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Vocabulary
1. Complete the passage with suitable words and phrases below. Make any necessary changes.
carbon footprint use up destroy amount litter pick up
pollution harmful lack halfway cut down avoid crop emit
When Katherine Gray goes shopping with her children, she lets them choose any 1. of locally grown
fruit. However, they are not allowed to buy bananas or mangos, because these fruits are grown far from their home.
People like Katherine believe that its possible for each of us to reduce our 2. by
3.
on imported food products. In fact, many people in the USA, like Katherine, are starting to
4.
foods that have travelled long distances. This is because ships and planes 5.
large quantities of 6. gases. These gases cause air 7. , which contributes to
global warming. By eating locally grown food, its possible to limit this damage. But eating only locally produced foods is
not easy, especially in winter. The 8. of fresh fruit and vegetables means that Katherine must store
summer foods in her freezer.
2. Complete the sentences with the correct form of a suitable phrasal verb. Some phrasal verbs are used more
than once.
break down bring up use up pick up cut down wipe out
1. Did you manage to everything the teacher said in the lesson?
2. Hunters have nearly all the wildlife in this forest.
3. Can you please me at 7.00?
4. Janes grandparents her because her parents died when she was young.
5. He all the hot water, so I had a cold shower this morning.
6. The doctor told me to on sugar.
7. The suspect finally and admitted his guilt.
8. Please dont that issue again with me.
3. Complete the sentences to show you have understood the meaning of the words in italics.
1. I could be more environmentally friendly, if I ...................................................................... .
2. We should try to cut down on because ........................................... .
3. People often leave litter when ........................................................................................... .
4. I usually take a short cut ................................................................................................... .
5. The longest voyage Joe ever made was to ........................................................................ .
6. Helen was brought up ....................................................................................................... .

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4. Complete each sentence with a suitable idiom below. Make any necessary changes.
the skys the limit make waves down to earth a breath of fresh air the tip of the iceberg
a drop in the ocean vanish into thin air make a mountain out of a molehill
1. Cathys presence in the room made us all suddenly feel better.
She was like..................................................................................................................... .
2. Janice can easily afford to buy that new car.
Spending 20,000 on a car is ................................................................................. for her.
3. Stan is going to get into trouble if he continues to protest outside the school.
We warned him not to ......................................................................... among the students.
4. Jim knew that there was much more to the story than he had discovered.
He knew he had only touched ........................................................................................... .
5. Nobody has seen Alex for over a week.
He just seemed to ............................................................................................................ .
6. Tom worries about every small detail.
He always ........................................................................................................................ .
7. Its comfortable being with Lisa because shes .................................................................. .
8. You can have anything you want .................................................................................... .

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Grammar
1. Complete the sentences with a suitable modal and modal perfect below and the correct form of the verbs
in brackets.
have to neednt must have shouldnt have should have might cant have mustnt might have
1. You (worry). Ill help you.
2. John hasnt arrived yet. He (miss) the bus.
3. My bike needs new tyres, so I (walk) to school this week.
4. I didnt know the lesson was cancelled. You (tell) me.
5. You (make) so much food. Nobody was hungry.
6. Dont give up yet. You (win) the prize next time.
7. He (forget) his camera again! I reminded him twice this morning.
8. That mountain is dangerous. You (try) to climb it.
2. Complete the mini-dialogues with a modal or modal perfect and the verbs in brackets. There may be more
than one correct answer.
I

Nan:

I 1. (not reach) my clothes on the top shelf. 2.


you (help) me?

Sue:

Sorry. Im busy right now. You 3. (try) standing on a chair.

II Kieran: I didnt know that our neighbours were moving. You 4. (tell) me.
Maggie: Why? What difference does it make?
Kieran: I 5. (say) goodbye to them.
III Sally:
Brian:

6.

I (get) you something to drink while youre waiting?

No, thanks. Im waiting for Jill to come. She 7. (be) here any minute.

3. Complete each sentence in a logical manner.


1. You had better not because .............................................................. .
2. I think we should in order to .............................................................. .
3. You shouldnt because I will .............................................................. .
4. He had better at once or I will ............................................................ .
4. Complete the passage with a modal form of the verbs in brackets. There may be more than one correct
answer.
What is 350 Day? Its an international day on climate action, observed by teens all over the world who want to make a
change. They also think that world leaders 1. (take) responsibility for climate change and do now
what they 2. (do) many years ago. In the meantime, teens have been taking action. Students in
Sweden decided to help the rainforests. They sold cakes and, with the money they earned, bought six hectares of
rainforest in Costa Rica for preservation. They 3. (use) the money for other things, but they
wanted to help the planet. Their actions 4. (inspire) others because now 22,000 hectares are
protected. This protected area is called the Childrens Eternal Rainforest.
A British teen group is encouraging teens to send a million footprints to Copenhagen. All you 5.
(do) is paint your foot, take a picture and send it to their website. They say that if you 6. (not be)
there, your feet can. They think a million footprints 7. (make) a difference! So, on 24th October,
teens will be sending an important message to world leaders: we 8. (act) now to stop climate
change!

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5. Rewrite the sentences using a suitable modal or modal perfect. Do not change the original meaning of the
sentences. There may be more than one correct answer.
1. Its not a good idea for Hal to play football so soon after his accident.
Hal ................................................................................................................................... .
2. Im sure I heard her playing the piano yesterday.
She .................................................................................................................................. .
3. Its possible that her plane has landed.
Her plane ......................................................................................................................... .
4. We decided to walk instead of taking the car.
We ................................................................................................................................... .
5. Smoking is prohibited in this building.
You .................................................................................................................................. .
6. Its not necessary to arrive early.
You .................................................................................................................................. .

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