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APPENDIX D

REPORT ON FISH AND FISH HABITAT Baseline Characterization of the Fish and
Fish Habitats on Flora Bank and Adjacent Habitats

Report on Fish and Fish Habitats

BaselineCharacterizationoftheFishandFishHabitatsonFlora
BankandAdjacentHabitats

Preparedfor:
PacificNorthWestLNGLimitedPartnership
OceanicPlaza,Suite19001066WestHastingsStreet,
Vancouver,BCV6E3X1
Preparedby:
StantecConsultingLtd.
4370DominionStreet,5thFloor
Burnaby,BCV5G4L7
Tel:(604)4363014
Fax:(604)4363752

May4,2015

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

TableofContents
EXECUTIVESUMMARY........................................................................................................................IV
ABBREVIATIONS..................................................................................................................................VI
AUTHORSHIP.....................................................................................................................................VII
1.0

INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................1

2.0

BACKGROUNDANDINFORMATIONSOURCES..........................................................................2

3.0
3.1
3.2

MARINEPROCESSES................................................................................................................6
PHYSICALFEATURESANDPROCESSES.............................................................................................6
BIOLOGICALPROCESSES..................................................................................................................9
3.2.1
TheMarineEcosystemofChathamSound..................................................................9
3.2.2
LocalTrophicLevels....................................................................................................12

4.0

VALUEOFMARINEHABITATS................................................................................................34

5.0

SUMMARYMARINEBIOPHYSICALPROCESSES.....................................................................38

6.0

REFERENCES..........................................................................................................................40

FIGURES.............................................................................................................................................46

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

LISTOFCHARTS
Chart1
Chart2
Chart3
Chart4
Chart5
Chart6
Chart7
Chart8
Chart9
Chart10
Chart11

Chart12

TrophicAssociationsAcrossSixBCRegions...............................................................11
ComparisonofSatelliteImagerybetweenSST,TurbidityandChlorophyllfor2001,
2004to2014..............................................................................................................15
AssociationbetweenLongTermMeasuresofTurbidityandChlorophyllafrom
SatelliteImagery.........................................................................................................16
EelgrassPatchMaximumDepthandDepthRange(LowesttoHighestObserved
Growth)inChathamSound........................................................................................19
EelgrassFloraandFaunaSpeciesRichnessOnandAroundPatchesinChatham
Sound..........................................................................................................................20
RelativeAbundanceofEelgrassEpiphytoninChathamSound.................................21
LeafandShootLengthofFloraBankEelgrasswithDistancefromShelteredShoreline
PatchestoFloraBank.................................................................................................22
TotalBenthicInvertebratesatSurveySitesaroundLeluIslandandFloraBank........23
SummaryoftheMigratoryTimingofJuvenileSalmonSpeciesBasedonCatchper
UnitEffort(Fish/Set)fromApriltoAugust.................................................................25
NumberofIndividualsObservedUsingaRemotelyOperatedVehicle(ROV)at
MultipleDepthRangesacrossFourHabitatAreasintheSpringof2013..................28
CatchperUnitEffortfromCrabTrapSitesinFourHabitatCategoriesfromOctober
2014toMarch2015forbothPNWLNGandPrinceRupertGasTransmission(PRGT)
....................................................................................................................................30
SummaryCatchperUnitEffortfromSeineSitesonFloraandAgnewBankandin
PorpoiseChannelfromDecembertoMarch2015....................................................31

LISTOFTABLES
Table1
Table2
Table3
Table4
Table5
Table6

ii

FishandFishHabitatSurveyswithintheProjectarea.................................................4
AerialImageryQuantifyingtheExtent,IntertidalChannelsandSandBars/Bedforms
ofFloraBankbetween2007,2009,2011and2014....................................................8
FloraBankEstimatedEelgrassAreasandExtentOverTime......................................17
NumberofIndividualsObservedUsingaRemotelyOperatedVehicle(ROV)at
MultipleDepthRangesAcrossFourHabitatAreasintheSpringof2013..................27
IndividualBirdsRecordedAroundLeluIslandandFloraBank,RidleyIslandandKaien
Island..........................................................................................................................33
ValueofMarineHabitatswithintheProjectarea.....................................................37

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

LISTOFFIGURES
Figure1
Figure2
Figure3
Figure4
Figure5
Figure6
Figure7
Figure8
Figure9
Figure10
Figure11
Figure12
Figure13
Figure14
Figure15
Figure16

StudyAreaExtent.......................................................................................................47
ExistingHabitatswithintheProjectArea...................................................................48
SkeenaRiverEstuaryBoundary..................................................................................49
PurseSeiningSamplingStationsintheSkeenaRiverEstuary(FigurefromHigginsand
Schouwenburg,1973)................................................................................................50
SurveyMapsofThreePublishedTechnical/AcademicFishDistributionStudiesin
CentralChathamSound.............................................................................................51
SamplingExtentofthePublishedTechnicalandAcademicStudiesReviewedand
ProjectRelatedMarineStudieswithintheProjectArea...........................................52
SatelliteImageryofSkeenaRiverDischargewithinChathamSoundandAroundthe
ProposedLeluIslandProjectsite...............................................................................53
Aerialimageryquantifyingtheextent,intertidalchannelsandsandbars/bedforms
ofFloraBankbetween2007,2009,2011and2014..................................................54
HabitatTypeCharacterizationBasedonTidalZone,WaterDepthandSubstrateType
....................................................................................................................................55
EcologicallyandBiologicallySignificantAreas...........................................................56
HighresolutionFloraBankAerialImageryandEstimatedEelgrassandBankExtentin
2007,2009,and2011.................................................................................................57
MarineFishSurveyLocationsfromthe20142015FieldProgram............................58
MarineBirdObservationsApril2013.........................................................................59
MarineBirdObservationsAugust2012andJune/July2013.....................................60
MarineBirdObservationsNovember2013andJanuary2013..................................61
MarineMammalVesselSurveySightings(November2014April2015)...................62

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REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

ExecutiveSummary

PacificNorthWestLNGLimitedPartnership(PNWLNG)isproposingtoconstructandoperatealiquefiednatural
gas(LNG)facilityonLeluIslandwithintheDistrictofPortEdward,BritishColumbia(theProject).Marine
infrastructurefortheProjectwillbelocatedinwatersadjacenttoFloraBank.Thisreportcharacterizesexisting
marinefishhabitatswithintheProjectareaonFloraBankandadjacenthabitatsandreviewsoftheirrespective
valuestocommercial,recreationalorAboriginal(CRA)fisheries.
TheSkeenaRiverestuaryhasbeendescribedasoneofthemostecologicallyandsocioeconomicallyimportant
zonesontheBritishColumbianorthcoast.Thisconceptistieddirectlytotheproductivityofthesecondlargest
salmonpopulationinBCandthefisherythatdependsonit.SpecialemphasishasbeenplacedonFloraBank
eelgrasshabitatanditscapacityforprovidingrearingandfeedingopportunitiesforjuvenilePacificsalmon
originatingfromtheSkeenaRiver(HigginsandSchouwenburg1973).Thatunderstandingisbasedontheextent
andhabitatuseofeelgrassonFloraBankanditspotentialrearingcapacityforjuvenilesalmon.Theconceptthat
FloraBankiscrucialasjuvenilesalmonhabitatislargelybasedonfieldstudiesconductedin1972andanecdotal
observationsfrommorerecentstudiesinwatersadjacentto,butnotonFloraBank;whichisinconsistentwith
recentfieldstudyresults.
Thisreportcharacterizesmarinefishandfishhabitatsusinginformationfromhistoricandrecentstudiesthatwere
compiledthroughelectronicandphysicalsearchesonlineandinpublicandgovernmentlibrariesacrossBC.
ThisincludesfivedecadesofinvestigationonChathamSoundandFloraBankecosystemsbygovernment,
academic,andindependentscientists.Inadditiontothisliteraturereview,anumberofunpublishedfieldstudies
(Stantec2015a;Stantec2015b)andanalyseswereconductedandreviewed.
TheareaonandaroundLeluIslandandFloraBankiscomprisedofavarietyofphysicalfeaturesanddynamicevent
drivenprocesses(wind,wave,storms,SkeenaRiverdischarge)whichhelpshapethephysicalhabitattypesand
stronglyinfluencethebiologyandhabitatuseofmarinespeciesinthearea.Thesephysicalhabitattypeshave
beendefinedwithintheProjectareaas:

FloraBankintertidalvegetatedpatches
FloraBankintertidalcompactsand
PorpoiseChanneldeepwatertidalhardsediment
AgnewandHorseybankssubtidalshallowsoftsediment
KitsonIslanddeepsoftsediment.

ThephysicalstructureandprocessesintheSkeenaRiverestuarysuchasdieltideheights,tidalcurrents,TSS,
andseasonalsedimenttransportaredirectlylinkedtothefreshwaterdischargefromtheSkeenaRiverbasinand
definetheoverallproductivityofChathamSound,speciesaggregations,andimportanthabitatareasintheregion,
whichmirrorsmarinefishuseofthehabitatsdescribedinthisreport.Nutrientsconnectedtosediments
dischargedintotheSkeenaestuaryandcarriedoutintoChathamSounddonotimmediatelybecomeavailable,
whichpotentiallylimitsprimaryphytoplanktonproductioninpelagicmarinewaters.Thislocalpatternoflimited

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REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

primaryproductionprocessesconstrainseelgrassgrowth,distribution,extentandoverallhabitatproductivityon
FloraBank.ThehabitatconditionsindicatesthatFloraBankdoesnotappeartofunctionasproductivehabitatina
mannerconsistentwithothereelgrasspatchesobservedinthelargerChathamSound.
ThefollowingobservationsoffishhabitatuseonandadjacenttoFloraBanksupporttheconclusionthatthearea
haslowhabitatproductivityandvalue:

Fishsurveyresultsindicatethatsmalldemersalfishandinvertebratespeciesareabletoinhabitareasofhigh
currentandlowvisibilityandeffectivelyhangonunderchallengingphysicalconditionsinfairlyhomogeneous
habitatsonFloraBankandsurroundingsubtidalareas
Pelagicjuvenilesalmonandforagefishspeciesexperiencelimitedvisibilityforforagingandpoorplanktonic
foodsupplywhichappearstobeconnectedtothehigherturbidityandlowlevelsofprimaryproductionthat
existinthisarea
JuvenileandadultsalmonareobservedintheProjectareausingnaturaltidalcurrentsandtidecyclesto
migratethroughunproductiveareasonandaroundFloraBankovershorttimedurations
SurveydatasuggestthatsalmondonotuseFloraBankeelgrasshabitatfornurseryhabitatorotherlife
dependentprocesses
Marinebirdandmammaldistributionswerereviewedtounderstandhowotherspeciesusedthemarine
resourcesinthearea.Marinebirdandmammalsurveyresultsdemonstratelimitedorlowhabitatuseonand
aroundFloraBank
NobirdormammalaggregationsareobservedrelatedtofishandplanktonresourcesonFloraBankand
adjacenthabitats,presumablybecauseofthelowproductivityinthisarearelativetootherareasinChatham
Sound.

Basedontheavailableevidence,thehabitatvalueforCRAfisheriesoftheintertidaleelgrassbedonFloraBankis
rankedaslow.LowhabitatvaluesformarinevertebrateswerealsoassignedtoFloraBankintertidalcompactsand,
thesubtidalshallowsoftsedimentofAgnewandHorseybanks,anddeepsoftsedimenthabitatsoffKitsonIsland.
ThesehabitatswereratedlowvaluebasedonlimitedCRAfisherieshabitatuse,noidentifiedCRAfisheryspecies
lifedependentprocesses,limitedstructuralhabitatcomplexity,highconnectivityandextentofthesesimilar
habitats,andhighhabitatnaturalresiliencetochange.Incontrast,highCRAfisherieshabitatvaluewasassignedto
deepwatertidalhardsedimenthabitatsfoundwithinPorpoiseChannelbasedonsalmon,herringandforagefish
habitatuse,highstructuralhabitatcomplexity,andlimitedextentofthesehabitats.
Overall,FloraBankexhibitslimitedhabitatdiversitytype,structuralcomplexityandhabitatusebyofmarinefish,
birdsandmammals.

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

Abbreviations

ADCP

AcousticDopplerCurrentProfiler

BC

BritishColumbia

CEAA

CanadianEnvironmentalAssessmentAgency

CPUE

catchperuniteffort

CRA

commercial,recreational,andaboriginal

DFO

FisheriesandOceansCanada

EIS

EnvironmentalImpactStatement

IAs

importantareas

IRs

informationrequests

LNG

liquefiednaturalgas

MSL

meansealevel

MUR

multiscaleultrahighresolution

PAR

photosyntheticactiveradiation

PECP

PacificEstuaryConservationProgram

PNCIMA

PacificNorthCoastManagementArea

PNWLNG

PacificNorthWestLNGLimitedPartnership

PRPA

PrinceRupertPortAuthority

ProjectArea

ProjectDevelopmentArea

ROV

remotelyoperatedvehicle

SEI

ecosysteminventory

SST

seasurfacetemperature

theProject

PacificNorthWestLNGProject

TSS

totalsuspendedsolids

vi

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

Authorship

Authors
MaddisonProudfoot,B.Sc.,BIT
Dr.MarkJohannes,M.Sc.,Ph.D.

Reviewers
JanineBeckett,M.Sc.,R.P.Bio.
KirbyOttenbreit,BA
Dr.AndreaPomeroy,Ph.D.,R.P.Bio.
BenjaminByrd,B.Sc.,B.Ed.,B.Eng.(Hons.)

Contributors
MichelleBailey,M.Sc.,R.P.Bio
SteveParker,B.Sc.
GrantWiseman,M.Sc.
SachaORegan,M.Sc.
RowennaGryba,M.Sc.
RyanCloutier,M.Sc.
LaurenHowell,B.Sc.
JacintheAmyot,MMM
MickiSteedman,M.Mar.Con

vii

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

1.0

INTRODUCTION

Thisreportcharacterizesthemarinefishandfishhabitatsatandadjacenttothemarineinfrastructureforthe
proposedPacificNorthWestLNGLimitedPartnership(PNWLNG)liquefiednaturalgas(LNG)facility.Thesehabitats
includeFloraBankandadjacenthabitatslocatedwithintheinfluenceoftheSkeenaRiverestuarywithinChatham
Sound.Thisreportcompileshistoricstudiesandrecentdata,andprovidesananalysisofphysicalandbiological
structuresandprocessesinthesehabitats,includingmarinehabitatuse,todemonstratethatFloraBankandthe
ecologicalnicheitsupportsdonotprovidehighvaluehabitatforCRAfisheries.
TheSkeenaRiverestuaryhasbeendescribedasoneofthemostecologicallyandsocioeconomicallyimportant
zonesontheBritishColumbia(BC)northcoast(Hoos1975).Theimportanceoftheestuaryistieddirectlytothe
productivityofthesecondlargestsalmonpopulationinBCandthefisherythatdependsonit.However,special
emphasishasbeenincorrectlyplacedonFloraBankeelgrasshabitatanditscapacityforprovidingrearingand
feedingopportunitiesforjuvenilePacificsalmonoriginatingfromtheSkeenaRiver(HigginsandSchouwenburg
1973).ThisreportdemonstratesthatFloraBankexhibitslimitedhabitatdiversity,lowcomplexity,andlittlehabitat
usebymarinevertebrates.
TheconceptthatFloraBankisacrucialhabitatofexceptionalvaluelinkedtoSkeenasalmonproductivityislargely
basedonasinglefieldstudyconductedin1972studyconductedbyHigginsandSchouwenburg(1973)contained
withinthepreliminaryeffectsassessmentconductedin1973foraproposedsuperportdevelopment(DOE1973;
Hoos1975;NEAT1975a,b).Sincethisstudy,anumberofotherfishdistributionstudieshavebeenundertakenin
ChathamSoundandtheSkeenaRiverEstuarybuthavenotdirectlysurveyedFloraBank(Andersonetal.1986;
CommunityFisheriesDevelopmentCenter2001;Gottesfeldetal.2008;CarrHarrisandMoore2013;CarrHarris
2015).ThesestudiesexaminedthemarinehabitatssurroundingFloraBankandLeluIslandandshowobservations
ofjuvenilesalmonmigratorypathwaysintheseareasduringdiscretespringtimesmoltmigrationperiods.The
resultsoftheserecentandhistoricstudiesdemonstratethatjuvenileandadultsalmonmigratorypathwaysexist
aroundFloraBank,butdonotexplicitlyshowthatFloraBankitselfplaysadirectroleinsupportingtheproductivity
ofthehabitatsandthesefisheries.
Noneofthehistoricandrecentstudiesreviewed,withtheexceptionoftherecentPNWLNGwork,have
conductedfishsurveysdirectlyonFloraBanktoassessFloraBankaspotentialcrucialforagingandnurseryhabitats
insupportofpopulationlevelSkeenasalmonfisheriesproductivity.ThecommonlyheldviewofFloraBankas
valuedsalmonrearinghabitatisbasedonlittleornoevidence,asdemonstratedinthisreport.
Thisreportdescribesthe:

marinestudiesanddatasourcesusedtoexaminethehabitatsonandadjacenttoFloraBank,includingthose
thathavepreviouslycharacterizedonFloraBankascrucialhabitat(withanemphasisonfishandfishhabitat)
physicalandbiologicalmarineprocesseswiththeareaaroundFloraBank,aswellasthegreaterChatham
Soundregion
marinehabitatsonandadjacenttoFloraBank,asdefinedbybiophysicalprocess
valuesofthesemarinehabitats.

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

2.0

BACKGROUNDANDINFORMATIONSOURCES

HistoricandrecentstudiesconductedaroundLeluIslandandinChathamSoundwerecompiledthroughelectronic
andphysicalsearchesonlineandinlibrariesacrossBCandwithinFisheriesandOceansCanadaofficesin
Vancouver,SidneyandPrinceRupert.Anumberofunpublishedfieldstudiesandpublishedreportswere
assembledandreviewedforthepurposesofthisreportandareprovidedinTable1.Thecompiledstudiesinclude
fivedecadesofmarineworkonChathamSoundandFloraBankecosystems.
StudiesreviewedforthisanalysisincludedworkbyHigginsandSchouwenburg(1973);Andersonetal.(1986);
CommunityFisheriesDevelopmentCenter(2001);Gottesfeldetal.(2008);Faggetter(2009);Fagetter(2013);
andCarrHarrisandMoore(2013).RecentProjectspecificstudiesconductedforPNWLNGin2013(Stantec
2014a),andvarious20142015fieldprograms(Stantec2015a,unpublished;Stantec2015b,unpublished)(Table1,
Figure5,Figure6,Figure13)havealsobeenincludedinthereviewwheredataanalysishasbeencompleted.
Thecombinedstudiescoversurveydatacollectedoverawiderangeofyears(1955,1972,1978,1986,1996,2001,
2007,2008,2009,2012,2013,2014and2015)andmonths(JanuarythroughtoDecember).Samplinginthese
studiesincludedbenthicinvertebrates,eelgrasscharacteristicsandfishspeciespresence,distribution,estimated
density(relative),andbiologicalcharacteristicsusingavarietyofmethods(Table1,Figure5,Figure6,Figure12).
OneoftheearlystudiespublishedaboutFlorabankwasundertakenbytheDepartmentoftheEnvironment
FisheriesService.ThisworkinvestigatedthehabitatsandbiologyofsitesnearPrinceRupertinChathamSoundfor
thefiveareasproposedforasuperportinPrinceRupertandChathamSoundthroughastudyconductedbyHiggins
andShouwenburg(1973).HigginsandSchouwenburg(1973)andthesubsequentauthorsthatcitetheirwork,
havelimiteddatawhichcharacterizeFloraBankandthesurroundinghabitatsasfundamentaltotheproduction
andcontinuedviabilityofSkeenaRiversalmonanditssupportoftheregionalsalmonfishery.
OneofthestudyareasassessedoccurredaroundLeluIslandandincludedsitesonFlora,AgnewandHorseybanks
(Figure4).TheLeluIslandsitewasexaminedat7samplinglocationswithasinglesitesampledadjacenttoFlora
Bank.TheremainderofsiteswerelocatedindeeperwaternearLeluIsland,andoffHorseyBank.Higginsand
Schouwenburg(1973)basedtheirassessmentonfishcatchdata,benthicinvertebrate,zooplankton,andwater
qualitysampleresultsfromtheselocations.
HigginsandSchouwenburg(1973)acknowledgedthatnotallhabitatswithinanestuaryhavethesamefish
productivecapacityorbiologicalimportancebasedontheirsampleresults.TheauthorsconcludethattheFlora
Bankareahasrelativeimportanceassalmonhabitatwhencomparedtotheotherareassurveyedwithinthe
Skeenaestuary.
HigginsandSchouwenburg(1973)madeseveralassumptionsandconclusionsaboutrelativehabitatuseand
productivitythatwassupportedwithlimiteddata.Forexample,fishcatchdataforthefivestudyareaswere
pooledacrosssamplingstationswithineachareatorepresenthabitatuseandproductivity.WithintheHigginsand
Schouwenburg(1973)report,theLeluIslandstudyareahad7samplinglocationsthatwerepooledtoexamineand
characterizethehabitatsonFloraBankitself(areaCinFigure4).BasedonrecentfieldstudiesintheLeluIsland
andFloraBankarea,itisrecognizedthatmultiplehabitattypes,withvaryinghabitatcomplexityanddiversity,

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

existandshouldnotbeexaminedcollectively(Figure2).Theamalgamationofdatacollectedacrossthe7sampling
locationsbyHigginsandSchouwenburg(1973)andassembledundertheareacalledFloraBankhadpooled
samplesanddatacollectedacrosssitesinmultiplelocationsonoradjacenttoFlora,AgnewandHorseybanksand
tothenorthwesttipofSmithIsland.TheirresultsandconclusionsregardingthefishhabitatvalueofFloraBank
wasbasedonacoarserepresentationofthelargerareaanddidnotrecognizetheheterogeneityofhabitatswithin
thatarea.
ThefishcatchresultsfromHigginsandSchouwenburg(1973)werepresentedindicatingthatInvernessChannel
(areaD)yieldedthegreatestmeanjuvenilesalmoncatchesfollowedbyFloraBank(areaC)andDeHorseyBank
(areaE)(Figure4).FloraBank(areaC)wasindicatedasoneofthehigherfishcatchareas(inmeancatchperunit
effort)relativetotheotherareassampled,butalsoexpressedthegreatestvarianceincatchacrossareas.
ThecatchinareaC(basedonpooleddatafromthe7samplingstations)wasbasedon66seinesetswithnofish
caught(0catch)andasingleseinecatchof238salmon.HigginsandSchouwenburg(1973)presentnodatato
suggestthatthesinglelargeseinecatchcouldbeattributedtosamplingfromastationdirectlyonFloraBankor
anyofthesurroundingsamplingstationsthatoccurinanyofthehabitatsacrosstheLeluIslandarea.
HigginsandSchouwenburg(1973)alsopresentbenthicinvertebratedatacollectedasindividualsiteswithineach
ofthelargerstudyareas.Fourofthe28locationscollectedweresampledinandaroundLeluIslandandFlora
Bank.AsinglesamplewascollectedonFloraBankandtwoothersamplescollectedonAgnewBank.Thebenthic
invertebratesampleresultsindicatedahighproportion(>60%ofthesample)anddensityofamphipodsonAgnew
BankinasiteadjacenttoPorpoiseChanneltidaloutflow.ThesampleonFloraBankpresentedalowdensityof
polychaetesandlowoverallfaunaspeciesdiversity.

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

Table1

FishandFishHabitatSurveyswithintheProjectarea

Surveysandanalyses
conductedinthe
Projectarea

YearofField
Surveysor
Analysis

Duration(months)
Themes

Methods

Manzer1956,1969

1955

Salmondistributionanddiet

Seine

Higginsand
Schouwenburg1973

1972

Salmondistribution,benthic
invertebrates

Seine

Forsythetal.1998

1996

Eelgrass

Remotesensingspectral
imagingofeelgrass

Haegeleetal.1979

1978

Eelgrassandherringspawning

Andersonetal.1986

1986

Fishdistribution

Seine

Boutillieretal.1999

1998

Fishandinvertebrate
distribution

Trawl

Gottesfeldetal.
2008

2007

Salmondistribution

Midwatertrawl

CommunityFisheries
DevelopmentCentre
2001

2001

Fishdistribution

Seine

Faggetter2009,2013

2008,2012

EelgrassFloraBank,Chatham
Sound

Towedunderwatervideo

CarrHarris2015

2013,2014

Salmondistribution,genetics

Beachseine,purseseineand
midwatertrawl

DFO2014

2013,2014

Crabsurveys

AreaAandB,Crabbiological
sampling

HighSeassalmonprogram

Midwatertrawl

Fishdistribution,
Benthics
Marinebirds
Marinemammals

Underwater,marinebird,
intertidal,eelgrass,marine
mammalsurveys

Morrisetal.2007a,
b,c

Stantec2014a

2005

20122013

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS
Surveysandanalyses
conductedinthe
Projectarea

YearofField
Surveysor
Analysis

Duration(months)
Themes

Methods

Stantec2015a,b

20142015

Fishdistributionand
abundance,oceanographic,
oceancurrents,marinebirds,
marinemammals

Stantec2015

2007,2009,2011,
2014

Highresolutionaerialimagery

Multivariatepatternanalysis
ofsurfacefeaturesand
eelgrass

Stantec2015

2001,20042014

Monthlysatelliteimagery

Remotesensingcompilation
ofturbidity,seasurface
temperature,chlorophylla

Seine,crabtrapping,
hydroacoustics,fykenetting,
midwatertrawl

NOTE:
*=plannedforcompletionin2015.

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

3.0

MARINEPROCESSES

Thissectionofthereportdescribesthephysicalandbiologicalenvironmentalprocessesandphysicalhabitattypes
identifiedinChathamSoundandlocallyinthewaterssurroundingLeluIslandwithintheProjectarea.

3.1

PHYSICALFEATURESANDPROCESSES

MarineareasonFloraBankandinthewatersofAgnewBank,HorseyBankandPorpoiseChannel,adjacenttothe
ProjectsiteoffLeluIsland,areoftenexposedtophysicallyturbulentconditionsandareframedbytheprominent
islands,islets,bedrockfeatures,channelsandpassagesintheregion.Thephysicalmorphologyoftheareaand
seafloorsupportmarineandfreshwatermovementcharacterizedbystrongriveroutflows,highlevelsofturbidity
andstrongtidalcurrentswithexposuretolargeregionalwaveandstormevents(Hatch2015).Thisphysical
environmentandhabitatareaswithinitsupportandareinfluencedbylargetidalfluctuationsrangingupto7.4m,
ebbandfloodcurrentsupto1m/s,highconcentrationsofTSSfromtheSkeenaRiveroutflowrangingfrom
12mg/L(Junefreshest)to4mg/L(latesummer),andlowlighttransparency(<0.8mSecchidepthinJunefreshet)
(Hatch2014a;Stantec2014a;PRPA2013;PRPA2014).ThetidalcurrentsintoandoutofPorpoiseChannelhelp
maintainthenorthernedgeofFloraBankandthedepthsanddistributionofsubstratesinAgnewandHorsey
banks(Hatch2014a).ThetidalcurrentbetweenSmithandPorcherislands(MarcusPassage)andSmithIslandand
themainland(InvernessPassage)helpmaintainthesouthernedgeofFloraBank.
MostofthesurfacewaterinChathamSoundtransportssuspendedsedimentsdischargedfromtheSkeenaRiver,
particularlyfromMaytoOctober.Thelargestlevelsofsuspendedsedimentsandresultingwaterturbidityare
observedaroundKennedy,DeHorsey,Smith,PorcherIslands,withreducedlevelsaroundKitsonandLeluislands
extendingoffshoretotheKinahanIslandsinChathamSound(Trites1956;DeGroot2005;ASL2014;PRPA2013;
PRPA2014).ThedistributionofSkeenaRiverfreshwaterandsuspendedsedimentsisinfluencedbythecomplex
bathymetryofthedeltaandthecomplexofislandsandchannels,includingKennedy,Smith,Marrack,DeHorsey
andPorcherislands(Trites1956;Conwayetal.1996).TheSkeenaRiverdischargeiscarriedthroughthree
passages:<25%throughInvernessChannel,andequaldischargethroughTelegraphandMarcuspassages(Conway
etal.1996;DeGroot2005;ASL2014).LargerparticlesofsandaretransportedasbedloadintheSkeenaRiverdelta
leadingtoInvernessChannel,andTelegraphandMarcuspassages.Smalltomediumsizeddunesandlargesand
ridgesareobservedthroughthesepassages,onthenorthsideofKennedyIslandandbetweenSmithandDe
Horseyislands(Conwayetal.1996).Finegrainedparticlesedimentssuchassiltandclay,occurwithinabuoyant
plumethatextendsnorthofKennedyandSmithIslandsbeyondLeluIsland,andisvisibleinaerialandsatellite
imagery(Figure7).Thesesuspendedsedimentsaredistributedoverseveralbasins,passages,andtidalflats
beyondKitsonIsland,andaredepositedonmudflatsandshallowintertidalpassagesaroundSmith,Porcher,
Kennedy,DeHorseyislands,throughInvernessChannel,andbetweenKitsonandLeluislands(ASL2014).
SedimentdischargefromtheSkeenaRiverisestimatedtorangefrom2to5millionm3/year(Conwayetal.1996,
ASL2014).Givenanaveragesedimentdischargeof3millionm3/yearanddepositionofatleast75%ofthis
sediment(Conwayetal.1996),itisestimatedthatapproximately0.1m/year(ASL2014)ofsedimenthasthe
potentialtobedepositedoverthemainSkeenaestuary,withsmallerlevelsofdepositionrangingfrom0.02to
0.1m/yearinsitestothenorthofSmithIslandtowardLeluIsland.Thisestimatedannualrangeofsediment
depositionnorthofSmithIslandandnearLeluIsland(0.02to0.1m/year)isconsistentwithobservationsofaband

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

ofdioxinsandfuransobservedinthesedimentnorthofPorpoiseChannel(WatsonIsland)frompulpmilloperation
dischargesover50years(1951to2001)(Stantec2014b).Thisdioxinandfuranbandisobservedat1.2mdepth
whichequatestoapproximately0.092m/yearofsedimentfrom2001to2014(Stantec2014b).
LocalsedimentdepositionpatternsandamountsaroundKitsonandLeluislandsresultfromthesediments
dischargedandtransportedfromtheSkeenaRiver(Conwayetal.1996;DeGroot2005;ASL2014).Thepatternof
deposition,suspensionandresuspensionofnewandexistingsedimentsisstronglyinfluencedbydischargeand
localtidalcurrentsandtidalcyclesaroundKitsonIsland,FloraandAgnewbanksandPorpoiseChannel(ASL2014;
Hatch2014b).Maximumfloodandebbtidalcurrentshavebeenrecordedatgreaterthan0.5m/s(Inverness
ChannelandPorpoiseChannel)(Hatch2014a;Hatch2014b).
Particletrackingmodel(PTM)resultspredictthatshallowbedloadandsuspendedsedimentsaroundtheProject
areawillbetransportedoffshoreoutofPorpoiseChannelandnorthofAgnewBankduringmaximumspringebb
tidalcurrents,andtransportedfromtheshallowareasofHorsey,AgnewandFlorabanksalongandintoPorpoise
Channelduringfloodtidalcurrents(Hatch2014a).
Finesandswerefounddistributedatdeeperdepthsandinmorestablelayersofsettlementfurtherawayfrom
KitsonIslandandPorpoiseChannel(Stantec2014b).Dioxinsandfuranswereobservedinthesesamples,
distributeddeeperinthesedimentlayers,indicatingaprocessofcontinuoustransportandsettlementof
sedimentsatdepthinAgnewandHorseybanks(Stantec2014b).Siltsandlessconsolidatedsedimentswerefound
closertotheedgeofAgnewandFlorabanksalongawesttoeastlinefromKitsonIslandtoLeluIsland
(Stantec2014b;SedTrend2015).Thesiltyclaysedimentsindicatedlittlepresenceofdioxinsandfurans
originatingfrominsidePorpoiseChannelatanydepthanddemonstratedamorecontinuousorchangingpattern
ofsedimenttransport,resuspensionanddistribution(Stantec2014b).
Thetransport,distributionandsettlementofvarioussizedsedimentparticlesandtheconcentrationofsiltand
generalsedimentconsolidation(compactnessandsiltembeddedness)areconsistentwithobservationsof
substrates,habitatcharacteristicsandspecieshabitatuse.Thisisillustratedinthelessconsolidatedsiltysubstrates
alongthenorthwesternedgeofFloraBank,andtheobservedusebyspeciessuchascoonstripeshrimp,eelpouts
andtubesnoutthatfrequentmoreturbulentopensoftsedimenthabitats(Stantec2014a).Deeperareasofsandy
substratesalongAgnewBankwereobservedashabitatsusedbyDungenesscrab,flounderandsolewhichuse
stable,compact,softsedimentopenhabitats(Stantec2014a).
WaterqualityhasbeenmonitoredinlowerandcentralChathamSoundoverthepast2.5yearsbythePrince
RupertPortAuthority(PRPA).WaterqualitywascollectedandmeasuredforturbidityandTSSconcentrations.
Thedatawerecompiledandgroupedintothreegeneralareasincluding:(1)SkeenaRiverOutflow,(2)Floraand
Agnewbanks,and(3)PorpoiseChannel.Theresultsofthismonitoringprogramandothermonitoringstudies
indicatethatTSSandturbiditymeasuresintheProjectareavarythroughouttheyear,withnotedincreasesin
turbidityandTSS(greaterthan5NTUand12mg/Lrespectively)inthesecondandfourthquartersoftheyear.
TheobservedincreaseinturbidityandTSScorrespondwiththeonsetofspringfreshetandfallrainfallevents
(Section3.2.2.1).DetailedresultsarediscussedintheReportonWaterClarityBaselineCharacterizationofthe
WaterClarity,TotalSuspendedSolids,andTurbidityonFloraBankandAdjacentHabitats(Stantec2015c).

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

AcousticDopplercurrentprofiler(ADCP)towsurveyswereusedtoexamineTSSandtidalvelocitiesatdepthduring
floodandebbtidalcyclesacrossFlora,AgnewandHorseybanksandinPorpoiseandInvernesschannels.
Duringlowtides,tidalcurrentvelocitieswerelowestneartheentrancetoPorpoiseChannelandmuchstrongerin
InvernessChannelnearareasoflargerSkeenaRiveroutflow.TSSconcentrationswerehigherclosertoareasofthe
SkeenaRiveroutflowinInvernessChannelandacrossFloraBankduringebbtides.Duringfloodtides,tidalcurrent
velocitiesweresimilarto,orslightlyhigherthanthosemeasuredonthelowebbtideswithcurrentvelocities
flowingfromthenortheasttosoutheastattheentrancetoPorpoiseChannel.TSSconcentrationsrangedfrom
25to40mg/LwithlowerTSSnearthesurfaceandhigherTSSatgreaterdepths.Maximummeasuredtidalcurrent
velocitiesexceeded1m/sinthedeeperchannelsnearareasoflargeSkeenaRiveroutflow.Ebbtidalcurrentsnear
InvernessChannelflowedinnorthandnortheastdirections.TSSwashigherintheareassouthofFloraBank
relativetoothersites.TidalcurrentdirectionoverFloraBankduringfloodtideswaspredominantlytothe
southeastandhadlowerTSSconcentrationsthanattheSkeenaRiveroutflowarea.Twolayerflow(surfaceand
bottomstratumsflowinginoppositedirections)werelessevidentonafloodingtide.Athightides,currentswere
generallymuchweakeronalltransectssurveyed(<0.2m/s).Thedirectionofwaterflowwasvariableamongsites.
Forexample,flowdirectionwaswestnorthwestnearPorpoiseChannel,southeastoverFloraBank,andnorth
northeastneartheSkeenaRiveroutflow.TSSconcentrationswerealsoobservedtobelowerathightidethan
duringtheothersurveyedtidalstates.FurtherdiscussionisprovidedintheReportonWaterClarity(Stantec
2015c).
HighresolutionaerialphotographicimagerytakenofFloraBankatsimilartideheightswasassembledand
analyzedfor2007,2009,2011and2014.Theaerialimageswereusedtoexamineandevaluatethephysicalsurface
featuresofFloraBankduringlowtides.Thequantifiedsurfacefeaturesincludedintertidalsurfacesandbarsor
bedforms,intertidaltidalchannels,andtheaerialextentofFloraBankacrossthefouryears(Figure8).Theareaof
FloraBankandsurfacefeaturesvariedconsiderablyoverthesevenyearperiodbetween2007and2014(Table2).
ThisanalysisdemonstratesthatFloraBankisnotstaticandshowsnaturalpatternsofchangeincludingsediment
transportthroughbotherosionanddepositionandmorphologicalinstability.Thesechangesarepresumablya
resultofstronghydrodynamicforcesandwaveandwindstormeventsinthisareaofChathamSound.

Table2

AerialImageryQuantifyingtheExtent,IntertidalChannelsandSandBars/Bedformsof
FloraBankbetween2007,2009,2011and2014
Date

Intertidal
SandBars(ha)

Intertidal
Channels(ha)

FloraBank
TotalArea(ha)

May20,2007

169.1

75.8

244.9

April29,2009

160.9

102.2

262.7

June7,2011

123.0

136.5

259.5

June15,2014

249.1

55.7

304.8

TheProjectareaisinfluencedbythestronghydrodynamicprocessesdetailedabove,resultingindistinctphysical
marinehabitattypesclassifiedbycurrents,turbidity,depthandsedimenttypes.Highlevelsoffreshwaterinput
andsedimenttransportcreatetheexpansivedeltaflats(smalltomoderatesedimentparticlesizes)ofAgnewand
HorseybanksandimpingeonthecoarsergrainedsedimentstructureofFloraBank(Conwayetal.1996).Thedepth
classofthesebanksrangesfrom0mchartdatum(CD)atFloraBankto0to5mCDatAgnewBankand

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

from5to10mCDatHorseyBank.SedimenttransportfromtheSkeenaRivercoupledwithstrongtidesandtidal
currents,thelocationofbedrock,andtheelevationofthebanks,createsdifferencesinbottomsubstratetypeand
stability.IncreasedlevelsofTSSanddecreasedlevelsofwaterclarityoccuroverthebanksasdescribedabove,but
clearerwaterhabitatwithdeepwaterhardbottomsedimentispresentintidalchannelareaslikePorpoise
Channel.Fivephysicalhabitattypes(Figure91)wereidentifiedasspatiallydistinctareas,basedonclassificationsas
intertidalorsubtidal,subtidaldepths,tidalcurrentsandsedimentcharacteristics.Thefivephysicalhabitattypes
includethefollowingareas:

FloraBankintertidalvegetatedpatches46.1ha
FloraBankintertidalcompactsand258.4ha
PorpoiseChanneldeepwatertidalhardsediment91.1ha
AgnewandHorseyBanksubtidalshallowsoftsediment286.1ha
KitsonIslanddeepsoftsediment199.8ha.

3.2

BIOLOGICALPROCESSES

ThissectiondescribesthebiologicalprocessesthatoccurinChathamSoundandthelocalProjectarea.This
includestherationalebehindthedesignatedChathamSoundEcologicallyandBiologicallySignificantAreas,
anddescriptionsoflocalmarinetrophicleveldynamicsandhowtheserelatetothehabitatsthatexistwithinthe
ProjectareaaroundandadjacenttoLeluIslandandFloraBankwithinsouthernChathamSound.

3.2.1

TheMarineEcosystemofChathamSound

ChathamSoundisoneof18EcologicallyandBiologicallySignificantAreaswithinthePacificNorthCoastIntegrated
ManagementArea(PNCIMA)whichhavebeencharacterizedanddesignatedbyFisheriesandOceansCanada
(DFO)(ClarkeandJamieson2006a;ClarkeandJamieson2006b;DFO2012)(Figure10).Marineareasareevaluated
fordesignationasEcologicallyandBiologicallySignificantAreasbasedonthecharacteristicsofimportantareas
(IAs)ratedbythreecriteriauniqueness,aggregationandfitnessandweightedbyresilienceandnaturalness
(ClarkandJamieson2006a;ClarkeandJamieson2006b).TheevaluationofEcologicallyandBiologicallySignificant
Areastakesintoaccountonlytherelativevalueofanareacomparedtootherareasintheregionandalongthe
BCcoastandconsidersonlythebiologicalandecologicalpropertiesoftheareaandnotpotentialanthropogenic
issues.InthePacificregion,EcologicallyandBiologicallySignificantAreasareprimarilyidentifiedonthebasisof
expertknowledgeaboutbiophysicalfeaturesincludingspeciesspecificIAs.SpeciesspecificIAsaredevelopedand
evaluatedbasedoncompilationandreviewofcoastwideecosystemandbiologicalprocessesandspeciesspecific
habitatuseandproductivity.
ChathamSoundhasbeenevaluatedanddesignatedoneof18EcologicallyandBiologicallySignificantAreasalong
thenortheasternshelfoftheBCcoastbasedonuniqueandproductivebiophysicalcharacteristicsrelativetoother
areas.UniqueIAsaredefinedastheprimaryecologicalcomponentsdefiningprocessesthatcomprisetheChatham
SoundEcologicallyandBiologicallySignificantAreaincluding:

Extentsofthephysicalhabitattypesweredeterminedusinghighresolutionsatelliteimageryfrom2011

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

Majorfreshwaterriveroutflows
Strongtidalmixing
HighphytoplanktonbiomassandproductivityaroundandnorthofPrinceRupert
Migrationstagingforblackandwhitewingedscoters(MelanittaAmericanaandMelanittafusca)
Highgreenseaurchin(Strongylocentrotusdroebachiensis)abundanceandaggregationsaroundandnorthof
PrinceRupert
ModerateDungenesscrab(Metacarcinusmagister)andTannercrab(ChionoecetestanneriandC.bairdi)
abundanceandaggregationsaroundandnorthofPrinceRupert
Highshrimpandprawnaggregationsandspeciesdiversity
Pacificherring(Clupeapallasii)spawninginfivenorthernChathamSoundlocations
Eulachon(Thaleichthyspacificus)demersalfeedingonbenthicinvertebratesandspawningintheNassand
SkeenaRivers
Residentkillerwhale(Orcinusorca)adultsalmonfeeding(summer)aroundandnorthofPrinceRupert
Humpbackwhaleherringandbenthicshrimpfeeding(summerfall)
OneofthreeknownBCStellersealion(Eumetopiasjubatusmonteriensis)rookeries
SupportingfisheriesincentralandnorthernChathamSoundforseveralinvertebratebenthicspecies.

TheproductivityanddistributionofChathamSoundisinpartdrivenbyfreshwaterdischarge,sedimenttransport,
tidalmixingandnutrientswhichbecomebiologicallyavailableinthebenthicenvironmentandinnorthernpelagic
waters.TidalmixingoccursaroundPrinceRupertandcreatesdistributionofnutrientstosupportbenthic
invertebratespeciesabundanceanddiversity.Benthicinvertebrateabundanceinturndrivesseasonalhigher
trophiclevelproductivityandresourcesusedasforagebyanumberofspecieswithseasonallifedependent
processes(spawning,foraging,breedingandnurserycolonies).
ConsistentwiththeEcologicallyandBiologicallySignificantArearegionalecosystemlevelobservations,isareview
completedbyWareandThomson(2005)ofmarineproductivityalongtheBCcoast.Thisstudyseparatedthecoast
ofBCintosixdistinctareasofmarineproductivity,includingChathamSoundandHecateStrait,basedonprimary
andsecondaryproductivityandfisheriesyields(Chart1).Theresultsfromthisstudyprovidetwolevelsof
understandingwhichconfirmboththeEcologicallyandBiologicallySignificantAreaevaluationofimportant
ecologicalprocessesincentralandnorthernChathamSoundandthelevelofproductivityintheregionrelativeto
otherBCcoastalmarineareas.
WareandThomson(2005)showthatresidentinvertebrate,fishbiomass,andprimaryproductivityinChatham
SoundandHecateStraitmarineecosystemsaredirectlyandpositivelyrelatedtobottomupdrivennutrient
dynamicsecosystemschannelledthroughbothpelagicandbenthictrophiclevels.Thisisconsistentwiththe
understandingthatSkeenaRiverdischarges,particularlyinMaythroughOctober,controlsurfacewaterproperties
(temperature,oxygen,salinity,transparency,nutrients)insouthernandcentralChathamSound(Trites1956;
Birchetal.1985)andhelpdrivehighertrophiclevelproductivityincentralandnorthernChathamSoundas
nutrientsbecomebiologicallyavailableasfreshwaterismixedthroughoutcentralChathamSound.These
observationsarefurtherconfirmedspatiallyandtemporallybyanalysesofremotesensingmonthlydatabetween
2004and2014(seeSection3.2.2.1below)andtherelationshipsbetweenSkeenaRiverdischarge,seasurface
temperature,waterclarityandturbidityandprimaryproduction.FurtherresultsarediscussedintheReporton
WaterClarity(Stantec2015c).

10

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

WareandThomson(2005)showthatinBCthehighestmarineecosystemproductivityisobservedintheStraitof
Georgia(3),followedbySouthwestVancouverIsland(1).Bycomparison,ChathamSound/HecateStrait(5)hasa
muchlowerrelativelevelofgeneralmarineproductivity(Chart1).

Upperpanel:associationsbetweenmeanannualconcentrationsofchlorophyllaandzooplankton.Lowerpanel:corresponding
associationsbetweenmeanannualzooplanktonbiomassandthelongtermmeanannualresidentfishyield.
1:SouthwestVancouverIsland2:WestcoastofVancouverIsland(at49.6N),3:StraitofGeorgia,4:WestcoastofVancouver
Island(at51.6N),5:ChathamSound/HecateStrait,6:Outernorthwestcoast(at53.0N).
Source:WareandThomson,2005

Chart1

TrophicAssociationsAcrossSixBCRegions

11

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

3.2.2

LocalTrophicLevels

FoodwebinteractionsandecosystemproductivitywithinChathamSoundarestronglylinkedbybottomup
ecosystemdynamicscontrolledlargelybyavailabilityofnutrientsfromsedimenttransport,freshwatermixingfrom
theSkeenaRiver,seasonalupwellingincoolerperiods,seasonalprimaryproductionandbenthicandpelagic
secondaryproduction(WareandThompson2005).Thefollowingsectionoutlinesthetrophiclevelobservationson
FloraBankandhabitatsatandadjacenttotheProjectincluding:primaryproductivitymeasuresthrough
chlorophylla,FloraBankeelgrass,benthicinvertebrates,andmarinefish.Marinebirdsandmarinemammalsare
discussedasincidentalobservationsinrelationtotheirseasonaldistribution.

3.2.2.1

PrimaryProductivity

SpatialandtemporalpatternsandassociationsbetweenSkeenaRiverdischarge,sedimenttransport,freshwater
mixingandnutrientavailabilitywereexaminedinChathamSoundthroughanalysisofMERISandVIIRSremote
sensingsatellitederiveddataonseasurfacetemperature(SST),turbidity,andchlorophyllaasaveragesfrom2001,
2004to2014acrosseachmonth(Chart2).ThesedatawerecontrastedtomonthlySkeenaRiverdischargeforthe
sameyearsobtainedfromWaterSurveyofCanada(UskStation:08EF001).Turbidityandwaterclaritywasderived
fromsatellitespectralimagerymeasuredasdownwellingdiffuselightattenuationcoefficient(K(490))andis
calculatedusingthebluewavelength(490nm)andthegreenwavelength(555nm).K(490)indicateshowvisible
lightinthebluegreenregionofthespectrumpenetrateswithinthewatercolumn.Chlorophyllandprimary
productivitywasderivedfromsatellitespectralimagerymeasuresatPAR.Chlorophyllinmarinewaterchangesthe
wayitreflectsandabsorbssunlightallowingsatellitesensorstomaptheamountanddistributionof
phytoplankton.Chlorophyllaabsorbsmoreblueandredlightthangreenwiththeresultingreflectedlight
changingfrombluetogreenastheamountofchlorophyllinthewaterincreases.Furtherdiscussionanddetailed
spatialandtemporalanalysisofwaterclarity,seasurfacetemperature(SST)andphotosyntheticactiveradiation
(PAR)isprovidedintheReportonWaterClarity(Stantec2015c).
Longtermtrendsinmonthlyturbidity,asmeasuredasdiffuselightattenuationcoefficient(K(490)),near
LeluIslandandacrossChathamSoundcorrespondtobroadpatternsandvariationsinmonthlySkeenaRiver
discharge,detailedresultsarereportedinChart2oftheReportonWaterClarity(Stantec2015c).Longtermtrends
inmonthlychlorophylla(primaryproductivityandphytoplanktonabundance),asmeasuredthroughPAR,showa
seasonaltrendforsitesaroundLeluIsland,SkeenaRiverestuaryandChathamSound.Springphytoplanktonbloom
(chlorophylla)commonlyoccursinlateMarchandearlyAprilinChathamSound.Chlorophyllashowsanincrease
inconcentrationthroughoutearlyspringandintomidsummerfollowingseasonaltrendsinsunlight.Detailed
resultsarediscussedintheReportonWaterClarity(Stantec2015c).
SpatialandtemporalassociationbetweenturbidityandchlorophyllaappearstronglycorrelatedaroundLeluIsland
andwithintheareaofthemiddleSkeenaestuary(Chart3).Turbidityandchlorophyllashowastrongpositive
logarithmicassociation(r2=0.87,p=0.05)aroundLeluandKitsonIslands,andinInvernessChannel,Marcusand
TelegraphPassages.Thepositiveassociationbetweenturbidity,nutrientsandchlorophylladiminishesoutsidethe
middleSkeenaestuary(r2=0.69,p=0.05)andintothelargerChathamSoundarea(r2=0.49,p=0.05)withdistance
andreducedinfluenceoftheSkeenaRiverdischarge.

12

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

Theseassociations(Chart2)andpatternsillustratethattheupperlimitsofphytoplanktonconcentrationmaybe
boundedbyturbidandnutrientconditions(Cloern1987;Gilbesetal.1996)experiencedinthemiddleestuaryand
aroundLeluIslandandFloraBankassociatedwithtimingandconcentrationofsedimentladenSkeenaRiver
discharge.AdditionalresultsarediscussedintheReportonWaterClarity(Stantec2015c).Theseassociations
suggestthatastheSkeenaRiverfreshwaterisdilutedandmixesintoChathamSoundbeyondRidleyIsland,the
potentiallightlimitationsassociatedwithturbiditylessenswithdistancefromtheSkeenaRiverestuaryand
nutrientstiedtosedimentsmayhavegreateravailabilityforphytoplanktongrowth(Gilbesetal.1996).This
processprovidesgrowthopportunitiesformarinephytoplanktonintheareaofChathamSoundbeyondRidley
Island.Thesepatternsaregenerallyconsistentwiththeobserveddistributionanddiversityofmarinespecies(fish,
birdsandmammals)aroundtheprojectsiteandintoChathamSound(ClarkeandJamieson2006b;DFO2012).

13

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

2001

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

Turbidity

Sea Surface
Temperature

Chlorophyll a

2004

Turbidity

Sea Surface
Temperature

Chlorophyll a

2007

Turbidity

Sea Surface
Temperature

Chlorophyll a

Turbidity
Sea Surface Temperature
Chlorophyll a

1.75

3.5 490 nm(m-1)

6C

10C

14C

0
Across all years: 2001, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2011, 2013

7.5

15 mg/m3

14

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

2008

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

Turbidity

Sea Surface
Temperature

Chlorophyll a

2011

Turbidity

Sea Surface
Temperature

Chlorophyll a

2013

Turbidity

Sea Surface
Temperature

Chlorophyll a

Turbidity
Sea Surface Temperature
Chlorophyll a

1.75

3.5 490 nm(m-1)

6C

10C

14C

0
Across all years: 2001, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2011, 2013

7.5

15 mg/m3

Chart2

ComparisonofSatelliteImagerybetweenSST,TurbidityandChlorophyllfor2001,2004to2014

15

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

Chlorophylla(mg/m3)

25
Spring

20

LateSummer

15
10
5
0
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

3.5

4.0

3.5

4.0

Turbidity(DiffuseLightAttenuationK490)

Chlorophylla(mg/m3)

25
20
15
10
5
0
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

Turbidity(DiffuseLightAttenuationK490)

Chlorophylla(mg/m3)

25
20
15
10
5
0
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

Turbidity(DiffuseLightAttenuationK490)

Toppanel:sitesoffLeluIslandFloraBankandwithinareasofInvernessChannel,MarcusandTelegraphPassage.Middle
panel:sitesoffKinahan,Kaien,Stephens,andPorcherislandsandwithinareasofOgdenChannel.Bottompanel:sitesoff
DundasIsland,andnorthwestStephenswithinareaofnorthernChathamSound.
Source:ReportonWaterClarityBaselineCharacterizationoftheWaterClarity,TotalSuspendedSolids,andTurbidityonFlora
BankandAdjacentHabitats(Stantec2015c)

Chart3

16

AssociationbetweenLongTermMeasuresofTurbidityandChlorophyllafrom
SatelliteImagery

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

3.2.2.2

Eelgrass

Eelgrassandalgaehabitatssupportcoastalecosystemsandprovidephysicalstability,sedimentstabilization,
structuralshelterandprimaryproductionforepibenthicfauna.Thesehabitatsareoftenusedbymarinespecies
thatarepartofcommercial,recreational,orAboriginal(CRA)fisheries(Wardetal.1984;Forsythetal.1998;
Fonsecaetal.1998;Lucasetal.2007;Faggetter2009,2013).Eelgrassisfoundthroughoutcentralandnorthern
ChathamSoundandisoftenconsideredanimportantprimaryproducer.Theextentofthiseelgrassasdetermined
bya2012ChathamSoundeelgrassinventory(Faggetter2013)indicatesthateelgrassintheSkeenaRiverestuary
representsapproximately8.4%oftheentireeelgrassoccurringinChathamSound.TheeelgrasslocatedonFlora
Bankrepresentsapproximately1.1%ofthetotaleelgrassinChathamSound,andapproximately13.4%ofall
eelgrassbedsfoundinthelowerandmiddleSkeenaRiverestuary(Faggetter2013).Basedonseveralestimates,
theaerialcoverageofeelgrassonFloraBankshowsconsiderablevariationamongyearsrangingfrom330to
800haovera17yearperiod(Table3).

Table3

FloraBankEstimatedEelgrassAreasandExtentOverTime

Year

FloraBankEelgrassArea(ha)

Data/Source

1996

80

Aerialimageanalysis/Forsythetal.1998Intertidalinventory/Faggetter2009

2007

46

Aerialimageanalysis/Stantec2015

2009

36

Aerialimageanalysis/Stantec2015

2011

45

Aerialimageanalysis/Stantec2015

2013

33

Aerialimageanalysis/Stantec2014IntertidalInventory

ThevariationinFloraBankeelgrassarealcoverageisdirectlyassociatedwiththeextentofphysicalsandbar/
bedformsonwhicheelgrassgrows(Section3.1above),theelevationofintertidalcompactsandbarsabovemean
sealevel(MSL),theextentofseasonalmarinewaterclarityandlightlimitationtosupporteelgrassphotosynthetic
shootandrhizomegrowth(Faggetter2013).TheseresultsaresupportedbelowinFigure11,Chart4,Chart5,Chart
6,andChart7.FurtherresultsontheseasonalmarinewaterclarityandlightlimitationarediscussedintheReport
onWaterClarity(Stantec2015c).
MultivariateanalysisofhighresolutionmultispectralaerialimageryofFloraBank(seeSection3.1)wasusedto
estimatetheextentofFloraBank,theintertidalareasofsandbarandbedforms,intertidaldendriticchannelsand
theextentofeelgrassgrowingonintertidalsandsfor2007,2009,and2011,andavisualdigitizationofpolygonsat
a15kscalewasusedonthenonmultispectralimageryfor2014(Figure8,Figure11).Theaerialimageanalysis
wascalibratedtosimilarlowtidalheightstocategorizevegetatedandunvegetatedsandbar/bedformsrelativeto
anouteredgeofFloraBankdefinedat3.8MSLconsistentwiththe2012PNWLNGbathymetricsurveyresults.
Resultsfromintertidaltransectsin1996(Forsythetal.1998),2009,2012(Faggetter2009,2013)and2013(Stantec
2014a)showonlythepresenceofeelgrass(Zosteramarina)onFloraBank.Noothermarinevegetationwas
observed.Itwasthereforeassumedthatallvegetationobservedinaerialimagerywaseelgrass.
Eelgrasssurveysin2012investigated36sitesacrossChathamSound(Faggetter2013).Twentynineofthe36sites
hadobservationsofsubtidaleelgrasspatches,allobservedoutsidetheSkeenaRiverEstuaryandsedimentplume.
Theremainingseveneelgrasssitessurveyed,includingFloraBank,werecomprisedentirelyofintertidaleelgrass

17

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

patchesdistributedinspecificareasdefinedbylightlimitationstoeelgrassgrowthanddistributiondependenton
lowwaterclarityandhighturbidityintheestuary.
ChathamSoundeelgrasspatcheswerecomparedbasedonmaximumdepth,depthrange,floraandfaunaspecies
richness,andepiphytongrowth(Chart4,Chart5,Chart6,andChart7).ReviewoftheseresultsindicatesthatFlora
Bankeelgrass:

18

Isconfinedtotheshallowupperintertidaldepthsandalowerdepthrangerelativetoeelgrasspatchesacross
ChathamSound(Chart4)
Hasthelowestfloraandfauna(singlecocklespecies)speciesrichness(Chart5)
HasthelowestepiphyteabundancerelativetoeelgrasspatchesacrossChathamSound(Chart6)
Hasshorteelgrassleafandshootlengthsconsistentwithhighexposuretowindandwaves(Chart7).

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

FloraBankEelgrassisidentifiedwiththeArrow.
ChartcreatedfromdatasourcedfromFaggetter(2013)

Chart4

EelgrassPatchMaximumDepthandDepthRange(LowesttoHighestObservedGrowth)inChathamSound

19

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

Note:Speciesrichnesswasestimatedfromthemarinefaunaandfloraspeciesreportedateacheelgrasspatchandstudysite.Speciesidentifiedatthegenuslevelwas
countedonce,whilespecieslistedunderasubgroup(e.g.,Filamentousred,Foliosereds,Filamentousgreen),wereassumedtoindicateatleast2differentspecies.
FloraBankeelgrassisIdentifiedwiththeArrow.
ChartcreatedfromdatasourcedfromFaggetter(2013).

Chart5

20

EelgrassFloraandFaunaSpeciesRichnessOnandAroundPatchesinChathamSound

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

FloraBankEelgrassisIdentifiedwiththeArrow.Observationsofepiphyticabundance(none,low,medium,high)wereconvertedintovaluesfrom1to4(Faggetter
2013)
ChartcreatedfromdatasourcedfromFaggetter(2013).

Chart6

RelativeAbundanceofEelgrassEpiphytoninChathamSound

21

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

FloraBankeelgrassshootorleaflengthwassampledandmeasuredacrossdistancesfromshelteredshoreline
areasonLeluIslandoutontotheeelgrasspatchconfinedtoFloraBank(Stantec2014a).Theseobservations
indicatethateelgrassleaflengthreduceswithwind,waveandfetchexposureontoFloraBank(Chart6).
TheseresultsareconsistentwithobservationsacrosseelgrasspatchesinChathamSound(Faggetter2013).
DuringeelgrassspecificsurveysonFloraBankin2013and2015,exposedeelgrassrhizomeswerefrequently
observedindicatingtheinstabilityofthesedimentsonFloraBank(Skinner2015,pers.comm.).

DatasourcedfromStantec2014a.

Chart7

LeafandShootLengthofFloraBankEelgrasswithDistancefromShelteredShoreline
PatchestoFloraBank

FloraBankhasbeenportrayedasavibrantandproductivehabitatareasupportingaricheelgrassbed.
Thisconcepthasbeensupportedbyworkconductedin1972byHigginsandSchoewenburg(1973)withlimited
directobservationsintheirpresentedresults.AdditionalsurveysofFloraBankoverthepastdecadeandindetail
withinthepast3years(Faggetter2013;Stantec2014a)haveindicatedthattheeelgrassonthebankisexposedto
highlevelsofnaturalturbulencefromlocaltidalcurrentsandextremeeventswhich:

Altertheshapeandextentofthebankandopportunitiesforeelgrassgrowth
Limitthedepthsandrangeofdepthsatwhicheelgrassgrows
Limitoftherichnessanddiversityofspecieswhichuseandgrowontheeelgrass
Limittheleaflengthandgrowthofeelgrass.

3.2.2.3

BenthicandEpibenthicInvertebrates

ThedistributionandabundanceofepibenthicandepiphyticinvertebratesonFloraBankandtheareasadjacentto
LeluIslandwereusedtosupporttheassertionofhighproductivityoftheseareas(HigginsandSchouwenburg
1973;Stantec2014a).Epibenthicandepiphyticinvertebratesarepreyforjuvenilesalmon,coastaldemersalfish
speciesandmarinebirds(Manzer1956,1969).

22

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

SedimentgrabsamplescollectedaroundtheLeluIslandareabyHigginsandSchouwenburg(1973)indicatethat
thetotalabundanceofinvertebratesateachofthesurveysiteswaslimited(038individuals)withlowspecies
diversity(Chart8)dominatedbyisolateddistributionofamphipods,isopods,copepodsandcumaceans.TheFlora
Banksitewaspredominantlyinfaunalbenthicpolychaetesfoundinareasofcompactsands.Thehighestnumberof
invertebrateswasobservedatHorseyBankandincludedcollectionof26amphipods(62%ofthesample).
Amphipodswereonlyfoundatthissiteinsubstrateswithsmallamountsofaccumulateddetrituswithindeeper
areaswithlimitedcurrents.

Numberedsitesinthedatarepresentedaboveinclude1:HorseyBank,2:PorpoiseChannel,3:FloraBank,4:AgnewBank,5:
EastAgnewBank,6:SmithIsland,and17:InvernessPassage.
ChartcreatedfromdatasourcedfromHigginsandSchouwenburg(1973).

Chart8

TotalBenthicInvertebratesatSurveySitesaroundLeluIslandandFloraBank

23

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

IntertidalinvertebratedensitywasalsorecordedduringProjectspecifictransectsurveysatfoursitesaroundthe
shorelineofLeluIsland(Stantec2014a).Meanmotileinvertebrateabundanceandspeciesrichnesswasgreatestat
thenorthwestandnortheastLeluIslandsites,wheretheshorelineiscomprisedofrocky,moreexposedintertidal
habitat.ThelessrockynorthLeluIslandsiteand,particularly,thepredominantlysoftsedimenthabitatbetween
eastLeluIslandandthemainlandhadthelowestmeanspeciesrichness.Duringeelgrassspecificsurveyson
FloraBankin2013and2015,fewepibenthicinvertebrateswereobservedoneelgrassandsandareasofsouthern
FloraBank(Skinner2015,pers.comm.).

3.2.2.4
3.2.2.4.1

FishandCrustaceans
JuvenileSalmonSurveys

Juvenilesalmonmigrationpatternsareoftenafunctionoftherelationshipbetweenseasonaltemperatures,
sunlight,riverdischargefromfreshwaternurseryhabitats,estuaryshelterhabitatsandfoodavailability.Sockeye
(Oncorhynchusnerka)andcoho(O.kisutch)salmonareneriticplanktivorousfeeders,preferringdeeperpelagic
zonesabundantwithzooplankton,amphipods,euphasidsandsmallfishlarvae,whereaschinook(O.tshawytscha),
pink(O.gorbuscha)andchum(O.keta)areepibenthicplanktophagousfeedersfoundinshallowwaterfeeding
mostlyoncopepodsandepibenthiccrustaceans(Manzer1969;Brodeur1990;Brodeuretal.2007).
SpatialandtemporaldistributionofjuvenilesalmonsmoltswereexaminedinChathamSoundthroughseineand
trawlsurveys(Figure6)(Manzer1956;HigginsandSchouwenburg1973;Andersonetal.1986;Community
FisheriesDevelopmentCentre2001;Gottesfeldetal.2008;CarrHarrisandMoore2013;CarrHarris2015).
WiththeexceptionoflateMaywhenthehighestnumberofsockeyesmoltswereobservedmovingpastKennedy
Island,higheroverallabundanceandrearingcapacityofsockeyesmoltswereobservedinlowerareasofChatham
SoundincludingthePortEdwardregion(whichstretchesfromDigbyIslandtothesouthernendofSmithIsland)
andtheOgdenChannelregionthroughoutthesurveyperiod(Morrisetal.2007;Gottesfeldetal.2008).Withinthe
PortEdwardregion,CarrHarrisandMoore(2013)andCarrHarris(2015)caught23%,41%,45%,and67%ofthe
totalnumberofsockeye,coho,chinookandpinksalmonrespectivelyintheProjectareaascomparedtotherestof
theareassurveyedinChathamSound.
OneseinestudywithinthemorelocalProjectareacaughtthemajorityofsalmonsmoltsonthesoutheastern
shorelineofLeluIsland(acrossfromInvernessChannel)andinInvernessChannel,whencomparedtositesin
Porpoisechannel,outsideRidleyIsland,withintheinletofSmithIslandandthechannelsandinsitesrunningon
bothsidesofLeluIsland(Andersonetal.1896).
AmorerecentsurveycaughtthemajorityofsalmonsmoltsatKinahanIslandscomparedtothemoreinshoreareas
ofnorthSmithIsland,RidleyIslandandLeluIslandusingbothtrawlandseinemethodology(CarrHarrisand
Moore,2013).ThetrawlsitesatAgnewBankandTreymayneBay(locatedonDigbyIsland)hadthenexthighest
salmoncatch,whereastheseinesiteatLeluIsland(northwestshoreline)hadthelowestoverallsalmoncatch(3%)
afterRidleyisland(withinporpoisechannel)andnorthSmithIsland,respectively(CarrHarrisandMoore2013;
CarrHarris2015).
SockeyeandcohosalmonwereobservedinhigherdensitiesoutsideKitsonIslandandonthesouthernedgeof
FloraBankinareasoftidalcurrentsconsistentwiththeirdocumenteduseofoffshorepelagicareasforfeeding
(Manzer1956,1969;Gottesfeldetal.2008;Faggetter2013)andenergeticswimmingbenefits(Welchetal.2009).

24

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

Chinook,pinkandchumwereobservedwithincomplexhabitatsinshelteredbaysandvegetatedareasinthe
ProjectareaandthroughoutChathamSound,consistentwiththeirdocumenteduseofshallowwaterfor
epibenthicfeeding(Manzer1969;Faggetter2013;HigginsandSchouwenburg1973;Andersonetal.1986;
CommunityFisheriesDevelopmentCenter2001;CarrHarrisandMoore2013;CarrHarris2015).Thepatternsof
juvenilesalmondistributioninpelagicareasaroundKitsonIsland,migratorypatternsandtimingareconsistent
withthetiminganddistributionofjuvenilesalmonobservedmigratingintheearlysummerthroughChatham
SoundintoHecateStraitandDixonEntrance(Morrisetal.2007;Fisheretal.2007;Beachametal.2014).
Juvenilesalmonidswereobservedfor2to3weekperiodsduringspringsmoltmigration(MaytoJune)(Chart9)
insitesonHorseyBankandintidalchannelsimmediatelyadjacenttoLeluIslandandouterKitsonIsland(Manzer
1956;HigginsandSchouwenburg1973;Andersonetal.1986;CommunityFisheriesDevelopmentCenter2001;
Gottesfeldetal.2008;CarrHarrisandMoore2013;CarrHarris2015).Salmonwereobservedingreaternumbers
inmorecomplexnearshorehabitatsofChathamSoundislands,particularlyinhabitatswithcomplexvegetated
habitatsandtidalcurrentchannels(HigginsandSchouwenburg1973;Andersonetal.1986;CommunityFisheries
DevelopmentCenter2001;CarrHarrisandMoore2013;CarrHarris2015).Juvenilesalmonwerenotobserved
distributedineelgrasspatchesonFloraBank.

LocationincludestheSkeenaRiverestuary.Trendlineforoveralljuvenilesalmonsmoltmigrationindicatedbydottedblueline
BasedondatafromAndersonetal.1986,CommunityFisheriesDevelopmentCentre2001,Gottesfeldetal.2008,CarrHarriset
al.2013.

Chart9

SummaryoftheMigratoryTimingofJuvenileSalmonSpeciesBasedonCatchperUnit
Effort(Fish/Set)fromApriltoAugust

Sockeyeandpinksalmonwerenotedtohavelimitedabundancethroughouttheyear(Fisher2007,Morris2007a,
b,c)(Chart12)withtheexceptionofperiodsofspringsmoltmigration(HigginsandSchouwenburg1973;
Andersonetal.1986;Gottesfeldetal.2008;CarrHarrisandMoore2013;CarrHarris2015)consistentwith
observationsofsmolthabitatuseintheFraserRiver(Johannesetal.2012).Surveyobservationsoftheunsheltered
eelgrassareasofFloraBankdonotsupporthighdensitiesofjuvenilesalmonprey(seeSections3.2.2.2and
3.2.2.3).PlanktonfeedingsockeyeandpinksalmonwereobservedinhigherdensitiesoutsideKitsonIslandandthe

25

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

southernedgeofFloraBankinareasoftidalcurrentsconsistentwithuseofoffshoreareaswithinthewater
columnforplanktonfeeding(Manzer1969;Gottesfeldetal.2008;OceanEcology2014)andswimmingenergetic
benefits(Welchetal.2009).
Chinook,coho,andchumsalmonwereobservedatlowdensityincatcheswithincomplexhabitatsinbaysand
eelgrassbedsintheProjectareaandthroughoutChathamSound(HigginsandSchouwenburg1973;Anderson
etal.1986;CommunityFisheriesDevelopmentCenter2001;CarrHarrisandMoore2013).Juvenilecohosalmon
werecaughtinareasofhigheramphipoddensityneareelgrassthroughoutthegrowingseason(Manzer1969;
HigginsandSchouwenburg1973;Andersonetal.1986;CarrHarrisandMoore2013;CarrHarris2015).

3.2.2.4.2

DemersalFishSurveys

Subtidalsurveyswereconductedusingaremotelyoperatedvehicle(ROV)inMayandJune,2013inthewaters
surroundingLeluandKitsonIslandincludingFlora,AgnewandHorseybanks,deeperpelagicareassouthwestof
thebanks,andPorpoiseChannel(Stantec2014a).Datawasanalyzedalong16transectsfordepth,substrateand
speciesinformationtodescribethespatialdistributionofhabitatswithintheProjectarea.Thevideoimages
resolvefishdistributionwithinarangeofapproximately5mverticallyand10m(5meachside)horizontally.
ROVfishsurveysarecommonlyusedtosupportfishabundanceanddistributionsurveysinshallowandtidal
currentdrivenhabitatsasobservedaroundLeluIslandandFloraBank(Pacunksietal.2013).
Demersalfish(speciesthatliveandfeedinthepelagiczoneonornearthebottomsuchaspricklebacksand
eelpouts),flatfish(flounder,sole),sculpins,rockfish,sharksandskates,crab,shrimp/prawn,seapensandseastars
wereidentifiedandcategorizedbythedepthclassinwhichtheyoccurred(Table4,Chart10).Depthclasseswere
separatedintothreeranges:0to5m,5to10m,andover10mwitheachoftheseclassesrepresenting
approximately2%,46%and52%ofthetotalareaanalyzedrespectively(Stantec2014a).
Observationsindicatedthatsubtidalsoftbottomsubstrate(sand,silt,mudandclay)represented99.7%ofthe
totalsubstratetypeobserved,whereashardbottomsubstrate(cobble,bedrockandboulder)representedonly
0.3%.TransectstransitionedfromtheshallowsoftsedimentofAgnewandHorseyBank,todeepersoftsediment
areasoutsideofHorseyBank,andfinallyintodeeptidalhardbottomareasofPorpoisechannelalongthe
northwestedgeofFloraBank.Thedistributionofspeciesobservedwascategorizedbasedonthesetransition
zoneswhichdefinethreedistincthabitatareas:Agnew/Horseybanks,deepoutsideHorseyBank,andPorpoise
ChannelalongthenorthwestedgeofFloraBank(Table4).
Demersalfishwereobservedinallhabitatareasanddepthranges.Dungenesscrab(Metacarcinusmagister)
wereobservedindepthsgreaterthan10minPorpoiseChannelalongthenorthwestedgeofFloraBankand
between05mdepthonAgnew/Horseybanks.ShrimpwereobservedinallareaswiththeexceptionofPorpoise
ChannelalongthenorthwestedgeofFloraBankandwereonlyobservedindepthsgreaterthan10m.Flatfish
wereobservedbetween0to10mdepthinPorpoiseChannelalongthenorthwestedgeofFloraBankandon
Agnew/Horseybanks.SeapenswereobservedonAgnew/Horseybanksindepthsgreaterthan5m.Theseresults
aredetailedbelowinTable4andChart10.

26

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

Table4

NumberofIndividualsObservedUsingaRemotelyOperatedVehicle(ROV)atMultipleDepthRangesAcrossFour
HabitatAreasintheSpringof2013
Agnew/HorseyBanks

PorpoiseChannel2

DeepOutsideHorsey
510m

>10m

05m

510m

>10m

172

11

42

76

1025

1189

175

387

97

207

125

17

60

19

Shrimp

2025

428

14

Rockfish

Sculpin

12

SeaPen

560

202

49

10

17

SeaStar

12

30

Shark/Skate

Total

23

1150

2867

258

942

17

239

OrganismType

05m

510m

>10m

Crab

127

DemersalFish

12

Flatfish

05m

n/a

Stantec2014a

PorpoisechannelareaconsistsonlyofthedeeptidalhardbottomareaalongthenorthwestportionofFloraBankanddoesnotextentbetweenLeluandRidley
Island.

27

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

PorpoisechannelareaconsistsonlyofthedeeptidalhardbottomareaalongthenorthwestportionofFloraBankanddoesnot
extendbetweenLeluandRidleyIsland
Stantec2014a

Chart10

28

NumberofIndividualsObservedUsingaRemotelyOperatedVehicle(ROV)atMultiple
DepthRangesacrossFourHabitatAreasintheSpringof2013

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

ThesubtidalsurveysdemonstratehabitatuseintheshallowsubtidalsoftsedimentonAgnew/Horseybanksby
flatfishanddemersalfishspecies,shrimp,andtoalesserextent,crabs.Nosalmonorforagefish(e.g.,surfsmeltor
herring)wereobservedduringthesesurveys.Thespeciesthatoccuronorinthismotilesofthabitathave
adaptationsandlifestrategies(suchasashrimpslongthinwalkingappendages)thatmakethemsuitabletouse
theseturbidandsoftsedimenthabitattypes.TheturbulentinterfaceontheouteredgeofFloraBank(0to5m
depth)wasthesmallestareasurveyedandcontainedthelowestnumberofflatfishandshrimpinvertebrate
species.

3.2.2.4.3

DungenessCrabandPrawnSurveys

DungenesscrabandprawnsweresampledduringProjectspecificsurveysandincrabsamplingconductedforthe
PrinceRupertGasTransmissionProject(PRGT)infourhabitattypes(deepsubtidalsoftsediment,shallowsubtidal
softsediment,tidaldeephardbottom,andintertidalcompactsediment)withintheProjectarea(Stantec2015a,
2015b,unpublished)(Chart11).Dungenesscrabwereobservedinallfourhabitattypesincludingtheintertidal
compactsedimentareaofFloraBank,theshallowsubtidalsoftsedimentofAgnew/Horseybanks,thedeepersoft
sedimentareasoffHorseyBank,andthedeeptidalhardbottomareaofPorpoiseChannel(Stantec2015a,b,
unpublished)(Chart11).Catchperuniteffort(CPUE)ofDungenesscrabwasmeasuredastheaveragenumberof
crabscaught/trapforeach24hoursoak.CrabCPUEwasgreatestontheintertidalcompactsedimentofFloraBank
inDecember2014andlowestinthedeeptidalareaofPorpoiseChannelinMarch20153(Stantec2015a,2015b,
unpublished)(Chart11).ThedeepersoftsedimentareasoffHorseyBankwerefavouredbyadultcrab.Porpoise
channelhadthelowestcatchratesandappeartodecreaseinrelativeabundancesoverthesamplingperiod
(October2014throughMarch2015)(Stantec2015a,2015b,unpublished)(Chart11).Prawntrapscaught
6humpbackshrimp(Pandalushypsinotus)offHorseyBankindepthsgreaterthan70minFebruary2015and
3humpbackshrimpinsimilardeepwaterlocationsinMarch2015(Stantec2015a,unpublished).
Softshelled(moulting)DungenesscrabsweresurveyedusingDFOstandardmethods(DFO2014)andwerenot
observedintheProjectAreasites(Stantec2014a;Dunham2014,pers.comm.).Malecrabsareexpectedtomoult
atdepthsgreaterthan10mandinshelteredareasoflowturbulenceonsoftsedimentsubstratecharacteristicof
AgnewandHorseybanks(Dunham2014,pers.comm.).Moultingareashavebeenobservedoutsideofthishabitat
inthemorestablesandysedimentonAgnewBankconsistentwithbiologicalcrabsurveyresultsandcommercial
fisherysoftshelltrappingreferencesitesinDFOCrabAreaAandAreaB(DFO2014).

FloraBankwassampledwithalowerfrequencyofcrabtrapsoverthesurveyperiodsoresultsmayunderrepresentthe
numberofcrabsthatwerelocatedthere

29

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

Stantec2015a,b,unpublished

Chart11
3.2.2.4.4

CatchperUnitEffortfromCrabTrapSitesinFourHabitatCategoriesfromOctober
2014toMarch2015forbothPNWLNGandPrinceRupertGasTransmission(PRGT)
20142015FishSurveys

Duringthe2014to2015Projectrelatedfishfieldprogram,20differentspecieswerecaughtbyseineonthe
northwesternedgeofFlora/AgnewBankandinPorpoiseChannelfromDecember2014toMarch2015(within
shelteredbaysofnorthernLeluIsland)4(Stantec2015a,unpublished)(Chart12)(Figure12).Pinkandchumsalmon
werecaughtinverylownumbersinshelteredsitesonLeluIslandandinPorpoiseChannelduringMarch2015
surveys(Chart12).
Porpoisechannelcontainedagreaterdiversityoffishspeciescaptured.Flounder(Paralichthysspp.),sculpin
(Cottoideaspp.),surfsmelt(Hypomesuspretiosus),tubesnout(Aulorhyndusflavidus),andPacificherring(Clupea
pallasii)werethemostfrequentlycaughtduringallsurveyperiodsandwerecaughtinallhabitattypes.Pacific
sandfish(Trichodontrichodon),starfish(Asteroidea),Englishsole(Parophrysvetulus),andbigskate(Raja
binoculata)wereonlycaughtinthesitesonthenorthwestedgeofFlora/Agnewbanks;whereasPacificsnake
prickleback(Lumpenussagitta),shiner,pipefish(Syngnathinae),coonstripeprawn(Pandalusdanae),andhermit
crabswereonlycaughtinPorpoiseChannel(Stantec2015a,unpublished)(Chart12).Withtheexceptionofa
fewspecies/taxa(sculpin,Cragnonshrimpspp.,tubesnout,snakeprickleback,andpipefish),catchperunit
effort(CPUE)washigherinFebruaryandMarchthaninDecemberandJanuary(Stantec2015a,unpublished)
(Chart12).

SamplingonFloraBankdidnotoccurinDecember2014

30

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

Stantec2015a,unpublished

Chart12

SummaryCatchperUnitEffortfromSeineSitesonFloraandAgnewBankandin
PorpoiseChannelfromDecembertoMarch2015

FourfykenetsweresetinMarch2015fora24hourperiodonFloraBanktosampleebbandfloodtidalcyclesand
flowsacrossFloraBank.Fykenetsfishsimilartosmalltrapnetsandlimitharmtocapturedfish.Tubesnoutwere
themostabundantfishspeciescaptured,followedbyminimalnumbersoffloudersp.,andasingleindividualof
Pacificsandfish,Pacificstaghornsculpin(Leptocottusarmatus),andspottedsnailfishsp.(GenusLiparis)
(Stantec2015a,unpublished).
DatawascollectedfrombeachseiningconductedintheProjectareaforthePrinceRupertGasTransmission
(PRGT)projectovertwosamplingperiods(OctoberandNovember/December,2014)(Figure12)(Stantec2015b,
unpublished).InOctober,beachseinecatchforallareasconsistedprimarilyofCragnonshrimpspp.,surfsmeltand
staghornsculpin;whereasinNovember/December,thecatchconsistedprimarilyofsurfsmeltandtubesnout
(Stantec2015b,unpublished).AtsitesinPorpoiseChannel,tubesnoutwereinhighestabundanceduringboth
surveyperiodswhencomparedtotheotherareassurveyed.IndividualpacificherringandoneDollyVardenwere
observedinPorpoiseChannel(Stantec2015b,unpublished).TheonlyCRAspeciesobservedduringthissurveywas
eulachonwhichwereobservedinlownumbers(9fishcaptured)attheInvernessChannelsitesinNovember/
December.AsamplesiteatthesoutheastcornerofLeluIsland,hadthegreatestabundanceofsurfsmelt(Stantec
2015b,unpublished).

31

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

BothofthesetargetedfishfieldprogramsdemonstratethedominantuseofthenorthwesternedgeofFloraBank
(attheturbulentinterfaceofAgnewBank)byflatfishanddemersalspecies(sole,skate,flounderandsandfish)
adaptedtoliveinthismotilesoftsedimenthabitat.Speciesmoretypicallyfoundinclearershelteredhardbottom
habitatssuchasshiners,tubesnout,crabs,coonstripeprawn,andjuvenilesalmondominatedcatchesinPorpoise
Channel.

3.2.2.5

MarineBirds

Marinebirdsaredistributedincoastalareasbasedonsheltered/protectedbreedingcolonysitesandlocations
foraginggrounds.SurveyswereconductedaroundtheProjectareatodefinethedistributionandhabitatuseof
marinebirds.InareasofnorthernChathamSound,marinebirdaggregateinstagingareasbasedonfoodsupply
(ClarkeandJamieson2006b).
StationarypointcountsandvesselbasedmarinebirdsurveyswereconductedinAugustandNovember2012and
January,April,June,andJuly2013inthewaterssurroundingLeluandKitsonislandsincludingFloraandAgnew
banks,PorpoiseChannel,LelusloughandInvernessPassage(Stantec2014a).
FieldobservationsindicatetheareasaroundAgnewandnorthernFloraBankoftensupportlowerdensitiesof
marinebirdsthanareasinornearPorpoiseChannelandInvernessPassage(Figure13,Figure14,andFigure15).
Marinebirdsweremoreabundantinfall,thaninwinter,springorsummerperiods.Marinebirdswereobserved
resting,ratherthanfeeding,overintertidalareasofFloraBank.FewshorebirdswereobservedforagingonFlora
Bank.PiscivorousmarinebirdswereobservedinPorpoiseChannel,InvernessPassage,andborderingLeluSlough,
inareasofgreaterwaterclarity.
MarinebirdsurveysaroundLeluandKitsonislandsdidnotrecordanyobservationsoflargeconcentrationsofsurf
scoters,otherducks,cormorantsoraukletsasnotedinportionsofChathamSoundnorthofthePNWLNGsite.
FewernumberandspeciesrichnessofmarinebirdswereobservedaroundFloraBankrelativetonortherncoastal
areasofChathamSound(Table6).Observationsofhigherspeciesrichnessanddensityinareasofnorthern
Chathamsound,relativetoFloraBank,areconsistentwithhistoricbirdcounts(CanadianWildlifeService1980).
LeluandKitsonislandsdonotsupportmarinebirdbreedinghabitatsorcoloniesasobservedintheouterislandsin
ChathamSound,suchasLucyandTriangleIslands.

32

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

Table5

IndividualBirdsRecordedAroundLeluIslandandFloraBank,RidleyIslandandKaien
Island
LeluIsland&FloraBank

RidleyIsland

KaienIsland

Average
numberofbirds

Average
numberof
species

Average
numberofbirds

Average
numberof
species

Average
numberofbirds

Average
numberof
species

January

9.0

5.0

75.5

7.0

94.8

6.5

February

90.0

7.8

69.1

7.0

March

83.8

5.5

59.4

7.3

April

14.4

4.6

28.2

7.5

34.1

7.7

May

26.7

5.3

34.7

5.3

June

11.7

3.3

10.2

3.3

17.5

4.6

July

9.5

2.8

10.4

3.9

27.6

4.2

13.0

3.5

September

24.5

7.2

51.3

5.8

October

61.3

10.2

85.4

8.4

November

20.8

4.7

113.8

9.2

112.4

7.4

December

114.5

7.2

120.8

8.0

Month

August

TablederivedfromStantec2014aTechnicalDataReportTerrestrialWildlifeandMarineBirds
Birdnumbersandspecieswereaveragedoverallsurveysconducted.

3.2.2.6

MarineMammals

FieldobservationsfromStantecsmarinemammal20142015program(Stantec2015a,unpublished)andreports
totheBCCetaceanSightingsNetworkfrom20012013(BCCSN2013)indicatedthatthespeciesmostlylikelyto
occurinthecentralChathamSoundwatersnearKitsonIslandandFloraBankmayincludehumpbackwhales
(Megapteranovaeangliae),Northernresidentkillerwhales(Orcinusorca),Biggskillerwhales(Orcinusorca),
Dallsporpoise(Phocoenoidesdalli),harbourporpoise(Phocoenaphocoena),Stellersealion(Eumetopiasjubatus
monteriensis)andharbourseals(Phocavitulina).
ThemarinemammalspeciesrecordedasfeedinginthewatersclosesttooronFloraBankincludeharbour
porpoiseandhumpbackwhales.HarboursealsandStellersealionswereobservedmilling,whichcouldbe
indicativeofremainingintheareatoforage.
HarbourporpoisedietconsistsofavarietyoffishspeciesincoastalPacificwaters,includingPacificherring,walleye
pollock,andjuvenileeelpout(Walkeretal.1998).SeiningandROVdatacollectedintheProjectarea,asdescribed
inSection3.2.2.4,suggeststhatharbourporpoisepreyspeciesweredistributedinPorpoiseChannel(Pacific
herring)andinwatersdeeperthan10m(eelpout).Thisdistributionoffishspeciespotentiallyresultsinthehigher
numberofharborporpoisesightingsobservedwithinPorpoiseChannelandthedeeperareasoffofFloraBank
(BCCSNData2013;Stantec2015a,unpublished).

33

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

Humpbackwhalestypicallyfeedonzooplanktonandschoolingfish(e.g.,herring,juvenilesalmon)(Johnsonand
Wolman1984).JuvenilesalmonintheProjectareawereobservedinhighernumbersfurtheroffshoreinaround
KinahanIslandsthanthemoreinshoreareasofnorthSmithIsland,RidleyIslandandLeluIslandasdescribedin
Section3.2.2.4.Thedistributionofpreyspecies(suchasjuvenilesalmon)ispotentiallylinkedtothefrequent
humpbackwhalesightingsnearKinahanIslands,comparedtootherinshoreshallowareasnearFloraBank
(BCCSNData2013;Stantec2015a;unpublished).
Harboursealsareopportunisticpredatorsandtheirdietconsistsofprimarilysmall/mediumsizedschoolingfish
(e.g.,Pacificherring,hake,salmon)(DFO2010)andalsoincludesbottomfish(e.g.,flounder,sole)(DFO2010).
SightingsofharboursealsnearandonFloraBankwerenotrecordedasfeeding,butweremillinginthearea.ROV
datacollectedintheProjectareaobservedharboursealpreyspecies(flounderandsole)primarilyindepths
greaterthan5monAgnewandHorseybanks(Stantec2014a).Salmon,associatedwiththeSkeenaRiverarelikely
tobefoundinwatersoutsideFloraBank,eitherasmigratingadultstotheSkeenaRiverorasoceanbound
juveniles,andcouldbepreyforharboursealspresentinthearea.
Stellersealiondietconsistsofalargevarietyofspeciesastheyareopportunisticfeeders.Primarypreyislikely
smallormediumsizedschoolingfish,whichwouldincludePacificherring,hake,andsalmon(COSEWIC2003).
Similartoharbourseals,StellersealionswerenotrecordedasfeedinginthewatersnearFloraBank,although
weremillinginthearea(Stantec2015a,unpublished).Manyoftherecordedsightingsduringthe20142015field
programwerelocatednearKinahanIslands,comparedtootherinshoreareasnearFloraBank,whichiswhere
salmonsmoltcatchhasbeenhigherthanothermoreinshoreareas(detailedinSection3.2.2.4).

4.0

VALUEOFMARINEHABITATS

FivephysicalhabitattypeswereclassifiedintheLeluIslandandFloraBanktodescribetherelativevalueofmarine
habitatintheProjectarea.Theclassificationwasbasedonphysicalcharacteristicsincludingcurrents,turbidity,
depthandsedimenttypes(Figure9),andwereconfirmedbythebiologicalcharacteristicsofmarinespecies
habitatuseinthearea.Thesehabitatsinclude:

FloraBankintertidalvegetatedpatches
FloraBankintertidalcompactsand
PorpoiseChanneldeepwatertidalhardsediment
AgnewandHorseyBanksubtidalshallowsoftsediment
KitsonIslanddeepsoftsediment.

Aprimaryassumptioninthestudyandassessmentofmarinehabitatsandpotentialimpactsistheassumptionthat
habitatshavevalue(Bondetal.1999).Examininghabitatvalueisanimportantapproachtodetermineanddefine
changesinhabitatqualityandidentifypotentialmitigationmeasurestoavoidandlimitchangestohabitatvalues.
ThevalueandcontributionofthesemarinehabitatstoCRAfisheriesandpopulationsintheSkeenaEstuarywere
evaluatedbasedobjectivemeasuresofCRAfishspecieshabitatuse,habitatextent,habitatstructuraldiversityand
complexityandresilienceofthehabitatstonaturalconditionsandchange.Thesecriteriaareconsistentwiththe
riskhierarchyappliedtoevaluatepotentialhabitatimpactstoCRAfisheriesandrequirementforauthorizationof
alterationordestructionofhabitatsundertheFisheriesAct.

34

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

FivespeciesofPacificsalmon,PacificherringandDungenesscrabhavebeenobservedintheProjectareaandare
consideredimportantinsupportinglocalCRAfisheries(Hart1988;Stantec2014a).Pacifichalibut(Hippoglossus
stenolepsis),eulachon(Thaleichthyspacificus),androckfish(Sebastesspp.)haveknowndistributioninChatham
SoundbuthavenotbeenobservedinhabitatsaroundLeluIslandandFloraBank(Stantec2014a).Pandalusshrimp
(Pandalusborealis)andforagefishspeciesincludingsurfsmelt,capelinandsandlance,havebeenobservedinthe
ProjectareaandareconsideredtosupportCRAfisheries.
BasedonthereviewofavailableinformationsummarizedinSection2.0,CRAfishspeciesdistributionandgeneral
habitatuseintheProjectareaandthelargerChathamSoundinclude:
1.

2.

3.

4.

AdultandjuvenilesalmonmigratethroughtheFloraBankandLeluIslandarea;however,nostaging,holding
orspawninghasbeenobservedinthesehabitats(Stantec2014,2015).Juvenilesalmonmigratearoundand
throughtheFloraBank,LeluIslandPorpoiseChannelareasanduseshelteredhabitatswithinPorpoiseChannel
asshorttermsummernurseryhabitats.Adultsalmonareknowntomigratethroughoffshorepelagicareas
outsideKitsonIsland,buthavenotbeenobservedmigratinginshallowsubtidalandintertidalareasofAgnew,
HorseyandFlorabanks.SalmonarepelagicCRAspeciesoftensensitivetohighTSSconcentrationsandnursery
andspawninghabitatalterationanddestruction(McFarlandandPeddicord1980;PeddicordandMcFarland
1976).
JuvenileherringareobservedinshelterednurseryhabitatswithinPorpoiseChannel.Herringhavenotbeen
reportedtospawnnearLeluIsland.FivekeyherringspawningareasinChathamSoundareidentifiednorthof
DigbyIslandandnorthofPorcherIsland(Haegele1979;Stantec2014).Herring,likesalmon,areapelagicCRA
speciessensitivetohighTSSconcentrationsandhabitatalterationanddestructionofspawningandnursery
areas(McFarlandandPeddicord1980;PeddicordandMcFarland1976).
Dungenesscrabhavebeenobservedinthesoftsedimenthabitatswithin4ofthemarinehabitatsclassified
withintheProjectarea.Dungenesscrabdonotuseanyofthehabitatareasforimportantlifecycledependent
processesincludingspawningandmoulting.Dungenesscrabarebenthicspeciesandhavehighertolerancesto
turbidandvariablesubstrateconditionswithinhabitats(McFarlandandPeddicord1980;Peddicordand
McFarland1976).
ForagefishspecieshavebeenobservedinhighabundanceinshelteredhabitatsinPorpoiseChannelandoften
overlapintheirdistributionandhabitatusewithPacificherringandjuvenilesalmon.Surfsmelt,capelinand
sandlancedonotuseanyofthehabitatareasintheProjectareaforimportantlifecycledependentprocesses
includingbeachspawning.

ThreeCRAfishspeciesareobservedinhabitatsintheProjectareaandaredistinguishedbyspeciesspecific
adaptationssuitedforpreferredhabitats:Crab,salmon,andherring.Crabarefoundinareasofsoftsedimentsand
arepredatorsandscavengersofbenthicmaterialandorganisms.Crabcantoleratevaryingdegreesoftidal
currents,turbidityandsedimentcharacteristicsinbenthichabitats.Salmonandherringarepelagicclearwater
species,lesstolerantoflowerwaterturbidityandfoundinmorecomplexanddiversehabitats.

35

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

ThefollowingspeciesarenotpresentintheProjectarea:
1.

2.

3.

PacifichalibuthavenotbeenobservedinhabitatswithintheProjectareaanddonotinhabittherelatively
shallowwatersaroundLeluIsland,PorpoiseChannelandFloraBank.Halibuthavebeenobservedinbenthic
areasoffshoreinwatersoftengreaterthan50mindepth(StPierre1984;ValeroandWebster2011).
RockfishhavenotbeenobservedintheProjectarea.Rockfishnormallyuserockysubstratesandhigh
structuralcomplexityatdepthsgreaterthan10m(Loveetal.2002);thesehabitatsarenotpresentinthe
projectarea.
AbalonehavenotbeenobservedintheProjectarea.Abalonenormallyuserockysemiexposedshorelines
withsalinities>30ppt;thesehabitatsarenotpresentintheprojectarea.

ThevalueofhabitatsisdetailedinTable8usingthereviewedstudies,unpublishedanalyzeddataandprofessional
judgment.ThehabitatswerequalitativelyratedbasedonCRAspeciespopulationlevelhabitatusewhichincludes:

ArealextentwithintheProjectarea
CRAmarinefishspeciespresence
CRAfishspecieslifeprocessdependenceofthehabitat
Habitatstructuralcomplexityanddiversity
Resilienceofthehabitattochangingnaturalconditions.

Basedonthisreview,lowCRAfisherieshabitatvalueswereassignedtotheintertidaleelgrasspatchesonFlora
Bank,intertidalcompactsand,subtidalshallowsoftsediment,anddeepsoftsedimenthabitats.Theselowhabitat
valuesarebasedonlimitedCRAfisherieslifeprocessdependenceandhabitatuse,limitedphysicalstructural
diversityandcomplexityofhabitats,highconnectivitytosimilarhabitats,andhighhabitatresiliencetochange.
HighCRAfisherieshabitatvalueswereassignedtodeepwatertidalhardsedimenthabitatsfoundwithinPorpoise
Channelbasedonsalmon,herringandforagefishhabitatuse,highstructuralcomplexityanddiversityofexisting
habitats,andthelimitedextentofthesehabitatsintheProjectarea.

36

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

Table6

MarineHabitat

ValueofMarineHabitatswithintheProjectarea
Habitat
Extent(ha)
(%oftotal
habitats
assessed)5

IntertidalEelgrass
PatchesonFlora
Bank

4.6(5%)

Intertidal
CompactSandon
FloraBank

25.8(29%)

SubtidalShallow
SoftSediment
(Agnew/Horsey
banks)

28.6(33%)

DeepWaterSoft
Sediment(off
HorseyBank)

20.0(23%)

DeepWaterTidal
HardSediment
(Porpoise
Channel)

9.1(10%)

CRAFishSpecies
Presenceand
HabitatUse6
Dungenesscrab

Dungenesscrab

HabitatStructural
Complexityand
Diversity

HabitatResilienceto
Change

Nolifeprocess
dependenthabitats

FloraBankeelgrass
containslowfloraand
faunaspeciesrichness,
limitedstructure

Highresiliencetochange,
highvariationindieland
seasonaltides,currentsand
sedimentmovement

Nolifeprocess
dependenthabitats

Simplehabitatswith
limitedfishdistribution
andlowbenthic
invertebrate,limit
structure

Highresiliencetochange,
highvariationindieland
seasonaltides,currentsand
sedimentmovement

CRASpeciesDependence

CRAFisheriesHabitat
Value
(low,moderate,high)

Low

Low

Dungenesscrab
Juvenilesalmon
andherring
migrationin
pelagicwaters

Nolifeprocess
dependenthabitats
NoDungenesscrab
moulting
Juvenilesalmon,herring
migration

Bothpelagicand
benthichabitats,
variationindepths,low
tomoderatephysical
habitatstructure

Highresiliencetochange,
highvariationindieland
seasonaltides,currentsand
sedimentmovement

Dungenesscrab
Juvenilesalmon
andherring
migrationin
pelagicwaters

Nolifeprocess
dependenthabitats
NoDungenesscrab
moulting
Seasonaljuvenilesalmon,
herringmigration

Bothpelagicand
benthichabitats,
variationindepths,low
tomoderatephysical
habitatstructure

Highresiliencetochange,
habitatsbufferedbydepth,
entirelyconnectivity
offshorehabitatsin
ChathamSound.Not
consideredalimitedhabitat
type

Low

Pacificherring
Pacificsalmon

Nolifeprocess
dependenthabitats
Seasonaljuvenilesalmon,
herringnurseryhabitats

Bothpelagicand
benthichabitats,
variationindepths,
highphysicalhabitat
structure

Highresiliencetochange,
habitatsbufferedbydepth,
highvariationindieland
seasonaltides,currentsand
sedimentmovement

High

Low

5
6

Totalareaofhabitatsis88.1ha
Stantec2014a,Stantec2015,unpublished

37

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

5.0

SUMMARY

PreviousstudiesofFloraBankhasbeendescribeditasimportanttotheproductionandcontinuedviabilityof
SkeenaRiversalmon.Thiscommonlyheldviewisbasedonlittleornoevidence,asdemonstratedinthisreport.
ThisconceptisbasedlargelyontheeelgrasshabitatthatexistsonFloraBank,theextentanduseofthishabitat,
anditspotentialrearingcapacityforjuvenilesalmon(HigginsandSchouwenburg1973).TheconceptofFloraBank
ascrucialjuvenilesalmonhabitatislargelybasedontheworkcompletedbyHigginsandSchouwenburg(1973)
andanecdotalobservationsfrommorerecentstudies(Andersonetal.1986;CommunityFisheriesDevelopment
Center2001;Gottesfeldetal.2008;Faggetter2009and2013;CarrHarrisandMoore2013;CarrHarris2015),
allusingsamplescollectedinwatersadjacentto,butnotonFloraBank.
TheresultsofrecentProjectspecificstudiesin2013to2015,andreviewofhistoricstudiesprovidedinthisreport,
indicatethatjuvenileandadultsalmonmigratorypathwaysexistaroundKitsonIsland,InvernessChanneland
LeluIsland,butnotonoroverFloraBank.Duetoitsexposuretohighlevelsofnaturalturbulencefromlocaltidal
currentsandextremeeventswhichaltertheopportunitiesforeelgrassgrowthandresidentspeciesrichness,Flora
Bankdoesnotsupporteelgrasshabitatsthataresuitableforjuvenilesalmonuse.ThereisnoevidencethatFlora
bankisusedasakeyhabitatthatdirectlysupportsSkeenaRiversalmon.
TheareaonandaroundFloraBankandLeluIslandiscomprisedofavarietyofphysicalfeaturesanddynamic
processeswhichhelpshapethebiologyandhabitatuseofmarinespeciesinthearea.Theareaexperiences
considerablevariationindieltideheights,tidalcurrents,TSS,andseasonalsedimenttransportdrivenby
freshwaterdischargefromtheSkeenaRiverbasin.Thegeomorphologicfeaturesoftheareaincludeislandsand
channelscharacterizedbybedrockatvariouselevationsabovetheseafloor(e.g.,10individualintertidal/subtidal
rockreefsfoundonthenorthwesternedgeofFloraBank).Theislands,channelsandreefsconstrainfreshwater
andseawatermovementandcreatelargelocaltides,tidalcurrents,turbidconditionsandenhancedsediment
transport.Seasonalwind,wave,stormandSkeenaRiverdischargedriveneventshelpshapethenaturalpatternsof
sedimentdepositionanderosionwhichmaintainandcreatelocalshallowsandbarsandintertidalareas.Seasonal
eventsalsoalterandshapethenaturalpatternsoftheseareas,asevidentinthevariationinsurfacesand
bars/bedformsanddendriticchannelsobservedonFloraBank.Together,thesephysicalfeaturesandprocesshelp
definethephysicalhabitattypesthatexistintheFloraBankandLeluIslandareawhichareclassifiedbycurrents,
turbidity,depthandsedimenttypes(Figure9).
ThephysicalstructureandprocessesinthemarineenvironmentdefinetheoverallproductivityofChathamSound,
speciesaggregations,andimportanthabitatareasintheregion(scoterstaging,herringspawning,whaleforaging,
shrimp/prawndiversity)(ClarkandJamieson2006a;DFO2012).Theseasonalpatternsofsedimentandnutrient
dischargeintoChathamSoundcontributetothecreationofproductivebenthicenvironmentssuitedfordiverse
demersalfishandinvertebratespecies(Boutillieretal.1999;ClarkeandJamieson2006b).Nutrientsconnected
withsedimentsdischargedintotheSkeenaRiverestuaryarecarriedoutintoChathamSoundanddonot
immediatelybecomeavailable,whichpotentiallylimitsprimaryphytoplanktonproductioninpelagicmarinewaters
(WareandThomson2005).Theseseasonalpatternsandphysicalconstraintsinturnlimitsecondaryproductionin
theSkeenaRiverestuaryinareaswhereturbiditycontrolsprimaryproductivityasobservedaroundFloraBankand

38

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

LeluIsland.Outsidetheinfluenceoftheestuary,primaryproductionisdrivenbyseasonalnutrients(freshwater
andupwelling)andseasonalpatternsofsunlight.
TheareasonandaroundFloraBankandLeluIslandarecontrolledbyseasonalchangesinsedimenttransportand
thephysicalcharacteristicsoftheseafloorinbothsubtidalandintertidalareas,includingFloraBank.FloraBank
experiencesconsiderablevariationinelevationandsurfacefeatures.Thesephysicalcharacteristicsandprocesses
alsoconstraineelgrassgrowth,distribution,extentandoverallhabitatproductivityonFloraBank.Theeelgrass
areasdonotappeartofunctionasproductivehabitatinamannerconsistentwithothereelgrasspatchesobserved
inChathamSound.FloraBankeelgrassislightlimited,hasalimiteddepthrange,smallshootlengthanddensity,
andverylowfloraandfaunaspeciesdiversityandrichnessandassociatedepiphytongrowth.Eelgrassis
transportedoffFloraBankasdetritusandobservedatdepthinsmallareasoutsideFloraBank.Muchofthe
primaryproductivevalueoftheeelgrassonFloraBankistransportedoffthebankbytidalcurrents.Theremainder
ofFloraBankcomprisescompactedsandsedimentsanddendriticchannelswithlittleornobenthicfloraorfauna
densityordiversity.
ObservationsoffishhabitatuseonandadjacenttoFloraBankincludesmalldemersalfishandinvertebratespecies
whichareabletoinhabitareasofhighcurrentandlowvisibilityandeffectivelyhangonunderchallengingphysical
conditionsinthisfairlyhomogeneoushabitatarea.Pelagicjuvenilesalmonandforagefishspeciesexperience
limitedvisibilityforforagingandpoorplanktonicfoodsupplywhichappearstobeconnectedtothehigher
turbidityandlowlevelsofprimaryproductionthatexistinthisarea.Inareaswheretheeffectsofcurrentsand
turbidityaresheltered,suchasalongPorpoiseChannelandLeluIsland,habitatcomplexityanddiversityis
enhancedrelativetoareasonFloraBank,whichsupportsagreaterfishandinvertebratespeciesdiversityand
productivity.Juvenileandadultsalmonusenaturaltidalcurrentsandtidecyclestomigratethroughunproductive
areasonandaroundFloraBankovershorttimedurations.
Marinebirdsandmammalsaremobileandactivespeciesdistributedinandonmarinewaterbasedondepth
limitations,foodavailability,andhabitatpreferences.Marinebirdsandmammalsdemonstratelowhabitatuseon
andaroundFloraBank.Nobirdormammalaggregationsareobservedrelatedtokeyfishandplanktonresources
inChathamSoundpresumablybecauseofthelowproductivityinthearearelativetootherareasinChatham
Sound.
FloraBankexhibitslimitedhabitatdiversitytype,structuralcomplexityandhabitatusebymarinefish,birdsand
mammals.

39

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

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bcp/commissions/cohen/cohen_commission/localhos/en/technicalreports.htm.AccessedApril2015.
Johnson,J.H.andA.A.Wolman.1984.TheHumpbackWhale,Megapteranovaeangliae.MarineFisheriesReview
46(4):3037.
Love,M.S.,M.Yaklovich,andL.Thorsteinson.2002.TheRockfishesoftheNortheastPacific.UniversityofCalifornia
Press.404pp.
Lucas,B.G.,D.Johannessen,andS.Lindstrom.2007.AppendixE:Marineplants.InLucas,B.G.,Verrin,S.,and
Brown,R.(ed.).Ecosystemoverview:PacificNorthCoastIntegratedManagementArea(PNCIMA).
CanadianTechnicalReportofFisheriesandAquaticSciences.2667(iv).23pp.
MacKenzie,W.,D.Remington,andJ.Shaw.2000.EstuariesoftheNorthCoastofBritishColumbia.A
ReconnaissanceSurveyofSelectedSites(DRAFT).101pp.
Manzer,J.I.1956.DistributionandMovementofYoungPacificSalmonDuringEarlyOceanResidence.Fisheries
ResearchBoardofCanadaProgressReports.No.106:2428.
Manzer,J.I.1969.FoodandFeedingofJuvenilePacificSalmoninChathamSoundandAdjacentWaters.Fisheries
ResearchBoardofCanada,ManuscriptReportSeriesNo.1020.23pp.
Marles,E.W.,B.M.Lusk,andW.J.Rapatz.1980.SummaryofHydrographicandOceanographicInformationon
someBritishColumbiaEstuaries.Marinesciencesdirectorate,PacificRegion.PacificMarineScience
ReportNo.737.
McFarland,V.A.andR.K.Peddicord.1980.Lethalityofasuspendedclaytoadiverseselectionofmarineand
estuarinemacrofauna.ArchivesofEnvironmentalContaminationandToxicology9:733741.
Morris,J.F.T.,M.Trudel,M.E.Thiess,T.B.Zubkowski,andH.R.MacLean.2007a.CFVFrostiGulfofAlaskaSalmon
Survey,June28July7,2005.CanadianDataReportofFisheriesandAquaticSciences.1187:125pp.
Morris,J.F.T.,M.Trudel,M.E.Thiess,T.B.Zubkowski,C.A.BoyleandH.R.MacLean.2007b.CFVFrostiGulfofAlaska
SalmonSurvey,October27November20,2005.CanadianDataReportofFisheriesandAquaticSciences.
1186:136pp.

43

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

Morris,J.F.T.,M.Trudel,M.E.Thiess,T.B.Zubkowski,andH.R.MacLean.2007c.CFVFrostiGulfofAlaskaSalmon
Survey,March425,2005.CanadianDataReportofFisheriesandAquaticSciences.1185:83pp.
NorthcoastEnvironmentalAnalysisTeam(NEAT).1975a.PrinceRupertBulkLoadingFacility.Phase2:
EnvironmentalAssessmentofAlternatives.Volume1,MainReport.PreparedforFederalProvincialJoint
CommitteeonTsimpseanPeninsulaPortDevelopment.PrinceRupert,BC.
NorthcoastEnvironmentalAnalysisTeam(NEAT).1975b.PrinceRupertBulkLoadingFacility.Phase2:
EnvironmentalAssessmentofAlternatives.Volume5,AppendixD.SpecialEnvironmentalConsiderations.
PreparedforFederalProvincialJointCommitteeonTsimpseanPeninsulaPortDevelopment.Prince
Rupert,BC.
O'Reilly,J.E.,J.L.Mueller,B.G.Mitchell,M.Kahru,F.P.Chavez,P.Strutton,G.F.Cota,S.B.Hooker,C.R.McClain,K.L.
Carder,F.MullerKarger,L.Harding,A.Magnuson,D.Phinney,G.F.Moore,J.Aiken,K.R.Arrigo,R.Letelier
andM.Culver.2000.Volume11,SeaWiFSPostlaunchCalibrationandValidationAnalyses,Part3.InB.
HookerandE.R.Firestone(ed.).NASATechnicalMemorandum2000206892,Vol.11.Greenbelt,MA:
NASAGoddardSpaceFlightCenter.49pp.
Pacunski,R.E.,W.A.Palsson,andH.G.Greene.2013.EstimatingFishAbundanceandCommunityCompositionon
RockyHabitatsintheSandJuanIslandsUsingaSmallRemotelyOperatedVehicle.Washington
DepartmentofFishandWildlife.Wenatchee,WA.
Peddicord,R.andV.McFarland.1976.EffectsofSuspendedDredgedMaterialontheCommercialCrab,Cancer
magister.InP.A.Krenkel,J.Harrison&J.C.Burdick,III(ed.).ProceedingsoftheSpecialtyConferenceon
DredginganditsEnvironmentalEffects,Mobile,AL.January2628,1976.AmericanSocietyofCivil
Engineers.633644.
PrinceRupertPortAuthority(PRPA).2013.BaselineMarineEnvironmentalWaterQualitySamplingProgram
SummaryQ1,2,3,4.Memorandum.PreparedbySNCLavalinforthePRPA.Vancouver,BC.
PrinceRupertPortAuthority(PRPA).2014.BaselineMarineEnvironmentalWaterQualitySamplingProgram
SummaryQ1,2,3.Memorandum.PreparedbySNCLavalinforthePRPA.Vancouver,BC.
SedTrendAnalysisLtd.(SedTrend).2015.ASedimentTrendAnalysis(STA)OfPrinceRupertHarbourandIts
SurroundingWaters.PreparedforLaxKwalaamsBandbyPatrickMcLaren,Ph.D.,P.Geo.
Skinner,M.2013.SeniorScientist.Stantec,Dartmouth,NS.PersonalCommunications.April.30,2015.
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StantecConsultingLtd.(Stantec).2014a.PacificNorthwestLNGProjectEnvironmentalImpactStatement/
EnvironmentalApplication.PreparedforPacificNorthwestLNGLimitedPartnership.Vancouver,BC.

44

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

StantecConsultingLtd(Stantec).2014b.FollowupReportonSedimentandWaterQualityAssociatedwith
ConstructionoftheTerminalBerthArea.PreparedforPacificNorthWestLNGLimitedPartnership.
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Partnership.Vancouver,BC.
StantecConsultingLtd.(Stantec).2015b.UnpublisheddataforPrinceRupertGasTransmissionProject2014,2015
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ofCanada13:385434.
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PacificHalibutCommission,ReportofAssessmentandResearchActivities2011.
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phocoena,andDall'sPorpoise,Phocoenoidesdalli,intheinlandwatersofBritishColumbiaand
Washington.MarineMammalProtectionActandEndangeredSpeciesActImplementationProgram1997.
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Ward,L.G.,W.M.KempandW.R.Boynton.1984.TheInfluenceofWavesandSeagrassCommunitiesonSuspended
ParticulatesinanEstuarineEmbayment.MarineGeology59:85103.
Ware,D.M.andR.E.Thomson.2005.BottomupEcosystemTrophicDynamicsDetermineFishProductivityinthe
NortheastPacific.Science308:12801284.
Welch,D.W.,M.C.Melnychuk,E.R.Rechisky,A.D.Porter,M.C.Jacobs,A.Ladouceur,R.S.McKinley,andG.D.
Jackson.2009.FreshwaterandMarineMigrationandSurvivalofEndangeredCultusLakeSockeyeSalmon
(Oncorhynchusnerka)SmoltsusingPOST,alargescaleacoustictelemetryarray.CanadianJournalof
FisheriesandAquaticSciences66:736750.

45

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

FIGURES

46

380000

400000

420000

440000

! Port Edward
Ridley
Island

Coast
Island

6060000

6060000

360000

6040000

Skee
n

Dundas
Lelu
Island
Island

Flora
Bank

Agnew
Bank

Georgetown
Mills

ha
C

nn
el

Inset Map
1:150,000

Smith
Baron Island
Island
Tsu
m TDunira
sad
a i In
Island
le

k
or
W

Kitson
Island

a Dr
6040000

Agnew
Bank

Horsey
Bank

Melville
Island

Metlakatla
6020000

Prince
! Rupert

Digby
!Island

Kaien
Island

Port
Edward

Rachael
Islands

6000000

Stephens
Island

See
Inset Map

Kinahan
Islands

Lelu
Island

Prince Rupert
Port Authority
Boundary

Chatham
Sound

ss

Porcher
Island

!
Pa

ss
a

na

e
Riv

e
Port !
Osland Essington

De Horsey
Island
Passa
g

Kennedy
Island

5980000

assage

Porcher
Island

ee
Sk

hP
Telegrap

Hunts
Inlet

er
ne

Smith
Island

Marcu
s

Inv

16

Haysport

6000000

Tremayne
Bay

Oona
River

gd
O

en

a
Ch

5980000

Triple
Island

el
nn

n
re
G

Pitt
Island

vil
le

20

25 km

5960000

15

el

5960000

10

nn

a
Ch

1:500,000

360000

Airport

380000

Railway

City or Town

Secondary Road

"

Pilotage Station

Watercourse

Project Component

Indian Reserve

Electrical Power
Transmission Line

Prince Rupert Port


Authority Boundary

Highway

Protected Area
Waterbody

400000

Shoals
Agnew Bank

420000

Pacific NorthWest LNG

440000

PREPARED BY:

Study Area Extent

Flora Bank
MARINE FISH AND FISH HABITATS

Horsey Bank

PREPARED FOR:
Sources: Government of British Columbia; Government of Canada, Natural
Resources Canada, Centre for Topographic Information; Progress Energy
Canada Ltd.
Although there is no reason to believe that there are any errors associated with
the data used to generate this product or in the product itself, users of these data
FIGURE NO:
are advised that errors in the data may be present.

DATE:
30-APR-15
FIGURE ID: 123110537
DRAWN BY: A. BOONE

PROJECTION: UTM - ZONE 9


DATUM:
NAD 83
CHECKED BY: M. JOHANNES

\\cd1186-f04\Workgroup\active\123110537\gis\figures\IRs_2015\AppendixC\fig_10537_ir_marine_fish_habitat_01_study_area_extent.mxd

Lucy
Islands

"

4/30/2015 - 12:31:12 PM

6020000

-50

Inset 1: Deep water tidal hard sediment

Inset 3a: Rocky and soft bottom intertidal habitat

-25

-25

3a
3b

-25

Agnew
Bank

Horsey
Bank

Inset 3: Subtidal shallow soft sediment

Inset 3b: Deep water tidal hard sediment

-25

Inset 4: Subtidal shallow soft sediment

Flora
Bank

Inset 2: Rocky and soft bottom intertidal habitat

6
Horsey
Bank

-50

-25

Inset 5: Subtidal shallow soft sediment

Agnew
Bank

Inset 6: Intertidal compact soft sediment

Pacific NorthWest LNG

Railway

PREPARED BY:

Road

Existing Habitats within the Project Area

Contour (m)

PREPARED FOR:

Bathymetric Contour
5m Interval (Chart Datum)
Shoals

MARINE FISH AND FISH HABITATS


Sources: Government of Canada; Government of British Columbia. Natural Resources Canada, Centre for Topographic Information; Canadian Hydrological Service (CHS), 1995.
Although there is no reason to believe that there are any errors associated with the data used to generate this product or in the product itself, users of these data are advised that errors in the
data may be present.

DATE:

30-APR-15

FIGURE ID: 123110537

PROJECTION: UTM - ZONE 9

DRAWN BY:

DATUM:

CHECKED BY: M. JOHANNES

NAD 83

N. PUREWAL

FIGURE NO:

\\cd1186-f04\Workgroup\active\123110537\gis\figures\IRs_2015\AppendixC\fig_10537_ir_marine_fish_habitat_02_existing_habitats_within_the_project_area.mxd

Agnew
Bank

4/30/2015 - 12:46:23 PM

380000

400000

420000

440000

! Port Edward
Ridley
Island

Agnew
Bank

6040000

Skee
n

Dundas
Lelu
Island
Island

Flora
Bank

Agnew
Bank

Georgetown
Mills

ha
C

nn
el

Inset Map
1:150,000

Smith
Baron Island
Island
Tsu
m TDunira
sad
a i In
Island
le

k
or
W

Kitson
Island

a Dr
6040000

Coast
Island

6060000

6060000

360000

Horsey
Bank

Melville
Island

Metlakatla
6020000

Prince
! Rupert

Digby
!Island

Kaien
Island

Port
Edward

Rachael
Islands

6000000

Stephens
Island

See
Inset Map

Kinahan
Islands

Lelu
Island

Prince Rupert
Port Authority
Boundary

Chatham
Sound

ss

Porcher
Island

!
Pa

ss
a

na

e
Riv

e
Port !
Osland Essington

De Horsey
Island
Passa
g

Kennedy
Island

5980000

assage

Porcher
Island

ee
Sk

hP
Telegrap

Hunts
Inlet

er
ne

Smith
Island

Marcu
s

Inv

16

Haysport

6000000

Tremayne
Bay

Oona
River

gd
O

en

a
Ch

5980000

Triple
Island

el
nn

n
re
G

Pitt
Island

vil
le

20

25 km

5960000

15

el

5960000

10

nn

a
Ch

1:500,000

360000

380000

Airport

Railway

City or Town

Secondary Road

"

Pilotage Station

Watercourse

Project Component

Indian Reserve

Electrical Power
Transmission Line

Prince Rupert Port


Authority Boundary

Highway

Protected Area
Waterbody

400000

Estuarine Plume Percent


Freshwater in Upper 20 m
15-20
>20

420000

Pacific NorthWest LNG

PREPARED BY:

Skeena River Estuary Boundary


MARINE FISH AND FISH HABITATS
PREPARED FOR:

Agnew Bank

Sources: Government of British Columbia; Government of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Centre for
Topographic Information; Progress Energy Canada Ltd. Faggetter, B.A. 2013. Chatham Sound Eelgrass Study Final
Report. Prepared for World Wildlife Fund by Ocean Ecology. Prince Rupert, BC 145 pp; British Columbia Marine
Conservation Analysis (BCMCA). 2010. Marine Plants, Estuaries. Available from
http://bcmca.ca/datafiles/individualfiles/bcmca_eco_vascplants_estuaries_atlas.pdf

Flora Bank

Although there is no reason to believe that there are any errors associated with the data used to generate this
product or in the product itself, users of these data are advised that errors in the data may be present.

Shoals

440000

FIGURE NO:

Horsey Bank

DATE:
30-APR-15
FIGURE ID: 123110537
DRAWN BY: A. BOONE

PROJECTION: UTM - ZONE 9


DATUM:
NAD 83
CHECKED BY: M. JOHANNES

\\Cd1186-f04\workgroup\active\123110537\gis\figures\IRs_2015\AppendixC\fig_10537_ir_marine_fish_habitat_03_skeena_river_estuary_boundary.mxd

Lucy
Islands

"

4/30/2015 - 4:33:14 PM

6020000

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

Figure4

50

PurseSeiningSamplingStationsintheSkeenaRiverEstuary(FigurefromHigginsand
Schouwenburg,1973).

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

Source:A:Andersonetal.,1986,BandC:CarrHarrisandMoore,2013

Figure5

SurveyMapsofThreePublishedTechnical/AcademicFishDistributionStudiesin
CentralChathamSound

51

412000

414000

416000

Port Edward

Ridley
Island

Kinahan
Islands

418000

420000

422000

#
*
6008000

#
*

#
*

6008000

410000

#
*

#
*

#
* #
*

+
$

#
*

#
*
#
*

Sk
e

#
*
#
*

en

aD
r

#
*

#
*

#
*

#
*

#
*

#
*

+
$

CN
Ra
ilw
ay

#
*

Agnew
Bank

#
*

#
*

+
$
In

Flora
Bank

rn

#
*
#
*

#
*

e
6004000

6004000

Kitson
Island

#
*
+
$

#
*

#
*
#
*

#
*

Agnew
Bank

#
*

#
*
#
*

Horsey
Bank

Chatham
Sound

500

1,000

#
*

1,500 m
6002000

6002000

1:35,000

410000

City or Town
Road
Railway
Watercourse
Contour

412000

Independent/Historical Studies

#
*
#
*
#
*

Beach Seine Site (Anderson et


al., 1986)
Beach Seine Site (Carr-Harris
and Moore, 2013)

Beach Seine Site (Community


Fisheries Development Center,
2001)
Eelgrass Survey (Faggetter,
2009, 2013)

#
*

Purse Seine Site (Higgens &


Schowenburg, 1973)

#
*

Purse Seine (Carr-Harris, 2015)

+
$

Trawl Capture Site (Carr-Harris,


2015)
Transects (Faggetter, 2009)

Trawl (Carr-Harris and Moore,


2013)
Trawl (Gottesfeld et al., 2008)

414000

Stantec Studies (Stantec 2014)

PNW Foreshore Transect


PRGT Foreshore Transects

PRGT and PNW ROV Transect


Area

416000

Shoals

418000

420000

422000

Pacific NorthWest LNG

Sampling Extent of Reviewed Published Technical/Academic


Literature and Stantec Marine Studies Within the Project Area

Agnew Bank
Flora Bank
Horsey Bank

MARINE FISH AND FISH HABITATS

PREPARED BY:

PREPARED FOR:

Sources: Government of British Columbia; Government of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Centre for Topographic Information; Progress Energy Canada Ltd; WorldView-2 Imagery.
Imagery date: 2011.
Although there is no reason to believe that there are any errors associated with the data used to generate this product or in the product itself, users of these data are advised that errors in the

DATE:

30-APR-15

FIGURE ID: 123110537

PROJECTION: UTM - ZONE 9


DATUM:

NAD 83

DRAWN BY:

L. TRUDELL

CHECKED BY: M. JOHANNES

FIGURE NO:

\\Cd1186-f04\workgroup\active\123110537\gis\figures\IRs_2015\AppendixC\fig_10537_ir_marine_fish_habitat_06_sampling_extent_published_technical_academic_studies_reviewed_project_related_marine_studies_within_project_area.mxd

Horsey
Bank

#
*

6006000

#
*
#
*
#
*

#
*

6006000

Lelu
Island

#
*
#
*

4/30/2015 - 4:34:37 PM

Agnew
Bank

#
*

REPORTONFISHANDFISHHABITATS

Source:ASL(2014)

Figure7

SatelliteImageryofSkeenaRiverDischargewithinChathamSoundandAroundthe
ProposedLeluIslandProjectsite.

53

414000

1:21,000

415000

414000

6007000
6004000

6005000

6006000

6007000

6007000
6006000
6005000

200

6006000

6007000

6005000

6005000

400 m

414000

415000

400 m

1:21,000

1:21,000

415000

200

414000

415000

Pacific NorthWest LNG

PREPARED BY:

Source and Area Summary:


Flora Bank Extent
Flora Bank Channel
Flora Bank Bedform

Year

2007
2009
2011
2014

Tidal Height
(m)
Spot-5 Satellite Imagery
May 20 19:41 pm UTC
1.38
April 29 17:41-18:07 Zulu
Progress Energy, McElhanney photo
1.7 est.
Worldview-2 Satellite Imagery
June 7 20:16 pm UTC
1.39
June 15 11:10-11:35 am PST In-house Aerial Photograph Mosaics
1.58-2.22
Date

1
1
1
2

Time

Source

Channel

Bedform

Area (m )

Area (m )

973,444
1,021,859
1,518,014
692,415

1) Years 2007, 2009 and 2011 channels and bedforms were created using a supervised classification method.
2) Year 2014 channels and bedforms were created using a visual digitizing on screen method.

1,475,813
1,604,698
1,077,292
2,488,067

Extent (m )

2,449,258
2,626,557
2,595,307
3,180,482

Aerial Imagery Quantifying The Extent, Intertidal Channels and


Sand Bars / Bedforms of Flora Bank Between 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2014
PREPARED FOR:
MARINE FISH AND FISH HABITATS
Sources: Government of British Columbia; Government of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Centre for Topographic Information; Canadian Hydrological Srevice (CHS), 1995, Progress
Energy Canada Ltd. Imagery dates: 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2014.
Although there is no reason to believe that there are any errors associated with the data used to generate this product or in the product itself, users of these data are advised that errors in the
data may be present.

DATE:

01-MAY-15

FIGURE ID: 123110537

PROJECTION: UTM - ZONE 9

DRAWN BY:

DATUM:

CHECKED BY: M. JOHANNES

NAD 83

S. PARKER

FIGURE NO:

V:\active\123110537\gis\figures\IRs_2015\AppendixC\fig_10537_ir_marine_fish_habitat_08_aerial_imagery_quantifying_extent_intertidal_channels_sand_bars_flora_bank_2007_2009_2011_2014.mxd

1:21,000

400 m

415000

June 15, 2014

6006000

6007000

200

6004000

6006000

6004000

6007000

6007000

400 m

414000

June 7, 2011

6006000

6005000

6005000

6004000

6006000

200

6004000

6006000
6005000
6004000

415000

5/1/2015 - 12:06:48 PM

414000

April 29, 2009

6007000

May 20, 2007

415000

6005000

414000

6004000

415000

6004000

414000

412000

413000

414000

415000

416000

-1 0

-5 0

-40

0
-1

-1 0
-1 0

-1 0 -5
0

-5

-2 0

-10

-5
-5

-3 0

-1 0

-20

-4
0

-30

0
-1

6008000

6008000

0
-1

-1 0

-2 0

-3
0
!

-5

-2 5
!

-10

-5

-5

-1 0

-5

-2 0

-1 5
-3 0

-2
5

-1
5

6005000

Flora
Bank

6004000

1,500 m

1:30,000

412000

413000

414000

Bathymetry Major Contour (m)


Intertidal Eelgrass Patches
Intertidal Compact Sand
Deep Water Tidal Hard Sediment
Deep Water Soft Sediment
Subtidal Shallow Soft Sediment

Horsey
Bank

-1 0

-2
0

1,000

Habitat

Area (ha)

Intertidal Eelgrass Patches

46.1

Intertidal Compact Sand

258.4

Deep Water Tidal Hard Sediment

91.1

Deep Water Soft Sediment

199.8

Subtidal Shallow Soft Sediment

286.1

415000

Pacific NorthWest LNG


Habitat Type Characterization Based on
Tidal Zone, Water Depth and Substrate Type

-1
0

500

0
-1

0
-4
0

6003000

Agnew
Bank

416000

PREPARED BY:

MARINE FISH AND FISH HABITATS


Sources: Government of British Columbia; Government of Canada, Natural
Resources Canada, Centre for Topographic Information; Progress Energy
Canada Ltd. Worldview-2 satellite imagery, 2011.

PREPARED FOR:

Although there is no reason to believe that there are any errors associated with
the data used to generate this product or in the product itself, users of these data
FIGURE NO:
are advised that errors in the data may be present.

Shoals
30-APR-15
DATE:
FIGURE ID: 123110537
DRAWN BY: S. PARKER

PROJECTION: UTM - ZONE 9


NAD 83
DATUM:
CHECKED BY: M. JOHANNES

\\cd1186-f04\Workgroup\active\123110537\gis\figures\IRs_2015\AppendixC\fig_10537_ir_marine_fish_habitat_09_habitat_type_characterization_based_on_tidal_zone_water_depth_substrate_type.mxd

4/30/2015 - 12:42:44 PM

6004000

-30

Agnew
Bank

-1 0

-1 0

-5

-1 0

6005000

-3
0

6003000

6007000

-5
0

Horsey
Bank

-1 0

-5

-1 0

-5

6006000

-1 5

Agnew
Bank

6006000

-5

-5

-5 0

-5

5
-2 5
-1

-4 0

-3 0

-30

0
-2

6007000

-5

-2 5

-5

-1 0

37A

37

U.S.A.
CANADA
Terrace
Learmouth
Bank

Pacific NorthWest
LNG Project

Prince Rupert

16

Skeena River

McIntyre
Bay

Port Edward !

16

Kitimat !
Chatham
Sound

Dogfish
Banks

16

Sponge
Reef 1
Hecate
Strait
Front
Caamano
Sound

Sponge
Reef 2
Cape St.
James

Pacific
Ocean

Sponge
Reef 3

Shelf
Break
Sponge
Reef 4

Scott
Islands
North Island
Straits
0

50

100

150 km

19

1:3,000,000

!
!

Project Location

30

Brooks Peninsula

North Island Straits

City or Town

Caamano Sound

Scott Islands

Highway

Cape St. James

Shelf Break

Watercourse

Chatham Sound

Sponge Reef 1

International Boundary

Dogfish Banks

Sponge Reef 2

Waterbody

Hecate Strait Front

Sponge Reef 3

Learmouth Bank

Sponge Reef 4

Pacific NorthWest LNG

MARINE FISH AND FISH HABITATS

McIntyre Bay

PREPARED BY:

Ecologically and Biologically


Significant Areas
PREPARED FOR:

Sources: Government of British Columbia; Government of Canada, Natural


Resources Canada, Centre for Topographic Information.
Although there is no reason to believe that there are any errors associated with
the data used to generate this product or in the product itself, users of these data
FIGURE NO:
are advised that errors in the data may be present.

30-APR-15
DATE:
FIGURE ID: 123110537
DRAWN BY: A. BOONE

PROJECTION: UTM - ZONE 9


NAD 83
DATUM:
CHECKED BY: M. JOHANNES

10

\\cd1186-f04\Workgroup\active\123110537\gis\figures\IRs_2015\AppendixC\fig_10537_ir_marine_fish_habitat_10_ecologically_biologically_significant_areas.mxd

20

4/30/2015 - 12:42:18 PM

Hecate
Strait

414000

415000

6006000
6005000

6006000

415000

414000

415000

Pacific NorthWest LNG

PREPARED BY:

High resolution Flora Bank Aerial Imagery and


Estimated Eelgrass and Bank Extent in 2007, 2009, and 2011

Bedform
Intertidal Eelgrass Patches

400 m

1:17,000

1:17,000

414000

200

PREPARED FOR:

MARINE FISH AND FISH HABITATS


Sources: Government of British Columbia; Government of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Centre for Topographic Information; Canadian Hydrological Srevice (CHS), 1995, Progress
Energy Canada Ltd. Imagery date: 2007, 2009 and 2011.
Although there is no reason to believe that there are any errors associated with the data used to generate this product or in the product itself, users of these data are advised that errors in the
data may be present.

DATE:

01-MAY-15

FIGURE ID: 123110537

PROJECTION: UTM - ZONE 9

DRAWN BY:

DATUM:

CHECKED BY: M. JOHANNES

NAD 83

S. PARKER

FIGURE NO:

11

V:\active\123110537\gis\figures\IRs_2015\AppendixC\fig_10537_ir_marine_fish_habitat_11_high_resolution_flora_bank_aerial_imagery_estimates_eelgrass_bank_extent_2007_2009_2011.mxd

414000

400 m

6005000

6006000

1:17,000

200

6005000

6004000

6006000
6005000

6005000

400 m

6004000

200

6004000

6005000
6004000

415000

June 7, 2011

6006000

April 29, 2009

6006000

May 20, 2007

415000

5/1/2015 - 9:17:53 AM

414000

6004000

415000

6004000

414000

413000

414000

415000

416000

417000

418000

Ridley
Island

C18

Ch
an
ne
l

Chatham
Sound

6008000

See Inset Map

Po
rp
oi
s

6008000

412000

C17

Agnew
Bank
Horsey
Bank
C6

6007000

C5

Agnew
Bank
C4
6005000

Inve
rnes
sP

assa
ge

Flora
Bank

6005000

C9

Lelu
Island

C3

6004000

C2

C19

Kitson
Island

C1

6006000

C7

C20

Agnew
Bank

Smith
Island

6004000

6006000

C10

C16

Inset Map
1:20,000

C24

C12

Po
rpo
ise

6002000

C11

C23

6002000

Ridley
Island

Ch
an
nel

6003000

Horsey
Bank

6003000

C15

Pioneer
Dock

C34

500

1,000

1,500

Lelu
Island

2,000 m

Materials
Offloading
Facility

1:40,000
412000

Project Component
Railway
Road
Secondary Road
Watercourse

413000

Waterbody
Shoals
Agnew Bank
Flora Bank
Horsey Bank

414000

Pacific NorthWest Field Program


(December 2014 - March 2015)
Crab Trab

Seine Site
Fyke Net

Prawn Trap
Prince Rupert Gas Transmission
Project Field Program
(October - December 2014)
Crab Trap

Seine Site

415000

416000

417000

418000

Pacific NorthWest LNG

PREPARED BY:

MARINE FISH AND FISH HABITATS

PREPARED FOR:

Marine Fish Survey Locations


From the 2014 - 2015 Field Program
Sources: Government of British Columbia; Prince Rupert Port Authority; Government of
Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Centre for Topographic Information; Progress
Energy Canada Ltd.
Although there is no reason to believe that there are any errors associated with the data
used to generate this product or in the product itself, users of these data are advised that
errors in the data may be present.

DATE:
01-MAY-15
FIGURE ID: 123110537
DRAWN BY: A. BOONE

PROJECTION: UTM - ZONE 9


DATUM:
NAD 83
CHECKED BY: M. JOHANNES

FIGURE NO:

12

6001000

6001000

C26

\\Cd1186-f04\workgroup\active\123110537\gis\figures\IRs_2015\AppendixC\fig_10537_ir_marine_fish_habitat_12_marine_fish_survey_locations_2014-2015_field_program.mxd

C13

Stapledon
Island

C8

5/1/2015 - 8:04:59 AM

6007000

C14

413000

414000

415000

416000

417000

418000

419000

420000

419000

420000

land Rd

6008000

Is
Ridley

#
*"
)
#
*

!
( "
)
*
#

Ch
an
ne

Ridley
Island

ise

#"
*
)

500

750

Agnew
Bank

Horsey
Bank

!
(

Agnew
Bank

#
*

*
!#
(

Kitson
Island

*
#

*
#

1,000 m

Sk
e

en

aD
r

#
*"
) "
)

!
(#*

#
*
CN R
a

e
idg
Br
!

*
#

"
)

*)
!#
"
(

#"
*
)

ilway

Inv
er

nes
s

Pa
ssa
ge

*
#
#
*

Flora
Bank
*)
!#
"
(

*
#
6005000

*
#

*
#

Smith
Island
Horsey
Bank

Agnew
Bank

6004000

6004000

250

rth
Be

6005000

6006000

Chatham
Sound

6007000

#
*

!
( "
)

#
*

!
(
!

6006000

6007000

Po
rp
o

!
(

#
*

*)
"
!#
(

1:25,000

411000

412000

413000

414000

415000

416000

417000

Horsey
Bank
Project Component
Railway

Intertidal Eelgrass
Patches
Intertidal Compact Sand

Road
Unnamed Mapped
Watercourse

Deep Water Tidal Hard


Sediment

Shoals

Deep Water Soft


Sediment
Shallow Water Soft
Sediment

Species Type

!
(

Raptors
(Eagles, Falcons,
Hawks and Harriers)

#
*

Marine-Based Birds
(Diving Ducks,
Cormorants, Gulls,
Alcids and Kittiwakes)

"
)

Shore-Based Birds
(Dabbling Ducks,
Geese, Shorebirds,
Crane and Corvids)

418000

Smith
Island

Number of
Sightings

Pacific NorthWest LNG

PREPARED BY:

1-6

7 - 15

16- 28

29 - 51

Sources: Government of British Columbia; Government of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Centre for Topographic Information; Progress Energy Canada Ltd; WorldView-2 Imagery.
Imagery date: 2011.

52 - 70

Although there is no reason to believe that there are any errors associated with the data used to generate this product or in the product itself, users of these data are advised that errors in the

Marine Bird Observations April 2013


PREPARED FOR:

MARINE FISH AND FISH HABITATS

DATE:

30-APR-15

FIGURE ID: 123110537

PROJECTION: UTM - ZONE 9

DRAWN BY:

DATUM:

CHECKED BY: M. JOHANNES

NAD 83

A. BOONE

FIGURE NO:

13

\\cd1186-f04\Workgroup\active\123110537\gis\figures\IRs_2015\AppendixC\fig_10537_ir_marine_fish_habitat_13_marine_bird_observations_april_2013.mxd

412000

4/30/2015 - 12:41:24 PM

411000

6008000

Porpoise
Harbour

413000

414000

415000

416000

417000

418000

419000

420000

419000

420000

land Rd

6008000

Is
Ridley

#
*"
)

* #
*
!#
(

Ch
an
ne

Ridley
Island

#
*

ise

!
(

#
*"
)
#
*

Po
rp
o

!
)
( "

!
(

500

750

Agnew
Bank

Horsey
Bank
!

*
#

id
Br
!

Agnew
Bank

Kitson
Island

#
*

Sk
e

en

aD
r

#
*

*)
!#
"
(

*"
!
(#
)
)"
#
*

*
!#
(
ge

CN R
a

#
*

*
!#
(

!
(#
)
*"

Inv
er

nes
s

#
*
!
(

*
#

ilway
6006000

Pa
ssa
ge

!
(

#
*#*
!
(

#
*

*)
!#
"
(

Flora
Bank

*
#

#
*
6005000

#
*

!
(

Smith
Island
Horsey
Bank

Agnew
Bank

6004000

6004000

250

rth
Be

6005000

6006000

Chatham
Sound

6007000

6007000

*
#

#
#
*
*

!
( "
)

*
#

1,000 m

1:25,000

411000

412000

413000

414000

415000

416000

417000

Horsey
Bank
Project Component
Railway
Road
Unnamed Mapped
Watercourse
Shoals

Intertidal Eelgrass
Intertidal Compact Sand
Deep Water Tidal Hard
Sediment
Deep Water Soft
Sediment
Shallow Water Soft
Sediment

Species Type

!
(

Raptors
(Eagles, Falcons,
Hawks and Harriers)

#
*

Marine-Based Birds
(Diving Ducks,
Cormorants, Gulls,
Alcids and Kittiwakes)

"
)

Shore-Based Birds
(Dabbling Ducks,
Geese, Shorebirds,
Crane and Corvids)

Smith
Island

Number of
Sightings
(

1-6

7 -15

16- 28

29 - 51

52 - 70

418000

Pacific NorthWest LNG

PREPARED BY:

Marine Bird Observations August 2012 and June/July 2013


PREPARED FOR:

MARINE FISH AND FISH HABITATS


Sources: Government of British Columbia; Government of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Centre for Topographic Information; Progress Energy Canada Ltd; WorldView-2 Imagery.
Imagery date: 2011.
Although there is no reason to believe that there are any errors associated with the data used to generate this product or in the product itself, users of these data are advised that errors in the

DATE:

30-APR-15

FIGURE ID: 123110537

PROJECTION: UTM - ZONE 9

DRAWN BY:

DATUM:

CHECKED BY: M. JOHANNES

NAD 83

A. BOONE

FIGURE NO:

14

\\cd1186-f04\Workgroup\active\123110537\gis\figures\IRs_2015\AppendixC\fig_10537_ir_marine_fish_habitat_14_marine_bird_observations_aug_2012_and_june_july_2013.mxd

412000

4/30/2015 - 12:41:07 PM

411000

6008000

Porpoise
Harbour

413000

414000

415000

416000

417000

418000

419000

420000

419000

420000

land Rd

6008000

Is
Ridley

*")
#
*)
!#
"
(

)
#
*"
!
(

Ch
an
ne

Ridley
Island

*
#

ise

)
*"
#

#
*

*
#

!
( "
)

500

750

Agnew
Bank

Horsey
Bank
!

*
#
!

*
#
!

Agnew
Bank

id
Br
!

*
#

*)
!#
"
(
!

#
*
!

*
#

*
#

(
!

#
*

*
#

#"
*
)

Kitson
Island

#"
*
)

Sk
e

##
*
*

en

aD
r

*
#
!
( "
)
#"
*
)
ge

*
#
CN R
a

#
*")

*
#

ilway

Inv
er

nes
s

#
*
*
#

6006000

Pa
ssa
ge

*)
!#
"
(
*
#

Flora
Bank

*
!#
(

*
#

*
#

!
(

!
(

!
(

)
"
6005000

*
#

#"
*
)

Smith
Island
Horsey
Bank

Agnew
Bank

*
#

6004000

6004000

250

rth
Be

6005000

6006000

Chatham
Sound

6007000

6007000

Po
rp
o

!
)
( "

#
*
!

!
(

1,000 m

1:25,000

411000

412000

413000

414000

415000

*
#

Project Component
Railway
Road
Unnamed Mapped
Watercourse
Shoals

Intertidal Eelgrass
Intertidal Compact Sand
Deep Water Tidal Hard
Sediment
Deep Water Soft
Sediment
Shallow Water Soft
Sediment

Species Type

!
(

Raptors
(Eagles, Falcons,
Hawks and Harriers)

#
*

Marine-Based Birds
(Diving Ducks,
Cormorants, Gulls,
Alcids and Kittiwakes)

"
)

Shore-Based Birds
(Dabbling Ducks,
Geese, Shorebirds,
Crane and Corvids)

416000

417000

Horsey
Bank

Smith
Island

Number of
Sightings
(

1-6

7 -15

16- 28

29 - 51

52 - 70

418000

Pacific NorthWest LNG

PREPARED BY:

Marine Bird Observations November 2012 and January 2013


PREPARED FOR:

MARINE FISH AND FISH HABITATS


Sources: Government of British Columbia; Government of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Centre for Topographic Information; Progress Energy Canada Ltd; WorldView-2 Imagery.
Imagery date: 2011.
Although there is no reason to believe that there are any errors associated with the data used to generate this product or in the product itself, users of these data are advised that errors in the

DATE:

30-APR-15

FIGURE ID: 123110537

PROJECTION: UTM - ZONE 9

DRAWN BY:

DATUM:

CHECKED BY: M. JOHANNES

NAD 83

A. BOONE

FIGURE NO:

15

\\cd1186-f04\Workgroup\active\123110537\gis\figures\IRs_2015\AppendixC\fig_10537_ir_marine_fish_habitat_15_marine_bird_observations_nov_2012_and_jan_2013.mxd

412000

4/30/2015 - 12:40:48 PM

411000

6008000

Porpoise
Harbour

405000

410000

415000

Woodworth
Lake

420000

Species Sighted

Dall's Porpoise

! Metlakatla

Harbour Porpoise
Killer Whale
Humpback Whale

TUGWELL
ISLAND 21

S 1/2
TSIMPSEAN 2

Unidentified Whale

! Prince
Rupert

Pacific White-Sided Dolphin


Harbour Seal

6020000

6020000

S 1/2
TSIMPSEAN 2

Steller Sea Lion

Group Size
1

Rd

2-7
ta
g

8 - 25

Kaien
Island

ey
dl
Ri

Is

nd
la

26 - 100
6015000

Digby
Island

6015000

16

W
an

Rd

Morse Basin
H
ea d

ig hw

ay

16

oise
b
Har

s la

e
Hillc res t Av

Lelu
Island

Ra
ilw

ay

6005000

Kitson
Island

Sk ee
n

a Dr

Inverne

Ts
um

Agnew
Bank Horsey
Bank

Colonel
Johnston
Lake

ss Pass

Ts
ad

ai

age

6005000

CN

Diana
Lake

In l
et

6000000

6000000

Smith
Island

Bremner
Lake

5 km

1:125,000
405000

!
!

Airport
City or Town
Project Component
Electrical Power
Transmission Line
Highway
Railway
Secondary Road
Watercourse

410000

Prince Rupert Port


Authority Boundary
Indian Reserve
Waterbody

Shoals

Agnew Bank
Flora Bank
Horsey Bank

415000

420000

Pacific NorthWest LNG

Porcher
Island

Marine Mammal Vessel Survey


Sightings (November 2014 - April 2015)
MARINE FISH AND FISH HABITATS

Sources: Government of British Columbia; Government of Canada, Natural


Resources Canada, Centre for Topographic Information; Progress Energy
Canada Ltd.; Canadian Hydrological Service (CHS), 1995.

PREPARED BY:

PREPARED FOR:

Although there is no reason to believe that there are any errors associated with
the data used to generate this product or in the product itself, users of these data
FIGURE NO:
are advised that errors in the data may be present.

DATE:
30-APR-15
FIGURE ID: 123110537-851
DRAWN BY: A. BOONE

PROJECTION: UTM - ZONE 9


DATUM:
NAD 83
CHECKED BY: M. JOHANNES

16

\\cd1186-f04\Workgroup\active\123110537\gis\figures\IRs_2015\AppendixC\fig_10537_ir_marine_fish_habitat_16_marine_mammal_vessel_survey_sightings_nov_2014-april_2015.mxd

Po
rp
oi
se

Ch
an
ne
l

Rd

Stapledon
Island

Flora
Bank

Chatham
Sound

DIANA
LAKE PARK

Alwyn
Lake

nd

Agnew
Bank

Chatham
Sound

our

yI

Coast
Island

Kinahan
Islands

! Port Edward

4/30/2015 - 12:40:24 PM

6010000

p
Por

d le
Ri

Ridley
Island

6010000

Sk
ee
n

aD

o wh
Yell