Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4

Michael Chiu

AP US History
Period 2

Outline of Chapter 16: The Conquest of the Far West

The Societies of the Far West
-the Far West or “Great West” contained many groups of peoples
The Western Tribes
-Most important western population group was Indian tribes – had been forcibly resettled
-Some tribes lived among the Hispanic society
-Alliance between Pueblos in Southwest and Spanish created a caste system: Spanish or
Mexicans at the top, the Pueblos, and then Apaches, Navajos, and others – genizaros –
Indians without tribes – became part of Spanish society
-Most widespread Indian groups in West were Plains Indians – diverse group of tribes - all
had an intimate relationship with nature
-Many of the Plains tribes depended on hunting buffalo – provided economic basis for
Plains Indians’ way of life – primary source of food, and skin provided many other things
-They were to most formidable foes white settlers encountered – however, could not unite
together and overcome their divisions – also vulnerable to eastern infectious diseases
Hispanic New Mexico
-When U.S. acquired New Mexico, Kearney tried to establish territorial government
excluding that established Mexican ruling class – ignored Hispanics and Indians – resulted
in Taos Indians rebelling – killed governor before being subdued by U.S. forces
-Hispanic societies survived partly because they were so far from centers of English-
speaking society - also fought at times to preserve control of societies
Hispanic California and Texas
-Spanish settlement of California began in the 18th century on the Pacific coast – this
mission society declined to a rise in a secular Mexican aristocracy
-the californios, Hispanic residents of California could not resist the onslaught of English-
speaking immigrants into California
-Many in Hispanics in Texas lost their land after it became part of the U.S. – couldn’t
compete with Anglo-American ranching kingdoms – some tried to resist-not long-term
-Hispanics in the West ultimately became an impoverished working class serving the
expanding capitalist economy of the U.S.
The Chinese Migration
-A few Chinese came to California even before the Gold Rush – most free laborers
-For a time, they were welcomed by Americans but eventually Americans turned hostile
because they viewed the Chinese as rivals, even threats
-Many Chinese worked in the gold mines but in 1852, the California legislature enacted a
“foreign miners” tax to try to exclude the Chinese, and Hispanics from gold mining
-Because of this, the Chinese went to building railroads – transcontinental railroad – main
labor force of the Central Pacific-company preferred them to whites because they had no
experience of labor organization – after the railroad was completed, many were out of work
-Many Chinese flocked to the cities and formed communities called “Chinatowns” –
functioned as benevolent societies – life was hard for most urban Chinese
Anti-Chinese Sentiments
-Ant-sentiment from white residents in western cities where Chinese communities grew
larger became increasingly strong
-Anti-coolie clubs emerged in the 1860s and 1870s
-Some wanted to ban employing Chinese and organized boycotts
-Whites resented Chinese laborers for accepting low wages
-In 1882, Congress responded to the political pressure and growing violence by passing the
Chinese Exclusion Act, banning Chinese immigration into the U.S. for ten years and barred
Chinese already in the country from becoming naturalized citizens – made permanent in
1902 – had a dramatic effect on the Chinese population
-Chinese were shocked by the anti-Chinese rhetoric that linked them with other races
Migration from the East
-the scale of post-war migration from the east was larger than all that preceded it
-land policies also encouraged settlement – Homestead Act of 1862 permitted settlers to
buy plots of 160 acres for a small fee if they occupied for five years and improved it –
however, many homesteaders left before the five years – unable to cope with life
-In response, Congress increased homestead land grants
-The Timber Culture Act allowed homesteaders to gain 160 more acres of land if they
planted 40 acres of trees on them
-Desert Land Act allowed people to buy 640 acres of land at 1.25 per acre if they irrigated
part of their holdings within three years
-After Kansas was admitted as a state in 1861, the other territories were divided into
provinces that would be easier to organize – resulted in formation of other states
The Changing Western Economy
Labor in the West
-Social mobility in western society was limited – people thought it was a land of limitless
opportunity, but advancement was easiest for those who were already economically well
-Western working class was highly multiracial
The Arrival of the Miners
-First economic boom in Far West came in mining – started in 1860
-News of gold or silver would start a stampede of people – followed by stages of
development – individuals would exploit the first shallow deposits of ore – corporations
moved in after to dig deeper beneath the surface – as deposits dwindled, commercial
mining would either disappear or continue on a restricted basis
-One of the first great mineral strikes was in Comstock Lode in Nevada
-Life in boomtowns had a hectic tempo – had a speculative spirit and a mood of optimism
-“Bonanza Kings”, miners who got enormous wealth off a strike were likely to have come
from modest or impoverished backgrounds
-Conditions of mine life attracted outlaws who began enforcing their own laws
The Cattle Kingdom
-the Western cattle industry was Mexican by ancestry – Mexican ranchers had already
developed techniques and equipment of cattlemen before citizens of the U.S. invaded
-Americans in Texas adopted these methods
-After Texan cattle ranchers first successfully drove their cattle, cattlemen drove their cattle
up the Chisholm Trail to Abilene, the railhead of the cattle kingdom
-Competition arose including sheep breeders and farmers
-Women gained suffrage earlier in the West than they did in the rest of the nation
-In Utah, the Mormons granted it to stave off criticism of polygamy
The Romance of the West
The Western Landscape
-The West had a landscape of diversity and grandeur
-Painters of the “Rocky Mountain School” celebrated the new West in grandiose canvases
– emphasized ruggedness and dramatic variety of the West
The Cowboy Culture
-Many Americans associated a rugged, free-spirited lifestyle with the West – many
romanticized the figure of the cowboy
-The Virginian romanticized a cowboy’s freedom from social constraints – cowboy became
the most widely admired popular hero in America
The Idea of the Frontier
-Many Americans considered the new West the last frontier
-the painter Frederic Remington portrayed the cowboy as a natural aristocrat
-Theodore Roosevelt also had a great love for the West
Frederick Jackson Turner
-the historian Frederick Jackson Turner argued that the end of the “frontier” also marked
the end of one of the most important democratizing forces in American life – assessments
were both inaccurate and premature
-However, he did express an accurate sense that much of the land was now taken and
would be more difficult for individuals to acquire cheap land in the future
The Loss of Utopia
-As long as it had been possible for Americans to consider the West and empty, open land,
it was possible to believe that there were constantly revitalizing opportunities in American
-Now there was a vague sense of individuals losing ability to control their own destinies
The Dispersal of the Tribes
White Tribal Policies
-“Concentration” was the idea of establishing one great community where many tribes
could live – a new reservations policy
-These reservations were confirmed by separate treaties – often negotiated with “treaty
chiefs” – unauthorized “representatives” chosen by whites
-the new Indian peace Commission moved all the Plains Indians into two large reservations
– didn’t work well – because management was entrusted to Bureau of Indian Affairs that
had a very bad record
-Another reason was the relentless killing of buffalo by whites – the ecological changes
accompanying white settlement decimated the buffalo population – destroyed the Indians’
source of food and supplies
The Indian Wars
-Fighting between Indians and whites was very common from the 1850s to the 1880s
-In retaliation for earlier attacks, groups of Indians would attack wagon trains,
stagecoaches, and isolated ranches – after the army became more involved, they attacked
white soldiers
-In eastern Colorado, the Arapaho and Cheyenne came into conflict with white miners in
the region – attacked stagecoach lines to regain lost territory
-In response, whites called up territorial militia – urged all friendly Indians to go to army
posts for protection before army began its campaign – one Arapaho and Cheyenne band
under Black Kettle camped near For Lyon on Sand Creek in response to the invitation
-Colonel J. M. Chivington led a volunteer militia force and massacred 133 people
-It was not only U.S. military that threatened tribes – white vigilantes also conducted
unofficial violence – engaged in “Indian hunting” – tracking down and killing Indians
became for some whites a kind of sport
-When white miners violated the treaties and went onto Indian reservation, many Indian
warriors gathered in Montana and united under Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull
-U.S. army tried to round them up and force them back to reservation – George A. Custer
was the colonel of the famous Seventh Cavalry – at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in
southern Montana in 1876, tribal warriors surprised Custer and killed every man
-The Nez Perce were a peaceful tribe that lived in Oregon until the government forced them
to move into a reservation – began journey but on the way, several younger Indians, drunk
and angry, killed four white settlers
-Leader of the group was Chief Joseph – persuaded followers to flee from expected
revenge – tried to run to Canada and take refuge with Sioux there – finally caught just short
of the boundary – gave up
-the event that marked the end of formal warfare between Indians and whites was
Geronimo’s, an apache, surrender
-Many Indians, such as the Sioux, realized their culture was fading – turned to prophets –
theirs was Wovoka – one feature was a “Ghost Dance” - inspired ecstatic visions
-In 1890, the Seventh Cavalry tried to round up a group of Sioux at Wounded Knee, S.D.
-Fighting broke out – 40 whites and 200 of the Indians died – turned into 1-sided massacre
The Dawes Act
-The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 provided for the gradual elimination of tribal ownership
of land an the allotment of tracts to individual owners – applied to most western tribes
-In applying the Dawes Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs promoted the idea of assimilation
The Rise and Decline of the Western Farmer
Farming on the Plains
-the railroad was a key role in the surge of western settlement – made access to the Great
Plains easier – railroad companies actively promoted settlement – land for very low prices
-One problem as the problem of fencing – barbed wire was developed by two Illinois
farmers – became standard equipment on the plains and revolutionized fencing
-Another problem as water – after 1887, a series of dry seasons began
-The arid years of the 1880s created a problem for farmers – could not pay their debts and
were forced to abandon their farms – caused a reverse migration
Commercial Agriculture
-Commercial farmers were not self-sufficient – specialized in cash crops – dependent on bankers and interest rates, world
supply and demand, and national and European markets
-Beginning in the 1889s, worldwide overproduction led to drop in prices for most agricultural goods and a great economic
distress for American farm families
The Farmers’ Grievances
-the Farmers’ first grievance was against railroads – charged higher freight rates for farm goods than for other goods and
higher rates in the West than in the Northeast
-Farmers also resented the institutions controlling credit – banks, loan companies
-a third grievance concerned prices
The Agrarian Malaise
-Farm families in some areas were cut off from the outside world – loneliness and boredom
-Led to a growing ill-feeling among farmers - discontent