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EXPERT SYSTEMS

PRESENTED BY :
Shiromani Gupta ( 49-MBA-15 )
Vishesh Kapoor ( 63-MBA-15 )
Tikshan Langer ( 59-MBA-15 )

TOPICS COVERED
Introduction
Components Of Expert Systems
Various Examples
Architectures
Need Of An Expert System
Properties & Building An Expert System
Applications
Benefits And Challenges
Expert System-Eliza
Future Scope

WHO IS AN EXPERT?
An EXPERT is a person who is very knowledgeable about or
skilful in a PARTICULAR FIELD.
EXAMPLES:

Doctor,

Chattered accountant,

Sportsperson,

Lawyer,

Scientists, etc

DEFINING EXPERT SYSTEM


ES is a computer software that :
BEHAVES like,
ADVICES you like,
HELPS you like a human expert.
ES is an information system that is capable of mimicking
human thinking and making considerations during the process
of decision-making.
ES is a system that can be used to solve a problem that
usually requires an expert to solve.

COMPONENTS
OF
EXPERT SYSTEM

USER (NON EXPERT)

CA
DOMAIN EXPERT

RESULT

COMPUTER

USER INTERFACE

TAX RETURN
KNOWLEDGE ENGINEER

TAX RULES
KNOWLEDGE BASE

SYSTEM ENGINEER

WORKING STORAGE

AI
INFERENCE ENGINE

USER INTERFACE- A software that provides for the communication


exchange between user and the system.

INFERENCE ENGINE- A software that performs the inference reasoning


tasks. It uses the knowledge in the knowledge base and information
provided by the user to infer new knowledge.
This acts rather like a search engine, examining the knowledge base for
information that matches the user's query.
With rule based expert systems there are two main types of reasoning forward chaining and backward chaining.

KNOWLEDGE BASEContains rules and facts from knowledge collected from experts.
While knowledge in humans is gained by learning, experience and experimentation, knowledge in
a computer is often represented by rules.
The knowledge base contains the facts and rules or knowledge of the expert. Below is an
example of how IF THEN rules might be applied in our Animal-ID expert system.

EXAMPLE:
IF animal has backbone
THEN vertebrate
IF animal is vertebrate
AND has hair
THEN mammal
IF animal is mammal
AND has pointed teeth
AND has claws
THEN carnivore

Forward

chaining:

Forward chaining is a 'data driven' method of reasoning. It begins with


the available data, compares it with the facts and rules held in the
knowledge base and then infers or draws the most likely conclusion.
IF
THEN. Forward chaining starts with the symptoms and works
forward to find a solution.
Backward

chaining:

Backward chaining is a 'goal driven' method of reasoning. It begins with a


goal and then looks at the evidence (data and rules) to determine whether
or not it is correct. THEN
IF. Backward chaining starts with a
hypothesis and works backwards to prove or disprove it.

VARIOUS EXAMPLES OF EXPERT SYSTEMS


AROUND US
1. Tax return system

I play a move.

2. Game of chess

I am? -> USER


Move stored in -> WORKING
STORAGE
Chess rules -> KNOWLEDGE
BASE
INFERENCE ENGINE used by
game to play a countermove.

CHESS PLAYER
DOMAIN EXPERT

USER (NON EXPERT)

COUNTER MOVE

CHESS GAME

USER INTERFACE

MOVE
KNOWLEDGE ENGINEER

WORKING STORAGE

SYSTEM ENGINEER

CHESS RULES
KNOWLEDGE BASE

INFERENCE ENGINE

3. Bank loan
AIM: to get loan from ICICI bank to buy some land
WHAT TO DO? -> Call CUSTOMER CARE
-> They ask you certain questions, you answer them and you get to know
how much loan you can get
BUT Were u taking to the BANK MANAGER?
NO!!
The person there maybe some B.COM. 2nd year student who uses a
computer(expert system here) in front to answer the questions.
B.COM STUDENT SALARY- RS. 10,000

BANK MANAGER- RS. 1,00,000

4. Autopilot
5. Weather forecasting
6. Medical diagnosis
and many more

VARIOUS ARCHITECTURES
1. SIMPLE ARCHITECTURE

VARIOUS ARCHITECTURES
2. EXTENDED ARCHITECTURE

VARIOUS ARCHITECTURES
3. COMPLEX ARCHITECTURE

NEED OF EXPERT SYSTEMS


An expert system is built for the two factors:

-EITHER TO REPLACE AN EXPERT

OR

-TO HELP AN EXPERT

TO REPLACE AN EXPERT
-To enable the use of expertise after working hours or at
different locations.
-To automate a routine task that requires human expertise
all the time unattended, thus.
-reducing operational costs.
-to replace a retiring or an leaving employee who is an
expert
-To hire an expert is costly

TO HELP AN EXPERT
-Help experts in their routine to improve productivity

-Help experts in some of their more complex and difficult


tasks so that the problem can be managed effectively.

-Help an expert to obtain information needed by other


experts who have forgotten about it or who are too busy to
search for it.

NEED OF EXPERT SYSTEM

PROPERTIES REQUIRED TO MAKE AN


EXPERT SYSTEM
EXPERT

Expert should be available

AVAILABILITY

Expert should be available + he should be able to communicate


properly

COMPLEXITY

System should solve complex problems

STRUCTURE
DOMAIN

Even if data is missing or conflicting still System should work

The system should have deep knowledge of a particular field and not
general knowledge of all field

APPLICATION CATEGORY TABLE


CATEGORY

PROBLEM ADDRESSED

EXAMPLES

Interpretation

Inferring situation descriptions from sensor data

Hearsay (Speech Recognition),


PROSPECTOR

Prediction

Inferring likely consequences of given situations

Pretirm Birth Risk Assessmen

Inferring system malfunctions from observables

CADUCEUS, MYCIN, PUFF, Mistral

Designing actions

Mission Planning for Autonomous


Underwater Vehicle

Diagnosis
Planning
Monitoring
Debugging
Repair
Design

Comparing observations to plan vulnerabilities

REACTOR

Providing incremental solutions for complex problems

SAINT, MATHLAB, MACSYMA

Executing a plan to administer a prescribed remedy

Toxic Spill Crisis Management

Configuring objects under constraints

Dendral, Mortgage Loan Advisor, R1


(Dec Vax Configuration)

Instruction

Diagnosing, assessing, and repairing student behaviour SMH.PAL, Intelligent Clinical Training,
STEAMER

Control

Interpreting, predicting, repairing, and monitoring


system behaviours

Real Time Process Control, Space


Shuttle Mission Control

BENEFITS OF EXPERT SYSTEM


Preserve Knowledge.
Acts As a Real life Expert.
Assists non-experts in such a way that they feel they are
experts themselves.
Expert Systems are not Emotional.
They can be used in any and every field.

CHALLENGES WITH EXPERT SYSTEMS


An expert system must exhibit accuracy and reliability.
Expert systems should be accurate and this can be stated with exampleA fault diagnosis system which suggests incorrect solution may cause
inconvenience but such a medical system which suggests incorrect treatment
could cause much more serious health impact.
Expert systems depend on rules in the knowledge base and are unable to
address problems outside of this domain. This makes them unstable for some
problems hence affecting reliability.

If something is wrong in expert system:


Experts provided incorrect or incomplete knowledge.
Inference engine suffers some problem
User interface is not working properly
the reliability and accuracy of the system are challenged.

EXPERT SYSTEM- ELIZA


Expert system ELIZA acts like a psychoanalyst by holding a
dialog with a personThe dialog would consist of the doctor (Eliza) asking questions,
the human responding, and the doctor using the response to ask
another question.
ELIZA was implemented using simple pattern matching
techniques, but was taken seriously by several of its users, even
after Weizenbaum explained to them how it worked.
For ELIZA the program was written so that it would generate an
English response/question based on a group of patternsIf the user sentence matched a pattern, this pattern would be
used to generate the next sentence/question.

ELIZA EXPERT SYSTEM


DEMO

WORKING OF ELIZA SYSTEMS


Given a set of rules in the form of input/output patterns, Eliza will attempt to
recognise user input phrases and generate relevant responses.

Working of Eliza in steps:


Repeat:

Input a sentence
Find a rule in the Eliza knowledge-base that matches the pattern
Attempt to perform pattern match
Attempt to perform segment match
If rule found, select one of the responses randomly (each pattern will have at
least one response)
Fill in any variables
Substitute values (you for I, I for you, me for you, am for are, etc)
Respond
Until user quits.

ELIZA RULES
Each rule for Eliza is specified by an
input pattern and a list of output
patterns.
A pattern is a sentence consisting of
space-separated words and variables.
Input pattern variables come in two
forms: single variables and segment
variables.
Single variables (which take the form ?x)
match a single word, while segment
variables (which take the form ?*x) can
match a phrase.
The conversation proceeds by reading a
sentence from the user, searching
through the rules to find an input
pattern that matches, replacing variables
in the output pattern, and printing the
results to the user.

An excerpt from the rules of Eliza:


(defparameter *eliza-rules*
'((((?* ?x) hello (?* ?y))
(How do you do. Please state your problem.))
(((?* ?x) I want (?* ?y))
(What would it mean if you got ?y)
(Why do you want ?y) (Suppose you got ?y soon))
(((?* ?x) if (?* ?y))
(Do you really think its likely that ?y)
(Do you wish that ?y)
(What do you think about ?y) (Really-- if ?y))
(((?* ?x) no (?* ?y))

For instance, if the input were I want to have a

cheeseburger, the second pattern would match


Eliza would respond with one of three outputs
using to have a cheeseburger in place of ?y
Such as Why do you want to have
cheeseburger?

FUTURE SCOPE OF EXPERT SYSTEMS


Although expert system are so useful there are currently some problems
which when tackled will lead to a new world of computer learning and
advancement:

On the technical side, there is the problem of the size of the


database and using it efficiently.
-If the system consists of several thousand rules, it takes a very
powerful control program to produce any conclusions in a reasonable
amount of time.
-If the system also has a large quantity of information in the working
memory, this will also slow things down unless you have a very good
indexing and search system.

A second problem that comes from a large database is that as the


number of rules increases the conflict set also becomes large so a
good conflict resolving algorithm is needed if the system is to be
usable.

Another problem that appears is that of responsibility.


-Take, for example, a system used by a doctor that is designed to
administer drugs to patients according to their needs and that it must
first determine what is wrong with them. If the system causes
someone to take the wrong medicine and the person is harmed, who is
legally responsible?

A more obvious problem is that of gathering the rules. Human experts


are expensive and are not extremely likely to want to sit down and
write out a large number of rules as to how they come to their
conclusions.

What may be a way round this problem is to enable Expert Systems


to learn as they go, starting off with a smaller number of rules but
given the ability to deduce new rules from what they know and what
they 'experience'. This leads us very nicely into the field of Computer
Learning.

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QUERIES ???