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Welded Connections
Dr. S. RAVIRAJ
Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering
Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, Mysore 06

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Welding is the process to unite various pieces of metal by creating a strong
metallurgical bond. Bond is achieved by heat or pressure or both. Welding is
the most efficient and direct way of connecting the metal pieces. Over many
decades, different welding techniques have been developed to join metals.

2.0 TYPES OF WELDING


Welding is generally performed by either electric or gas. Most of the welding is
done using electric supply. Though gas welding is relatively cheaper, it is a slow
process. Hence this method is generally used for repair and maintenance
purposes.

2.1 Gas Welding


It is also called as oxy-acetylene welding.
Here the mixture of gases namely
acetylene and oxygen is burned at the tip
of a torch, which produces a very hot
flame. This heats the metal pieces for
cutting and welding process. The features
of a typical gas welding is shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1 Gas Welding

2.2 Arc Welding

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Arc welding is used in most of the structural welding operations. Here, electric
energy which is used as the heat source is produced by electric arc. The base
metal and welding rod (or electrode) are heated to fusion temperature by the
electric arc. The typical arc welding equipments and accessories are shown in
Fig. 2. The welding rod is connected to one terminal of the current source and
the object to be welded is connected to the other terminal. The temperature in
the region of welding ranges from 3300o C to 5500o C.

Fig. 2 Arc welding equipment and accessories

2.2.1 Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)


This is the most popular method of arc welding. Heating is done by means of
electric arc between a coated electrode and the material being joined. If
uncoated or bare wire electrodes are used, the molten metal gets exposed to
atmosphere and combines chemically with oxygen and nitrogen and forms
defective welds. The coating on the electrode forms a gaseous shield that
helps to exclude oxygen and protects the molten metal from oxidation. The
flux of the electrode coating, being lighter than molten metal, hardens at the
surface of the weld. This can be removed by gentle tapping or by brushing. The
typical features of shielded metal arc welding are shown in Fig. 3.

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Fig. 3 Shielded metal arc welding


The type of welding electrode used decides the weld properties like strength,
ductility and corrosion resistance. The choice of electrode depends upon the
type of metal being welded, the amount of material to be added, and the
position of work.

There are two types of electrodes:


Lightly coated electrodes
Heavily coated electrodes
Heavily coated electrodes are used in structural welding. These electrodes
result in welds that are stronger, more corrosion resistant, and more ductile
(compared to lightly coated electrodes). Usually the SMAW process is either
automatic or semi-automatic. The main advantage of SMAW is that high
quality welds can be made rapidly at a low cost. The grade and properties of
electrodes are listed in Table 1 of IS 800 : 2007 which is as per IS 814 : 2004.
3.0 ADVANTAGES OF WELDING
There are many advantages of welding. Some of the important ones are as
follows.
1. Welded joints are aesthetical to look when compared to bolted joints.

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2. Welded joints are more rigid than bolted joints. Hence the material at
various sections are utilized more efficiently to resist stresses than that of
less rigid connections.
3. Welding does not require driving of holes. This reduces the cost incurred for
drilling. Hence, while computing the tensile strength of members, the net
area remains the same as the gross area.
4. Welded joints are well suited for liquid and gas containing structures.
5. Welding offers the possibilities of fabricating new sections like castellated
beams or creating complex joints in tubular truss.

4.0 DISADVANTAGES OF WELDING


Some of the disadvantages of welding are;
1. Welding requires greater skill than bolting and hence requires highly skilled
human resources.
2. Improper welding will distort the members and its alignment, and hence
requires more concentration.
3. The inspection of weld joints is more difficult and cumbersome than bolted
joints.
4. The process of welding may leave a higher residual stress in the material.
5. Welding equipment is more expensive and requires larger initial
investment.
6. Welding at site is more difficult and also requires constant power supply.

5.0TYPES OF WELDS
There are four types of welds. They are:

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1. Fillet welds
2. Groove welds
3. Slot welds, and
4. Plug welds
Of these welds, fillet is used to a large extent. Groove welds are used to a
lesser extent. However, slot and plug welds are rarely used.

5.1Fillet Welds

Fig. 4 Fillet weld and its cross section

Fillet welds (Fig. 4A) are widely used due to their economy, ease of fabrication,
and adoptability at site. They are approximately triangular in cross section (Fig.
4). These welds require less precision in fitting up two sections, due to the
overlapping of pieces. They are adopted in field as well as in shop welding. It
does not require any edge preparation and hence cheaper than groove welds.
Fillet welds are assumed to fail in shear. They can be present on one side
(single) or on both sides (double) of a member as shown in Table1 and Fig. 5.
Table 1 Single and double fillet welds

SINGLE

DOUBLE

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FILLET

Fig. 5 Idealised and actual fillet weld

5.2 GROOVE WELDS


In this type of weld, grooves are generally made in the base metal before
welding and hence are called as groove weld. They are generally used to
connect structural members aligned in the same plane, such as in butt joints.
The details of a typical groove weld are shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6 Details of typical groove weld

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Some of the commonly used groove welds in butt joints are shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7 Types of groove welds in butt joint

The square groove weld is used to connect plates up to 8 mm thickness. They


are also used in T-connections. The grooves have a slope of 30O and 60O with
the vertical, which depend on the thickness of the plate and the welding
operation. Partial penetration groove welds should not be used especially in
fatigue situations. Root opening or gap (see Fig. 6) is provided for the electrode
to access the base of the joint. The bevel angle (see

Fig. 6) for typical root

openings is shown in Table 2.


Table 2 Root openings and bevel angle for groove weld
Root openings

Bevel angle

3 mm

60O

6 mm

45O

9 mm

30O

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Weld metal is more expensive than the base metal. Hence, the choice between
single or double penetration depends on the availability of access on both
sides, the thickness of plate to be welded, the type of welding equipment
available and the position of weld.

When the plate thickness is more than 12 mm, the groove can be either
double-bevel or double-V type. When the plate thickness is more than 40 mm,
the groove can be either double - U or double - J type. For plates between 12
to 40 mm, the groove can be wither single-J and single-U type.

Groove welds are chosen in situations where the members need to transmit
the full load of the members they join. Hence, the strength of welds should be
more than or equal to the strength of the members they join. To ensure this,
full penetration groove welds are used more frequently.

5.3 SLOT AND PLUG WELDS


Slot and Plug welds (Fig. 8) are limitedly used to connect the steel members.
They are generally used to complement the fillet welds in situations where it is
not possible to provide sufficient length of fillet welds due to some constraints.
These welds fail in shear. The extent of penetration of these welds into the
parent metal is difficult to determine since it is difficult to inspect it. They are
to be avoided when the members are subjected to tensile forces. The
calculation of design strength of slot or plug welds are similar to that of fillet
welds.

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Fig. 8 Typical slot and plug welds

6.0WELDING POSITON
The welding positions can be of four types, which are:
Flat

- On the floor

Overhead

- Under the roof

Vertical

- On the wall

Horizontal - On the wall


Figure 9 shows the different weld positions which exist during welding
operation.

a) Flat - On the floor

b) Overhead - Under the roof

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c) Vertical - On the wall

d) Horizontal - On the wall

Fig. 9 Different weld positions

7.0 TYPES OF JOINTS


There are five basic types of common joints. They are
Butt joint
Lap joint
T joint
Corner joint, and
Edge joint
Each joint is suitable for a specific situation. The choice of the joint for a
particular job depends on the size and shape of the members to be welded at
the joint, the type of loading, area available for welding at the joint, and
relative cost of various types of welds.
7.1 Butt Joint

Fig. 10 Typical butt joint

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Butt joints are used to join the ends of flat plates of nearly equal thickness. A
typical butt joint is shown in Fig. 10. This joint avoids eccentric transfer of force
at the connection. It is preferable to have full penetration of welds at the butt
joints so that the joint is fully efficient. The size of connection is quite small and
hence is very economical. It is aesthetical to look at. Face reinforcement (weld
beyond the surface) is normally provided in Butt joints. This increases the
efficiency of the joint and ensures that depth of weld is at least equal to the
thickness of the plate.

7.2 Lap Joint

Fig. 11 Typical lap joint

Lap joints are easy to fit and join any two members. A typical lap joint is shown
in Fig. 11. It is the most commonly used joint. It does not require any special
preparation. Lap joints utilize fillet welds. They are well suited for shop and
field welding. Lap joints can accommodate minor errors in fabrication and
minor adjustment in length. The main advantage of lap joints is that it can join
plates with different thicknesses without any difficulty (Fig. 12). The main
disadvantage of this joint is that it introduces eccentric transfer of loads at the
connection.

Fig. 12 Lap joint with plates of different thickness

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7.3 T Joints

Fig. 13 Typical T - joint

A T-joint is usually used to fabricate built-up sections from simple members. A


typical T-shaped joint is shown in Fig. 13. Some of the commonly used built-up
shapes where T-joints are seen are I-sections, Plate girders, Hangers, Brackets,
and Stiffeners. The members in the built-up sections are joined by means of
fillet welds or groove welds.

7.4 Corner Joint


Corner joints are normally seen in built - up rectangular box sections. A typical
corner joint is shown in Fig. 14. They are generally seen at places which are
subjected to high torsional moments.

Fig. 14 Typical corner joint

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Corner joints are seen in the built - up rectangular box sections. A typical
corner joint is shown in Fig. 14. They are commonly seen at places which are
subjected to high torsional moments.

7.5 Edge Joint

Fig. 15 Typical corner joint

Edge joints are generally not used in structural applications. They are used to
keep two or more plates in position in a given plane. A typical edge joint is
shown in Fig. 15.

8.0 WELD SYMBOL AND WELDING SYMBOL


A weld symbol is a symbol which indicates the type of weld to be adopted to
joint the metal pieces. However, a welding symbol is a concise way of
describing all particular information related to the weld on drawings.

8.1 Weld Symbol


Weld symbol is unique for each specific type of weld. Hence the weld symbol
used is different for fillet, groove, plug, and slot welds.

8.1.1 Basic Weld Symbols


The basic weld symbols for the commonly used welds are shown in Table 3.

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Table 3 Basic weld symbols

Weld symbol is only a part of the information regarding the welding operation
to be performed at a joint. As indicated in Table 3, whenever a weld symbol
consists of both vertical and inclined legs, the vertical is always drawn towards
the left side of the inclined line.

8.2 Welding Symbol


The welding symbol contains all the information necessary in connection with
a welding operation. It also includes the type of weld, where welds are to be
located, the type of joint to be used, and the size and amount of weld metal to
be deposited in the joint.
The symbols used are standardized by the various codes of practice so that the
entire information can be concisely represented in a drawing.

The basic welding symbol comprises of three parts, namely


a reference line
an arrow, and
a tail

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Apart from this there are also supplementary welding symbols to represent

Dimensions and other data

Supplementary symbols

Finish symbols

Specification, process or other reference

8.2.1 Basic Welding Symbols

Fig. 16 Basic welding symbols

Reference Line
The reference line is always drawn horizontally. It is mandatory and forms the
foundation of a welding symbol. All information with respect to the welding
process is to be indicated around this line.

Arrow
The arrow line is present at one end of the reference line. It simply connects
one end of the reference line to the joint or area to be welded. The direction of
the arrow has no bearing on the significance of the reference line. Some of the
possible types of arrows used in the welding symbol are shown in Fig. 17.

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Fig. 17 Different types of arrows used in welding symbol

Tail
The tail is shown on the other end (away from arrow end) of the reference line.
It is not mandatory. The tail is used to specify a certain welding process. It is
used only when necessary. It is used to mention some special characteristic of
the weld like type of electrode, some type of reference or specification,
welding or cutting process, procedures or other supplementary information. If
additional information is not needed, then the tail will be omitted. The
representation of tai with additional information is shown in Fig. 18.

Fig. 18 Representation of tail with additional information

8.2.2 Interpretation of Symbols


Fillet weld on arrow side
Symbol

Meaning

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Fig. 19 Fillet weld, Arrow side

Fillet weld on other side


Symbol

Meaning

Fig. 20 Fillet weld, Other side

Fillet weld on both sides


Symbol

Meaning

Fig. 21 Fillet weld, Both sides

Bevel edge
Symbol

Meaning

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The symbol indicates that one edge of a joint is to be beveled. The arrow
should points towards the member to be beveled. Hence, the arrow should
show a definite break so that the member to be beveled can be clearly
identified.
Fig. 22 Bevel edge

8.2.3 Standard Location of Elements of a Welding Symbol

The standard location of various elements of a welding symbol to be indicated


in drawing is summarized below.

Fig. 23 Standard location of welding symbols

8.3 Supplementary Symbols

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There are some supplementary weld symbols used in addition to the basic
weld symbols which are indicated in section 8.1. These include Finish and
contour symbols, All round weld, and Field or site weld which are shown in
Table 4.
Table 4 Supplementary weld symbols

8.3.1 Finish and contour symbols


Finish symbol shows the method of finish to be carried out to a weld.
Generally, the finish of welding is either by chipping (C) or by machining (M) or
by grinding (G). Contour symbols are used with weld symbols to show how the
face of the weld is to be formed. The face of the weld will be either flat, convex
or concave as shown in Table 4.

8.3.2 All round weld

Fig. 24 Typical representation of all round weld

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The all round symbol (Table 4) indicates that the welds are continued all
around the joint. A typical all round weld and its representation is shown in Fig.
24.

8.3.3 Field or site weld

Fig. 25 Representation of field or site weld

The symbol used for field or site weld is a flag (Table 4). It points toward the
tail of welding symbol. If no symbol is present, it indicates the weld as shop
weld. A typical representation of field or site weld is shown in Fig. 25.

9.0 WELD DEFECTS


As mentioned earlier, welding requires greater skill so that the defects can be
avoided. Some of the commonly observed defects in welds are;
1. Incomplete fusion
2. Incomplete penetration
3. Porosity
4. Undercutting
5. Inclusion of slag
6. Cracks
7. Lamellar tearing
1. Incomplete fusion

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This occurs when the surfaces have not been cleaned properly, and are coated
with oxides, mill scales, and other foreign materials. Insufficient current
supplied by the welding equipment or high rate (speed) of welding can also
lead to incomplete fusion.
2. Incomplete penetration
Incomplete penetration can be due to improper grooves or unsuitable groove
design made for the welding process. This can also be a result of the usage of
large size electrodes, insufficient welding current, and excessive welding rates.
3. Porosity
Improper welding techniques will result in air voids being entrapped in the
molten metal during the cooling process resulting in porosity. Some of the
common reasons are excessively high current, longer arc length, poor welding
procedures, and careless use of back-strips.
4. Undercutting
In case of groove welds, grooves are made at the edges of the base metal to
accommodate the welding process. If the grooves are not completely filled
with weld, it results in undercutting of the base metal (i.e., the thickness of the
base metal will be less in that region). This may lead to places of stress
concentrations during the process of force transfer and can be dangerous.
Hence to eliminate undercutting, it is mandatory to have face reinforcement
(welding over the surface of base metal) in all groove joints.
5. Inclusion of slag

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Slag is formed from the coating of the electrodes which are used to shield the
molten material from oxides during the cooling process. The slag is generally
removed after the weld cools by either wire brushing or by gentle tapping. If
the process of cooling is done rapidly, the slag gets trapped inside the weld.
This weakens the weld strength and is not desirable. When the required weld
thickness is large, it is made by several passes. In such cases, the slag should be
removed after the completion of each pass. If this is not done properly, it also
results in the inclusion of slag.
5. Cracks
Cracks are the most serious weld defects since it reduces the weld strength
directly. This results mostly due the relative differences in internal stresses in
the weld. The direction of the weld can be either along the longitudinal or
transverse direction of weld. They can be seen on the surface or present inside
the weld. They can be avoided by using good quality electrodes, adopting
uniform rate of welding and ensuring slower cooling periods.
6. Lamellar tearing
This is the formation of cracks beneath the weld. The high temperature during
welding causes large relative strains in the base metal due to localised stresses
and results in tearing of the base metal. This can be prevented by choosing
proper welding techniques and adopting uniform rate of welding.

10.0 WELD DISTORTIONS


During welding operation, proper care must be ensured to avoid weld
distortions. Improper welding techniques results in weld distortions. Some of

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the commonly observed distortions during welding are Transverse shrinkage,


Longitudinal shrinkage, Angular change, Rotational distortion, Longitudinal
bending distortion and Bucking distortion. These distortions are shown in Fig.
26.

a) Transverse shrinkage

b) Longitudinal shrinkage

c) Angular change

d) Rotational distortion

e) Longitudinal bending distortion

f) Buckling distortion

Fig. 26 Typical weld distortions

11.0 IMPORTANT CODAL PROVISIONS OF IS 800 : 2007 WITH RESPECT TO


WELDING
The welds and welding shall conform to the following codes:

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IS 816 : 1969 Code of practice for the use of metal arc welding for general
construction in mild steel
IS 9595 : 1996 Metal arc welding of carbon and carbon manganese steels

Cl. 10.5.1.1 End Returns

>2a
a = weld
size

>2a
Fig. 27 Details of end returns of weld

Fillet welds terminating at the ends or sides of parts should be returned


continuously around the corners for distance of not less than twice the size of
the weld, unless it is impractical. This is particularly important on the tension
end of parts carrying bending loads.

Cl. 10.5.1.2 Lap Joint

Fig. 28 Typical lap joint

In lap joints the minimum lap should be not less than four times the thickness
of the thinner part joined. Single end fillet should be used only when lapped
parts are restrained from openings. When end of an element is connected only

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by parallel longitudinal fillet welds, the length of the weld along either edge
should be not less than the transverse spacing between longitudinal welds.

Cl. 10.5.2 Size of weld


10.5.2.1 The size of normal fillets shall be taken as the minimum weld leg size.
For deep penetration welds, where the depth of penetration beyond the root
run is 2.4 mm (minimum), the size of the fillet should be taken as the minimum
leg size plus 2.4 mm.

Fig. 29 Size of weld

10.5.2.2 For fillet welds made by semi-automatic or automatic processes,


where the depth of penetration is considerably in excess of 2.4 mm, the size
shall be taken considering actual depth of penetration subject to agreement
between the purchaser and the contractor.

10.5.2.3 The size of fillet welds shall not be less than 3 mm. The minimum size
of the first run or of a single run fillet weld shall be as given in Table 5, to avoid
the risk of cracking in the absence of preheating.
Table 5 Minimum weld size
Thickness of Thicker Part
Over, mm

Upto and including, mm

Minimum Size
mm

--

10

10

20

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20

32

32

50

8 for first run


10 for min. size of weld

10.5.2.4 The size of butt weld shall be specified by the effective throat
thickness.

Fig. 30 Typical butt joint

Cl. 10.5.3 Effective Throat Thickness, te


10.5.3.1

Fig. 31 Effective throat thickness of fillet weld

The effective throat thickness te (Fig. 31) of a fillet weld shall not be less than 3
mm and shall generally not exceed 0.7t, and 1.0t under special circumstances,
where t is the thickness of the thinner plate of elements being welded.

10.5.3.2 For the purpose of stress calculation in fillet welds joining faces
inclined to each other, the effective throat thickness shall be taken as K times
the fillet size, where K is a constant, depending upon the angle between fusion
faces, as given in Table 6.

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Table 6 Values of k for different angles between fusion faces


Angle between fusion faces,

Constant K

600 900

0.70

910 1000

0.65

0.60

107 113

0.55

1140 1200

0.50

101 106

10.5.3.3 The effective throat thickness te (Fig. 32) of a complete penetration


butt weld shall be taken as the thickness of the thinner part joined, and that of
an incomplete penetration butt weld te (Fig. 32) shall be taken as the minimum
thickness of the weld metal common to the parts joined, excluding
reinforcement.

Fig. 32 Effective throat thickness of butt weld

Cl. 10.5.4 Effective Length


10.5.4.1 The effective length of fillet weld shall be taken as only that length
which is of the specified size and required throat thickness. In practice the
actual length of weld is made of the effective length shown in drawing plus two

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times the weld size, but it should not be less than four times the size of the
weld.

10.5.4.2 The effective length of butt weld shall be taken as the length of the
continuous full size weld, but it should not be less than four times the size of
the weld.

Cl. 10.5.5 Intermittent Welds


10.5.5.1 The intermittent fillet welding shall have an effective length of not less
than four times the weld size, with a minimum of 40 mm, except as otherwise
specified.

10.5.5.2 The clear spacing between the effective lengths of intermittent fillet
weld shall not exceed 12 and 16 times the thickness of thinner plate joined, for
compression and tension joint respectively, and in no case be more than 200
mm.

10.5.5.3 The intermittent butt weld shall have an effective length of not less
than four times the weld size and the longitudinal space between the effective
length of welds shall not more than 16 times the thickness of the thinner part
joined, except as otherwise specified. The intermittent welds shall not be used
in positions subject to dynamic, repetitive and alternate stresses.

Cl. 10.5.7 Design Stresses in Welds

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10.5.7.1 Shop welds


10.5.7.1.1 Fillet welds The design strength of a fillet weld, fwd, shall be based
on its throat area.
fwd = fwn / mw in which fwn = fu / 3

where
fu = smaller of the ultimate stress of the weld and the parent metal
mw = 1.25 = partial safety factor

10.5.7.1.2 Butt welds Butt welds shall be treated as parent metal with a
thickness equal to the throat thickness, and the stresses shall not exceed those
permitted in the parent metal.

10.5.7.2 Site Welds The design strength in shear and tension for site welds
made during erection of structural members shall be calculated as per 10.5.7.1
but using a partial safety factor mw of 1.5.

Cl. 10.5.8.1 Fillet Weld Applied to Edge of a Plate


Square edge

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10.5.8.1 Where a fillet weld is applied to the square edge of a part, the
specified size of the weld should generally be at least 1.5 mm less than the
edge thickness in order to avoid washing down of the exposed arris (Fig. 33).

1.5 mm
a

Fig. 33 Fillet weld on square edge of plate

10.5.8.2 Where the fillet weld is applied to the rounded toe of a rolled section,
the specified size of the weld should generally not exceed 3/4 of the thickness
of the section at the toe (Fig. 34).

1/4 t
t

Fig. 34 Fillet weld on round toe of rolled section

10.5.8.3 Where the size specified for a fillet weld is such that the parent metal
will not project beyond the weld, no melting of the outer cover or covers shall
be allowed to occur to such an extent as to reduce the throat thickness (Fig.
35)

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Fig. 35 Full size fillet weld applied to the edge of a plate or section

10.5.8.4

When fillet welds are applied to the edges of a plate or section in

members subject to dynamic loading, the fillet weld shall be of full size, that is,
with its leg length equal to the thickness of the plate or section, with the
limitations enumerated in 10.5.8.3.

Fig. 36 End fillet weld normal to direction of force

10.5.8.5 End fillet weld normal to the direction of force shall be of unequal
size with a throat thickness not less than 0.5t where t is the thickness of the
part as shown in Fig. 36. The difference in thickness of the welds shall be
negotiated at a uniform slope.

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Cl. 10.5.9 Stresses Due to Individual forces


When subjected to either compressive or tensile or shear force alone, the
stress in the weld is given by:
fa or q =

P
tt lw

where
fa = calculated normal stress due to axial force in N/mm2
q = shear stress in N/mm2
P = force transmitted (axial force N or the shear force Q)
tt = effective throat thickness of weld in mm
lw= effective length of weld in mm

Cl. 10.5.10 Combination of stresses


10.5.10.1 Fillet Welds
10.5.10.1.1 When subjected to a combination of normal and shear stress, the
equivalent stress fe shall satisfy the following
2

f e = f a + 3q 2

<

fu
3 mw

where
fa = normal stresses, compression or tension, due to axial force or bending
moment (10.5.9), and
q = shear stress due to shear force or tension (10.5.9)

10.5.10.2.2 Combined bearing, bending and shear - Where bearing stress, fbr is
combined with bending (tensile or compressive) and shear stresses under the

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most unfavorable conditions of loading, the equivalent stress fe is obtained


from the following formulae:

fe =

f b + f br + f b f br + 3q 2

where
fe = equivalent stress
fb = calculated stress due to bending in N/mm2
fbr =calculated stress due to bearing in N/mm2, and
q = shear stress in N/mm2

Cl. 10.8 Intersections


Members or components meeting at a joint shall be arranged to transfer the
design actions between the parts, wherever practicable, with their centroidal
axes meeting at a point. Where there is eccentricity at joints, the members and
components shall be designed for the design bending moments, which result
due to eccentricity.
The disposition of fillet welds to balance the design actions about the
centroidal axis or axes for end connections of single angle, double angle and
similar type members is not required for statically loaded members but is
required for members, connection components subject to fatigue loading.
Eccentricity between the centroidal axes of angle members and the gauge lines
for their bolted end connections may be neglected in statically loaded
members, but shall be considered in members and connection components
subject to fatigue loading.

Cl. 10.11 Analysis of a Bolt/Weld Group


10.11.1 Bolt/Weld Group Subject to In-plane Loading

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10.11.1.1 General Method of Analysis The design force in a bolt/weld in a


bolt/weld group or design force per unit length in a bolt/weld group subject to
in-plane loading shall be determined in accordance with the following:
a) The connection plates shall be considered to be rigid and to rotate relative
to each other about a point known as the instantaneous centre of rotation
of the group.
b) In the case of a group subject to a pure couple only (Fig. 37a), the
instantaneous centre of rotation coincides with the group centroid. In the
case of in-plane shear force applied at the group centroid (Fig. 37b), the
instantaneous centre of the rotation is at infinity and the design force is
uniformly distributed throughout the group. In all other cases (Fig. 37c),
either the results of independent analyses for a pure couple alone and for
an in-plane shear force applied at the group centroid shall be superposed,
or a recognized method of analysis shall be used.
c) The design force in a bolt or design force per unit length at any point in the
group shall be assumed to act at right angles to the radius from that point
to the instantaneous centre, and shall be taken as proportional to that
radius.

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a) Pure couple at
centroid

b) In-plane shear force


at centroid

c) In-plane shear force


away from centroid

Fig. 37 Location of Pure couple and In-plane shear with respect to centroid

10.11.2 Bolt/Weld group Subject to Out-of-Plane Loading


10.11.2.1 General Method of Analysis The design force of a bolt in bolt group
or design force per unit length in the fillet weld group subject to out-of-plane
loading (Fig. 38) shall be determined in accordance with the following:
a) The design force in the bolts per unit length in the fillet weld group resulting
from any shear force or axial force shall be considered to be equally shared
by all bolts in the group or uniformly distributed over the length of the fillet
weld group.
b) The design force resulting from a design bending moment shall be
considered to vary linearly with the distance from the relevant centroidal
axes.

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i) In bearing type of bolt group plates in the compression side of the


neutral axis and only bolts in the tension side of the neutral axis may be
considered for calculating the neutral axis and second moment of area.
ii) In the friction grip bolt group only the bolts shall be considered in the
calculation of neutral axis and second moment of area.
iii) The fillet weld group shall be considered in isolation from the connected
element; for the calculation of centroid and second moment of the weld
length.

B rack et

Fig. 38 Out-of-plane shear force with respect to weld plane

10.11.2.2 Alternative Analysis The design force per unit length in a fillet
weld/bolt group may alternatively be determined by considering the fillet weld
group as an extension of the connected member and distributing the design
forces among the welds of the fillet weld group so as to satisfy equilibrium
between the fillet weld group and the elements of the connected member.

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12.0 Numerical Problems


1. Two plates of size 200 x 10 mm and 200 x 8 mm are connected by a weld groove having (i) Single
V groove weld joint, and (ii) Double V groove weld joint. Determine the maximum tension
which the joints can resist. The steel plates are of grade Fe 410 grade with yield strength of 250
MPa. Assume shop welding.
Solution
Case (i) : Single V groove weld (Fig. 39)
In this case, incomplete penetration results due to single V groove.

Fig. 39 Single V groove weld

Single V is an incomplete penetration welding. Hence the throat thickness is 5/8th of the
thickness of thinner plate.
te = 5/8 t = (5/8) x 8 = 5 mm
Effective length of weld Lw = width of plate = 200 mm.
Strength of weld, P = L x tt x fy / mw

Cl. 6.2

= 200 x 5 x 200/1.25 = 200,000 N = 200 kN

Case (ii) : Double V groove weld (Fig. 40)


In this case, complete penetration results due to Double V groove.

Fig. 40 Double V groove weld

Effective throat thickness is 8mm which is the thickness of the thinner plate.
te = 8 mm
Strength of weld, P = L x tt x fy / mw

Cl. 6.2

= 200 x 8 x 200/1.25 = 320,000 N = 320 kN

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2. Find the size and length of the fillet weld for the lap joint to transmit a factored load of 120 kN as
shown in Fig. 41. Assume site welds, Fe 410 grade steel and E41 electrode. Assume width of
plate as 75 mm and thickness as 8 mm.

Fig. 41 Lap joint connection

Solution
Minimum size of weld for 8 mm thick section = 3 mm (Table 5, Cl. 10.5.2.3)
Maximum size of weld = 8 1.5 = 6.5 mm (Cl. 10.5.8.1)
Choose the size of weld, a = 6 mm
Effective throat thickness = te = 0.70 a = 4.2 mm
Strength of 6 mm weld / mm length = 4.2 x 410 / (3 x 1.5)

Cl. 10.5.7.1.1

= 662.7 N/mm
Assuming only two longitudinal welds along the sides
Required length of weld = 120 x 103 /662.7 = 181 mm
Length to be provided on each side = 181/2 = 90.5 mm
> 75 mm (width of plate)
Hence, provide 90.5 mm weld on each side with an end return of 2x 6 = 12 mm
Overall length of the weld provided = 2 x (90.5 + 2 x 6) = 205 mm

3. Two plates are connected to form a fillet joint using 6mm weld. Welding is provided on three
sides with a lap of 300mm as shown in Fig.42. Find the strength of the joint. If welding is
provided on all four sides (Fig. 44), determine the strength of the joint. Also find the percentage
increase in the strength. Use Fe 410 steel with yield stress 250 MPa. Assume shop welding.

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Fig. 42 Lap joint connection with weld on three sides

Solution
Case (i) : Welding on three sides (Fig. 42)
Lw = 300 + 200 + 300 = 800 mm
Design strength of fillet weld joint, P1 = 0.7a fwd Lw / mw

Cl. 10.5.7.1.1

= 0.7 x 6 x (410 /3) x 800 / 1.25


= 6,36,286 N
Hence, allowable load = 6,36,286 / 1.5 = 4,24,191 N
Case (ii) : Welding on four sides (Fig. 43)

Fig. 43 Lap joint connection with weld on four sides

Lw = 300 + 200 + 300 + 200 = 1000 mm


Design strength of fillet weld joint, P2 = 0.7a fwd Lw / mw

Cl. 10.5.7.1.1

= 0.7 x 6 x (410 /3) x 1000 / 1.25


= 7,95,358 N
Hence, allowable load = 7,95,358 / 1.5 = 5,30,239 N

Percentage increase in strength = (P2 P1) / P1 x 100 = 25 %

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4. Determine the size of the weld required for the bracket connection shown in Fig. 44. Assume
shop welding.
Solution
Eccentricity, e

= 100 + 75 = 175 mm

Torsional moment , M = 60 x 175 = 10,500 kN-mm


Considering unit thickness of weld at root
Ip = Izz + Iyy = 3.08 x 106 mm4
Shear stress due to direct force, f1 = 60,000 / (400x1) = 150 MPa

Fig. 44 Bracket connection showing load and resultant stress in weld

Further, rmax = 125 mm


Shear stress due to torsional moment, f2 = M x rmax / Ip
= 426 MPa
Resultant stress in the critical part of the weld / mm width
2

R = (f1 + f2 + 2 f1 f2 cos ) 0.5 = 530 MPa


Strength of the weld per unit length and thickness, P
P = 0.7a fwd Lw / mw
= 0.7 a (410/3) 1 / 1.25 = 132.6 a N
Equating the resultant, R with the strength of weld, P (i.e., R = P)
a = 3.99 mm
Size of weld to be provided = 4mm

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5. Determine the load, V that can be applied on the bracket shown in Fig. 45. Use 6 mm field fillet
welding.
Solution
Shear stress due to direct force, q = V / (2 x 200 x 1)
= 0.0025 V N/mm2
Moment on weld, M = 200 V N-mm
Considering unit thickness of weld at root,
Moment of inertia Iz = 2 (1x 2003) / 12 = 1.33 x 106 mm4

Fig. 45 Bracket connection showing load out of plane

Normal stress due to bending in tension, fa = M y / Iz


Here, M = 200 V N-mm, y = 100 mm, Iz = 1.33 x 106 mm4

Hence,

fa = 0.015 V

Equivalent stress, fe is computed as (cl. 10.5.10.1.1)


fe = ( fa2 + 3 q2 ) 0.5 = 0.0156 V
For 6 mm fillet weld (field weld)
Strength of weld/mm , fwd =0.7 x 6 (410 / 3) / 1.50 = 662.8 N/mm
Equating the equivalent stress, fe with the strength of 6 mm weld, fwd
fe = fwd
0.0156 V = 662.8
Hence,

V = 42487 N = 42.5 kN

For the current bracket a load of 42.5 kN can be safely applied.

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13.0 References
1. Subramanian, N., Design of steel structures, Oxford university press, New
Delhi, 2009.
2. Bhavikatti, S.S., Design of steel structures, I.K.I. Publishing house, New
Delhi, 2010.
3. IS 800 2007, Code of practice for General construction in steel, Bureau of
Indian Standards, New Delhi, 2007.