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1-800-Lab-Volt www.labvolt.com 30794-00 |3030794000000I~ Fluid Power Hydraulics Fundamentals Student Manual

1-800-Lab-Volt

www.labvolt.com

30794-00

|3030794000000I~

1-800-Lab-Volt www.labvolt.com 30794-00 |3030794000000I~ Fluid Power Hydraulics Fundamentals Student Manual

Fluid Power

Hydraulics Fundamentals

Student Manual

Fluid Power

Hydraulics Fundamentals

Student Manual

30794-00

A

First Edition Published March 2013

© 1996 by Lab-Volt Ltd. Printed in Canada All rights reserved

ISBN 978-2-89289-349-6 (Printed version) ISBN 978-2-89640-651-7 (CD-ROM)

Legal Deposit – Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, 1996 Legal Deposit – Library and Archives Canada, 1996

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopied, recorded, or otherwise, without prior written permission from Lab-Volt Ltd.

Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part of Lab-Volt. The Lab-Volt ® materials described in this document are furnished under a license agreement or a nondisclosure agreement.

The Lab-Volt ® logo is a registered trademark of Lab-Volt Systems.

Lab-Volt recognizes product names as trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.

All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Other trademarks and trade names may be used in this document to refer to either the entity claiming the marks and names or their products. Lab-Volt disclaims any proprietary interest in trademarks and trade names other than its own.

Safety and Common Symbols

Safety and Common Symbols III

Safety and Common Symbols

Safety and Common Symbols IV

Foreword

The Lab-Volt Hydraulics Training System is a modularized presentation of the principles of hydraulic energy and its controlled application. The Hydraulics Training System consists of an introductory and an advanced training program.

The introductory program is based on two manuals: Volume 1, Hydraulics – Fundamentals, covers the basic principles of hydraulics; Volume 2, Hydraulics – Electrical Control, covers electrical circuits and ladder diagrams for hydraulics applications. Both manuals are intended to be used with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer.

The advanced training program expands upon the introductory course with hydraulics applications using programmable controllers, sensors, proportional controls, and servo controls. The covered applications are based on those encountered in the industry. The introductory program is a prerequisite for the advanced program.

This manual, volume 1 of the Hydraulics series, introduces students to the basic principles of hydraulics. Subjects covered are the theory, generation, storage, and usage of hydraulic energy. The creation of pressure by applying force to a confined liquid is discussed. The usefulness of fluid pressure and velocity is examined, and the relationship between flow rate, velocity, and power is defined. The basic types of hydraulic circuits are introduced. Identification and operation of basic hydraulic components is also covered. Finally, a methodical approach to troubleshooting is outlined, based on the first principles of hydraulics.

The Lab-Volt Instructor’s Guide for Hydraulics – Fundamentals (P/N 30794-10) provides answers to all procedure steps and review questions found in each exercise in this manual. We also recommend that you use the Parker-Hannifin’s manual Industrial Hydraulic Technology as a reference.

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank Mr Patrick Quirion, Mech. Eng., CEFP, MGI, for his participation in the elaboration of the hydraulics courseware. Mr Quirion teaches fluid power classes in Montreal, Canada.

Table of Contents

Introduction

 

XI

Unit 1

Introduction to Hydraulics

 

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1-1

An introduction to hydraulic circuit. Safety rules to follow when using the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer.

Exercise 1-1 Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

 

1-5

Identification of the various system components. Safety rules to follow when using the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer.

Exercise 1-2

Demonstration of Hydraulic Power

 

1-27

Lifting up the hydraulic Power Unit using a small-bore cylinder. Investigation of a basic hydraulic circuit.

Unit 2

Fundamentals

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2-1

Basic concepts of hydraulics. Creation of pressure by applying force to a confined fluid. Relationship between flow rate, velocity, and power.

Exercise 2-1

Pressure Limitation

 

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2-3

Design and operation of a relief valve. Determining the oil flow path in a circuit using a relief valve. Connection and operation of a circuit using a relief valve.

Exercise 2-2

Pressure and Force

 

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2-17

Verifying the formula F = P x A using a cylinder and a load spring. Discovering what happens to a cylinder when equal pressures are applied to each side of its piston. Pressure distribution in a cylinder in equilibrium of forces. Measuring the weight of the hydraulic Power Unit given the pressure required to lift it.

Exercise 2-3

Flow Rate and Velocity

 

2-35

Design and operation of a flow control valve. Relationship between flow rate and velocity. Connection and operation of meter-in, meter-out, and bypass flow control circuits.

Exercise 2-4

Work and Power

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2-57

Definition of the terms “work” and “power”. Relationship between force, work, and power. Calculating the work, power, and efficiency of the circuit used to lift the hydraulic Power Unit.

Table of Contents

Unit 3

Basic Circuits

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3-1

Connection and operation of simple, practical hydraulic circuits. Design and operation of a directional control valve.

Exercise 3-1

Cylinder Control

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3-3

Control of the direction, force, and speed of a cylinder.

Design and operation of a directional control valve. Effect of

change in system pressure and flow rate on the force and speed of a cylinder.

a

Exercise 3-2

Cylinders in Series

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3-19

Description of the operation of a series circuit. Starting and stopping two cylinders at the same time by connecting them

in

series. Demonstration of pressure intensification in a series

circuit.

Exercise 3-3

. Description of the operation of a parallel circuit. Extension sequence of parallel cylinders having differing bore sizes. Synchronizing the extension of parallel cylinders using a flow control valve.

Cylinders in Parallel

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3-31

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Exercise 3-4

Regenerative Circuits

 

3-41

Design and operation of a regenerative circuit. Effect of regeneration on cylinder force and speed.

Unit 4

Functional Circuits

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4-1

Connection and operation of functional hydraulic circuits using accumulators, hydraulic motors, pressure reducing valves, and remotely controlled pressure relief valves.

Exercise 4-1

Accumulators

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4-3

Description of the general types of accumulators. How accumulators can be used in auxiliary power, emergency power, leakage compensation, and shock suppression. Safety requirements for accumulator circuits.

Exercise 4-2

Hydraulic Motor Circuits

 

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4-19

Design and operation of a hydraulic motor. Calculating the torque and speed of a hydraulic motor. Effect of a change in flow rate or pressure on motor operation.

Table of Contents

Exercise 4-3 Pressure Reducing Valves

4-35

Design and operation of a pressure reducing valve. Connection and operation of a clamp and bend circuit using a pressure reducing valve.

Exercise 4-4 Remotely Controlled Pressure Relief Valves

4-53

How to control a pressure relief valve remotely. Connection and operation of a circuit using a remotely controlled valve to control the tonnage of a press cylinder.

Unit 5

Troubleshooting

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5-1

Developing a methodical approach for testing the main components of a hydraulic system, based on the manufacturer specifications and on the first principles of hydraulics. Observing the effects of temperature changes on the operating characteristics of a hydraulic system.

Exercise 5-1

Hydraulic Pumps

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5-3

Basic operation of a hydraulic pump. Using manufacturer pump specifications to test a pump. The effects of oil temperature on flow rate and volumetric efficiency.

Exercise 5-2

Directional Valve Testing

 

5-19

Showing normal leakage of a directional valve. Evaluating the condition of a directional valve according to the amount of leakage flow.

Exercise 5-3

Flowmeter Accuracy

 

5-31

Verifying the accuracy of a flowmeter. Determining the effect of temperature on flowmeter accuracy.

Exercise 5-4 Effects of Temperature on System Operation

5-41

The effects of temperature changes on pressure drop and circuit flow rate.

Appendix

A

Equipment Utilization Chart

B

Care of the Hydraulics Trainer

C

Conversion Factors

D

Hydraulics and Pneumatics Graphic Symbols

Bibliography

We Value Your Opinion!

Introduction

The basic principles of fluid power date back to Pascal’s research and the invention of the piston, but only recently has fluid power become a large scale industry. The growing use of hydraulics in industry comes from the need for fast, low cost means of production with better quality, less waste, and increased power.

Hydraulic systems provide many other advantages. A few of these are spark- and burnout-resistance, fine control, and compact size. This means that almost all manufactured products have been formed, treated, or handled by fluid power at some time.

This manual, Hydraulics – Fundamentals, provides basic training in hydraulics. It covers the theory, generation, storage, and usage of hydraulic energy.

The manual is divided into five units:

– Units 1 and 2 present the basic concepts of hydraulics. Unit 1 introduces students with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer. Unit 2 discusses the creation of pressure and defines the relationship between flow rate, work, and power.

– Units 3 and 4 introduce basic and functional hydraulic circuits.

– Unit 5 presents the basic troubleshooting techniques used in troubleshooting hydraulic circuits.

These five units provide a complete course in hydraulics. They lay a solid foundation for the study of Volume 2 of the courseware series, Electrical Control of Hydraulic Systems.

The exercises in this manual provide a systematic and realistic means of learning the subject matter. Each exercise contains

– A clearly defined Exercise Objective.

– A Discussion of the theory involved.

– A list of Equipment Required.

– A Procedure Summary which provides a bridge between the theoretical Discussion and the laboratory Procedure.

– A detailed step-by-step laboratory Procedure in which the student observes and measures important phenomena. Illustrations facilitate connecting the modules and guide the student’s observations. Well-organized tables help in performing calculations. Questions direct the student’s thinking process and help in understanding the principles involved.

– A Conclusion to confirm that objective has been reached.

Review Questions which verify that the material has been well assimilated.

Unit 1

Introduction to Hydraulics

UNIT OBJECTIVE

When you have completed this unit, you will be able to identify the Hydraulics Trainer components and to safely operate the trainer. You will demonstrate your ability by constructing simple hydraulic circuits.

DISCUSSION OF FUNDAMENTALS

Introduction

The intensive use of hydraulics in today’s industry comes from the many advantages provided by hydraulic systems. With hydraulic power, very little energy is required to control and transmit tremendous amounts of power. For example, 1.5-kW (2-hp) electric motors can be used to actuate hydraulic hoists lifting up to 4000 kg (8800 lb), as Figure 1-1 shows.

used to actuate hydraulic hoists lifting up to 4000 kg (8800 lb), as Figure 1-1 shows.

Figure 1-1. Hydraulic hoist.

Introduction to Hydraulics

Gigantic rockets that hurl satellites into orbit around the earth, and that carry men and women to the moon and other planets also depend on hydraulic power to control their flight. Only hydraulic power systems have the “muscle” and power to control with the delicacy of a feather touch, the millions of horsepower released by rocket engines and direct the payload to its destination.

Aviation is another industry that presently places a heavy demand on hydraulics. The hydraulic power used in aircraft travels anywhere a pipe or tube can be run. Aircraft hydraulic systems are lightweight and compact, yet powerful enough to move the control surfaces of the largest planes.

Another industry that relies heavily on hydraulics is robotics. The hydraulic systems of robots, like those used by automobile manufacturers, are simpler than comparable electrical systems. In general, the easy speed control, minimum vibration, and design versatility of hydraulics will keep hydraulic power with industry for a long time to come.

Hydraulics basic principles

Hydraulics is the technology or study of liquid pressure and flow. Liquids are materials which pour and conform to the shape of their containers. Example of liquids are oil and water.

Because liquids are not very compressible, they permit to transfer and multiply forces. Figure 1-2 illustrates this basic property of liquids. The force applied to the input piston produces a pressure on the liquid. The liquid then exerts the same amount of pressure equally in all directions. As a result, the pressure applied to the input piston transfers to the output piston.

applied to the input piston transfers to the output piston. Figure 1-2. Direct transfer of force.

Figure 1-2. Direct transfer of force.

Now what happens if the pistons are of different sizes, as in Figure 1-3? The input piston is the same size as in the previous example (6.5 cm 2 ), but the output piston is now 26 cm 2 . Since the liquid exerts the same amount of pressure equally in all directions, the force transferred to the output piston now equals 1780 N, which provides a mechanical advantage in force of 4:1.

Introduction to Hydraulics

Introduction to Hydraulics Figure 1-3. Multiplication of force. Pressure is the amount of force exerted by

Figure 1-3. Multiplication of force.

Pressure is the amount of force exerted by a liquid on a unit of area. Pressure is measured in kilopascals (kPa) in the S.I. system, in bars (bar) in the metric system, and in pounds per square inch (psi) in the English system. 1 kPa is equal to 0.01 bar or 0.145 psi. 1 psi is equal to 6.895 kPa or 0.069 bar. The pressure of a liquid can be measured by using a pressure gauge, or manometer.

Operation of a basic hydraulic circuit

A hydraulic circuit is a path for oil to flow through hoses and components. Figure 1-4 shows a basic hydraulic circuit.

– The reservoir holds the oil.

– The pump “pushes” the oil, attempting to make it flow through the circuit.

– The directional control valve allows the operator to manually control the oil flow to the cylinder.

– The cylinder converts fluid energy into linear mechanical power.

– The relief valve limits system pressure to a safe level by allowing oil to flow directly from the pump back to the reservoir when the pressure at the pump output reaches a certain level.

Introduction to Hydraulics

Introduction to Hydraulics Figure 1-4. Basic hydraulic circuit. With the directional control valve in t he

Figure 1-4. Basic hydraulic circuit.

With the directional control valve in the condition shown in Figure 1-4 (a), the pumped oil flows to the cap end of the cylinder. Since the oil is under pressure from the pump, it pushes the piston inside the cylinder, causing the piston rod to extend. The oil on the rod end of the cylinder is drained back to the reservoir through the directional control valve.

With the directional control valve in the condition shown in Figure 1-4 (b), the pumped oil flows to the rod end of the cylinder, causing the piston rod to retract. The oil on the cap end of the cylinder is drained back to the reservoir through the directional control valve.

Exercise 1-1

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

EXERCISE OBJECTIVE

C

To become familiar with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer;

C

To identify the various system components;

C

To be aware of the safety rules to follow when using the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer.

DISCUSSION

The Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

The Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer consists of a work surface, hydraulic components and instruments, hoses, and a power unit.

Work surface

The work surface consists of a main perforated panel hinged to an oil catching tray on which hydraulic components can be mounted either horizontally or vertically. The main panel can be tilted to facilitate the mounting of the components. Two additional perforated panels, respectively covering a third and two thirds of the main panel surface, can be mounted on the main panel to increase the work surface area. Any number of work surfaces can be positioned side by side and components be bridge- mounted across adjacent work surfaces.

Hydraulic components

Each hydraulic component is attached to a base plate that allows the component to be secured to the work surface using either push-lock fasteners or the Quick-Lock System. Each component has its symbol and part number indicated on a sticker affixed on the component body or on the component base plate.

Figure 1-5a shows how a component can be secured to the work surface when push-lock fasteners are used. The component base plate has four identical push- lock fasteners. To secure a component to the work surface, align the four push-lock fasteners with the work surface perforations, then firmly push on the fasteners.

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer Figure 1-5a. Securing a component to th e work surface

Figure 1-5a. Securing a component to the work surface with push-lock fasteners.

Figure 1-5b shows how a component can be secured to the work surface when the Quick-Lock System is used. With this system, each component base plate has four fasteners: three fixed (black) fasteners and one twist-lock fastener (fastener with a yellow knob and a red tab).

(1)

First, ensure that the yellow rotating knob of the twist-lock fastener is turned fully, so that the red tab (pointed by the arrow) of this fastener is fully visible.

On some components, the yellow knob must be turned fully counterclockwise, while on other components, the yellow knob must be turned fully clockwise.

(2)

Align the red pins of the four fasteners with the work surface perforations, then press the component base plate gently into the work surface.

(3)

Lock the component into place by turning the yellow knob fully in the required direction, depending on the component.

Note: To secure components to the work surface, the yellow knob must be turned fully clockwise on some components, or fully counterclockwise on other components.

(4)

Ensure that the red tab of the twist-lock fastener is not visible, which indicates that the component is safely locked into place.

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer Figure 1-5b. Securing a component to the work surface with

Figure 1-5b. Securing a component to the work surface with the Quick-Lock System.

To remove the component from the work surface, unlock the component by turning the yellow knob fully in the required direction so that the red tab of the twist-lock fastener becomes fully visible, then withdraw the component.

Note: Throughout this manual, the components are shown with quick-lock fasteners.

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

Hoses

The trainer components and hoses use quick connect fittings. This type of fitting allows you to easily and quickly connect and disconnect circuits. Quick connect fittings have check valve on their end to prevent oil from running out of the hose or component when the hoses are disconnected. Note, however, that these fittings should only be connected and disconnected when they are not under pressure.

A hose rack is provided to store the trainer hoses. The rack has a slotted top for hanging hoses, and a drip pan bottom to catch oil from the hose connectors.

Power Unit

The Power Unit supplies oil under pressure to the system. It mainly consists of an oil reservoir, a hydraulic pump, a pressure relief valve, and a filter. Figure 1-6 shows the Power Unit, as well as its symbol.

Figure 1-6 shows the Power Unit, as well as its symbol. Figure 1-6. Power Unit. The

Figure 1-6. Power Unit.

The return line filter, connected between the return line port and the reservoir (see Figure 1-6), keeps dirt and indissoluble contaminants from entering the reservoir. This filter is equipped with a Delta-P gauge measuring the drop in pressure through the filter. When the pressure drop is too high, the filter must be replaced. The gauge has a safety valve which will allow the oil to flow unfiltered into the reservoir if the filter becomes clogged.

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

Figure 1-7 shows an inside view of the Power Unit. The reservoir holds the oil. The hydraulic pump is connected directly to the electric motor shaft. It converts mechanical power from the motor into fluid power to supply oil under pressure to the circuit. A pressure relief valve limits system pressure and working forces to a safe level by allowing oil to flow directly from the pump output back to the reservoir when the pressure at the valve reaches a certain level. This level has been factory set to 6200 kPa (900 psi) @ 22°C (72°F). The maximum circuit pressure you will use throughout this manual is about 4100 kPa (600 psi).

use throughout this manual is about 4100 kPa (600 psi). Figure 1-7. Inside view of the
use throughout this manual is about 4100 kPa (600 psi). Figure 1-7. Inside view of the

Figure 1-7. Inside view of the Power Unit.

Safety rules

The Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer has been designed with safety as a primary concern. However, the instructor and student must be aware of certain potential hazards that exist when using the Hydraulics Trainer.

a. The Power Unit must be connected to an appropriate ac outlet with safety ground. The ground connection must never be removed from the end of the Power Unit line cord. If the cord does not fit your receptacle, call an electrician. The electric cord should be inspected periodically to ensure that the insulation has not deteriorated.

b. The pressure relief valve on the Power Unit should NEVER be tampered with or readjusted.

c. Hoses, components, and other devices that are not part of the trainer should not be used with the trainer because they may burst and injure the operator.

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

d. Avoid stretching or twisting the hoses. Also, avoid sharp bends which could pinch or weaken the hose.

e. Leaks on hydraulic equipment should never be tightened while there is pressure in the system. Stop the Power Unit and release the pressure, then repair the leak.

f. Should a component or a system develop a leak that sprays or shoot a stream of fluid, do not try to cover the leak. Immediately turn off the Power Unit. The reason for this is that high pressure oil can be forced through your skin and cause serious problems. Numerous fluid power personnel have been injected with fluid. An awareness of this industrial hazard will help you protect yourself and the others from injury. Should you be injected with any fluid, get immediate medical attention.

g. Use caution whenever any part of the trainer is under pressure. It is easy to forget that immobile components may be pressurized to as much as 4100 kPa (600 psi) or more. Make sure that the Power Unit is off whenever connecting or disconnecting hoses.

h. Hydraulic cylinders produce tremendous forces. Never place the cylinders in a position where they may become wedged or confined between rigid parts of the trainer. Damage to the operator and the unit could result.

trainer. Damage to the operator and the unit could result. Figure 1-8. Component safety. i. Cylinders

Figure 1-8. Component safety.

i. Cylinders may pinch fingers. Do not get your hands close to cylinders when operating the unit.

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

j. When using the flywheel with the hydraulic motor, be sure it is free of sharp edges or burrs. Do not allow the flywheel to turn in your hand. Always wear leather gloves when holding the flywheel. Be sure the flywheel is tight on the shaft.

k. Oil spilled on the trainer or on the floor should be cleaned immediately. Use rags or towels. Granular floor-dry should be avoided in the hydraulic laboratory because it powders and gets into the hydraulic equipment.

l. Always wear facility approved safety glasses whenever the Hydraulics Trainer is being used.

m. Before disassembling your circuits, move the lever of the directional control valve through all positions. This will release the pressure in the components and make hose coupling and uncoupling easier.

n. Keep the trainer and its components clean and in good working order. Clean plastic components with mild soap and water. Harsh cleanser can cause crazing. Inspect components and other equipment for damage. Any damaged equipment should not be used until further inspection indicates they are safe for operation.

Following the above safety rules allows you to use the Hydraulics Trainer without

injury.

Procedure summary

In the first part of the exercise, you will identify the various components of your Hydraulics Trainer.

In the second part of the exercise, you will configure your work surface.

In the third part of the exercise, you will measure the pressure setting of the relief valve in your Power Unit.

In the fourth part of the exercise, you will verify the condition of the return line filter on your Power Unit.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

Refer to the Equipment Utilization Chart, in Appendix A of this manual, to obtain the list of equipment required to perform this exercise.

PROCEDURE

Identifying the trainer components

G 1. Inspect your hydraulic Power Unit. To do so, identify the various components of the unit by writing the appropriate names in the blank spaces of Figure 1-9. Then, physically locate each component on your Power Unit.

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer Figure 1-9. Identifying the Power Unit components. G 2. The

Figure 1-9. Identifying the Power Unit components.

G

2.

The components illustrated in Figure 1-10 are supplied with your Hydraulics Trainer. Get these components from their storage location, then look at the symbol drawn on the sticker affixed on each component. Draw the symbol of each component in Figure 1-10.

G

3. Examine the Pressure Gauges. These instruments convert pressure into rotary motion which translates to a dial reading. Each Pressure Gauge is equipped with three quick connect fittings. These fittings are interconnected, so that the hoses connected to a gauge are also connected together.

 

The Pressure Gauges are calibrated in metric units of bars (bar) and in english units of pounds per square inch (psi). They measure pressures between 0 and 69 bar (0 and 6900 kPa) or 0 and 1000 psi. Based on the Pressure Gauge dials, how many bar is 300 psi?

G

4. How many psi is 3500 kPa?

Note: 1 bar equals 100 kPa.

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer Figure 1-10. Identifying the Hydraulics Trainer components. 1-13

Figure 1-10. Identifying the Hydraulics Trainer components.

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

G

5. Examine the two 5-ports Manifolds. These devices are identical. Each manifold has five quick connect fittings. These fittings are interconnected, so that the hoses connected to a manifold are also connected together.

 

One of the two 5-ports Manifolds is used as a supply manifold. It receives the oil under pressure directly from the Power Unit and supplies it to the circuit. The other 5-ports Manifolds is used as a return manifold. It receives the oil from the circuit and returns it to the Power Unit reservoir through the filter.

To which port on the Power Unit must the supply manifold be connected?

To which port on the Power Unit must the return manifold be connected?

G

6.

Examine the various valves of your trainer. Valves are used in hydraulics to control pressure and flow. Some valves have two ports. Other valves have more. List the number of ports on each trainer valve in Table 1-1.

 

TYPE OF VALVE

NUMBER OF PORTS

 

Flow Control Valve

 

Directional Control Valve

 

Relief Valve

 

Pressure Reducing Valve

 

Table 1-1. Identifying the trainer valves.

G

7. Examine the cylinders of your trainer. Cylinders are actuators that convert fluid energy into linear mechanical power. The cylinders of your trainer are of double-acting type because they work in both the extension and retraction stroke of their piston rod. List the number of ports on each cylinder in Table 1-2.

TYPE OF CYLINDER

NUMBER OF PORTS

Double-acting, 2.54-cm (1-in) bore x 1.59-cm (0.625-in) rod x 10.16-cm (4-in) stroke cylinder

 

Double-acting, 3.81-cm (1.5-in) bore x 1.59-cm (0.625-in) rod x 10.16-cm (4-in) stroke cylinder

 

Table 1-2. Identifying the trainer cylinders.

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

Configuring the work surface

G

8.

Install your work surface on a work table or on a support bench, if any. Make sure the work surface is secured to the work table or support bench to ensure that it will not move or fall down. If you use a support bench, make sure the four caster brakes are locked.

G

9. Figure 1-11 shows different ways of configuring your work surface. The main panel can be tilted to facilitate component mounting. Additional panels can be mounted on the main panel to increase the work surface area. They both can be tilted and used as control panels by mounting your hydraulic instruments (Pressure Gauges and Flowmeter) on them.

Configure your work surface according to your preferences:

– To help you lift and tilt the panels, lift handles have been supplied with your trainer kit. To fasten a lift handle to a panel, align the fasteners of the handle base plate with the panel perforations, then lock the handle into place with the fasteners, as shown in Figure 1-12.

– To tilt a panel, slowly lift it until the desired inclination is obtained, then hold the panel in place using the two legs on the back of the panel. Fasteners on the legs and perforations on each side of the panel allow you to tighten down the legs, as shown in Figure 1-13. Tighten these down.

down the legs, as shown in Figure 1-13. Tighten these down. CAUTION! When using tilted surfaces,

CAUTION!

When using tilted surfaces, always check their legs to make sure they are secure before turning on the Power Unit. Failure to this important step may result in panels or components coming loose from the trainer. The result can be personal injury or equipment damage.

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer Figure 1-11. Various work surface configurations. 1-16

Figure 1-11. Various work surface configurations.

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer Figure 1-12. Fastening lift handles to a panel. Figure 1-13.

Figure 1-12. Fastening lift handles to a panel.

Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer Figure 1-12. Fastening lift handles to a panel. Figure 1-13. Tightening the panel

Figure 1-13. Tightening the panel legs.

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

Measuring the pressure setting of the Power Unit relief valve

G

10. Set up the basic circuit shown in Figure 1-14. To do so, perform the following steps:

a. Mount the supply manifold (5-ports Manifold) and the Pressure Gauge on the work surface. Secure these components to the work surface:

align the fasteners on the component base plate with the perforations of the work surface, then lock the components into place with the fasteners.

Note: Do not mount the supply manifold too near of the edge of the work surface. This will prevent oil from dripping onto the floor when you disconnect hoses from the supply manifold.

b. Connect a hose between the pressure line port of the Power Unit and the input port of the supply manifold, as Figure 1-14 shows. Connect a second hose between one of the four remaining ports on the supply manifold and one of the three ports on the Pressure Gauge.

To connect a hose, pull the knurled collar back over the hose end (see Figure 1-15), push the hose onto the fitting until it seats firmly, then release the collar. To make sure a hose is firmly connected, pull on the hose. If it holds, it is correctly connected. Avoid stretching or twisting the hoses. Also, avoid sharp bends which could pinch or weaken the hose.

To disconnect a hose, push the hose toward the fitting while pulling the knurled collar back over the hose, then pull the hose off the fitting.

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer Figure 1-14. Basic circuit to mount. 1-19

Figure 1-14. Basic circuit to mount.

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer Figure 1-15. Connecting and disconnecting a hose. G 11. Before

Figure 1-15. Connecting and disconnecting a hose.

G 11. Before starting the Power Unit, perform the following start-up procedure:

a. Make sure your hoses are firmly connected.

b. Check the level of the oil in the reservoir as indicated by the temperature/oil level indicator on the Power Unit. The red line indicates the low oil level and the black line indicates the full oil level. With the Power Unit off, oil should cover, but not be over, the black line above the indicator, as Figure 1-16 shows.

the black line above the indicator, as Figure 1-16 shows. Figure 1-16. Oil should cover but

Figure 1-16. Oil should cover but not be over the black line.

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

Fresh oil must be added to the reservoir periodically because disconnecting quick-connect fittings spills some oil. If required, add oil by unscrewing the reservoir breather/filler cap and by filling the reservoir up to the black line. Use one of the fluids listed on the information sticker on the front of the reservoir. Spilled or drained oil should NOT be re-used. If re-use is imperative, the oil must be carefully strained or filtered as it is returned to the reservoir.

c. Put on safety glasses.

d. Make sure the power switch on the Power Unit is set to the OFF position.

e. Plug the Power Unit line cord into an appropriate ac outlet.

G

12.

Turn on the Power Unit by setting its power switch to ON. Since the oil flow is blocked at the Pressure Gauge because there is no return path to the reservoir, all the pumped oil is now flowing through the pressure relief valve inside the Power Unit.

The Pressure Gauge reading corresponds to the pressure setting of the pressure relief valve and to the pressure at the pressure line port of the Power Unit. Record the Pressure Gauge reading below.

 

Gauge pressure:

kPa or

psi

Note: If you are working with S.I. units, multiply the measured pressure in bar by 100 to obtain the equivalent pressure in kPa.

G

13. Turn off the Power Unit.

 

Verifying the condition of the return line filter

G 14. Disconnect the end of the hose connected to the input port of the supply manifold, then connect it to the return line port of the Power Unit, as Figure 1-17 shows. This circuit allows all the pumped oil to return directly to the reservoir through the Power Unit return line filter.

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer Figure 1-17. Modified circuit. G 15. Turn on the Power

Figure 1-17. Modified circuit.

G

15. Turn on the Power Unit.

 

G

16. Evaluate and record the reading of the Delta-P gauge on the return line filter. This is the drop in pressure across the return line filter, in psi.

Delta-P gauge pressure:

kPa or

psi

If the pressure drop is greater than 70 kPa (10 psi), the filter needs to be replaced. Does the filter need to be replaced?

G Yes

G No

G

17. Turn off the Power Unit. If the filter needs to be replaced, get instructor’s attention. Appendix B of this manual indicates how to replace the filter.

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

G

18. Disconnect all hoses and return them to the hose rack. The loose ends of the hoses must be kept inside the drip pan to prevent oil from dripping on the floor. Wipe off any hydraulic oil residue.

G

19. Remove all components from the work surface and wipe off any hydraulic oil residue. Return all components to their storage location.

G

20. Clean up any hydraulic oil from the floor and the trainer. Properly dispose of any paper towels and rags used to clean up oil.

CONCLUSION

In this exercise, you identified the various trainer components. You connected a basic circuit restricting the system pressure through the pressure relief valve to measure the valve pressure setting. Next, you connected the pressure line port to the return line port on the Power Unit and verified that the pressure drop across the return line filter was lower than 70 kPa (10 psi).

REVIEW QUESTIONS

1. Which port on the Power Unit provides oil under pressure to the circuit?

2. How many ports are there on the input manifold?

3. What is the purpose of the return manifold?

4. What does the Delta-P gauge on the return line filter measure?

5. Why is it necessary to have a pressure relief valve in a hydraulic circuit?

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

6. In the circuit shown in Figure 1-18, what should be the pressure gauge reading? Explain.

in Figure 1-18, what should be the pressure gauge reading? Explain. Figure 1-18. Circuit for review

Figure 1-18. Circuit for review question 6.

Familiarization with the Lab-Volt Hydraulics Trainer

7.

Study the graphic diagram shown below and identify each of the lettered symbols.

A.

E.

B.

F.

C.

G.

D.

H.

each of the lettered symbols. A. E. B. F. C. G. D. H. Figure 1-19. Symbol

Figure 1-19. Symbol identification.

Exercise 1-2

Demonstration of Hydraulic Power

EXERCISE OBJECTIVE

C

To raise a heavy load using a small hydraulic actuator;

C

To investigate a basic hydraulic circuit.

DISCUSSION

Hydraulic power is often called “the muscle of industry”. Hydraulic power can be used to lift entire buildings, or to move huge heavy loads. One of the most common hydraulic power applications is to raise various objects.

hydraulic power applications is to raise various objects. Figure 1-20. Directional control valve lever moved outward

Figure 1-20. Directional control valve lever moved outward from the valve body.

Figure 1-20 shows a typical hydraulic circuit using a cylinder to lift and lower a heavy load. A directional control valve controls the direction of oil flow in the system and, therefore, the direction of motion of the cylinder piston. The valve has four ports, labelled P, T, A, and B. P and T stand for pressure and tank (or reservoir), and A and B are output ports. The valve can be operated in three different positions.

Demonstration of Hydraulic Power

When the directional control valve lever is moved outward from the valve body, as in Figure 1-20, the oil from the pump flows through path P-B of the directional control valve to the lower end of the cylinder. Since the oil is under pressure, it pushes up on the piston inside the cylinder, which lifts the attached load. As the piston moves upward, it forces the oil at the upper end of the cylinder to exit the cylinder. This oil drains the cylinder to the reservoir through path A-T of the valve.

When the directional control valve lever is moved toward the valve body, as in Figure 1-21, the oil from the pump flows through path P-A of the valve to the upper end of the cylinder. The oil pushes the piston downward, which lowers the attached load. At the same time, the oil at the lower end of the cylinder flows back to the reservoir through path B-T of the directional control valve.

reservoir through path B-T of the directional control valve. Figure 1-21. Directional control valve lever moved

Figure 1-21. Directional control valve lever moved toward the valve body.

When the directional control valve lever is released, the valve automatically returns to the center (neutral) position, as shown in Figure 1-22. In this position, all four ports are blocked and oil cannot escape from either side of the cylinder. This stops the movement of the piston and causes oil to flow from the pump back to the reservoir through the pressure relief valve.

Demonstration of Hydraulic Power

Demonstration of Hydraulic Power Figure 1-22. Directional control valve lever centred. Procedure summary In the first

Figure 1-22. Directional control valve lever centred.

Procedure summary

In the first part of the exercise, you will try to lift the hydraulic Power Unit by yourself.

In the second part of the exercise, you will set up and operate a hydraulic circuit using a small-bore cylinder to raise and lower the Power Unit.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

Refer to the Equipment Utilization Chart, in Appendix A of this manual, to obtain the list of equipment required to perform this exercise.

PROCEDURE

Estimating the weight of the Power Unit

G 1. Make sure the Power Unit line cord is disconnected from the wall outlet. Make sure there are no hoses connected to the Power Unit.

Demonstration of Hydraulic Power

G

2.

Try to lift the Power Unit to feel how heavy it is. Be careful not to tip or drop the Power Unit. Can the Power Unit be easily lifted?

 

G Yes

G No

G

3. How much do you think the Power Unit weighs?

Setup

G 4.

Get the 2.54-cm (1-in) bore cylinder from your storage location. Remove the cylinder from its adapter by unscrewing its retaining ring, as shown in Figure 1-23. Make sure the cylinder tip (bullet) is removed from the cylinder rod end.

cylinder tip (bullet) is removed from the cylinder rod end. Figure 1-23. Unscrew the retaining ring

Figure 1-23. Unscrew the retaining ring and remove the cylinder.

G 5. Insert the cylinder rod into the cylinder hole in the Power Unit lifting frame, as shown in Figure 1-24 a). Fasten the cylinder to the lifting frame by tightening its retaining ring securely.

Demonstration of Hydraulic Power

Demonstration of Hydraulic Power Figure 1-24. Power Unit installation. G 6. Make sure the Power Unit

Figure 1-24. Power Unit installation.

G 6. Make sure the Power Unit is near of your work surface. Position the lifting frame over the Power Unit, with its open side at the rear of the Power Unit, as Figure 1-24 b) shows.

Demonstration of Hydraulic Power

Demonstration of Hydraulic Power CAUTION! For safety purposes, the base of the lifting frame has three

CAUTION!

For safety purposes, the base of the lifting frame has three full sides used to prevent anybody from placing his feet under the Power Unit when it is lifted. Therefore, make sure the open side of the lifting frame is at the rear of the Power Unit.

G

7. Get an extra-long hose (1.52 m/60 in) from your storage location and fill it with oil. To do so, connect one end of the hose to the pressure line port on the Power Unit and the other end to the return port of the Power Unit.

 

Before starting the Power Unit, perform the following start-up procedure:

a. Check the level of the oil in the reservoir. Add fresh oil if required.

b. Put on safety glasses.

c. Make sure the power switch on the Power Unit is set to the OFF position.

d. Plug the Power Unit line cord into an ac outlet.

Turn on the Power Unit by setting its power switch to ON; this will fill the hose with oil. Turn off the Power Unit.

Remove the hose filled with oil and fill a second extra-long hose with oil by repeating the same procedure. Turn off the Power Unit and remove the second hose.

G

8. Connect the two ports of the cylinder to each other by using one of the extra-long hoses you filled with oil. Slowly pull the piston rod of the cylinder out until it touches the lifting attachment on the Power Unit, as Figure 1-24 c) shows.

G

9.

Fasten the cylinder to the Power Unit by screwing the lifting attachment onto the threaded end of the cylinder rod, as Figure 1-24 d) shows. Then, disconnect the hose from the cylinder.

G

10.

Connect the circuit shown in Figure 1-25. Use the two extra-long hoses filled with oil to connect the cylinder to ports A and B of the Directional Control Valve. Relate each hose connection of this circuit to the pictorial diagram in Figure 1-26.

Note: For ease of connection, the Directional Control Valve supplied with your Hydraulics Trainer is bolted to a sub-plate to which the hoses can be connected. The arrangement of ports P, T, A, and B on the valve subplate does not follow the symbol for the directional valve appearing on the manufacturer nameplate on top of the valve and on the Lab-Volt symbol sticker. Thus, port P actually faces port B on the subplate, while port T faces port A. Therefore, always refer to the letters stamped on the valve subplate when connecting the valve into a circuit.

Demonstration of Hydraulic Power

Demonstration of Hydraulic Power Figure 1-25. Setup used for lifting the Power Unit. 1-33

Figure 1-25. Setup used for lifting the Power Unit.

Demonstration of Hydraulic Power

Demonstration of Hydraulic Power Figure 1-26. Connection diagram of the circuit in Figure 1-25. G 11.

Figure 1-26. Connection diagram of the circuit in Figure 1-25.

G 11. Have your instructor verify your setup. Do NOT proceed to the next step until your setup has been approved.

Lifting the Power Unit using a small cylinder

G 12. Before starting the Power Unit, perform the following steps:

a. Make sure the hoses and the Power Unit line cord will not become wedged between rigid parts of the trainer when the Power Unit is lifted.

b. Make sure the Relief Valve is connected correctly. The Pressure (P) port must be connected to the supply manifold. The Tank (T) port must be connected to the return manifold. The Vent (V) port must be left unconnected.

c. Make sure the hoses are firmly connected.

d. Put on safety glasses.

Demonstration of Hydraulic Power

G

13. Pull the Relief Valve adjustment knob and turn it fully counterclockwise, then turn it 3 turns clockwise. Use the vernier scale on the knob for accurate adjustment.

G

14. Turn the Flow Control Valve adjustment knob fully clockwise, then turn it 1 turn counterclockwise. Use the vernier scale on the knob for accurate adjustment.

G

15.

Make sure that all persons are standing clear of the Power Unit. Turn on the Power Unit. The cylinder rod should not move yet.

G

16.

Retract the cylinder rod by moving the lever of the Directional Control Valve outward from the valve body, as Figure 1-27 shows. Keep the lever shifted until the rod is fully retracted, then release it. What happens to the Power Unit?

retracted, then release it. What happens to the Power Unit? CAUTION! Do not place any part

CAUTION!

Do not place any part of your body under the Power Unit while it is hanging from the lifting frame.

the Power Unit while it is hanging fr om the lifting frame. Figure 1-27. Directional Control

Figure 1-27. Directional Control Valve lever positions.

G 17.

Extend the cylinder rod by moving the lever of the Directional Control Valve toward the valve body. What happens to the Power Unit?

Demonstration of Hydraulic Power

G

18.

Move the lever of the Directional Control Valve outward from the valve body, then release it while the cylinder is retracting and in midstroke. Does the cylinder rod stop or does the Power Unit begin to move downward?

G

19. Turn off the Power Unit. Does the Power Unit begin to move downward?

 

G Yes

G No

G

20.

Move the lever of the Directional Control Valve toward the valve body. The weight of the Power Unit will push the cylinder down. Keep the lever shifted until the rod is fully extended and the Power Unit has returned to the ground, then release it.

G

21. Open the Relief Valve completely by turning its adjustment knob fully counterclockwise.

G

22. Disconnect the line cord of the Power Unit from the wall outlet. Disconnect all hoses. Wipe off any hydraulic oil residue.

 

Note: If you experience difficulty to disconnect equipment, move the directional valve lever back and forth to relieve static pressure that might be trapped in the A and B cylinder lines.

G

23.

Unscrew the cylinder from the lifting attachment on the Power Unit. Unscrew the ring retaining the cylinder to the lifting frame. Remove the cylinder from the lifting frame. Reinstall the cylinder on its adapter by fastening its retaining ring securely.

G

24. Remove all components from the work surface and wipe off any hydraulic oil residue. Return all components to their storage location.

G

25. Clean up any hydraulic oil from the floor and from the trainer. Properly dispose of any paper towels and rags used to clean up oil.

CONCLUSION

In the first part of this exercise, you tried to lift the Power Unit by yourself and saw that it was quite heavy. You then set up and operated a circuit using a small hydraulic cylinder to lift and lower the Power Unit. The small cylinder easily lifted and lowered the Power Unit. Hydraulic circuits are often used as non-flowing or static circuits. Static circuits transmit power by pushing on a confined liquid, as opposed to dynamic circuits, which transmit power by using the energy associated with motion of a liquid.

Demonstration of Hydraulic Power

REVIEW QUESTIONS

1. What caused the cylinder rod to retract during this exercise?

2. How do you explain that such a small cylinder can lift such a heavy load?

3. Figure 1-28 shows the circuit you used in this exercise (without the Relief Valve and Flow Control Valve ). Draw arrow heads on the lines in Figure 1-28 to show the flow of fluid in your circuit. Use arrow heads as illustrated in the diagram.

of fluid in your circuit. Use arrow heads as illustrated in the diagram. Figure 1-28. Circuit

Figure 1-28. Circuit for review question 3.

Unit 2

Fundamentals

UNIT OBJECTIVE

When you have completed this unit, you will be able to state the laws governing hydraulics, and perform simple calculations involving force, pressure, area, velocity, and rate of flow.

DISCUSSION OF FUNDAMENTALS

Hydraulic equipment is found in industry, on agricultural machinery, and on construction machinery, as Figure 2-1 shows. While each machine or job may use a different style of components in its circuits, the concept or basic ideas behind these components is the same.

This unit demonstrates how flowing oil behaves and shows the difference between flowing and non-flowing systems. This may be your first exposure to physical laws such as the Pascal’s Law. As you proceed, you will be introduced to several other laws which you will test and use. You will find that these laws are very important in the field of hydraulics.

Fundamentals

Fundamentals Figure 2-1. Hydraulic applications. 2-2

Figure 2-1. Hydraulic applications.

Exercise 2-1

Pressure Limitation

EXERCISE OBJECTIVE

C

To introduce the operation of a pressure relief valve.

C

To establish the oil flow path in a circuit using a pressure relief valve.

C

To connect and operate a circuit using a pressure relief valve.

DISCUSSION

Pressure limitation

Pressure is the amount of force exerted against a given surface. Flow is the movement of fluid caused by a difference in pressure between two points. Fluid always flows from a higher pressure point to a lower pressure point. The city waterworks, for example, builds up a pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure in our water pipes. As a result, when we turn on a water tap, the water is forced out.

When two parallel paths of flow are available, fluid will always take the path of least resistance. An example of this in the everyday life would be a garden hose branching into two sections, as Figure 2-2 shows. One section is blocked, while the other section allows water to move freely in it. All the water will flow through the unblocked section since it is less restrictive than the blocked section. The input pressure will rise just enough for the water to flow through the unblocked section. The pressure in the blocked section will not build up beyond the level required to make the water flow in the unblocked section. The pressure gauges in Figure 2-2, therefore, will indicate low, equal pressures.

The pressure gauges in Figure 2-2, therefore, will indicate low, equal pressures. Figure 2-2. Unrestricted flow

Figure 2-2. Unrestricted flow path.

Pressure Limitation

Now what happens if we squeeze the unblocked section so that water is restricted but not completely confined, as Figure 2-3 shows? All the water will flow through the squeezed section since it is still less restrictive than the blocked section. The input pressure will rise to the level necessary to flow through the restricted path. The pressure in the blocked section will not build up beyond the needs of the squeezed section. The pressure gauges in Figure 2-3, therefore, will indicate high, equal pressures.

2-3, therefore, will indicate high, equal pressures. Figure 2-3. Restricted flow path. So we see that

Figure 2-3. Restricted flow path.

So we see that the pressure in the blocked section can never be higher than the pressure in the unblocked section. In fact, these pressures will always be equal. If the restricted section were closed completely, confining water instead of merely restricting it, the pressure in both sections would equal the maximum pressure available at the input.

In a hydraulic circuit, flow is produced by the action of a pump, which continuously discharges the oil at a certain flow rate. Pressure is not created by the pump itself but by resistance to the oil flow. When the oil is allowed to flow with no resistance through a hydraulic circuit, the pressure in that circuit is theoretically zero. When the flow is resisted, however, the circuit pressure increases to the amount necessary to take the easier path.

Relief valves

Figure 2-4 shows a hydraulic circuit consisting of two parallel paths of flow. The oil from the pump can pass through a relief valve or through a hydraulic circuit consisting of a directional control valve and a cylinder.

The relief valve can be compared to the hand in the hose example previously described. It limits the maximum pressure in the system by providing an alternate flow path to the reservoir whenever the oil flow to the circuit is blocked, as when the directional valve is in the blocked center position or when the cylinder is fully extended or retracted.

Pressure Limitation

The relief valve is connected between the pump pressure line and reservoir. It is normally non-passing. It is adjusted to open at a pressure slightly higher than the circuit requirement and divert the pumped oil to the reservoir when this pressure is reached.

In Figure 2-4, for example, all the oil from the pump flows through the circuit as long as the cylinder is not fully extended because the circuit provides an easier path than the relief valve. While the cylinder is extending, the pressure rises only to the amount necessary to force oil on the rod side of the cylinder into the reservoir (here 700 kPa, or 100 psi).

the cylinder into the reservoir (here 700 kPa, or 100 psi). Figure 2-4. Oil flows through

Figure 2-4. Oil flows through the circuit.

Once the cylinder is fully extended, the cylinder circuit becomes blocked and the pumped oil can no longer flow through it. The system pressure climbs to 3450 kPa (500 psi), then the relief valve opens and the oil is dumped back to the reservoir at the relief valve pressure setting of 3450 kPa (500 psi), as Figure 2-5 shows. Thereafter, no flow occurs throughout the circuit and the pressure is equal throughout. The circuit pressure, therefore, cannot build up beyond the relief valve pressure setting.

Pressure Limitation

Pressure Limitation Figure 2-5. Oil flows through the relief valve. Hydraulics Trainer relief valves Your Hydraulics

Figure 2-5. Oil flows through the relief valve.

Hydraulics Trainer relief valves

Your Hydraulics Trainer contains two relief valves. One of these valves, called main relief valve, is located inside the Power Unit. The other valve, called secondary relief valve, is supplied with your kit of hydraulic components. The two valves are identical. However, you will operate the secondary valve only. The main valve is factory-set at a higher pressure than the secondary valve. It is used as an additional safety device for backing up the secondary valve. It should not be readjusted or tampered with.

Figure 2-6 illustrates the relief valve supplied with your kit of hydraulic components. This valve is of pilot-operated type. The valve body has three ports: a pressure (P) port, which is to be connected to the pump pressure line, a tank (T) port, which is to be connected to the reservoir, and a vent (V) port, which is used for control of the valve from a remote point by external valve. The use of the vent port will be discussed in detail in Exercise 4-4. When not used, this port should be left unconnected.

By sensing the upstream pressure on the P port of the valve, an internal spool controls the flow of oil through the valve by acting on a large spring. The pressure level where the spool is wide open and all the pumped oil passes through the valve is called relieving pressure, or full-open pressure.

The relieving pressure can be set by using the adjustment knob on the valve body. Turning the knob clockwise increases the compression of a small spring located above the valve spool, which increases the relieving pressure and allows higher pressures to build up in the circuit. Notice that the knob must first be pulled before it can be turned. When the knob is released, a spring forces the knob to engage a fixed spline. This prevents vibrations and shocks from changing the adjustment.

Pressure Limitation

The pressure at which the relief valve begins to open is called cracking pressure. This pressure is below the valve relieving pressure. At cracking pressure, the valve opens just enough to let the first few drops of oil through. Pressure override is the pressure difference between the cracking pressure and the relieving pressure.

Before turning on the Power Unit, the valve should always be completely open (adjustment knob turned fully counterclockwise) to allow the pump to start under the lightest load and to prevent the system components from being subjected to pressure surges. Once the Power Unit is running, the relief valve can be closed gradually until the desired pressure is reached.

REFERENCE MATERIAL

For detailed information on pilot-operated relief valves, refer to the chapter entitled Pilot Operated Pressure Control Valve in the Parker-Hannifin’s manual Industrial Hydraulic Technology.

Pressure Limitation

Pressure Limitation Procedure summary Figure 2-6. The trainer Relief Valve. In the first part of the

Procedure summary

Figure 2-6. The trainer Relief Valve.

In the first part of the exercise, you will measure the cracking pressure of the Relief Valve supplied with your kit of hydraulic components. You will adjust the valve relieving pressure by modifying the compression of its spring.

In the second part of the exercise, you will test the effect of pressure limitation on a basic hydraulic circuit.

Pressure Limitation

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

Refer to the Equipment Utilization Chart, in Appendix A of this manual, to obtain the list of equipment required to perform this exercise.

PROCEDURE

Relief valve operation

G 1. Connect the circuit shown in Figure 2-7. Refer to the connection diagram shown in Figure 2-8 to make your connections.

Note: As Figure 2-7 shows, the vent (V) port of the Relief Valve is unused in this circuit. Therefore, leave this port unconnected.

in this circuit. Therefore, leave this port unconnected. Figure 2-7. Schematic diagram of the circuit for

Figure 2-7. Schematic diagram of the circuit for adjusting the Relief Valve.

Pressure Limitation

Pressure Limitation Figure 2-8. Connection diagram of the circuit for adjusting the Relief Valve. G 2.

Figure 2-8. Connection diagram of the circuit for adjusting the Relief Valve.

G

2. Before starting the Power Unit, perform the following start-up procedure:

 

a. Make sure the hoses are firmly connected.

b. Check the level of the oil in the reservoir. Add oil if required.

c. Put on safety glasses.

d. Make sure the power switch on the Power Unit is set to the OFF position.

e. Plug the Power Unit line cord into an ac outlet.

f. Open the Relief Valve completely. To do so, pull the valve adjustment knob and turn it fully counterclockwise.

G

3.

Turn on the Power Unit by setting its power switch to ON. Since the oil flow is blocked at gauge A, all the pumped oil is now being forced through the Relief Valve.

The pressure reading of gauge A is the minimum pressure required to develop an oil flow through the valve (cracking pressure). It corresponds to the pressure required to counteract the resistance of the spring inside the valve. Record below the pressure reading of gauge A.

Cracking pressure =

kPa

or

psi

Pressure Limitation

Note: The Trainer Pressure Gauges provide “bar” and “psi” readings. Since bar is a metric unit of measurement for pressures, students working with S.I. units must multiply the measured pressure in bars by 100 to obtain the equivalent pressure in kilopascals (kPa).

G

4.

Now, compress the spring of the Relief Valve by turning its adjustment knob clockwise 2 turns. Use the vernier scale on the knob for the adjustment. What is the reading of gauge A?

 

Pressure =

kPa

or

psi

G

5. Why does the pressure reading increase as the spring compression is increased?

G

6. Turn the Relief Valve adjustment knob fully clockwise while watching the reading of gauge A. Can the pressure level be increased beyond 6200 kPa (900 psi)? Why?

G

7. Turn off the Power Unit.

 

G

8. Based on the cracking pressure recorded in step 3, at which pressure will the Relief Valve start to open if the relieving pressure is set to 3450 kPa (500 psi)?

Limiting system pressure

G 9. Modify the existing circuit in order to obtain the circuit shown in Figures 2-9 and 2-10. Make sure to mount the 3.81-cm (1.5-in) bore cylinder in a position where its rod can extend freely.

Pressure Limitation

Note: For ease of connection, the Directional Control Valve supplied with your Hydraulics Trainer is bolted to a subplate to which the hoses can be connected. The arrangement of ports P, T, A, and B on the valve subplate does not follow the symbol for the directional valve appearing in Figure 2-9 and on the manufacturer nameplate on top of the valve. Thus, port P actually faces port B on the subplate, while port T faces port A. Therefore, always refer to the letters stamped on the valve subplate when connecting the valve into a circuit.

the valve subplate when connecting the valve into a circuit. Figure 2-9. Schematic diagram of the

Figure 2-9. Schematic diagram of the cylinder actuation circuit.

G

10. Make sure the hoses are firmly connected. Open the Relief Valve completely by turning its adjustment knob fully counterclockwise.

G

11. Turn on the Power Unit.

G

12. Turn the Relief Valve adjustment knob clockwise until gauge A reads 1400 kPa (200 psi).

G

13. Stay clear of the cylinder rod. Move the lever of the Directional Control Valve toward the valve body, which should extend the cylinder rod. Then, move the lever outward from the valve body, which should retract the rod.

Pressure Limitation

Pressure Limitation Figure 2-10. Connection diagram of the cylinder actuation circuit. G 14. While watching the

Figure 2-10. Connection diagram of the cylinder actuation circuit.

G

14. While watching the reading of gauge A, move the lever of the directional valve toward the valve body to extend the cylinder rod. What is the pressure at gauge A during the extension stroke of the rod?

Pressure =

kPa or

psi

G

15. What is the pressure at gauge A when the cylinder is fully extended?

Pressure =

kPa

or

psi

G

16. Move the lever of the directional valve outward from the valve body to retract the cylinder rod.

G

17. Turn the Relief Valve adjustment knob clockwise until gauge A reads 2100 kPa (300 psi).

Pressure Limitation

G

18. While watching the reading of gauge A, move the lever of the directional valve toward the valve body to extend the cylinder rod. What is the pressure at gauge A during the extension stroke of the cylinder rod?

 

Pressure =

kPa or

psi

G

19. What is the pressure at gauge A when the cylinder rod is fully extended?

 

Pressure =

kPa or

psi

G

20. Move the lever of the directional valve outward from the valve body to retract the cylinder rod.

G

21. Turn off the Power Unit. Open the Relief Valve completely by turning its adjustment knob fully counterclockwise.

G

22. Explain the reason for the nearly identical pressures registered during cylinder extension at the two relief valve pressure settings.

G

23. Why does the circuit pressure increase when the cylinder rod is fully extended?

G

24. Disconnect all hoses. It may be necessary to move the directional valve lever back and forth to relieve static pressure; the quick connects can then be removed. Wipe off any hydraulic oil residue.

G

25. Remove all components from the work surface and wipe off any hydraulic oil residue. Return all components to their storage location.

G

26. Clean up any hydraulic oil from the floor and the trainer. Properly dispose of any paper towels and rags used to clean up oil.

Pressure Limitation

CONCLUSION

In the first part of the exercise, you measured the minimum pressure setting of a relief valve by connecting the valve between the pump pressure line and reservoir and by opening the valve completely.

You then modified the valve relieving pressure by increasing the compression of its internal spring, which increased the circuit pressure.

In the second part of the exercise, you tested the effect of pressure limitation on a basic hydraulic circuit. You learned that pressure changes depend on the movement of oil through the circuit. When the cylinder rod extends or retracts, the circuit pressure rises only to the amount required to force oil out of the cylinder back into the reservoir. When the cylinder rod becomes fully extended or retracted, however, the circuit pressure rises to the relief valve pressure setting.

Up to that point, we have seen that pilot-operated relief valves provide pressure control by sensing pressure upstream on their input line. Pilot-operated relief valves can also sense pressure in another part of the system or even in a remote system by means of a vent line. This type of operation is identified as remote control and is achieved through the use of the relief valve vent port. Remote control of a relief valve will be described in detail in Exercise 4-4.

REVIEW QUESTIONS

1. What is the purpose of a relief valve?

2. Explain the difference between the main relief valve in the Power Unit and the Relief Valve supplied with your kit of hydraulic components (secondary relief valve)?

3. What type of relief valve is used in your Hydraulics Trainer?

Pressure Limitation

4. What might happen to a hydraulic system if the tank port of the relief valve is not connected to the power unit return line port?

5. Define the term cracking pressure.

6. In the circuit of Figure 2-11, what will be the pressure reading of gauge A during cylinder extension and when the cylinder is fully extended if the relief valve pressure setting is changed from 3400 kPa (500 psi) to 6900 kPa (1000 psi)?

Note: The pressure required to extend the cylinder rod is 600 kPa (85 psi).

The pressure required to extend the cylinder rod is 600 kPa (85 psi). Figure 2-11. Circuit

Figure 2-11. Circuit for review question 6.

Exercise 2-2

Pressure and Force

EXERCISE OBJECTIVE

C

To verify the formula F = P x A using a cylinder and a load spring;

C

To discover what happens to a cylinder when equal pressure is applied to each side of its piston;

C

To explain the concept of pressure distribution in a cylinder in equilibrium of forces;

C

To determine the weight of the Power Unit given the pressure required to lift it.

DISCUSSION

Pascal’s Law

Pascal’s Law states that pressure applied on a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished in all directions, and acts with equal force on equal areas, and at right angles to them.

Figure 2-12 illustrates this basic properties of fluids. The bottle in this example is completely filled with a non-compressible fluid. When a stopper is placed in the top of the bottle, and a force is applied to the top of the stopper, the fluid inside the bottle resists compression by pushing with an equal pressure in all directions.

by pushing with an equal pressure in all directions. Figure 2-12. Force applied to a confined

Figure 2-12. Force applied to a confined fluid.

The generated pressure is equal to the force applied to the top of the stopper divided by the area of the stopper. In equation form:

Pressure and Force

S.I. units:

English units:

Pressure and Force S.I. units: English units: As you can see, pressure is measured in “Newtons
Pressure and Force S.I. units: English units: As you can see, pressure is measured in “Newtons

As you can see, pressure is measured in “Newtons per 10 square centimeters (kPa)”

in S.I. units, or in “pounds per square inch” (psi) in English units. In physics formula,

the word “per” can be rewritten as a division sign.

Memorizing the pyramid in Figure 2-13 will make rearranging of formula P = F/A easier. In the pyramid, the letter on the top row equals the product of the bottom two letters. A letter on the bottom row equals the top letter divided by the other bottom letter.

equals the top letter divided by the other bottom letter. Figure 2-13. Rearranging formulas. Hydraulic pressure

Figure 2-13. Rearranging formulas.

Hydraulic pressure versus cylinder force

In a hydraulic circuit, the force that pushes the oil, attempting to make it flow, comes from a mechanical pump. When the oil pushed on by the pump is confined within

a restricted area, as in the body of a cylinder, there is a pressure build-up, and this pressure can be used to do useful work.

As you can see, pressure is not created by the pump but by resistance to the oil flow. The amount of pressure created in a circuit will only be as high as required to counteract the least resistance to flow in the circuit. Resistance to flow mainly comes from three sources: resistance to motion of the load attached to the cylinder, frictional resistance of the cylinder seals, and frictional resistance of the inner wall of the hoses.

Pressure and Force

In Figure 2-14, the oil from the pump is confined in the cap end of the cylinder. As

a result, pressure develops in the cap end of the cylinder. This pressure is exerted

evenly over the entire surface of the cap end of the cylinder. It acts on the piston,

resulting in a mechanical force to push the load.

piston, resulting in a mechanical force to push the load. Figure 2-14. Cylinder pushing a load.

Figure 2-14. Cylinder pushing a load.

To find the amount of force generated by the piston during its extension, we can rewrite the formula P = F/A as F = P x A. Therefore, the generated force is equal to the pressure in the cap end of the cylinder times the piston area being acted upon. This area is called full area, or “face” area.

In Figure 2-15, the oil from the pump is confined in the rod end of the cylinder. As

a result, pressure develops in the rod end of the cylinder. This pressure is exerted

evenly over the entire surface of the rod end of the cylinder. It acts on the piston,

resulting in a mechanical force to pull the load.

Pressure and Force

Pressure and Force Figure 2-15. Cylinder pulling a load. This time, however, the generated force is

Figure 2-15. Cylinder pulling a load.

This time, however, the generated force is lower because the piston area available for the pressure to act on is reduced by the fact that the cylinder rod covers a portion of the piston. This area is called annular area, or “donut” area. Therefore, the system must generate more pressure to pull than to push the load.

Conversion factors

Table 2-1 shows the conversion factors used to convert measurements of force, pressure, and area from S.I. units to English units and vice versa.

Pressure and Force

Force

 

Newtons (N)

x 0.225

= Pounds-force

x

4.448

= Newtons (N)

 

(lb; lbf)

Pressure

 

Kilopascals (kPa)

x 0.145

= Pounds-force per square inch (psi; lb/in 2 ; lbf/in 2 )

x

6.895

= Kilopascals (kPa)

Area

Square centimeters

x 0.155

= Square inches

x

6.45

= Square centimeters

(cm

2 )

(in 2 )

(cm

2 )

Table 2-1. Conversion factors.

For example, the pressure generated by the fluid in Figure 2-12 is 10 kPa, in S.I. units, or 1.45 psi, in English units, as demonstrated below:

S.I. units:

psi, in English units, as demonstrated below: S.I. units: English units: REFERENCE MATERIAL For additional information

English units:

units, as demonstrated below: S.I. units: English units: REFERENCE MATERIAL For additional information on the

REFERENCE MATERIAL

For additional information on the relationship between force and pressure, refer to the chapters entitled Hydraulic Transmission of Force and Energy and Hydraulic Actuators in the Parker-Hannifin’s manual Industrial Hydraulic Technology.

Procedure summary

In the first part of the exercise, you will verify the formula F = P x A by measuring the compression force of a cylinder on a loading device.

In the second part of the exercise, you will predict and demonstrate what happens when equal pressure is applied to both sides of a piston.

In the third part of the exercise, you will determine how much pressure there is in each side of a cylinder in equilibrium of forces.

Pressure and Force

In the fourth part of the exercise, you will measure the pressure required to lift the Power Unit in order to determine its weight.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

Refer to the Equipment Utilization Chart, in Appendix A of this manual, to obtain the list of equipment required to perform this exercise.

PROCEDURE

Conversion of pressure to force

G

1. What is the formula for determining the force in a hydraulic system?

G

2.

If the bore diameter, D, of a cylinder piston equals 3.81 cm (1.5 in), calculate the full area, A f , of this piston. Use the formula shown in Figure 2-14. It is given below for your convenience.

in Figure 2-14. It is given below for your convenience. G 3. Using this area and

G

3. Using this area and the formula from step 1, calculate the theoretical force of the cylinder for the pressure levels in Table 2-2. Record your calculations in Table 2-2 under “THEORETICAL”.

PRESSURE APPLIED ON FULL PISTON AREA

THEORETICAL CYLINDER FORCE

ACTUAL CYLINDER FORCE

3500

kPa (500 psi)

   

2800

kPa (400 psi)

   

2100

kPa (300 psi)

   

G

G

Table 2-2. Cylinder force versus pressure.

4. Remove the 3.81-cm (1.5-in) bore cylinder from its adapter by unscrewing its retaining ring. Make sure the cylinder tip (bullet) is removed from the cylinder rod end.

5. As Figure 2-16 (a) shows, screw the cylinder into the Loading Device until the load piston inside the Loading Device begins to push on the spring and the cylinder fittings point upwards. Do not use a tool to turn the cylinder!

Pressure and Force

Pressure and Force Figure 2-16. Loading device assembly. Note: If the 3.81-cm (1.5-in) bore cylinder is

Figure 2-16. Loading device assembly.

Note: If the 3.81-cm (1.5-in) bore cylinder is not fully retracted, do not try to screw the cylinder into the Loading Device. Instead connect the cylinder actuation circuit of Figure 2-10. Turn the knob of the relief valve fully counterclockwise, then turn on the power unit. Actuate the lever of the directional control valve to retract the cylinder rod fully, then turn off the power unit. Disconnect the circuit. Now screw the cylinder into the Loading Device as shown in Figure 2-16 (a).

Pressure and Force

G

6.

Clip the NEWTON/LBF-graduated ruler to the Loading Device, and align the “0 Newton” or “0 lbf” mark with the colored line on the load piston. Figure 2-16 (b) shows ruler installation for measurement of forces in Newtons (N). The ruler must be installed on the other side of the Loading Device in order to measure forces in pounds (lbf or lb).

G

7. Connect the circuit shown in Figures 2-17 and 2-18.

G 7. Connect the circuit shown in Figures 2-17 and 2-18. Figure 2-17. Schematic diagram of

Figure 2-17. Schematic diagram of the circuit for measuring the output force of a cylinder.

G 8. Before starting the Power Unit, perform the following start-up procedure:

a. Make sure the hoses are firmly connected.

b. Check the level of the oil in the reservoir. Add oil if required.

c. Put on safety glasses.

d. Make sure the power switch on the Power Unit is set to the OFF pos- ition.

e. Plug the Power Unit line cord into an ac outlet.

f. Open the Relief Valve by turning its adjustment knob fully counterclockwise.

Pressure and Force

Pressure and Force Figure 2-18. Connection diagram of the circuit for measuring the output force of

Figure 2-18. Connection diagram of the circuit for measuring the output force of a cylinder.

G

9. Turn on the Power Unit.

G

10. Move the lever of the directional valve toward the valve body to direct the pumped oil toward the cap end of the cylinder. While keeping the valve lever shifted, turn the Relief Valve adjustment knob clockwise until the pressure at gauge A equals 4100 kPa (600 psi). Observe that the applied pressure caused the cylinder to compress the spring in the Loading Device.

G

11.

With the lever of the directional valve still shifted toward the valve body, turn the Relief Valve adjustment knob counterclockwise to decrease the pressure at gauge A at 3500 kPa (500 psi). Note the force reading on the Loading Device, and record this value in Table 2-2 under “ACTUAL”.

Note: To counteract hysteresis of the spring load device and obtain a more accurate force reading at 3500 kPa (500 psi), the pressure applied to the cylinder piston must first be set at 4100 kPa (600 psi) and then decreased at 3500 kPa (500 psi).

Pressure and Force

G

12. By shifting the directional valve lever and adjusting the knob on the Relief Valve to decrease the pressure at gauge A in steps, measure the force reading for the pressure levels in Table 2-2. Record your results in Table 2-2.

G

13.

When you have finished, move the directional valve lever outward from the valve body to retract the rod, then turn off the Power Unit. Open the Relief Valve completely (turn knob fully counterclockwise).

G

14. Compare the actual forces you obtained in the experiment with the theoretical forces in Table 2-2. Are these values within 10% of each other?

 

G Yes

G No

G

15. Does force increase or decrease as pressure increases?

Applying equal pressure on both sides of a piston

G 16. Connect the circuit shown in Figure 2-19. Use the 2.54-cm (1-in) bore cylinder.

shown in Figure 2-19. Use the 2.54-cm (1-in) bore cylinder. Figure 2-19. Applying equal pressure on

Figure 2-19. Applying equal pressure on both sides of a piston.

Pressure and Force

Note: If the 2.54-cm (1-in) bore cylinder is not fully retracted, do not connect the circuit of Figure 2-19. Instead connect the cylinder actuation circuit shown in Figure 2-10. Open the relief valve completely, then turn on the power unit. Actuate the lever of the directional valve to retract the cylinder rod fully, then turn off the power unit. Disconnect the circuit. Now, connect the circuit of Figure 2-19.

G

17.

Examine the circuit of Figure 2-19. This circuit applies equal pressure to the full and annular sides of the piston. However, the piston area available for the pressure to act on is less on the annular side because the cylinder rod covers a portion of the piston. Given that force is equal to pressure multiplied by area, predict which side of the piston will develop the most force.

G

18. What do you think will happen to the cylinder rod?

G

19. Turn on the Power Unit.

G

20. Turn the Relief Valve adjustment knob clockwise until the circuit pressure at gauge A equals 2100 kPa (300 psi).

G

21. While observing the cylinder rod, move the lever of the directional valve toward the valve body so that the pumped oil is directed toward both sides of the cylinder piston. In which direction does the rod move? Why?

G

22. Turn off the Power Unit. Open the relief valve completely (turn knob fully counterclockwise).

Pressure distribution in a cylinder in equilibrium of forces

G 23. Disconnect the 2.54-cm (1-in) bore cylinder from the circuit. Connect the two ports of this cylinder to the return manifold. Slowly push the piston rod in until it is retracted half way. Disconnect the cylinder from the return manifold, then connect the circuit shown in Figure 2-20 (a).

Pressure and Force

Pressure and Force Figure 2-20. Determining pressure distribution in a cylinder. 2-28

Figure 2-20. Determining pressure distribution in a cylinder.

Pressure and Force

G

24.

Examine the circuit in Figure 2-20 (a). The oil in the rod side of the cylinder is captured because there is no return path to the reservoir. The piston cannot move because the oil cannot be compressed. The pressures in the cap and rod sides build until the forces exerted on both sides of the piston are exactly equal.

 

– The force on the full area of the piston is:

– The force on the full area of the piston is: – The force on the

– The force on the annular area of the piston is:

– Since these forces are equal:

Based on the above formulas, predict which gauge in Figure 2-20 (a) will read the most pressure. Explain.

G

25. Turn on the Power Unit. Turn the relief valve adjustment knob clockwise until the input pressure at gauge A (P f ) is 1400 kPa (200 psi). Then, record the output pressure at gauge B (P a ) in Table 2-3.

 

INPUT PRESSURE AT GAUGE A

OUTPUT PRESSURE AT GAUGE B

INPUT/OUTPUT

 

PART A

PRESSURE RATIO

RECIPROCAL OF AREA RATIO (A a /A f )

(P

f )

(P

a )

(P

f /P a )

INPUT

       

PRESSURE

1400

kPa

APPLIED ON

(200 psi)

FULL PISTON

     

AREA

2100

kPa

(300 psi)

     

INPUT/OUTPUT

 

PART B

INPUT PRESSURE AT GAUGE A (P a )

OUTPUT PRESSURE AT GAUGE B (P f )

PRESSURE RATIO

RECIPROCAL OF AREA RATIO (A f /A a )

(P

a /P f )

INPUT

       

PRESSURE

1400

kPa

APPLIED ON

(200 psi)

ANNULAR

     

AREA

2100

kPa

(300 psi)

Table 2-3. Pressure distribution in the cylinder of Figure 2-20.

G

26. Increase the Relief Valve pressure setting until the input pressure at gauge A is 2100 kPa (300 psi) and again record the output pressure at gauge B in Table 2-3.

G

27. Turn off the Power Unit. Open the Relief Valve completely (turn knob fully counterclockwise).

G

28.

Switch the two hoses connected to the ports of the cylinder with each other so that the rod end is connected to gauge A and the cap end is connected to gauge B, as Figure 2-20 (b) shows.

Pressure and Force

G

29. Examine the circuit in Figure 2-20 (b). Predict which gauge will read the most pressure. Explain why.

G

30. Turn on the Power Unit. Turn the Relief Valve adjustment knob clockwise until the input pressure at gauge A (P a ) is 1400 kPa (200 psi). Record the output pressure at gauge B (P f ) in Table 2-3.

G

31. Increase the Relief Valve pressure setting until the input pressure at gauge A is 2100 kPa (300 psi) and again record the output pressure at gauge B in Table 2-3.

G

32. Turn off the Power Unit. Open the Relief Valve completely (turn knob fully counterclockwise).

G

33. Complete the fourth column of Table 2-3, “INPUT/OUTPUT PRESSURE RATIO”, using the input and output pressures registered in parts A and B of the experiment.

G

34.

Complete the fifth column of Table 2-3, “RECIPROCAL OF AREA RATIO”, given that the piston diameter, D, is 2.54 cm (1 in) and the rod diameter, d, is 1.59 cm (0.625 in). Use the formulas below to determine A f and A a .

 

A