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Chapter-2

KIDNEY DISEASE & MELAMINE


(A MILK SCANDAL)
Prepared by

Tamanna Farhana
(Sr. Nutritionist, Baby Nutrition Ltd. Lalmai Group)

Lesson-1

One

in every seven people in our country has been


suffering from kidney diseases and 40,000 die of
longtime kidney failures annually.
About two crore people are now somehow suffering
from kidney ailments which was about one crore 10
years ago. The rate of chronic kidney disease has
now increased to 18 percent from nine percent
during the period.
"If the present rate of the disease continues it will
rise to 28-30 percent in next 10 years turning the
situation alarming.
Ref: The Daily Statr, One in seven suffers from kidney disease in Bangladesh, Wednesday, November 26, 2008.

NIKDU(National

Institute of Kidney Diseases &


Urology ) is the only tertiary level specialized
hospital in Bangladesh- dedicated to serve kidney
patients. Total 4224 patients were admitted in this
hospital last year (2011). Among them 2370 male,
1378 female and 476 were children. Only 217
patients died.

Ref: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW), HEALTH BULLETIN 2012. The data belong to Jan-Dec
2011. National Institute of Kidney Diseases .

Lesson-2

What

is melamine?
Melamine is an organic base chemical most
commonly found in the form of white crystals rich
in nitrogen.

What

is melamine generally used for?


Melamine is widely used in plastics, adhesives,
countertops, dishware, whiteboards.

Lesson-3

In China, where adulteration has occurred, water has been


added to raw milk to increase its volume.

As a result of this dilution the milk has a lower protein


concentration.

Companies using the milk for further production (e.g. of


powdered infant formula) normally check the protein level
through a test measuring nitrogen content.

The addition of melamine increases the nitrogen content of the


milk and therefore its apparent protein content.

Addition of melamine into food


is not approved by the
FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius
(food standard commission), or
by any national authorities.

Lesson-4

What are the health effects of melamine


consumptions in humans?

Melamine alone causes bladder stones in animal tests.

When combined with cyanuric acid, which may also be present in melamine
powder, melamine can form crystals that can give rise to kidney stones.

These small crystals can block the small tubes in the kidney potentially
stopping the production of urine, causing kidney failure and, in some cases,
death.

Melamine has also been shown to have carcinogenic effects in animals in


certain circumstances, but there is insufficient evidence to make a judgment on
carcinogenic risk in humans.

What are the symptoms and


signs of melamine poisoning?
Irritability,
Blood

in urine,
Little or no urine,
Signs of kidney infection,
High blood pressure.

Adding melamine is not an isolated accident


As it is one of the largest food safety events
in the world in recent years, everyone must
believe that adding melamine in the milk
was not an isolated accident, but a largescale intentional activity to deceive
consumers for simple, basic, short-term
profits.
Ref: News from Bangladesh MIlk Scandal: Everyone will Have to come forward.

Eight

brands of powdered milk were found to


be melamine-positive by the chemistry
department of Dhaka University (DU).
Melamine was known to be detected in Dano
of Arla Foods, Red Cow, Diploma and Anlene
of New Zealand Dairy Product Bangladesh
and in three brands from China -- Yashili-1,
Yashili-2 and Sweet Baby-2. Detected
melamine in eight brands including Nestle's
dairy brand Nido fortified instant.
Ref: The Daily Statr, Wednesday, October 22, 2008, Toxic milk scare hurts sales by Sohel Parvez

References
1. Questions and Answers on melamine by WHO.
2. News from Bangladesh MIlk Scandal: Everyone will Have to come
forward. Wednesday, October 22, 2008.
3. The Daily Statr, Wednesday, October 22, 2008, Toxic milk scare hurts
sales by Sohel Parvez.
4. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW), HEALTH BULLETIN
2012. The data belong to Jan-Dec 2011. National Institute of Kidney
Diseases .
5. The Daily Statr, One in seven suffers from kidney disease in
Bangladesh, Wednesday, November 26, 2008.