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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Case Study 1: Indias Demographic Dividend


India is expected to grow at a sustained high rate for the coming decades
being second only to China. One of the major contributors to the same is
expected to be the young working population of the country. The working
population (15-59 years) of India today largely, approximately 57%, consists
of the youth (15-34 years). According to official data, India's labour force,
which was 472 million in 2006, was around 526 million in 2011 and is
expected to be around 653 million in 2031. In just about 3 years, 25% of the
worlds working population will be Indian.
Human beings tend to have a higher proportion of consumption in their
childhood days, whereas, they save the most in their working years. Thus,
the dependency ratio has gone down with the rise in the average savings
rate. The saving rate of India has been on an increase since 2003 and
currently stands at 33% of the GDP of the nation. The greater savings are
expected to fuel higher investment rates contributing to growth of the
While the above is the supply side of the story, there are contributions from
the demand side as well. The shift in demographics with rise in youth in the
nation, there has been a steady rise in disposable income in the hands of
individuals. This has led to a change in lifestyle of the individuals leading to
growth in demand for consumption of goods to meet more than the basic
needs of the individuals. In order to cater to this demand, there has been a
drastic rise in consumerism in the country. Today domestic as well as
international companies are all flocking to meet the Indian consumers
demands and thus, contributing to growth of industries and the nation.
Anil Bisht
Login ID: DDPO13021300069
------------------------------------------------------------------------Case Study 2 : Competition right from childhood Is it good or bad?

From early childhood, majority of human beings today are being pushed
towards being competitive in nature. The need is to be better than the
others. The origin of competitive instincts can be traced back to the
evolution of mankind. As Charles Darwin put it, evolution is all about survival
of the fittest, direct competition between individuals, populations or species
for survival.
If we look at an individuals life, right from the toddler stage the child is faced
with competition, be it academic or social. Competition leads to developing
of healthy attitudes about winning and losing. It also leads to developing the
skills and abilities of the individuals. Competition also contributes to
individual personality development where the individuals become aware
about their strengths and limitations and work around the same. Individuals
also develop social confidence and learn how to work with others.
Competition also benefits through learning of new skills and developing of
competence in particular areas.
Competition, obviously, has its pitfalls with individuals being unable to cope
with the loss, loss of self-confidence and self worth, sense of humiliation, etc.
There are cases where the child might not be able to handle the same and is
faced with severe challenges for their entire lifetime.
People need to understand that the competitive instincts need to be kept
within healthy limits. The goals should be realistic and achievable in nature,
and even the sub-steps of achievement should be acknowledged. The rules
of fairness should be clearly put across and the focus should be on the
individual becoming better and not putting others down.
Anil Bisht
Login ID: DDPO13021300069
------------------------------------------------------------------------------Case Study 3: Power Grid crash in India

The investment opportunities in the Indian power sector are immense. The
power ministry has set a target for adding 76,000 MW of electricity capacity
in the 12th Plan (2012-17) and 93,000 MW in the 13th Five-Year Plan (20172022). As per the funding requirement of the 12 th five year plan, a capital
requirement of Rs. 13, 72, 580 crores is estimated to arise. The main sources
of financing are commercial banks, public financial institutions, dedicated
infrastructure/power finance institutions, insurance companies, overseas
markets, bilateral/multilateral credit, bond markets and equity markets.

The power sector was one of the first sectors to be opened up to private
investment in the 1990s. Today it is the sixth largest attracter of Foreign
Direct Investment (FDI) with upto 100 per cent FDI being allowed under
automatic routes for projects of electricity generation, transmission,
distribution and power trading. Along with this there are several government
initiated policies to promote and garner investments in the power sector. For
eg. The National Electricity Policy which aims at power for all and annual per
capita consumption of electricity to rise by end of 2012.
However, even today the country is faced with major challenges in the form
of a persistent demand supply gap of approximately 9% and culmination of
the same has come in the form of two massive power grid failures in the
month of July. India suffered from the biggest power outage in the world
affecting 22 states and 620 million people. Unfortunately this came after an
impressive performance by the power sector with addition of almost 17000
megawatts of capacity in 2011-12.
However, it is not that the there is low generation leading to the lack of
supply of power. It is estimated that 40000 mw of installed capacity is lying
unutilized. 10000 mw is for maintenance and technical reasons while
remaining is due to the gas and coal fueled generation resources being
utilized at suboptimal levels. India today is unable to produce enough coal
domestically and high costs of import.
The high costs of the fuels have not been passed onto the masses while the
power companies are also trying to deal with the escalating costs. State
utilities are also faced with bankruptcy and have debts of over Rs. 100000
Anil Bisht
Login ID: DDPO13021300069
------------------------------------------------------------------------------Case Study 4: Role of media in a democracy

Democracy is a form of government of the people, by the people and for the
people, in which the sovereign power resides in the people as a whole, and is
exercised either directly by them or by officers elected by them. One of the
major features of democracy is that individuals are free to voice their
opinions and media is a manifestation of the voice of the people.

The existence of media in the country started with a newspaper called The
Bengal Gazette and since then it has grown by leaps and bounds. The
country, today, has all forms of media available be it T.V., radio, internet,
newspaper or magazines and it is a flourishing industry in itself.
The media is a major source of information for the people of the country - all
kinds of information, be it social, economic, political or about entertainment.
It has acted as a major facilitator in educating the masses and building
awareness amongst people, even in the innermost rural areas. This makes it
one of the most influential players in just about any society, due to their
outreach to millions of people, and normally you say that with ability comes
We have example of the Anna movement becoming a revolution with people
supporting it or atleast putting forth views from across the nation. People
also have become aware about social issues and responsibilities through
different forms of media.