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Daniel G.

Hernandez

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter presents the conceptual and research literature, theoretical and
conceptual framework in the area of Avocado, Papaya and Aloe Veras other benefits
and composition that is pertinent information to the study.

Conceptual Literature
The following topics will be tackled under conceptual literature:
Avocado.This is all about the origin of the word Avocado and its definition.
The word Avocado comes from a Nahuatl Indian (Aztec) word ahucatl
meaning testicle. It is thought that the reference is either due to the avocados shape or
the fact that it was considered to possess aphrodisiac qualities by the Aztecs. In
Spanish, ahucatl became aguacate and eventually avogato and then avocado.
In English, the fruit was first described as an Avagato pear because of its pear-like
shape. Later it also became known as an alligator pear given the alligator-like
appearance to the skin. Over time, the term Avocado became the common word used to
describe the fruit in English.
Avocados are a very healthy type of fruit. One serving, which equals around 1/5 th
of an avocado, is around 50 calories. It has 60% more potassium than a banana and
also contains vitamins B and C. 3/4 of the fruits calories come from fat. But dont worry,
its monounsaturated fat. This type helps lower LDL (low-density lipoprotein), which is
the kind of cholesterol you dont want a lot of. It also is thought to increase HDL (highdensity lipoprotein), which is the kind of cholesterol you do want. Avocados also contain
a high percentage of fiber which helps us all remain regular in our bowel movements!
Fruit Composition. This information is what comprises the avocado.

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The protein-content, which has been found to average about 2 per cent, is higher
than that of any other fresh fruit.
The percentage of carbohydrates is not high compared with that of many other
fruits, because the avocado contains almost no sugar. F. B. La Forge of the Bureau of
Chemistry at Washington has found in the avocado a new sugar, called DMannoketoheptose, which is believed to be present in amounts varying from 0.5 to 1
per cent.
The amount of mineral matter is much greater than is found in other fresh fruits.
Soda, potash, magnesium, and lime compose more than one-half the ash or mineral
matter, which places the avocado among the foods which yield an excess of the baseforming elements, as opposed to nuts, which furnish acid-forming elements in excess.
Jaffa 1 says: "So far as protein and ash in fresh fruits are concerned, the
avocado stands at the head of the list, and with reference to the carbohydrates,
contains on an average fully 50 per cent of that found in many fresh fruits. These facts
alone would warrant due consideration being given to the value of the avocado as a
fresh fruit. Its chief value as a food, however, is due to its high content of fat. This
varies, as shown by the analysis, from a minimum of 9.8 per cent to a maximum of 29.1
per cent, with an average of 20.1 per cent. The only fruit comparable with the avocado
in this respect is the olive."
Experiments carried on at the University of California have shown that the
digestibility of avocado fat is equal to that of butter-fat, and not below that of beef fat.
As to the caloric or energy-producing value of the avocado in twenty-eight
varieties examined, one pound of the flesh represents an average of 1000 calories. The
maximum and minimum were 1325 and 597 respectively. The maximum "corresponds
to about 75 per cent of the fuel value of the cereals and is not far from twice that noted
for average lean meat."

Papaya. This is all about the origin of the word Papaya and its definition.

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The papaya, Carica papaya L., is a member of the small family Caricaceae allied
to the Passifloraceae. As a dual- or multi-purpose, early-bearing, space-conserving,
herbaceous crop, it is widely acclaimed, despite its susceptibility to natural enemies.
In some parts of the world, especially Australia and some islands of the West
Indies, it is known as papaw, or pawpaw, names which are better limited to the very
different, mainly wild Asimina triloba Dunal, belonging to the Annonaceae. While the
name papaya is widely recognized, it has been corrupted to kapaya, kepaya, lapaya or
tapaya in southern Asia and the East Indies. In French, it is papaye (the fruit) and
papayer (the plant), or sometimes figuier des Iles. Spanish-speaking people employ the
names meln zapote, lechosa, payaya (fruit), papayo or papayero (the plant), fruta
bomba, mamn or mamona, depending on the country. In Brazil, the usual name is
mamao. When first encountered by Europeans it was quite naturally nicknamed "tree
melon".
Commonly and erroneously referred to as a "tree", the plant is properly a large
herb growing at the rate of 6 to 10 ft (1.8-3 m) the first year and reaching 20 or even 30
ft (6-9 m) in height, with a hollow green or deep-purple stem becoming 12 to 16 in (3040 cm) or more thick at the base and roughened by leaf scars. The leaves emerge
directly from the upper part of the stem in a spiral on nearly horizontal petioles 1 to 3 1/2
ft (30-105 cm) long, hollow, succulent, green or more or less dark purple. The blade,
deeply divided into 5 to 9 main segments, each irregularly subdivided, varies from 1 to 2
ft (30-60 cm) in width and has prominent yellowish ribs and veins. The life of a leaf is 4
to 6 months. Both the stem and leaves contain copious white milky latex.
The 5-petalled flowers are fleshy, waxy and slightly fragrant. Some plants bear
only short-stalked pistillate (female) flowers, waxy and ivory-white; or hermaprodite
(perfect) flowers (having female and male organs), ivory-white with bright-yellow anthers
and borne on short stalks; while others may bear only staminate (male) flowers,
clustered on panicles to 5 or 6 ft (1.5-1.8 m) long. There may even be monoecious
plants having both male and female flowers. Some plants at certain seasons produce
short-stalked male flowers, at other times perfect flowers. This change of sex may occur

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temporarily during high temperatures in midsummer. Some "all-male" plants


occasionally bear, at the tip of the spray, small flowers with perfect pistils and these
produce abnormally slender fruits. Male or hermaphrodite plants may change
completely to female plants after being beheaded.
Generally, the fruit is melon-like, oval to nearly round, somewhat pyriform, or
elongated club-shaped, 6 to 20 in (15-50 cm) long and 4 to 8 in (10-20 cm) thick;
weighing up to 20 lbs (9 kg). Semi-wild (naturalized) plants bear miniature fruits 1 to 6 in
(2.5-15 cm) long. The skin is waxy and thin but fairly tough. When the fruit is green and
hard it is rich in white latex. As it ripens, it becomes light- or deep-yellow externally and
the thick wall of succulent flesh becomes aromatic, yellow, orange or various shades of
salmon or red. It is then juicy, sweetish and somewhat like a cantaloupe in flavor; in
some types quite musky. Attached lightly to the wall by soft, white, fibrous tissue, are
usually numerous small, black, ovoid, corrugated, peppery seeds about 3/16 in (5 mm)
long, each coated with a transparent, gelatinous aril.
Fruit Composition. This information is what comprises the papaya.
Analysis of the fruit gave moisture 89.6 %, proteins 0.5%, carbohydrate 9.5%m,
ether extract 0.1%, mineral matter 0.4%, calcium 0.01%, phosphorus 0.01%, and iron
0.4 mg/100 gm.The high content of water in the papaya almost as a melon (92%), This
is why some call it the tropical melon.The chemical composition of papaya fruit with
respect to sugars, organic, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals change during
ripening.Most of its carbohydrates are formed from sugars: saccharose, glucose and
fructose.The fresh fruit pulp contains sucrose, invert sugar, a resinous substance,
papain, malic acid and salts of tartaric and citric acids 1.2 per cent.The dry matter which
was 7% at 15 days after pollination, increased to 13% at harvest.Both ripe and unripe
papaya fruit is a rich source of pectins.Papaya is a source of calcium, and an excellent
source of vitamin A and C. The B vitamins are also present in small amounts.Papayas
fruit and seed have been shown to possess bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus
aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella
flexneri.

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Aloe Vera. This is all about the origin of the word Aloe Vera and its definition.
Although there are more than 400 species of the Aloe plant growing on the Earth,
it is Aloe Vera or true Aloe, also known scientifically as Aloe Barbadensis Miller, that is
used for its healing and medicinal properties.
Aloe Vera has been used for centuries and early records have shown that the
Egyptians were the first to recognize its unique ability to heal. It is believed that the
therapeutic benefits date back over 4000 years. The very earliest record of Aloe Vera
was found on a Sumerian tablet that dates back to 2100 BC.
Aloe Vera has been used by many cultures throughout the history of the world.
Greek and Roman doctors used it to help heal the ailments of their patients.
Researchers have discovered that the ancient Chinese and Indian cultures benefitted
from the use of Aloe Vera as well.
The Egyptians, and in particular the Egyptian queens such as Cleopatra and
Nefertiti used Aloe Vera as a skincare and beauty product. They believed it gave their
skin a radiant glow and helped to keep them looking young.
In the Philippines, Aloe Vera was mixed with milk and used to treat a variety of
kidney infections. Aloe Vera is referred to as Aloes in the Bible and there are many
biblical references to the healing quality of the plant.
Alexander the Great is documented in history as having used Aloe Vera to treat
his wounded soldiers. This was reputed to have taken place when he conquered the
Island of Socotra in the Indian Ocean. Alexander the Great secured supplies of Aloes
in order to help his men after the battle.

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Aloe Vera grew in tropical climates such as in southern Africa and the
Mediterranean. In these areas, it became known as a miracle cure because of its
remarkable healing powers. However due to the more temperate climate of Europe,
many physicians there scoffed at the claims about the healing and therapeutic power of
Aloe Vera. In Europe, Aloe Vera was considered to be a folk remedy that was more of a
myth than a scientific fact.
Aloe Vera continued to be very popular in the tropical areas of the planet. After
World War II came to an end, other parts of the world began to develop a renewed
interest in the plants unique ability to help a number of different medical conditions.
The problem that existed was that there was a need to find ways to prevent the
Aloe Vera gel from deteriorating, as this could happen easily due to excessive heat. It
took many years for this problem to be solved.
Aloin is a part of the Aloe Vera plant that has very strong laxative qualities. It is
the laxative effect of the Aloe Vera plant that propelled it full force into the world of
Western medicine. From there it was researched further and was found to have many
therapeutic benefits.
Today Aloe Vera is used throughout the world for many health conditions. It is
good for the skin, as well as the digestive system, and it can help those suffering from
conditions such as asthma and eczema. Aloe Vera is also helpful for the immune
system in that it gives it an extra jolt to keep it functioning at a high level.
Fruit Composition. This information is what comprises the aloe vera.
Active Components:

Acids: aspartic, glutaminic, aloetic, palmitic, formic and estearic (plant) ascorbic
(leaves) acids.

Essential oils: Cineole, pinene, cariofilene oils.

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Minerals:

calcium,

magnesium,

aluminium,

zinc,

phosper,

potassium,

manganese.

Amino acids: aloesin, aloin, arginine, glycine, barbaloin, glutamine, serine,


histidine.

Thiamin.

These active components are present in the fresh leaf. If you do not want the
components to be active, there are stabilized gels available in the market. Look for
details in the label and select the gel that suits your needs.
Chemical Composition

Aloe emodin

Amino acids

Antibiotic principles

Anthraquinones

Arabinose

Emodin

Barbaloin

Glucomannan

Carbohydrates

Galactose

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Proteolytic enzymes

Gum

Polysaccharides

Lignin

Rhein

Cathartic anthraglycosides

Saponins

Steroids

Wound healing hormones

Xylose

These chemicals aid in healing, soothing and cleansing actions. These are natural
chemicals that occur in the plant. Nutrient Composition

Aloesin

Chromium

Chloride

Copper

Manganese

Folic Acid

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Magnesium

Vitamin B-3

B Complex Vitamins

Vitamin B-12

Zinc

Related Literature
The following researches and studies about Avocado, papaya and Alow Vera as
Sanitizer are to be discussed in the research literature.
The hand plays a very important role in our monotonous life. It is also said to be
the most frequently used organ. However, according to the study of Mwale (2012)
named Sanitation Matters: Health and Hygiene, Focus on Handwashing , human
hands are one of the main transporter of diseases, especially the hands of mothers and
caregivers.
A good hand hygiene will surely help in preventing these diseases.
In the study of Simmone (2013) named Hand Hygiene and Hand Sanitizers ,
the microorganisms from humans and animals is usually transmitted through hands.
This can be solved by alcohol which strip the oil layer of the skin . It also prevents the
fast growth rate of microorganisms on the skin.
However, the study entitled, Hand sanitizers:

Benefits and limitations of

Shuman (2014) states that hand sanitizers are gels that contain alcohol in order to kill
germs present within the skin. Despite its efficacy, alcohol can make the skin dry and it
also cannot cut through grime .

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On the other hand, moisture is also needed by the human hands. According to
the study of Marino , MD , MPH (2006) entitled Skin Physiology, Irritants , Dry Skin and
Moisturizers, when the skin is damaged, repair is dependent on retarding the loss of
moisture on the skin.
Synthesis
This part presents the summary of conceptual and research literature, and the
theories presented.
In conceptual literature, the name origin, description and fruit composition of
Avocado, Papaya, and Aloe Vera is included.
The concepts and ideas presented were discussed by Mwale, Simmone,
Shuman Marino , MD MPH. The ideas presented include topics about Skin physiology,
Benefits and limitations of hand sanitizers, and importance of sanitation.
Meanwhile, the studies of Simmone, Marino

and Shulman presented the

antibacterial components and properties of hand sanitizer.