositions of time.
I came to London about 6 months ago. I started my job as a wine buyer at M&S 1) ________
February. To be exact, I started 2) ________ February 14th. Before coming here, I worked at a
winery in South Africa and before that, 3) ________ 2004, I was in New York State working as
an au pair. No matter where I am 4) ________ the world, I always phone my parents 5) ________
the weekend. I try to call them 6) ________ Sundays 7) ________ 6 oclock 8) ________ the
evening. The other thing I try to do is go home for Christmas. I do like to spend time 9)
________ Christmas with my family. If you ever get the chance, you really should go to
Germany 10) ________ December. The German Christmas markets are the best in the world.
II Fill in the gap with IN/AT/ON
________ Monday
________ the evening
________the end of the week
________ the weekend (UK)
________ the weekend (US)
________ Christmas
________ Christmas Day
________ ten oclock
________ 28 July
________ winter
________ the end of the year
________ the afternoon

________ August 24th


________ summer
________ 11 oclock
________ January
________ lunchtime
________ the 1990s
________ 2007
________ yesterday
________ last week
________ Saturday
________ July
________ night

III Fill the spaces with the appropriate preposition of time.


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1. Were meeting our new business partner __________ Monday morning.


2. George was born __________ January.
3. The First World War ended __________ 1945.
4. My father usually takes a nap __________ the afternoon.
5. I really enjoy swimming in the sea __________ the morning, but I wouldnt dare do it
__________ night.
6. The company was founded __________ 1st August 2002.
7. Brittany fell asleep __________ the middle of the chemistry class.
8. I suddenly fell sick __________ the meeeting.
9. The train for Manchester leaves __________ noon.
10. __________ the beginning I didnt really like him, but __________ the end I realised how
generous and warm-hearted he was.
11. There is a preface __________ the beginning of the book.
12. Go straight on and turn left __________ the end of the street.
13. Lets meet in that new fancy reastaurant __________ lunch.
14. My grandfather was young __________ the 1950s.
15. __________ the end of the year we usually make plans for the following year.
16. Wait for me in the office. Ill be there __________ a few seconds.
17. Ben moved to Italy __________ the age of seventeen.
18. Natally is planning to stay with her grandparents __________ the summer.

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UNIT II
BREUNINGER THE BEAUTIFUL THINGS IN LIFE
Word list
upmarket
deparment store
flagship
lingerie
accessories
leisurewear
household
top-of-the-range
commitment
customer service
comfort and convenience
forward-thinking
to enable
exceptional
facilities
live entertainment
consultant
fitting rooms
made-to-measure
tailoring
gift-wrapped
UNIT II Exercises
I Fill in the missing letters.
Facilities: cu_ _ _ _ _r parking; ch_ _ _ _ _re; private f _ _ _ _ _g rooms; beauty s _ _ _ _s; hair _
_ _ _ _ _ _s; cosmetic wo_ _ _ _ _ps; caf on each f _ _ _r; live en _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _nt
Services: alt _ _ _ _ _on services; made-to-m_ _ _ _ _e services; gift wr_ _ _ _ _g; home d _ _ _
_ _ _y
Financial services and benefits: money-off v _ _ _ _ _rs; s_ _ _e card; special o _ _ _ _s; r _ _ _
_ ds

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II Match the words with their definitions.


convenience
lifestyle

escalator
made-to-measure

fitting
refund

flagship
voucher
wrapping

household

1. used in homes, or relating to homes ______________


2. money that you get back if you return goods that you do not like ______________
3. moving stairs that take people from one level of a building to the next ______________
4. the way that someone lives, including their work, their activities and what they own
______________
5. the paper or plastic that covers something that you buy ______________
6. something that helps you to avoid wasting time and effort ______________
7. used in the phrase ______________ room to mean a room in a shop where you can put on
clothes before buying them
8. made to a particular size (=tailor-made) ______________
9. a piece of paper that you buy something with (instead of using money) ______________
10. the biggest, most important, or best thing in a group (an idea that comes from the navy)
______________
III Make phrases used in customer care.
1. greet
2. find out
3. let
4. deal
5. try
6. stay
7. take
8. suggest
9. confirm
10. end

_____ with the problem, if you can


_____ not to interrupt
_____ why the customer is calling
_____ the customer in a warm manner
_____ the customer explain the problem
_____ by thanking the customer for calling
_____ the solution after you have both agreed
_____ notes so you are clear about the details
_____ calm and dont lose your temper
_____ a solution without blaming anyone

NUMBER OF NOUNS
BROJ IMENICA
In the English language nouns can be divided into:
1. Countable Nouns (brojive imenice):
pen, desk, chair, case, plate, bed, glass, apple, armchair, trousers etc.
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and:
2. Uncountable Nouns (nebrojive imenice):
water, salt, wine, juice, space, love, honour, furniture, advice, information, dirt, success,
money etc.
*Uncountable nouns, as the very name denotes, do not form plural!

PLURAL OF NOUNS
Only Countable Nouns form plural in English. Some nouns form Regular Plural, while the
other nouns form Irregular Plural.

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REGULAR PLURAL
PRAVILNA MNOINA
Most nouns in Eglish form plural by adding the ending s, which can be pronounced as /s/
if the noun ends in a voiceless consonant, and as /z/ if a noun ends in a voiced consonant or a
vowel. For example:
hat hats /s/
fork forks /s/
sofa sofas /z/
window windows /z/
With nouns ending in ce, -ge, -dge, -se, -ze, where the final e is silent, the ending es
which is formed when s is added to a noun, is pronounced as /iz/:
face faces /iz/
page - pages /iz/
horse horses /iz/

Nouns ending in: -s, -ss, -ch, -sh and x form plural by adding the ending es which is
pronounced as /iz/:
bus buses /iz/
glass glasses /iz/
church churches /iz/
bush bushes /iz/
box boxes /iz/

Nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant, form plural by adding es pronounced as /z/ to the
noun:
tomato tomatoes /z/
potato potatoes /z/
echo echoes /z/
hero heroes /z/
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*However, if a noun ends in o preceded by a vowel, only s pronounced as /z/ is added:


studio studios /z/
scenario scenarios /z/
*Nouns of foreign origin or abbreviated words ending in o form plural by adding only s
pronounced as /z/:
piano pianos /z/
photo photos /z/

Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant, form plural by changing y into i and adding the
ending es pronounced as /iz/:
baby babies /iz/
city cities /iz/
However, nouns ending in y which is preceded by a vowel, form plural by adding the ending s
pronounced as /z/:
boy boys /z/
day days /z/

The following nouns which end in f or fe, when forming plural change f into v and add es
pronounced as /z/:
knife knives /z/
life lives /z/
wife wives /z/
half halves /z/
leaf leaves /z/
shelf shelves /z/
loaf loaves /z/
thief thieves /z/
wolf wolves /z/
self selves /z/
calf calves /z/
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sheaf sheaves /z/

The nouns hoof, scarf and wharf have two different forms in plural:
hoof hoofs /s /

or (ili)

hoof hooves /z/

scarf scarfs /s/

or (ili)

scarf scarves /z/

wharf wharfs

or (ili)

wharf wharves

All the other nouns ending in f or ff form plural by adding s pronounced as /s/:
roof roofs /s/
cliff cliffs /s/

IRREGULAR PLURAL
NEPRAVILNA MNOINA

Certain number of nouns in English form irregular plural, which means that they possess a
plural form which has to be memorised by heart. There are no rules to be applied when forming
plural as there are for regular plural!
There are different cases of irregular plural in English:
1. The following nouns have kept the old forms of plural:
man - men
woman women
child - children
mouse mice
louse lice
foot feet
tooth teeth
goose geese
ox oxen

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*The noun brother has two forms of plural: both the regular and irregular one with a difference in
meaning:
brother brothers (braa)
brother brethren (bratstvo)

2. The following nouns have the same form both in singular and plural:
fish - fish
deer deer
sheep sheep
series series
species species
means means
gas-works gas-works
cross-roads cross-roads

3. The following nouns do not have a plural form. They are always followed by a singular verb:
advice
information
furniture
business
luggage
strength
intelligence
music

4. The following nouns have only the plural form:


goods
arms
weapons
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thanks
teens
headquarters
premises
clothes
stairs etc.

5. Nouns denoting the names of objects consisting of two equal or similar parts are always used
in plural only:
glasses
shorts
pants
pyjamas
scissors
compasses
binoculars etc.

6. A number of nouns taken from Greek and Latin have kept the original forms of plural:
datum data
phenomenon - phenomena
nucleus nuclei
appendix appendices
index indices
formula formulae

7. A number of words taken from French, Hebrew, Italian and some other lanuages have also kept
the original forms of plural:
beau beaux
seraph seraphim
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libretto libretti

*However, most of the above mentioned nouns taken from different foreign languages also have
the forms of regular plural made by adding the English ending s or es to the singular when
used in everyday speech or non-scientific texts. For example:
index indexes
formula formulas
seraph seraphs

8. A certain number of nouns of Greek and Latin origin which end in is in singular, have the
plural form which ends in es, where this ending is pronounced as /i:z/:
analysis analyses
axis axes
basis bases

9. Names of sciences and diseases which end in ics or s, although they have a plural form, take
a verb in singular. For example:
Economics was my favourite subject at college.
He thinks phonetics is very interesting.
Mumps is a different disease from measles.
Also (takoe):
mathematics, physics, statistics, mechanics, electronics, optics

PLURAL OF COMPOUND NOUNS


MNOINA SLOENIH IMENICA

Compund nouns usually form plural by adding s or es or irregular plural to the last
word of the compound:
bedrooms, travel agents, boy-friends, grown-ups, writing tables, policewomen etc.
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However, where man or woman is the first word in a compund, then both words are made
plural:
men drivers, women friends, men doctors, women servants etc.
In compounds formed of nouns + preposition with a noun, adjective or adverb, the noun is
made plural:
passers-by, lookers-on, sisters-in-law, men-of-war, editors-in-chief etc.

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EXERCISES
I Put the following nouns into the regular plural:
flower, window, fridge, computer, plate, bed, city, cliff, shelf, baby, blanket, scenario, potato,
photo, church, bus, box, glass, boy, prize

II Put the following nouns into the irregular plural:


man, child, mouse, foot, tooth, ox, deer, sheep, species, means, datum, phenomenon, analysis,
axis, radius, appendix, formula, seraph, crisis, bureau

III Transform the following sentences into the plural:


1. A daisy is a flower.
2. They made a different analysis from this one.
3. A table is made of wood.
4. A city is bigger than a town.
5. A school is a place where a pupil gets education.
6. A cat likes fish.
7. That is a strange phenomenon!
8. A tooth is in your jaw.
9. A teacher teaches a student.
10. There is a goose in the pond.

QUANTIFIERS
PRIDEVI ZA KOLIINU
Quantifiers are indefinite adjectives which denote either indefinite amount or indefinite
number depending on the fact whether they stand in front of a countable noun or an uncountable
one.
SOME / ANY / NO / NONE
The adjective some can be used either with countable or uncountable nouns. When used
with a singular countable noun, it means certain and can be used both with nouns denoting
people and things. For example:
Pridev some moe stajati i uz brojive i uz nebrojive imenice. Kada stoji uz brojivu imenicu u
jednini, ima znaenje izvestan i moe se koristiti sa imenicama koje oznaavaju ljude i stvari. Na
primer:

Theres some man in the backyard.


For some reason he doesnt like me.
24

When used with a plural countable noun, it can mean either:


1) certain or
2) a few:
1) Some people prefer the seaside to the mountains.
2) There are some colour pencils in the case.
In questions and negative statements instead of some we use any:
U upitnim i odrinim reenicama umesto some koristimo any:

Are there any questions?


There arent any clean glaasses in the cupboard.
When used with uncountable nouns, some means a certain quantity of. For example:
Kada se upotrebljava sa nebrojivim imenicama, some ima znaenje izvesna koliina neega i na
srpski jezik se prevodi sa neto ili malo. Na primer:

Theres some rice in the bowl.


Theres some juice in the glass.
In questions and negatives we use any again:
U upitnim i odrinim reenicama takoe koristimo any:

Is there any rice in the bowl?


There isnt any juice in the glass.
*However, if we expect a positive answer, then some is used in the question as well:
Would you like some more coffee?
*Instead of any in negative sentences we can use no with both countable and uncountable nouns,
provided that the verb is in a positive form, since in English there can be only one negation in a
sentence:
There are no apples in the fridge.
There is no jam in the jar.
If we use no, it has to be followed by a noun. However, if we want to use it without a
noun, then none is used instead of no. For example:
- Are there any apples in the fridge?
- There are none.
- Is there any jam in the jar?
- There is none.
MANY / MUCH / A LOT OF
The adjective many is used with plural countable nouns to denote an indefinite number,
while much is used with uncountable nouns to denote indefinite quantity. Both many and much
are preferred in English in questions and negative statements, while a lot of (lots of) is used in
positive sentences (statements) for both countable and uncountable nouns:
25

There are a lot of books on the shelf.

or (ili)

There are lots of books on the shelf.

Are there many books on the shelf?


There arent many books on the shelf.

There is a lot of tea in the pot.

or (ili)

There is lots of tea in the pot.

Is there much tea in the pot?


There isnt much tea in the pot?

FEW / A FEW / LITTLE / A LITTLE

The adjective few is an indefinite adjective which is used with countable nouns in plural
and denotes an indefinite number. A few also stands with plural countable nouns. The difference
between these two adjectives is that few has a negative connotation, while a few has a positive
one. Few means not enough, while a few means enough.

Jason has few friends. (not enough!) (nedovoljno!)


Ann has a few friends. (enough!) (dovoljno!)
I have few eggs. I cant make a cake. (not enough eggs to make a cake!) (nedovoljno jaja da
se napravi torta!)

There are a few eggs in the fridge. You dont have to go to the market now. (enough for
now!) (dovoljno za sada!)

The adjective little is an indefinite adjective which is used with uncountable nouns to
denote indefinite quantity. A little is also used with uncountable nouns. The difference between
these two adjectives is that little has a negative connotation, while a little has a positive one.
Little means not enough, while a little means enough.

Theres little pie in the oven. Youll have to add something to it. (not enough for a meal!)
(nedovoljno za obrok!)

Theres a little flour in the can. You can make some pancakes.
pancakes!) (dovoljno da se naprave palainke!)

(enough to make

26

Theres little bread in the bag. You cant make a sandwich.


sandwich!) (nedovoljno da se napravi sendvi!)

(not enough to make a

Therea a little bread in the bag. You can make yourself a sandwich. (enough to make a
sandwich!) (dovoljno da se napravi sendvi)

EXERCISES
I Put some, any, no or none in the spaces.
1. There isnt __________ butter left in the fridge.
2. There is __________ sugar at all and I want to make a cake. Ill have to go to the shop and buy
__________.
3. How many children does your new neighbour have? He has __________. He lives with his
wife only. Theyve just got married.
4. Are there __________ colour pencils in the drawer? Yes, there are __________.
5. I cant eat __________ more meat, but Id like __________ salad, please.
6. There are __________ roses in the garden, only __________ tulips.
7. Ive had too many drinks already. What about you? I had __________. I dont drink
alcohol.
8. Can I have __________ salt please? This meal isnt salty enough!
9. Is there __________ chocolate left. I would really want __________.
10. I have __________ more letters to post today.
II Use many, much and a lot of to fill in the gaps.
1. Anns son has __________ toys. His room is full of them
2. I cant buy this shirt. Its very expensive and I dont have __________ money.
3. How __________ brothers and sisters do you have?
4. There is not __________ coffee left. Just a little.
5. My sister has __________ friends. People simply love spending time with her.
6. Our neighbour, who is very old, doesnt have __________ friends. That is why she feels so
lonely sometimes.
7. My nieces dont make __________ noise while playing. They are such calm children.
8. How __________ crime stories have you read? Ive read __________ them.
9. Im sorry. I dont have __________ time and I have to hurry.
10. I didnt find __________ apples in the tree. Just two.
III Chose between few and a few, little and a little to complete the sentences:
1. Tom has few / a few friends and he is not very happy.
2. Theres little / a little coffee left. I cant make us coffee. Would you like some tea?
3. Can I have some sugar for my coffee, please? Certainly. Theres little / a little in the bowl.
4. Ive just moved to the city and Ive already met few / a few people.
27

5. Are there any oranges? Yes, there are few / a few in the kitchen.
6. Is there any milk left? Yes, there is little / a little in the jug. You can have it.
7. Can I have some juice? Theres little / a little in the bottle. Im afraid there isnt enough.
8. There are few / a few people at the party. I dont think itll be fun.
9. Ive just found few / a few toys under the bed. Take them to your room.
10. Theres little / a little paper in the printer. I dont think Ill be able to print the document.
IV Circle the correct word in each pair in italics.
1. How much/many money/monies did we make last month?
2. How much/many employee/employees work in their company?
3. We didnt get much/many order/orders at the trade fair.
4. I didnt get much/many help/helps from him.
5. She gave me a lot/a lot of useful advice/advices.
6. Do you have some/any information/informations about this project?
7. We have some/any equipment that is/are very out-of-date.
8. They didnt do some/any research/researches before launching the product.
V a/an, some, any
1. Id like an/some advice about the governments latest tax proposals.
2. Ive just received a/some very nice gift from one of my suppliers.
3. Shall we carry on working, or would you like to go out for a/some meal?
4. Do you have an/any information about conference facilities in Monaco?
5. I just have to go to the bank to get a/some money.
6. Henk wants you to phone him. He says he has a/some good news for you.
7. Did you meet an/any interesting people at the trade fair?
8. The engineers are having a/some problems with the new engine.
VI much, many, a lot of, a little, a few
A: How are things in Madrid?
B: Were nearly ready. We didnt have 1) ____________ trouble finding a suitable office.
There seem to be 2) ____________ empty places at the moment.
A: How 3) ____________ work will you need to do on the building?
B: Nothing really. We only need to do 4) ____________ painting and decorating, and itll be fine.
A: How 5) ____________ people are going to be working there?
B: About twenty. Weve filled most of the jobs, so itll only take 6) ____________ weeks to find
the other people we need. We havent appointed a sales manager yet, but there has been 7)
____________ interest in the job, so well get someone soon.
A: How 8) ____________ time do you think youll spend there?
B: At the beginning, Ill have to spend 9) ____________ time over there, so Ive rented an
apartment. But Im hoping that it will only go on for 10) ____________ months, and then the
office will be able to look after itself.

28

UNIT III
TOYOTA PRODUCTION SYSTEM
Word list
car production
huge
demand
mass-produced
enourmous
vehicle
instead
customers needs
lean manufaturing
combine
craftwork
aim
defects
deal with
faulty
just-in-time system
warehouse
turnover
objective
improvement
identify with
lead time
working environment
implement
adjust
adapt
Additional text
When Pan Am began the first passenger service across the Atlatic from New York to France in
1939, a one-way ticket cost $375. Thats about $4,000 in todays money. These days a ticket on
the same route can cost you as little as $250.
In the past, if you wanted to fly commercially you had to book a seat on traditional, or national
airlines such as British Airways, Lufthansa or Air France. There were strict rules and the airlines
were often accused of price-fixing.
In the 1950s, only the rich could afford the $70 return fare from England to Nice. It doesnt sound
much, but thats equivalent to about $1,500 today. Now this has all changed. Today, easyJet will
fly you to Nice for less than $15 each way.
New budget airlines are appearing all the time, and most national airlines now have their own
budget subsidiary. Fares are cheap, food and drinks are not included, there in no seat allocation
29

and the planes are often second-hand. However, it seems that most passengers will put up with a
bit of discomfort in order to fly cheaply. But what about the effects budget airlines have on their
employees and the environment?
Exercises
I Match the words with their definitions.
1. resources
2. milestone
3. green light
4. deadline
5. phase

a) a particular period of time during the development of something


b) a specific time or date by which you have to do something
c) something such as money, workers, or equipment that can be used to
help an institution or business
d) the official approval to go ahead with something
e) an event or achievement that marks an important stage in a project

II Fill in the missing letters.


1. The amount of a product that people want is called the d _______ for the product. In business,
the word is strongly associated with the opposite idea of supply (the amount available).
2. Cars are mass-produced on an enormous s _______ (size, rate or level). This word is often
used in the phrase the s of the problem.
3. A piece of equipment in a factory that does a particular job is called a m _______. We use the
uncountable noun m ___________ to refer to lots of these all together.
4. The term lean m ____________ is used to describe a poduction system that uses less labour,
less machinery, less space, less time and less waste.
5. A fault in the way that a product is made is called a d________.
6. The just-in-time system makes stores or w________s (large buildings for storing goods)
unnecessary because parts are only ordered when they are needed.
7. Kaizen is the Japanese term for co_________ imp___________.
8. The results of the Toyota Production System are superior products, short l____ t____ (how
long it takes to make something) and low costs.

GRAMMAR
ADVERBS OF MANNER (PRILOSKE ODREDBE ZA NACIN) HOW?
- tell us how something happens
- are used to modify verbs and usually come after the main verb
Shares in the company rose quickly.
- to form an adverb from an adjective add LY to the adejective
quick + ly = quickly
slow +ly = slowly
- when an adjective ends in y, replace y with ily
happy + ly = happily
30

angry +ly = angrily


- there are some exceptions: good = well; hard = hard
I Complete the sentences using adverbs of manner.
1. Tobacco sales are decreasing ________________. (slow)
2. The organic foods market grew ________________ (quick) last month.
3. I think the price of shares in Hussein Solar Power Plc will rise _______________ (sharp) very
soon.
4. Our production process is improving ___________________ (slight) every day.
5. Our products are selling very __________________ (good) in Japan at the moment.
6. The amount of waste we produce is falling __________________ (steady).
II Make adverbs from the adjectives.
slow
___________
hard
___________
full
___________
good
___________

dramatic
happy
fast
bad

___________
___________
___________
___________

III good vs well


1. Did you have a _________ flight?
2. Ive been learning English for three years, so I speak it quite ___________.
3. Hes on sick leave at the moment, but it wont be long before hes ___________ enough to
return to work.
4. The magazine gave their latest fridge-freezers a very ___________ review.
5. I think it would be a ___________ idea to discuss this at next weeks meeting.
6. Jane and I are old friends. We know each other very ___________.
7. The new computer system seems to be working ___________.

THE PASSIVE VOICE


The passive voice is used in English very often. It is formed by different forms of the verb
to be (depending on the verb form in the active sentence) and the past participle. The passive
voice is used when the subject is not performing an action, but rather the action is performed on
the subject. We can only use transitive verbs (verbs which require an object) for the passive
voice. What once was the object of an active sentence becomes the subject of the passive
sentence.
For example:
Clint Eastwood directed The Bridges of Madison County.
The Bridges of Madison County was directed by Clint Eastwood.
Active (aktiv)
Simple Present

make

Passive (pasiv)
is made
31

(Prezent)

Present Continuous
(Trajni prezent)

Simple Past
(Prosto prolo vreme)

Past Continuous
(Trajno prolo vreme)

Present Perfect
(Sadanji perfekat)

Present Perfect
Continuous
(Sadanji trajni perfekat)

Past Perfect
(Pluskvamperfekat)

Past Perfect
Continuous
(Trajni
pluskvamperfekat)

Simple Future
(Prosto budue vreme)

Future Continuous
(Trajno budue vreme)

Future Perfect
(Budui perfekat)

Future Perfect
Continuous

John makes breakfast


every morning.
is giving
Sarah is giving the
award.
gave
The professor gave
the instructions.
was writing
He was writing the
letter when she
walked in.
has stolen
A thief has stolen the
famous painting.
have been cleaning
John and Mary have
been cleaning the
house.
had done
They had done the
housework before
they left.
had been buying
Mark had been
buying groceries
before he went home.
will/is going to
They will/are going
to finish their
homework.
will be watching/is
going to be watching
Peter will be
watching/is going to
be watching the news
at 7 pm.
will/are going to have
phoned
They will/are going
to have phoned us by
the time we get there.
will/is going to have
been playing

Breakfast is made by
John every morning.
is being given
The award is being
given by Sarah.
were given
The instructions were
given by the professor.
was being written
The letter was being
written by him when she
walked in.
has been stolen
The famous painting has
been stolen.
has been being cleaned
The house has been
being cleaned by John
and Mary.
had been done
The housework had
been done before they
left.
had been being bought
Groceries had been
being bought by Mark
before he went home.
will be finished/is going
to be finished
The homework will be
finished/is going to be
finished by them.
will be being
watched/are going to be
being watched
The news will be being
watched/are going to be
being watched at 7 pm
by Peter.
will/are going to have
been phoned
We will/are going to
have been phoned by
the time we get there.
will/is going to have
been being played
32

(Budui trajni perfekat)

Modal Verbs
(Modalni glagoli)

The musician will/is


going to have been
playing the piano for
4 hours by the time
the concert ends.
must, can, should
buy
They should buy that
car!

The piano will/is going


to have been being
played for 4 hours by the
time the concert ends.
must/should/can.. be
bought
That car should be
bought.

33

USE OF THE PASSIVE VOICE


The passive voice is used when the doer of an action is unknown.
For example (na primer):
I was forced to leave the room.
The bridge was being built for 2 years.
He had been given the invitation before he went to the party.
by is used in the passive voice when we want to emphasise who the doer of the action is.
For example (na primer):
The window was broken by the neighbors children.
That book was written by Agatha Christie.
The charity has been given money by Oprah.
I was told the secret by my best friend.
The house was bought by a young couple.
The passive voice is used when the doer of an action is unimportant or indefinite. This is
the case with sentences beginning with: somebody, anybody, people, they, etc. It can also
replace these indefinite subjects.
For example (na primer):
Mistakes are frequently being made.
Citizens were invited to come to the summer festival.
He was sent on assignment.
I had been told that he was dangerous.
You will be given your tasks tomorrow.
It is believed that he will be arrested.
If there are two objects the direct and the indirect object the passive sentence can have
either of the two as the subject.
For example (na primer):
Active (aktiv)
John gave Mary the ring.
IO
DO

The principal will send them a letter.


IO
DO

Passive (pasiv)
Mary was given the ring by John.
The ring was given to Mary by John.
They will be sent a letter by the principal.
A letter will be sent to them by the principal.

34

EXERCISES
I Are the underlined verb forms in the active or the passive voice?
1.
I always listen to music when I go jogging.
2.
Has Jane been given the gifts for her birthday?
3.
Is it going to rain tonight?
4.
They will be working on an important project this time next year.
__________________
5.
The house has been broken into.
6.
People say that he is a very dangerous man.
7.
It is believed that a famous painter once lived in this attic.
8.
They planted different flowers in their backyard.
9.
Their car had been stolen before they bought a new one.
10.
Hurry up! The tickets will have been sold by the time we arrive.

__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________

35

II Write the passive verb forms:


1. is giving

2.
was cleaning

3.
had done

4.
will buy

5.
must do

6.
have finished

7.
was going to paint

8.
take

9.
chose

10.
will have written

_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________

III Rewrite the following sentences into the passive voice:


Did the teacher explain the lecture?
______________________________________________________________?
1.
Someone stole her bag.
_______________________________________________________________.
2.
Ann washed the dishes when the guests left.
_______________________________________________________________.
3.
Many tourists have been visiting the Eiffel Tower.
_______________________________________________________________.
4.
Someone has broken the window!
______________________________________________________________!
5.
They had opened a new store there before we moved.
_______________________________________________________________.
6.
They had been moving the furniture before people came to the party.
_______________________________________________________________.
7.
The Committee will approve the new study program.
_______________________________________________________________.
8.
They are going to be watering the garden next week.
_______________________________________________________________.
9.
People gave me a lot of advice for my job interview.
_______________________________________________________________.
10.
They will renovate the living room by the time we move in the new flat.
_______________________________________________________________.
11.
Everyone raised enough money to give to charity.
_______________________________________________________________.
IV Put the passive sentences into the active:
1.
Sports are played in leisure time.
_______________________________________________________________.
2.
All kinds of books are sold in this bookstore.
_______________________________________________________________.
3.
Do you think that I was noticed?
36

______________________________________________________________?
4.
The telephone wasnt invented by Nikola Tesla. It was invented by Alexander Bell.
______________________________________________________________.
5.
We will have to be given some answers.
_______________________________________________________________.
6.
Had you been invited to come before they went on holiday?
______________________________________________________________?
7.
Most clothes will have been sold by the end of the season.
_______________________________________________________________.
8.
You will be shown the way to the museum.
_______________________________________________________________.
9.
Visitors were being given directions.
_______________________________________________________________.
10.
Has the equipment been purchased?
______________________________________________________________?
11.
Food wont be brought to work anymore.
_______________________________________________________________.
12.
The clown was being watched by the children.
_______________________________________________________________.
V Put the verbs in brackets in the active or the passive voice:
1.
Their car _________________________ (repair) by the mechanic last week.
2.
English _________________________ (speak) by many people in the world.
3.
The famous playwright _________________________ (write) the plays in the 19th
century.
4.
Someone _________________________ (just organise) the file cabinets in our office.
5.
The two countries _________________________ (sign) the mutual agreement soon.
6.
The Law _________________________ (pass) many years before it started being used.
7.
I _________________________ (help) by a complete stranger the whole night in the
middle of nowhere.
8.
Beverages _________________________ (sell) near the entrance to every cinema.
9.
The laundry _________________________ (wash and dry) by our housemaid.
10.
_________________________ (they/prepare) lunch when we arrive?
VI Make questions from the given sentences:
1.
The bag was bought in the newly-opened department store.
Where?________________________________________________________?
2.
The kids will be picked up at 8 am for the field trip.
When? ________________________________________________________?
3.
Penicillin had been discovered by Fleming long before it could actually be used on
people.
What? ________________________________________________________?
4.
The murderer has just been arrested by the police?
Who? ________________________________________________________?
37

5.
The sculpture will be offered on a private auction tonight.
When? ________________________________________________________?
6.
This house has been broken into 5 times.
How many times ________________________________________________?
7.
The roads were being cleaned by the citizens.
What? ________________________________________________________?
8.
New buildings were being built everywhere in the city.
Where? _______________________________________________________?
VII Translate the following sentences into English. Make sure that the sentences are in the
passive voice!
1.
Da li se ovde prodaju karte za muzej?
_______________________________________________________________.
2.
Sva pisma su ve poslata.
_______________________________________________________________.
3.
Domai zadaci e biti zavreni do sutra.
_______________________________________________________________.
4.
Ovo vebanje se moe uraditi za 15 minuta.
_______________________________________________________________.
5.
Oseale su da su posmatrane.
_______________________________________________________________.
6.
Vodili su me u obilazak grada.
_______________________________________________________________.
7.
Misli li da su me sluali?
_______________________________________________________________.
8.
Da li ete dobiti poklone za useljenje?
_______________________________________________________________.
9.
Kue su sruene mnogo godina ranije nego to su na tom mestu napravili park.
_______________________________________________________________.
10.
Reeno mi je da ga mogu pronai ovde.
_______________________________________________________________.
11.
Mnogo greaka e biti napravljeno pre nego to se sloe.
_______________________________________________________________.
12.
Ubili su ga u ratu.
_______________________________________________________________.

UNIT IV
38

THE SWEET SMELL OF SUCCESS


Word list
to make a sale
refuse
counter
spilt (spill)
fragrance
crowded
scent
waft through
lovely
attribute to
staff
hands-on approach
stylish
secrecy
reveal
ingredients
jar
eternally
effort
demonstrations
makeovers
to pioneer
purchase
lipstick
free samples
dedication
unsurpassed
custormer service
Exercises
I Match the words with their definitions.
1. to spill
___ beautiful and well-designed
2. fragrance
___ a nice smell
3. to demand
___ changing a persons appearance so that they look better
4. stylish
___ to accidentally pour a liquid out of its container
5. makeover
___ to say that you want something very strongly
6. to pioneer
___ better than everything else of its kind
7. sample
___ completely new and different
8. technique
___ a method of doing something
9. revolutionary
___ a small amount of a product given to people for free
10. unsurpassed
___ to be one of the first people to do something
39

II Put the following adjectives into the correct place in the table below.
hard-working
unhelpful
generous
hands-on
dishonest
disorganized
ambitious
uncooperative
positive
calm

stressed

negative
mean

honest
lazy
helpful
lacking in drive
organized
hands-off
cooperative
III Use the adjectives above to complete the sentences.
1. I never get angry. Im a very ______________ person.
2. Junita cant find the files she needs. Shes so ______________.
3. I dont really trust him. He seems to be a bit ______________.
4. Robert is working his way up the career ladder. Hes very ______________.
5. Angela is a very ______________ person. She gives 15% of her salary to charities.
6. Craig just wont lift a finger. Hes a very ______________ man.
7. Dieter never leaves the office until his days work is finished. His colleagues all say hes the
most ______________ man incompany.
8. Pat wont do anything for other people. Shes the most ______________ woman I know.
9. Olaf likes his employees to make their own decisions. His style of management is very
______________.
10. Sandra has three small children and a full-time job. Shes quite ______________, although
she doesnt show it.
IV Make adjectives from the given nouns.
1. adventure
_________________________
2. ambition
_________________________
3. decision
_________________________
4. flexibility
_________________________
5. luck
_________________________
6. finance
_________________________
7. organization
_________________________
8. pioneer
_________________________
9. success
_________________________
10. stress
_________________________
V Make phrases by matching.
40

1. go
2. use sales
3. have a
4. look
5. put time
6. quality speaks
7. pioneer an
8. give
9. have belief
10. turn a company

a) hands-on approach
b) and effort into something
c) techniques
d) on sale
e) stylish
f) away free samples
g) into a global leader
h) in yourself
i) for itself
j) idea

GRAMMAR
THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE
PROLO VREME
TO BE
Affirmative +

Negative -

(short form)

Interrogative ?

I was
You were
He was
She was
It was

I was not
You were not
He was not
She was not
It was not

I wasn't
You weren't
He wasn't
She wasn't
It wasn't

Was I?
Were you?
Was he?
Was she?
Was it?

We were
You were
They were

We were not
You were not
They were not

We weren't
You weren't
They weren't

Were we?
Were you?
Were they?

41

TO DO
Affirmative +

Negative -

(short form)

Interrogative ?

I did
You did
He did
She did
It did

I did not
You did not
He did not
She did not
It did not

I didn't
You didn't
He didn't
She didn't
It didn't

Did I?
Did you?
Did he?
Did she?
Did it?

We did
You did
They did

We did not
You did not
They did not

We didn't
You didn't
They didn't

Did we?
Did you?
Did they?

For example (na primer): to walk hodati


Affirmative +
Negative (short form)

Interrogative ?

I walked
You walked
He walked
She walked
It walked

I did not walk


You did not walk
He did not walk
She did not walk
It did not walk

I didn't walk
You didn't walk
He didn't walk
She didn't walk
It didn't walk

Did I walk?
Did you walk?
Did he walk?
Did she walk?
Did it walk?

We walked
You walked
They walked

We did not walk


You did not walk
They did not walk

We didn't walk
You didn't walk
They didn't walk

Did we walk?
Did you walk?
Did they walk?

The Simple Past Tense is formed by adding ed to the verb. In some cases, - ed is not
added to the verb because the verbs have an irregular form. These verbs are called irregular verbs
(see the end of the book for the list of the most common irregular verbs).

USE
The Simple Past Tense is used for:
facts about the past:
Albert Einstein was a scientist.
an action or situation in the past which is completed:
I phoned you last night.

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actions occuring at a certain time in the past:


The last time I saw him was in 2005.
a series of completed actions:
I finished my homework, got dressed and went out.
actions that lasted for a certain period in the past:
I lived in Belgrade for 2 years.
habits in the past:
He played basketball in elementary school.

yesterday, last week, last month, last year, etc., ago, in 2000, in 1962, etc., in January,
in March, etc., on Monday, Tuesady, etc:

We went to a concert two days ago.


I visited an old friend yesterday.
My favourite actor was born in 1960.
It was very cold in February.

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THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE


PROLO TRAJNO VREME

The Past Continuous Tense is formed by the past simple tense of the verb to be and by
adding ing to the verb.
For example (na primer): to go ii
Affirmative +
I was going
You were going
He was going
She was going
It was going
We were going
You were going
They were going

Negative I was not going


You were not
going
He was not going
She was not going
It was not going
We were not going
You were not
going
They were not
going

(short form)
I wasn't going
You weren't
going
He wasn't going
She wasn't
going
It wasn't going
We wern't going
You weren't
going
They weren't
going

Interrogative ?
Was I going?
Were you going?
Was he going?
Was she going?
Was it going?
Were we going?
Were you going?
Were they going?

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USE

The Past Continuous Tense is used:


for an action which was in progress at a specific time in the past:
He was reading the newspaper yesterday at 9 a.m.
for two actions occuring at the same time:
I was washing the dishes while my husband was vacuuming the house.

for an interrupted action in the past:


I was leaving the house when she called

with 'always' for an action in the past which was often irritating:
He was fired because he was always arriving to work late.

EXERCISES
I Make sentences from the given words by putting the verbs in the Past Simple or Past
Continuous Tense:
1. They/arrive/while/I/talk/phone
_________________________________________
2. John/drink/friends/when/he/see/Jane
_________________________________________
3. I read/accident/when/bus/arrive
_________________________________________
4. John/meet/Ann/yesterday
_________________________________________
5. I/not know/answer/question
_________________________________________
6. They/ring/doorbell
_________________________________________
7. You/understand/what/I/say?
_________________________________________
8. You/not sleep/when/I/come
_________________________________________
II Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or Past Continuous Tense:
1.
What __________________ (you do) while I was talking to you?
2.
Mary __________________ (try) to pass the exam although she __________________
(not know) much.
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3.
I __________________ (watch) an interesting show on television when you changed the
channel.
4.
__________________ (you be) here when she was telling the story about the accident?
5.
They __________________ (manage) to rescue the man who __________________ (try)
to put out the fire by himself.
6.
I couldn't believe he __________________ (make) such a fool of himself.
7.
He __________________ (not do) anything while I __________________ (study) hard.
8.
__________________ (you see) that man last week?
9.
The car __________________ (break) down so we __________________ (have to) take
the bus.
10.
When she finished reading the book, she __________________ (go) to bed.
III Put the verbs in the Past Simple or Past Continuous Tense to fill in the blanks in the
story:
Sally 1)__________________ (get up) at 6 am, 2)__________________ (get) ready,
3)__________________ (leave) the house and 4)__________________ (go) to work. As she
5)__________________ (drive), her phone 6)__________________ (ring). She soon
7)__________________ (find out) that it was her friend Alice whom she hadn't spoken to for a
few months. Alice 8)__________________ (tell) Sally that she 9)__________________ (be) in
town and that she 10)__________________ (start) her own business. Alice
11)__________________ (wonder) if Sally had time to go for a coffee and catch up. Sally
12)__________________ (agree) to meet her the following day. They 13)__________________
(meet) at 5 pm.
IV Write the irregular past simple forms of these verbs:
become
begin
bring
buy
choose
cost
fall
find
forget
give
go
grow
have
keep
know

_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________

leave
lose
make
meet
pay
see
sell
set
speak
spend
take
tell
think
understand
write

_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________

V Past simple vs Past continuous

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1. While I _____________ (check) the figures on the spreadsheet, I _____________ (notice) that
the sales total for June was incorrect.
2. When I _____________ (join) the company, they _____________ (expand) their activities in
Central Europe.
3. The negotiations _____________ (go) very well until their boss _____________ (arrive) on
the scene.
4. Incredible! Someone _____________ (take) my bag while I _____________ (sit) at the table
outside the caf.
V Past simple vs Past Continuous
1. I _____________ (lie) in the bath when the phone _____________. It _____________ (stop)
after a few rings.
2. It _____________ (be) cold when we _____________ (leave) the house that day, and a light
snow _____________ (fall).
3. Your friend who _____________ (come) here the other day _____________ (seem) very nice.
4. When I _____________ (see) the man, he _____________ (stand) outside the bank. He
_____________ (have) a black baseball cap on.
5. When I _____________ (open) the cupboard door, a pile of books _____________ (fall) out.
6. I _____________ (walk) along the street when I suddenly _____________ (feel) something hit
me in the back. I _____________ (not/know) what it was.
7. We _____________ (go) to London yesterday, but on the way we _____________ (hear) about
a bomb scare in Oxford Street. So we _____________ (drive) back home straightaway.
8. Something very strange _____________ (happen) to me on my way home from work
yesterday afternoon. I _____________ (drive) along the bypass at the time. Suddenly I
_____________ (see) my mother in the seat beside me. But she died three years ago.

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