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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 18

CHAPTER

18

Probability

1. (a) S = {Heads, Tails}

n(A) = 4

4
P(A) =
6
2
=
3

(b) S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
(c) S = {(H, 1), (H, 2), (H, 3), (H, 4), (H, 5), (H, 6),
(T, 1), (T, 2), (T, 3), (T, 4), (T, 5), (T, 6)}
(d) S = (2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29}

4. S = {3 white, 2 red, 5 yellow}


n(S) = 10

(e) S = {50 students of the class}

Let A = {red or yellow balls}



= {2 red and 5 yellow}
n(A) = 7

(f) S = {win, lose, draw}


2. (a)
n(heads) = 1
n(heads)

P(heads) =
n(sample)
1
=
2

7
P(A) =
10

5. S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
A = {6}, B = {2, 4, 6}, A > B = {6}

(b) A = {multiple of 3}
= {3, 6}
n(A) = 2
2
P(A) =
6
1
=
3

P(A < B} = P(A) + P(B) P(A > B)


1
3
1
= +
6
6
6
3
=
6
1
=
2
Alternative
A < B = {2, 4, 6}
n(A < B) = 3
3
P(A < B) =
6
1
=
2

(c) S = {first 10 positive integers}


= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}
A = {prime number}
= {2, 3, 5, 7}
n(A) = 4
4
P(A) =
10
2
=
5

6. S = {(1, H), (2, H), (3, H), (4, H), (5, H), (6, H),
(1, T), (2, T), (3, T), (4, T), (5, T), (6, T)}
n(S) = 12

(d) A = {5 black balls}


n(A) = 5
5
P(A) =
10
1
=
2

A = {odd number}
= {1, 3, 5}
B = {T}

P(A > B) = P(A) P(B)


1
3
=
2
6
1
=
4

3. S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
n(S) = 6

Let A = {2 or odd number}



= {1, 2, 3, 5}
1

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 18

Alternative
A > B = {(1, T), (3, T), (5, T)}
n(A > B)
P(A > B) =
n(S)
3
=
12
1
=
4

9. (a) {heads} > {tails} = { }



Therefore, the events are mutually exclusive.
(b) (i)


(ii)



7. SA = {2 red, 3 yellow}
SB = {4 blue, 5 green}

P(A < B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A > B)


1
1
= + 0
2
2

=1

11. A = {even number}


= {2, 4, 6}
B = {3}

P(A > B) = P(A) P(B)


5
2
=
9
5
2
=
9
Alternative
2

P(A < B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A > B)


1
3
= + 0
6
6
2
=
3

Blue

Red
5

9
4

Green

12. A

B
A

Blue

Yellow
5

Green

5
3

13. S = {3 red, 2 blue, 1 yellow}


A = {red marble}
= {3 red marbles}
B = {yellow marble}
= {1 yellow marble}

Even number

Prime number
3

5
2

Odd number

P(A < B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A > B)


1
3
= + 0
6
6
2
=
3

Even number

Non-prime number
3

Odd number

Prime number = {2, 3, 5}


P(prime number and even number)
2
3
=
5
5
6
=
25

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= {prime number}
= {2, 3, 5}
= {2, 4, 6}
> B = {2}

P(A < B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A > B)


1
3
3
= +
6
6
6
5
=
6

P(red and green)


5
2
=
9
5
2
=
9
8.

{prime number} > {even number}


= {2, 3, 5} > {2, 4, 6}
= {2}
Therefore, the events are not mutually
exclusive.

10. A = {heads}, B = {tails}

Let A = {red marble}, B = {green marble}


n(A) = 2
n(B) = 5
2
P(A) =
5
5
P(B) =
9

{even number} > {odd number} =


Therefore, the events are mutually exclusive.

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 18

15. A = {tails}, Q = {prime number}


n(A) = 1 = {2, 3, 5}

n(Q) = 3
3
1
P(A) = P(Q) =
6
2
1
=
2
1
1
P(A) P(Q) =
2
2
1
=
4
S = {(1, T), (2, T), (3, T), (4, T), (5, T), (6, T), (1, H),
(2, H), (3, H), (4, H), (5, H), (6, H)}

14. S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12}


(a) A = {2}
B = {odd number}
= {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11}
C = {double-digit number}
= {10, 11, 12}
S

A
1

10

11

B
8

12

A > Q = {(2, T), (3, T), (5, T)}


A > B > C =
n(A < B < C) = 9

3
P(A > Q) =
12
1
=
4

9
P(A < B < C) =
12
3

=
4

Alternative
P(A < B < C)

= P(A) + P(B) + P(C) P(A > B) P(A > C)
P(B > C) P(A > B > C)
1
3
6
1
= + + 0 0 0
12
12
12
12
9
=
12
3
=
4

Since P(A > Q) = P(A) P(Q),


then A and Q are independent events.
16.
5

10
3

10

10

(b) A = {2}
B = {prime number}
= {2, 3, 5, 7, 11}
C = {even number}
= {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12}
S

Black

Yellow

9
2

9
5

White

11

6
10
8 12

Black
Yellow
White
Black
Yellow
White
Black
Yellow
White

P(yellow and black)


= P(yellow) P(black) + P(black) P(yellow)
3
5
5
3
= +
9
10
9
10
1
1
= +
6
6
1
=
3

3
5
7

1
9

17. A = {3 blue, 2 yellow, 1 red}


B = {4 white, 2 red}
(a) P(R > R) = P(R) P(R)
2
1

=
6
6
1

=
18


A < B < C = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12}
n(A < B < C) = 10
n(A < B < C)
P(A < B < C) =
n(S)
10

=
12
5

=
6

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 18

(b) P(R > W) = P(R) P(W)


4
1

=
6
6
1

=
9

1. (a) P(I) = n(I)


n()
= 7
26

(c) P(B > Y) = P(B) P(Y)


0
3

=
6
6

=0

(b) I < II = {A, B, C, E, I, O, U, P, Q}



n(I < II) = 9
P(I < II) = n(I < II)
n()
9

=
26

18. (a) P(even number > red)



= P(even number) P(heads)
1
3
=
2
6
1
=
4

2. P(prime number > prime number)


1
2
=
3
4
1
=
6

(b) Multiple of 3 = {3, 6}



P(multiple of 3 and tails)

= P(multiple of 3) P(tails)
1
2
=
2
6
1
=
6

2
3. (a) P(Siti wins) =
5

1
P(Fatimah wins) =
4

P(both of them fail)
2
1
= 1 1
5
4
3
3
=
4
5
9
=
20

3
3
3
19. (a) P(all even numbers) =
6
6
6
1

=
8

(b) P(prime number > odd number > odd number)



= P(prime number) P(odd number)
P(odd number)
3
3
3
=
6
6
6
1
=
8

(b) P(one of them win)



= P(S > F) + P(S > F)
3
1
2
3
= +
4
4
5
5
3
6
= +
20
20
9
=
20

(c) P(all same number)



= P(111) + P(222) + P(333) + P(444) + P(555)
+ P(666)
1 3
= 6
6
6
=
216
1
=
36

2 1

4. (a) P(both of the students are not chosen)


1
3
= 1 1
4
5
2
3

=
5
4
3
=
10

1 2

2 1

(b) P(only one of them is chosen)


1
3
1
3
= 1 + 1
4
5
4
5
3
3
2
1
= +
4 5
5
4
9
1
= +
20
10
11
=
20

20. A = {1, 2, 3}
B = {6, 7, 8, 9}
C = {3, 6, 9}

P(multiple of 3 from each set)


3
2
1
=
3
4
3
1
=
6

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21

2 1

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 18

P(multiple of 2 or prime number)


= P(E < B)
= P(E) + P(B) P(E > B)
1
4
5
= +
10
10
10
8
=
10
4
=
5

1. S = {4 blue, 3 yellow, 5 white}


5
(a) P(white) =
12
(b) P(similar colour)
= P(blue and blue) + P(yellow and yellow)
+ P(white and white)
3
2
4
4
3
5
= + +
11
11
11
12
12
12
20
6
12
= + +
132
132
132
38
=
132
19
=
66

2. S =
A =
=
B =
=

2 1

2 1

3. (a) A = {number greater than 2}


= {3, 4, 5, 6}
4

P(greater than 2) =
6
2

=
3
(b) B = {factor of 6}
= {1, 2, 3, 6}

{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}
{odd number}
{1, 3, 5, 7, 9}
{prime number}
{2, 3, 5, 7}

4
P(a factor of 6) =
6
2

=
3

(a) (i) P(odd number and prime number)


4
5
=
10
10
20
=
100
1
=
5

4. {4 black, 2 red, k white}


1
Given P(white) =
4
k
1

=
4
6+k
4k = 6 + k
3k = 6
k = 2

(ii)
C = {perfect square}
= {1, 4, 9}

P(both are perfect square)


3
3
=
10
10
9
=
100

5. (a) P(prime number and tails)



= P(prime number) P(tails)
1
3
=
2
6
1
=
4

(b) (i) D = {multiple of 3}


= {3, 6, 9}
D > A = {3, 9}

(b) P(heads is obtained)



= P(H, 1) + P(H, 2) + P(H, 3) + P(H, 4)
+ P(H, 5) + P(H, 6)
1
1
= 6
6
2
1
=
2

P(multiple of 3 or odd number)


= P(D < A)
= P(D) + P(A) P(D > A)
2
5
3
= +
10
10
10
6
=
10
3
=
5

6. S = {3 yellow, 2 red, 1 blue}


(a) P(both blue)
0
1
=
5
6

=0

(ii)
E = {multiple of 2}
= {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}
E > B = {2}

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 18

1
2
10. P(hit the bull eye) =
8
3
3
1

P(hit the bull eye) =
2
8
3

=
16
3
Area
of
circle
=
16
Area of rectangle
3

(4 8)

Area of circle =
16
= 6 cm2

(b) P(at least one red)



= 1 P(without red)

= 1 P(yellow and blue) P(yellow and yellow)
P(blue and blue)
2
3
1
3

=10
5
6
5
6
3

= 1
10
7
=
10
7. P(same number)
= P(111) + P(222) + P(333) + P(444) + P(555)
+ P(666)
1 3
= 6
6
1
=
36

11. (a) S = {10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19}
n(S) = 10
A = {prime number}
= {11, 13, 17, 19}
B = {multiple of 3}
= {12, 15, 18}

1 2

(i) P(a prime number and a multiple of 3)


4 3
=
10 9
2
=
15
(ii)
C = {sum of digits greater than 8}
= {18, 19}


P(sum of the digits greater than 8)
1
2
=
9
10
1
=
45

1
2
8. P(R) = , P(T) =
5
3
(a) P(both fail) = P(R > T)

= P(R) P(T)
4
1

=
5
3
4

=
15

1 21 2

(b) P(one of them fails) = P(R > T ) +


4
2

= +
5
3
9

=
15
3

=
5

P(R > T)
1
1

5
3

2 1

(b) S = {6 yellow, 2 blue, 4 green}



(i) P(all of the same colour)

= P(YYY) + P(GGG)
6 3
4 3
= +
12
12

1 2 1 2

9. (a) P(on quadrant 2 twice)


1
1
=
4
4
1
=
16

1 3
1
= +
2
3
1
1
= +
27
8
35
=
216

2 1

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1 2 1 2

(b) P(at most once in 4th quadrant)


= P(none in 4 th quadrant) + P(once in 4 th
quadrant)
3
3
3
1
= +
4
4
4
4
3
9
= +
16
16
12
=
16
3
=
4


(ii) P(two blue marbles)

= P(BBB) + P(BBB) + P(BBB)
10
2
2
= 3
12
12
12
5
=
72

12. Let
A = Mr Chong
B = Mr Ong
C = Mr Lim

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 18

1
1
1
(a) P(A) = , P(B) = , P(C) =
4
5
3

(i) P(all fail to get the 1st place)

= P(A > B > C)

= P(A) P(B) P(C)
3
4
2
=
4
5
3
2
=
5

4
9
(b) P(on time if not raining) =
5
10
18

=
25
(c) P(late to the office)

= P(raining and late) + P(not raining and late)
1
1
4
1
= +
5
6
5
10
1
2
= +
30
25
5 + 12
=
150
17

=
150


(ii) P(one of them gets the 1st place)

= P(A > B > C) + P(A > B > C)
+ P(A > B > C)
1
4
2
3
1
2
= +
4
5
3
4
5
3
3
4
1
+
4
5
3
8
6
12
= + +
60
60
60
26
=
60
13
=
30

(b) x + y = 20.........................1
y = 4x.........................2
Substitute 2 into 1,
x + 4x = 20
5x = 20
x = 4

2
3
4
4
(ii) P(red) = +
6
5
6
5
11
=
15

y = 4(4)
= 16

1
1
1
15. P(A) = , P(B) = , P(C) =
3
4
5
(a) P(all qualify for the final)

= P(A > B > C)

= P(A) P(B) P(C)
1
1
1
=
3
4
5
1
=
60

(iii) P(green or red) = P(green) + P(red)


4
5
2
3

= +
6
5
6
5
20
6

= +
30
30
26

=
30
13

=
15
13.
1

6
Rain

Not
raining

2 1

(b) P(none qualify for the final)



= P(A > B > C)
2
3
4
=
3
4
5
2
=
5

Late to office

Car
5

6
1

10

On time to office

(c) P(at least 2 teams qualify)



= P(A > B > C) + P(A > B > C)
+ P(A > B > C) + P(A > B > C)
1
1
1
4
1
3
1
= + +
60
3
4
5
3
4
5
2
1
1
+
3
4
5

Late to office

Bus
9

10

14. S = {x red, y green}


1
(a) P(red) =
5
1
x


x + y = 5
5x = x + y
y = 4x

(b) R = {2 black, 3 red}, Q = {4 red, 1 green}



{factors of 2} = {1, 2}
2
2

(i) P(black) =
6
5
2

=
15

2 1

On time to office

1
1
(a) P(late if raining) =
5
6
1

=
30

2 1

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 18

1
1
1
1
= + + +
30
20
15
60
1
=
6

4. (a) P(both are M) = 0

(b) P(V1 > V2) = P(V1) P(V2)


2
3

=
7
8
3

=
28

16. (a) R = {3 yellow, 2 red}


Q = {x yellow, 4 blue}

2
P(getting a yellow marble from box Q) =
3
2
3 x+1
2
x

+

=
3
5 x+5
5 x+4
x
+
1
x
9 + 6 = 10
x+5
x+4
9(x + 1)(x + 4) + 6x(x + 5) = 10(x + 5)(x + 4)
9(x2 + 5x + 4) + 6x2 + 30x = 10(x2 + 9x + 20)
9x2 + 45x + 36 + 6x2 + 30x = 10x2 + 90x + 200

5x2 15x 164 = 0

1 21

2 1 21
1
2 1

There is only 1 M

(c) P(M > V) + P(V > M)



= P(M) P(V) + P(V) P(M)
1
3
3
1
= +
7
8
7
8
3
=
28

2
2

1
5. (a) 1200 = 600
2
1
2
(b) 1200 = 400
2
3
Alternative
Let x be the number of Indian.

\ 2x + x = 600
3x = 600
x = 200

(b) P(red and blue)



= P(red > blue)
4
2
=
9
5
8
=
45


Number of Chinese = 2 200

= 400

2+5
6. (a) P(Y < R) =
10
7

=
10

1
1. (a)
8
3
(b)
8

(b) P(GGG) + P(RRR)


1
3
2
4
3
5
= +
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
=
120

2. (a) P(B < Y) = P(B) + P(Y)


0
3

= +
12
12
1

=
4

(c) P(No green ball)



= P(G > G > G)
5
6
7
=
8
9
10
7
=
24

(b) P(B < W) = P(G)


4

=
12
1

=
3

7. (a) P(W > W) + P(B > B) + P(R > R)


1
2
2
3
4
5
= + +
9
10
9
10
9
10
14
=
45

3. (a) A > B =
P(A > B) = 0
(b) n(A) = 4 3 2

= 24
n(B) = 4 3 3

= 36
P(A < B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A > B)
36
24

= + 0
60
60

=1

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2 1

(b) P(R > R) + P(R > R)


2
8
8
2
= +
9
10
10
10
76
=
225

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 18

2
1
2
25
1
(a) + = +
3
12
3
100
3
3

=
4

2
8. P(Hashim wins) =
3
1
P(Lee wins) =
3
(a) P(H > H > H) + P(L > L > L)
2
1
2
1
2
1
= +
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
8
= +
27
27
1
=
3

2 1

3
60
75
1
(b) =
20
100
100
3

11. Multiple of 3 = {3, 6}


Not multiple of 3 = {1, 2, 4, 5}

(b) P(H > L > H > H) + P(L > H > H > H)


+ P(H > H > L > H)
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
2

+ +
=
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
1
2
2

3
3
3
3
8
=
27

4
P(other numbers) = 5
5
4

=
25

Bag A

Bag B

1
P(getting white marble) =
2
y
x
1
2
4
+ =
10
10
2
6
6
y
1
x

+ =
2
15
30
x + 2y = 15
x = 15 2y.................1

2 1

x+y

x+y1

18
2 = .......................2
1
20 2 1
19
95
Substitute x = 15 2y into 2,
15 2y + y
15 2y + y 1
18
=
95
20
19
18

(15 y)(14 y) = 20 19
95

210 15y 14y + y2 = 72

y2 29y + 138 = 0
(y 6)(y 23) = 0

y = 6, 23
Since y < 10.
therefore, y = 6 is taken.

(a) P(3 > 6) + P(4 > 5) + P(5 > 4) + P(6 > 3)


4
4
4
4
4
1
= + + +
25
25
25
25
25
5
1
4

5
25
72
=
625
(b) P(at least one old number)

= 1 P(even number > even number)
4
4

= 1 3 3
25
25
481
=
625

21

y white marbles
10 y non-white marbles

1
9. P(3) =
5

x white marbles
10 x non-white marbles

Substitute y = 6 into 1,
x = 15 2(6)
=3
Hence, x = 3, y = 6

10.
75

100
1

Wake up
late

Not late
in waking
up

25

100
1

60

100
Drive to
office
Other
means

40

100

Late to
office
Not late
to office

Take a bus
to office

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.