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CONSEQUENCES OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION TO MIDDLE CLASS

I.

CONSEQUENCES OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION TO MIDDLE CLASS


A. GROWTH OF MIDDLE CLASS
1. Growth in power & prestige of middle class perhaps most nb single development in social history of 19th c.
a. "Century of the middle class"
2. not homogeneous unit in terms of occupation or income
3. but had to have a minimum income to be considered middle class
4. as well as maintain a certain style of family life
5. & be in certain forms of employment
6. these ranged from successful business tycoon to small traders & shop keepers
7. included in this group
a. ministers, lawyers, teachers, doctors, bureaucrats
8. people who drew salaries rather than wages
9. - white collar workers
B. INFLUENCE OF MIDDLE CLASS ON SOCIETY
1. urban middle class leaders of morals, work ethic, and numerous other characteristics that became part of
society in Europe
2. influence especially in England where Victorian characteristics have percolated down to our own society
in America
C. QUEEN VICTORIA 1837-1901
1. Queen Victoria became supreme middle class role model even though a monarch
2. her own private life, happy marriage and many children influential
3. but also her concern for public & private morality
4. & her sheer longevity
a. 63 year reign - longest reign in English hx
5. became queen at 17
a. niece to William IV
6. marriage w/Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg
a. real love match
b. had 9 children
c. Albert died 20 yrs after marriage of typhoid 1861
7. she did much to restore popularity of English monarchy
8. which had suffered in public esteem during reigns of her predecessors
a. riotous living- debauchery - mistresses
9. while 19th c. England transformed by Industrial Revolution
10. Queen Victoria represented continuity in changing society & culture
11. no monarch since Elizabeth I has left such a powerful impression on contemporaries & posterity
12. she set tone for Victorian England
a. and tone for much of America culture

II. MIDDLE CLASS FAMILY & MARITAL CUSTOMS 19TH CENTURY


A. FATHER HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD
1. middle class devoted to ideal of family & home
2. & father master of household
3. children to be like servants
a. strongly disciplined
4. popular adage of day
a. children to be seen not heard
5. wife to be subject to husband as well
6. Man for the field, woman for the hearth, Man for the sword and for the needle she; Man with the head and
woman with the heart, Man to command and woman to obey
7. middle class family rituals helped to sustain this hierarchy
a. eg. daily meals w/father at head of table
8. home considered to be center of both men's & women's lives

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

9. & home displaced church itself as a refuge and spiritual haven


10. w/growth in middle-class wealth & numbers,
11. home became a status object & as emotional bulwark against a rude commercial world
WIFE'S ROLE & STATUS WITHIN SOCIETY
1. 19th century saw a change from beginning of century when wife contributed directly to business of her
husband
a. handled accounts, correspondence
b. rearing of children left to nurses & governesses
2. in later century home became center of virtue & proper life for women
3. reasons not certain why this happened
4. but hypothesized men began to insist on doing business w/other men
5. magazines & books directed toward women
6. began to praise motherhood, domesticity, religion & charity as proper work of women
7. women expected to be married by 21 & have children
8. in fact, marriage almost sole vocation open to middle-class women
9. because of their supposed innate spirituality
10. "angel of the house" epitaph for Victorian women
11. not only responsible for moral education of their children
12. wife to elevate her husband's morality too
13. Victorian women acquired new role as spiritual advisors to their husbands
PLIGHT OF UNMARRIED MIDDLE CLASS WOMEN
1. poor genteel single girls who had to work for their living found themselves in untenable positions
2. prevented by law & tradition from entering professions that would have given them adequate income
3. it was only late in the century after much agitation that legislation opened the door to medicine, the law,
the universities, the civil service to women
4. before that, all a respectable woman could do was teach, be a governess or write
5. why so many novels of period have governesses as their heroines
a. a much feared fate
6. Bronte sisters illustrate this
a. Emily, the most independent, hated teaching so much she abandoned it, but Charlotte & Anne, almost
as miserable, stuck it out for years
b. famous Jane Eyre novel epitomizes this
DIVORCE
1. in England, Matrimonial Causes Act of 1857
a. set up secular divorce courts
b. double standard as different terms for divorce
c. man needed only to show evidence of his wife's adultery
d. law made quick work of an unfaithful wife
e. husband got her property as well as his & custody of children
f. wife had to show evidence of other marital failings in order to get divorce
(1) like cruelty or desertion
2. divorce remained low
a. only 2% of all marriages ended in divorce thru 19th c
IDEAS ON SEXUALITY & SEX
1. wife to be chaste before marriage & modest after
2. she must never respond to husband's sexual advances w/equal passion
3. new research shows different picture though
4. Middle Class enjoyed sexual relations within marriage far more fully than was once thought
5. diaries, letters & even early medical & sociological sex surveys
6. indicate sexual enjoyment rather than sexual repression was fundamental to middle class marriages
7. much of inhibition about sexuality stemmed from actual dangers of childbirth rather than any dislike or
disapproval of sexual
IDEAS ON SEXUALITY & SEX RE ADOLESCENTS
1. parents expected their children to remain ignorant of facts of life until marriage

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2. popular books instructed parents how to deal with sexual problems in youth
3. a widely-read medical textbook of the 1830's advised
a. sexual indulgence before age of 25 not only retards the development of genital organs, but of the
whole body, impairs the strength, injures the constitution and shortens life.
4. another particular illuminating book on sex & also a best seller
5. by Dr. William Acton 1857
a. Functions & Disorders of the Reproductive Organs in Youth, In Adult Age and In Advanced Life,
Considered in their Physiological Social & Psychological Relations
b. while he was authority on disease of urinary and generative organs
c. this book remained in print long after his 1875 death
6. Acton's ideas
a. Intellectual qualities are usually in an inverse ratio to the sexual appetites
b. much of the languor of mind, confusion of ideas and inability to control the thoughts of which
married men complain arose from sexual excess. It was essential that these sensual feelings should be
sobered down
c. and on masturbation
(1) to seek relief in masturbation that most vicious form of incontinence was not only a danger to
health but might even result in death. Masturbation could and often did lead to consumption,
curvature of the spine and insanity. Those who practice it could be recognized by their stunted
frames, underdeveloped muscles, sunken eyes, pasty complexion, acne, damp hands and skin.
Parents should closely watch their children for the tell-tale signs, and supervise a regimen of
sponge-baths, showers and gymnastic exercises regularly employed and carried to an extent just
short of fatigue.
G. VICTORIAN HOMES
1. middle class took great pride in their homes
a. upper classes had always done so
2. attempted to make it like a museum
a. show their wealth, interests
3. but also first to have comfortability a quality for their furniture
4. sofa or davenport comes into popularity
a. lady would recline on it
5. coffee tables developed
a. to put books & needlework on them
6. drawing room
a. most NB room in Victorian period
(1) vs bedroom for French
7. greenhouses or sun porches attached
a. advent of green plants being moved indoors
8. Victorians rejected simplicity in interior decorating that their grandparents had so much admired
9. barrenness looked upon with disapproval
10. rooms crowded with a vast array of carved overstuffed decorated furniture, ornaments, pictures, screens
and bric-a-brac of every kind
11. more of anything made it more beautiful
12. Victorians hated an empty space
13. word eclecticism seems to be made for Victorians
III. VARIOUS CHARACTERISTICS OF VICTORIAN & 19TH SOCIETY
A. GENERAL REMARKS
1. while women venerated within home & expected to set good example for their children & husband
2. middle class English women (French too) seen as feeble creatures who became invalids for a few days
each month
3. some women considered too frail to walk alone in street, while others working underground in coal mines
4. Victorians who in large part created modern myth of the middle-class successful man
a. self-sufficient, aggressive, competitive, a good provider for his sheltered family

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B. SENSE OF PROPRIETY; RESPECTABILITY
1. books of etiquette & guides to deportment outlined proper behavior & what was respectable
2. Victorians used euphemisms to explain what they considered delicate subjects
a. breast feeding = maternal nutriment
b. pregnancy = an unhappy condition
3. Shakespeare, Milton and ancient classics were searched for sexually explicit or suggestive words
a. such works were then published in expurgated editions
b. even legs on piano & tables covered
c. a truly refined mind Mrs. General remarks in Dickens Little Dorrit will seem to be ignorant of the
existence of anything that is not perfectly proper, placid and pleasant
C. SELF-CONFIDENT; OPTIMISTIC
1. period of confidence & certainty
2. changes possible for betterment of society
3. an age of undreamed of growth & expansion & wealth
4. optimistic because Victorian England very wealthy
5. expectations of middle class rose because material conditions so favorable
D. SANCTITY OF WORK
1. hard work philosophy
2. dignity of work
3. work was end rather than means
E. PUNCTUALITY A VIRTUE
1. made punctuality a virtue
2. when Seth Thomas clock came out in mid 19th c time became nb
3. before that time relative & more relaxed
F. SELF-HELP; SELF-IMPROVEMENT
1. lay at heart of mid-Victorian thought & behavior
2. Samuel Smiles
a. Self-Help 1859
(1) the spirit of self-help is the root of all genuine growth in the individual...it constitutes the true
source of national vigor & strength
(2) influenced middle class greatly
(3) became bible for middle class
(4) God would help those who helped themselves philosophy
3. anyone willing to exert himself could rise to a position of responsibility & personal profit
4. other works followed rapidly w/similar titles
a. Thrift Character & Duty
5. always connected practice of such virtues w/reward of material prosperity
a. like in the US, Horatio Alger,
6. Mrs. Isabel Beeton
a. Household Management
(1) very popular book 19 th c.
(2) still being printed
G. CONCERN FOR SOCIAL STANDING
1. concern for social standing almost universal preoccupation in middle class society
2. servants became barometer for wealth & social standing
3. more men servants family had meant higher on success ladder
4. general rule
a. Middle Class family should spend 1/4 of annual income on servants
b. new middle class attempted to ape their manners & living conditions
H. DESIRE TO DO PUBLIC SERVICE -DO ONE'S DUTY
1. public service as active a force in Victorian society as profit motive
2. on continent too
3. not entirely absent in earlier generations,
4. but many of its features unmistakably Victorian

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5. married women to set example by volunteering to help those less fortunate than themselves
6. in charge of
a. clubs for poor youth,
b. societies to protect poor young women
c. schools for infants
d. societies for visiting poor
7. eg of charitable activity
a. obituary of Mme. Emile Delesalle from a 19th Catholic paper in France
The poor were the object of her affectionate interest, especially the shameful poor, the fallen people.
She sought them out and helped them w/perfect discretion which doubled the value of her benevolent
interest. To those whom she could approach w/o fear of bruising their dignity, she brought, along with
alms to assure their existence, consolation of the most serious sort - she raised their courage and their
hopes. To others, each Sunday, she opened all the doors of her home, above all when her children
were still young. In making them distribute these alms with her, she hoped to initiate them early into
practices of charity.
8. individuals like Florence Nightingale
a. set out to reform nursing
9. in tandem with charity work pressure groups of every kind
a. Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
I. NEED TO RATIONALIZE CHANGES IN SOCIETY
1. middle class felt the need to rationalize its prosperity & legitimize its ascendancy over urban working poor
2. link poverty & crime as interwoven
a. increasingly they saw poverty as criminal
3. but middle class still felt responsible for tremendous change in European society with advent of
industrialization
4. although to alleviate somewhat their guilt they recognized no one had a crystal ball to predict outcome of
new order of society
J. SUMMATION OF VICTORIAN VALUES & CHARACTERISTICS
1. 3 p's = progress, propriety & prudery
2. + respect for religion, the political order, family authority
3. these formed the pillars of Victorian society
4. Prime Minister Melbourne's famous quote:
a. "Fear God, honor the Queen, obey your parents, brush your teeth.

5/1/2014

Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - Opposition to Tsarist rule

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Opposition to Tsardom
Past Questions:
Analyse the reasons for, and the nature of, opposition to tsardom in Russia between
1855 and 1894. (Nov 2005)
Markscheme for this question
Key dates and events:

1857 - Alexander Herzen, The Bell, critical of Western developments and industrial capitalism.
1863 - Nikolai Chernyshevsky, What is to be done? - socialist pamphlet with guidelines on
revolutionary activism.
Polish Revolt
April 1866 - First attempt on the Tsar's life - Dmitri Karakozov, a disgruntled noble student.
1873 - 74 - Narodniks and populism: 'going to the people'
1876 - more radical 'Land and Liberty' formed, under leadership of George Plekhanov.
1879 - still more extreme 'The People's Will' set up (narodnaya volya) as 'land and liberty' splits into
peaceful and violent factions over question of whether terror should be used in pursuit of their aims.
1 March 1881 - assassination of Alexander II at the hands of 'the people's will' led by Mikhailov.
1886 - execution of Alexander Ulyanov, a student part of a group aiming to kill Alexander III. This was
Lenin's older brother.

Why opposition? What did they oppose?

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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - Opposition to Tsarist rule

Nationalities: Polish revolt, 1863. Polish desire for land reform, and re-establishing Polish
nationhood, led to unrest and demonstrations killing 200. Planned conscription of Poles into the
Russian army led to armed rebellion in February 1863, which lasted a year across the
countryside before it was put down by granting land reform. This showed that non-Russian
nationalist aspirations within the Russian Empire were not possible, and contributed to the
adoption of Russification policies in the future.
Ideological rejection of the regime: nihilists who argued for a total rejection of existing
institutions and moral values, in favour of unrestricted individual freedom. Turgenev's novel: "A
nihilist is a man who does not bow before any authorities, who does not accept a single principle
on trust". (1862) Mikhail Bakunin's anarchist political philosophy preached overthrowing the
regime by violence, and replacing it with the self-governing form of the peasant commune.
Slavophile argument against Western capitalism: linked to the above, an ideological
rejection of development towards greater industrial development along Western lines and greater
centralised state power. Instead, preserving the specifically Russian institution of the mir
(peasant commune) was put forward as a goal for the future - see 'Populists' below.
Political opposition: radical demands for a written constitution and a national parliament, to
limit the autocracy and allow the people a greater political role.
Emancipation of the serfs: nobility resented the loss of a third of their land (though they were
compensated for this, much of this went to pay off existing debts) and a loss of their social
influence and prestige; peasants resented that they had less land than before, but now had to
pay redemption taxes for this! 647 incidents of peasant uprisings after the edict was issued - i.e.
Bezdna. To the intelligenstia, the limited nature of the reform showed that Alexander II was
incapable of meeting the needs of ordinary Russians, and it therefore caused more revolutionary
activity against the state.
What was the nature of this opposition?
intellectual, exclusive and secretive - educated and middle classes, not peasants or workers.
universities - students! Idealistic youth - gentry and middle class- of the narodnik s in the 1870s.
unorganised, sporadic local uprisings of the peasantry - i.e. 647 incidents of rioting in four
months after the emancipation edict in 1861.
Aims and actions of key opposition groups:
Populism - leaders drawn from the middle and upper classes, developed as an ideology out of
slavophile thinking of the 1860s, such as Alexander Herzen. These populists disliked Tsarist
autocracy and wished to replace it with local government based on the mir, the village commune
- a very Russian form of local democracy. For the populists - the narodnik s - were agrarian
socialists who idealised Russia's agricultural past, and rejected capitalism and industrialism as
destroyers of peasant communities. In populist thought, the mir was to be the democratic model
around which Russia's socialist future could be built.
Populist disagreement about how revolution should be achieved: Peter Lavrov and moderates
who argued for gradual change via educating the peasants which would evolve towards the
withering away of the state vs more extremists, such as Chernyshevsky, who wanted more
direct action to be taken now to seize revolution (mirroring later debates between Bolsheviks and
other socialists about the timing of the revolution).
'Going to the people', 1873 - 74 - the populist campaign, following Herzen's ideas, that saw
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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - Opposition to Tsarist rule

thousands of intellectuals and students going out into the countryside to spread the idea of a
socialist revolution to the peasants. However, very little was achieved to this end. The movement
lacked clear central organisation, and campaigners had diverse aims: some wished to spread
revolutionary propaganda, but some wished to spend time with the peasants to learn their ways.
The peasants did not receive the positives favourably, and many called the police - leading to
hundreds of the narodnik i to be arrested. Clearly, as Marx had argued and as Lenin would later
be aware, the peasants did not at this point possess sufficient 'revolutionary consciousness' to
consider revolution a viable option!
'Land and liberty', 1876 - failure of the 'going to the people' led to disappointment and the
discrediting of the moderate populists, which then drove the movement towards terrorism and
political violence as 'land and liberty' was formed. Vera Zasulich shot and wounded the governor
of St Petersburg, and then managed to be found 'not guilty' in her trial, which shocked AII and
drove him to hold such political cases behind closed doors.
'The People's Will' (narodna volya), 1879 - still more extreme organisation developed after
'land and liberty' broke up. 'People's will' argued that social revolution would not be possible
without first achieving a political revolution. Its programme aimed to rescue Russia from the
autocracy and demanded key democratic reforms: national constitution, universal suffrage,
freedom of speech and press, local self-government and national self-determination. Their use of
political terror culminated in the assassination of Alexander II in 1881, but ironically this allowed
Alexander III to crack down on opposition movements and many leading figures of the People's
Will were imprisoned. So their violent opposition to autocracy succeeded in increasing tsarist
oppression and persecution of anyone who dared to oppose the autocracy!
How extensive and effective was this opposition?

Given the need for such opposition to remain secretive and underground in order to survive, it is
difficult to accurately assess the extent of it. However, for most of the above movements the
number of members and supporters ranged from a couple of hundred to a few thousand.
Judged against the aims they hoped to achieve, the opposition movements during the reign of
Alexander must be seen as largely ineffective. Even though they succeeded in killing the Tsar,
little was achieved in terms of reducing the power of the autocracy or gaining the support of the
peasantry for a revolutionary uprising against the state.
These opposition groups were significant, however, insofar as they 'laid the groundwork' for later
revolutionaries and raised central issues that had had to be addressed - such as were the
peasants ready for a revolution? Should political violence be used against the state? Who should
lead the revolution? What role should the small group of dedicated revolutionaries, as put forward
by Chernyshevsky, play in all this? Clearly, such considerations had an impact on Lenin and the
Bolsheviks.
Why did it not achieve greater success?
its nature (secretive) meant that revolutionary opposition could not mobilise peasant discontent,
the greatest threat to stability.
no practical alternative to existing regime offered - lack of political tradition in Russia, meant that
opposition thinking tended to be utopian in character, rather than rooted in realities of governing
a state.
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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - Opposition to Tsarist rule

no clear united front of opposition - but various different, often conflicting, strands of thought
about 'what is to be done'!
conservative interests too strong - even if nobility might have been cross with Alexander after the
emancipation, they were still not going to support revolutionary opposition against him!
The People's Will might have succeeded in killing AII in 1881, but this did not lead to greater
reform or revolution - instead it strengthened the resolve of the establishment to clamp down on
opposition, as seen with the harsh treatment of revolutionaries during Alexander III's reign.
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1/16/14

What were the major causes of the European Renaissance?

Best AnswerAsker's Choice


Increased trade - new ideas were coming in from more advanced cultures in the Middle East and Far East. Therefore the
Renaissance started in regions exposed to more trade and then spread slowly through the rest of Europe. So the italian city states
were first (Venice for example was very involved in trade) and then slowly the more Northern countries.
England/Netherlands/Holland were all very sea-going people so they also were able to get new resources (like silk and cotton
clothing that could actually be WASHED) and new ideas (science, medicine, the Arts).
The Plagues also had an impact. They were caused by the heavy trading, rats carrying plague road on ships into Europe then it
was spread person to person across the continent. But the death of 1/3 of the population had a HUGE impact on culture. The
serfs/working people could not flee cities the way the very few wealthy people could. So the working classes were decimated by
plague (There were very, very few rich compared to poor people, but yes some aristocrats died too). The reason this cause the
renaissance is this: The medieval system required that old pyramid society of lots and lots of poor serfs working the land and
creating goods, a small number of tradesman/merchants, some aristocrats and very, very few truly powerful or wealthy people.
Now the plague took out the bottom of the pyramid and there wasn't anyone to harvest food, make clothes and so forth (food being
the big one because job skills were taught by parents so most rich people had NO idea how to farm).
So the result was that suddenly people of "poor" classes who knew how to work the land, care for animals and crops and so on went
from being disposable and without rights to being NEEDED and able to DEMAND rights,payments, education and so forth.
Suddenly farmers childern were in government, marrying into higher classes and becoming artisans, merchant sailors, writers and
so forth.

answers.yahoo.com

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1/16/14

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What were the major causes of the European Renaissance?

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Fontana History of Germany 1780-1918.


The Long Nineteenth Century David Blackbourn
This is a summary of his answer to the question as to how and why Germany
was united between 1862 and 1871.
Firstly, he takes for granted the basic summary of events. He then tries to
look at the world picture of these years before analysing the role of
Bismarck.
He sees in Japan another successful revolution from above in creating a
modernising state. In the USA a civil war is won by the economically
advanced North. In addition and linked to events in Germany was the
successful unification of Italy.
Germany was united as the result of three wars. Why did the Great Powers
allow this to come about?
1. No choice due to the success of Prussian arms it cannot be
emphasised to much that unification was, in the last resort, achieved
on the battlefield.
2. Russia was suffering the consequences of defeat in the Crimean War,
and was absorbed in the 1860s in a bout of internal reform. Russian
industrialisation depended on good relations with Germany
particularly Prussia. Prussia was already favoured through staying out
of the Crimean War. Bismarck encouraged Russian friendship with
the Alvensleben Convention in 1863 supporting Russian suppression
of a Polish revolt.
3. Britain was preoccupied with colonial problems and was as ever
suspicious of French intentions in Europe. Germany appeared to
neither threaten British general interests nor possess a navy. In
addition British Liberals led by Gladstone favoured national self
determination as in Italy. Finally, there were always more pressing
domestic questions.
4. The main characteristic of Austria was its isolation and weakness
having lost Russian support in the Crimean War. In addition, Austrias
real ally against French claims within the Confederation was Prussia
who was also her rival. Moreover, Austria had a permanent
nationalities problem with the demands of the Hungarians, Italians,
Slavs and Czechs.

5. Finally there was Louis Napoleons France ever restless and eager to
gain some advantage in Europe that excited universal suspicion and
found none to mourn its fate in 1870.
These factors have also to be understood in the context of a a period of
uncertainty in international relations, a diplomatic interregnum between the
breakdown of one system and the advent of another. The equilibrium of the
Concert of Europe, based on dynastic legitimacy and the status quo, had
disappeared in the Crimea. A new system based on the legitimacy of nation
states had yet to emerge.
Blackbourn argues that unification under Prussia was not inevitable in the
eyes of contemporaries but that more than just the international situation
made it likely.
Resources and circumstances (meant) Prussia was always likely to
come out on top.
1. Austria not only had chronic financial problems but also Prussia
was growing faster. Prussias national income grew twice as fast as
Austrias between the 1780s and 1850. In 1865 Prussia possessed
15,000 trains with a horsepower of 800,000, Austria just 3,400
with a horsepower of 100,000.
2. Prussias transport links made access to Prussian markets essential
for the smaller German states whatever their sympathies and gave
Prussia a decisive advantage within the Zollverein.
3. Prussias dynamism and leadership of the Zollverein helped
encourage nationalism amongst the growing middle classes who
increasingly accepted Prussia as the alternative to stagnation. The
German National Association, which supported Prussia, had
25,000 members while the Austrian equivalent only 1500.
In these circumstances, Blackbourn goes on to assess the role of Bismarck.
He quotes Bismarcks views on the role of the statesman:
Man cannot create or control the tide of time, he can only move in the same
direction and try to direct it.
Yet Blackbourn believes that Bismarck saw himself as Gods chosen
instrument a man with a destiny. In addition, he points out that although
Bismarck appeared to be a typical conservative Prussian landowner he was
always more than that; he had an up to date understanding of the new
economic forces double entry book keeping and chemical studies that
were shaping Germany. Equally he recognised that Prussia and Austria were

set on a collision course. It was not simply his view of the inevitability of
conflict but his scorn for the Confederation that made him appear quite
radical to conservatives. This was made worse by his, quite openly, arguing
that the nationalists should be used and the moderate middle classes
encouraged. Thus in Blackbourns view Bismarck was the wild man of
Prussian politics whose appointment in 1862 can be seen as a gamble.
Blackbourn dismisses any idea of Bismarck having a master plan but argues
that the chief characteristics of his policy were flexibility and the skilful
exploitation of opportunities. He argues that Bismarck was only consistent
in his policy towards Austria seeing the Gastein Convention as no more than
a truce. As to the war with France he concludes along with most historians
that Louis Napoleon was to blame and that claims to the contrary were the
product of Bismarcks later boasting of his own cleverness.
Finally, Blackbourn discusses the domestic dimension of Bismarcks
policies. He concludes that Bismarck merely flirted with public opinion
and was an intelligent and flexible conservative, very aware of liberalnationalist demands and prepared to play with fire to preserve the essentials
of the Prussian military monarchy.
Extras. How important were railways and logistics in the wars of
unification? A military historians interpretation.
Martin Van Creveld Supplying War

How important were economic factors in the unification of Germany?


The unification of Germany was the result of several different causes.
Economic factors were however crucial in developing the military strength of
Prussia that Bismarck was to exploit so successfully. Yet even Bismarck had to
depend on the King, the Minister of War and the soldiers. Finally mistakes of
Louis Napoleon and the whole complex whirl of diplomacy was part of a world
that Bismarck could only exploit but not control.
The growth of the Prussian economy was the essential prerequisite for the
process of unification. Without the increased tax revenues from a growing
economy to pay for a bigger and better army Bismarcks wars could not have
been fought successfully. The development of coal, iron and steel industries
and an efficient rail transport network provided the sinews of a successful war
economy. These in turn had grown as a consequence of the Zollverein, the
customs union that permitted the growth of free trade within the Confederation
but excluding Austria. A further consequence of economic growth was the
spreading awareness that cooperation and possible German unity was the route
to prosperity. This stimulus to nationalism was used by Bismarck to show the
benefits of cooperating with Prussia rather than Austria.

Introduction
First sentence
addresses the
issue in the
question. Then
lists the main
points of the
answer.
Main factor in the
question dealt
with first.
Look for extra
facts you can
add to illustrate
economic
growth

Economic change also began to change the European balance of power in the
1850s as Prussia grew more powerful Austria grew weaker. However not all
such changes were due to economics; Austria also grew weaker through losing
its bloody war to hold onto its Italian possessions. Moreover its support of
Britain, France and Turkey in the Crimea forfeited any future Russian support.
The balance that had helped conserve the Confederation was becoming shaky
especially given Louis Napoleons willingness to assert French interests to
increase his popularity at home. His support for Italian unification clearly
showed that the French were not committed to the frontiers agreed in 1815.

Link to the
changing balance
of power
Austria

However neither the changing economic situation or the developments in


diplomacy could have brought about unification without the statesmanship of
Bismarck. How far he planned each move can be debated, but not the fact of
the moves and their results. He understood the changed position of Prussia in
1862 and was able to take advantage of all the opportunities that arose to
pursue his aims of uniting Germany under Prussia and preserving the power of
the King and the aristocracy. Danish claims to Schleswig and Holstein allowed
him both to win over some of his bitter enemies among the National Liberals
and after victory, place Austria in a false position in Holstein such that he could
provoke a quarrel at a time of his own choosing.

Start analysis of
the role of
Bismarck

For Prussia to unite Germany Austria would have to be defeated. Bismarck


skilfully used offers of compensation in the Rhineland to ensure French
neutrality- though whether the meeting in Biarritz actually took place is open to
doubt. Just as plausibly Louis Napoleon was simply encouraging Prussia and
Austria to exhaust themselves in war thus allowing France to walk into the
Rhineland unopposed. How far Bismarck actually gained Russian neutrality by

Note that each of


these points on
the diplomatic
isolation of
Austria can be
expanded.

France

Aims
Denmark

the offer of help in suppressing a Polish rebellion has also been doubted. He
may have been more concerned about the danger of Polish nationalism in East
Prussia. However the secret offensive alliance with Italy was a carefully
planned move to provoke Austria into mobilising and so make Prussias moves
appear defensive. Finally, in the build up to war there can be no doubt that
Bismarck manoeuvred Austria into declaring war.
The rapid victory was followed by a lenient and equally rapid peace to avoid an
Austrian war of revenge and to counter French military moves. Revealing
French intentions to the South German states made a defensive alliance with
Prussias North German Confederation a rational response. It then remained to
find a way of provoking France into declaring a war that Prussia and its allies
would win. Louis Napoleons unsuccessful efforts Mexico, the attempt to buy
Luxembourg - to win domestic popularity through foreign policy success
increased the pressure on him.

Start build up to
Franco Prussian
war

France was also diplomatically isolated. The Italian government was aware that
a Franco Prussian war would force the French to remove troops from Rome
where they protected the Pope. The Russians were aware that the defeat of
France would allow them to expand their fleet in the Black Sea as Britain
would not stop them without France. In addition the British were intensely
suspicious of French intentions in the Low Countries. All these suspicions were
played on by Bismarck to isolate France.
The Hohenzollern candidacy for the empty throne of Spain was the final straw.
Although the candidate was withdrawn French nationalist demands forced
Louis Napoleon to demand that such a situation should never again arise.
Bismarcks editing of the infamous Ems telegram was sufficient to provoke
French mobilisation and a declaration of war. Prussia and its allies won rapidly
and Bismarck was able to exploit nationalist euphoria to push through
agreement to create a German Empire under the King of Prussia.

Isolation of
France

Pressure on Louis
Napoleon

Hohenzollern
Candidacy
Note the
summary of the
Ems telegram
affair

Although there can be no doubt of the importance of Bismarck we have already


seen that the economic and diplomatic situation was not of his making. Equally
he would not have achieved much without the support of the King, Wilhelm,
nor without the army created by Von Roon and led to victory by Von Moltke.
The wars against France and Austria had been won partly as a result of skilled
manoeuvre and superior weapons and training for which these men were
responsible. An ailing Louis Napoleon also made mistakes, the Mexican affair,
the attempt to purchase Luxembourg, and in allowing his country to become
isolated and fall into Bismarcks snares. A similar comment might be made
about Austrian policy before 1866. Equally the spread of nationalist feeling
which Bismarck was able to exploit had causes that began well before he came
to power.

Note how this


short summary
emphasis that the
key argument
against the claim
that economic
factors were
decisive is the
role of Bismarck.

In conclusion, this essay has demonstrated that the economic changes in


Prussia played a vital part in creating the circumstances that made unification
possible but that more was needed in particular the statesmanship of Bismarck
without which unification might not have occurred.

Conclusion:
largely repeats
the introduction.

Compare the importance of individual political figures with the role of


economic forces in the successful unification of Germany.
Introduction: Make clear
who you are going to
write about, the central
role of Bismarck, Louis
Napoleon, Wilhelm, Von
Moltke, Von Roon, the
rulers of AustriaHungary. Key economic
forces, the Zollverein,
economic growth of
Prussia, the way in which
this spread nationalism,
the importance of the
railways.
Major section where you
must demonstrate Bs
importance. 1. 1862-4
Constitutional crisis, and
war with Denmark. B
wins over the Liberal
nationalists and shows
the strength of the Army.
Places Austria in a weak
position by the
Convention of Gastein.

2. 1866 and war with


Austria emphasis on the
planning, isolating
Austria, and the making
of peace.

3. 1870 and war with


France again show the
way in which B took
advantage of Louis
Napoleons diplomatic
isolation and the
Hohenzollern candidacy

Mistakes of Louis
Napoleon 1866 to 1870.
Failing to understand Bs
intentions over Austria
and towards uniting
Germany. Failing in his
ambitious foreign policy,
Mexico, Luxembourg,
and pushing too hard
after the withdrawal of
Leopold.
Role of Wilhelm,
supporting B, Von Roon
and Von Moltke, who
inturn played an
important part in winning
Bs 3 wars.
However economic
forces were also
important role of the
Zollverein in increasing
Prussian strength as
Austria became weaker.
Role of economic factors,
industrialisation and
urbanisation in the
development of
nationalism
Economic and industrial
development as well as
railways in the success of
Prussian armies.
Conclusion: Be
balanced, B above all
had the vision to
understand the motives,
strengths and weaknesses
of the other European
states as well as his own
vision for Prussia.
However he did not
create the opportunity but
took it.

Bismarck, the Prussian Army and the Franco Prussian War


As in 1866 the war was a demonstration of aspects of Prussian superiority in the
preparations and conduct of war. In its aftermath other countries would seek to
emulate the professional skills of the General Staff, a trained officer corps, a system
of conscription, logistic organisations, effective use of railways and the employment
of an effective war of movement. Yet there are aspects of the war that demonstrate the
extent to which it was a huge gamble.
French Military Superiority?
Bismarck, according to Wawro could hardly believe his luck as he had not
anticipated the blundering of the experienced French marshals and the collapse of
the French army. With their long service experienced soldiers and an army of
400,000 men equipped with the latest chassepot rifle which outranged the now dated
Prussian rifles the French were in some respects superior to the huge but conscript
Prussian army, 300,000 full time but with conscripts up to 1.2 million.
Yet if Bismarck was doubtful his generals were not as one German officer told a
French colleague, "you may win in the morning but we will win in the evening with
our reserves". Many observers also noted the poor morale and discipline of the
French soldiers in contrast to the fit, educated and indoctrinated German soldiers
committed to the national cause.
Moreover Moltke's war planning had diverted spending from fortresses to railways in
the hope of being able to deploy Prussia's numerical superiority. French roads,
railways and forts were surveyed by Prussian officers to develop a meticulously
planned deployment. In contrast French planning was almost non existent. Moreover
their tactics were not designed to make the best use of their rifle superiority.
Finally the Prussians had learnt an important lesson from the war with Austria the
need for improved artillery. Most of the Prussian casualties were caused by shell and
shrapnel. At Konigratz the Prussians occassionally suffered a bombardment as
intense as that experienced in WW1. The solution was new high calibre, breech
loading, steel barrelled guns from Krupp, which had three times the accuracy, twice
the rate of fire, a third greater range and far greater destructiveness. This was
combined with a tactical doctrine that emphasised mobility and flexibility to allow the
artillery to blast opposition before the infantry battle began.
Wawro also notes both at the start and during the war the importance of national
feelin, patriotism as an element in Prussian morale under the stress of war. A point
about the importance of nationalist ideas in the process of unification that is often
underrated.
The War
Whatever the efficiencies of the Prusssian army and the inherent weaknesses of the
French forces, the differences were compounded by political and military errors.
Louis Napoleon abandoned the government to Eugenie for the army and the army to
Marshal Bazaine, and all three worked at cross purposes.

Interpreting the Austro-Prussian War.


Much has been written emphasising the wisdom of Bismarck, the strategy of von Moltke
and the technical superiority of the Prussian army in explaining the victory of Prussia
over Austria in 1866. A number of claims have been made which a recent American
military historian has challenged ands so modified`. These claims include:

that the alliance with Italy showed Bismarcks careful and essential preliminary
diplomacy

that Moltkes envelopment strategy ensured success

that the Prussian railway network ensured effective logistical support for the
Prussian army

that the breech loading rifle allowed the Prussians to dominate the battlefield

that Bismarck made a lenient peace with Austria as he foresaw the need to avoid
Austrian hostility in the future.
Finally these notes on the military dimension support another interpretation argued by
William Carr; that Bismarck had a tendency to gamble to go va banque, to gamble in a
crisis. At the very least the analysis of the war shows that it was very much a gamble.
Geoffrey Wawro demonstrates that the key reasons for Austrian and Italian defeat lie
within the the governments and institutions of these states and the incompetence of their
military leaders. Prussian military virtues are almost secondary or at best successfully
take advantage of their enemies weakness.
Prussia, Italy and Austria.
The obvious virtue of the April 1866 alliance lay in dividing the Austrian army. This
alliance is also paradoxical in that Austria had promised the Venetia to France and hence
Italy if Austria won a war with Prussia. Italy would gain the Venetia either way. However
for the Italians there was also an opportunity to gain the South Tyrol if victory could be
gained on the battlefield.
Albrecht in the Venetia had 130,000 men to repel 200,000. Benedek in the the North had
245,000 facing 300,000 Prusians but with the support of 150,000 in the Confederation
army. Wawro demonstrates through his analyses of the Custozza campaign that the
incompetence of La Marmora, the Italian commander was matched by the failure of
Albrecht to properly exploit his victory. Bismarcks diplomacy might have been
undermined by a properly exploited Austrian victory which might well have destroyed
Italian unity.
But for Albrechts forebearance, Austria might have taken back the Po basin. Francesco
Bourbons brigands, Pope Pius IXs Swiss and Irish guards, and the mafia junta in Sicily,

which actually launched a rebellion in November, might have seen to the peninsula and
islands. Page 123
Moltkes Envelopment Strategy the Kesselschacht.
Moltkes plan was to divide his forces into 4 army groups: one within Germany to deal
with Hanover, the Elbe army to advance through Saxony and first and second armies to
attack from Lusatia and Silesia.

The armies were to take advantage of the Prussian railway system and move more rapidly
in smaller groups. They would have to advance rapidly after leaving their trains. The Elbe
army would have to fight in Saxony while First and Second armies would have to
advance through the mountain passes to enter Bohemia. A delay in mobilisation had
allowed the Austrians to concentrate their forces at Olmutz. Moltkes intention was to
invade Bohemia and surround Benedeks army with his three mobile columns.
He was aware of the risks. Benedek had a reputation for boldness. He would be able to
invade Silesia and defeat the Prussian Second Army which would be unsupported by the
others. He could also block the exits from the mountains. The Austrians also had the
advantage of shorter lines of communication and the ability to manoeuvre between the
lines of advance of the Prussian armies.
Thus from the outset Moltkes strategy was extremely risky. It is therefore a mistake to
see its subsequent success as inevitable. Much was dependent on chance, and the actions
of the Austrians. Moltke acknowledged this no plan of operation survives the first clash
with an enemy force.

The Prussian Railway Network and Logistical Support


The Prussian divisions were strung out on a 500 km arc and needed to concentrate
wherever the Austrian army chose to move. Speed was essential or else Benedeck could
defeat the Prussian armies one by one. Yet Wawro is able to find numerous examples of
supply shortages and near fatal delays due to inadequate communications.
In truth once the Prussian armies had reached their unloading points then all depended on
the speed of march of men and horses and the flow of supplies. Falkenstein in Hanover
and Prince Freidrich Karl in Reichenberg delayed their advance for elaborate and time
consuming requisitioning of supplies. Von Bittenfelds Elbe army was famished having
invaded Bohemia on a single road without a supply train and so was forced to stop to
requisition. The Princes army then took 4 days to advance 46 kilometres surprising the
even the sluggish Austrian army at their slowness.
There are may more examples including the risky passage of the Nachod gorges into
Bohemia from the North where before the battle of Vysokov the Prussian forces got into
a terrible tangle of guns, wagon trains and men. In many respects despite the railways
there was little different from the Napoleonic wars.
The Superiority of the Breech Loading Rifle.
Time and time again the needle gun proved itself the master of the infantry battle. The
Austrians hurled their massed battalions into a hail of fire and took dreadful casualties.
The only approach to a solution was attempted at Jicin where the line troops were ordered
at one point to just load rifles for a jager battalion which successfully defeated a Prussian
advance.
The Lenient Peace?
Moltkes failure to pursue and destroy the Austrian army aws not a result of Bismarcks
intervention but simply a result of the late arrival of his reserves, and these columns
themselves being in chaotic condition.. Moreover the very success of the Prussians had
created enormous difficulties of command as units were mixed up and generals scattered.
When the pursuit began Bohemia and Lower Austria were seized and looted but the
spread of cholera in the insanitary Prussian camps led to 200 deaths a day and a high
command more anxious to make peace than march on Vienna.

Why did German unification occur in 1870?

The Role of Bismarck

The Importance of Economic Developments

The Role of German


Nationalism

Why did German


unification occur in
1870?
The Role of the Prussian Army

The Changes in the European


Balance of Power

The Roles of Wilhelm I,


Von Roon and Von
Moltke

The Errors of
Louis
Napoleon

THE ENLIGHTENMENT
I.

ENLIGHTENMENT
A. INTRODUCTION
1. 18th c culminated movement toward modernity that started in Renaissance era
2. during 18th c. educated of Europe came to realization that change & reform both possible & desirable
a. while this commonplace thought now
b. only occurred generally after 1700
3. state, economy, education and structure of society should be analyzed & scrutinized they said
4. outmoded ideas & prejudices must yield to the test of criticism
5. people that fostered such thinking referred to as philosophes
6. & era known as ENLIGHTENMENT
7. basically began c 1687 w/publication of Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica
8. & John Locke's 2 famous works in 1690
9. & ended in 1789 when French Revolution occurred
B. PHILOSOPHES
1. philosophes = French philosophers
2. not philosophers in formal sense
a. such as men who expound on meaning of beauty, love, etc.
3. but sociologists, political scientists, historians, social reformers, economists
4. they thought, discussed, wrote about everything
a. govt
b. religion
c. science
d. education
e. history
f. social institutions
g. justice
h. political thought
5. sought to apply rules of reason & common sense to society's institutions & customs
6. philosophes had faith that man could improve himself w/o aid of God
7. not all agreed on specific beliefs,
8. but all agreed to discuss & question how society operated
EG
a. CF w/family unit - despite quarrels & tensions a basic unity still remains
9. NO OTHER SINGLE SET OF IDEAS HAS DONE SO MUCH TO SHAPE OUR MODERN WORLD
VIEW

II. WHAT WERE FACTORS CAUSING ENLIGHTENMENT


A. SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION of 17th c.
1. Scientific Revolution single most nb factor in creation of new world-view of 18th c.
2. E would have been impossible w/o knowledge gained from Scientific Revolution
3. since man was proving that the physical world was rational & reasonable = explainable
4. then man's nature must be rational & reasonable = explainable
5. by using the same tools employed by scientists
a. measurement & criticism, analyzing, hypotheses formulated
6. the customs & traditions of society could be measured, criticized, analyzed & solved
a. or at least solutions proposed
B. NEWTONIAN WORLD VIEW OR NATURAL LAW
1. philosophes saw Newton's scientific discoveries as revelations of ultimate truth
2. in his principle of gravitation Newton had disclosed natural force that held universe together
3. he made the universe make sense
4. 18th c. philosophes believed that other Newtons would find comparable laws governing & explaining all
phases of human activity
5. philosophes pictured themselves as the Newtons of statecraft, justice
6. areas aside from science

2
7. they would establish formulas as explicable as Newton's ones on mathematical laws
8. for philosophes, world resembled a giant machine
9. hitherto men had hampered its operations because they did not understand the machinery
10. once they grasped the basic laws by which it ran, then world machine could function smoothly
C. JOHN LOCKE 1632-1704
1. ENGLISHMAN
2. wrote a celebrated defense of England's Glorious Revolution a. TWO TREATISES OF GOVT. 1690
3. for him living proof that govts could be humane
4. English Bill of Rights gave Englishmen many rights other countries Europe did not have
a. monarchs no longer had the right to
(1) make or suspend laws,
(2) levy money or maintain army w/o parliament ok
b. courts protected citizens from arbitrary government action for
(1) people had rights of bail & trial by jury
5. ENG permitted religious toleration all creeds except Unitarianism & Roman Catholicism
a. believers not actually persecuted
6. relative freedom of press & free speech prevailed
7. these liberal policies had produced not disorder & instability
8. but economic prosperity & loyalty to the political system
9. Locke contended that men are by nature all free, equal & independent; they submit to govt not because
they acknowledge any divine right on part of the monarch but because they find it convenient to do so.
they make a compact or contract to be governed, a contract that they may break by revolutionary action if
the monarch does not live up to his obligations, as James II had not lived up to his
10. but Defenders of absolutism contended that
a. inclination to submit to absolute authority
b. present in men's minds when they were born
11. in Locke's AN ESSAY CONCERNING HUMAN UNDERSTANDING 1690 he denied the existence of
innate ideas.
a. humans at birth enter this world with their mind blank slate or tabula rasa
b. consequently all human knowledge comes from experience
c. one's personality and ideas all come from the external world
d. cf w/latest research on twins raised apart
(1) 50% innate
(2) 50% environment
e. for Locke human nature changeable
f. & could be modified by changes in physical & social environment
g. consequently, improvement also possible in Locke's viewpoint
h. he rejected Christian view of humankind as creatures permanently flawed by sin
i. humans need not wait for grace of God or other divine aid to better their lives
j. they could take charge of their own destiny
12. Locke pointed the way to a critical examination of the Old Regime = French absolutism
D. DEGRADATION OF FRANCE AFTER LOUIS XIV & HIS ABSOLUTISM
1. France exhibited many of the practices & customs that demanded reform
2. people under absolutism miserable & poor
3. & celebrations had marked death of Louis XIV
4. critics of monarch subject to arbitrary arrest
5. no freedom of worship
6. political & religious censors interfered w/press
7. throughout France, people wanted a change
8. these people read & supported the Philosophes
9. consequently, France became major center for E
III. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT
A. GENERAL REMARKS

B.

C.

D.

E.

1. French for the most part main contributors to E


2. E marked high point of French cultural hegemony
a. Thomas Jefferson maintained every man had 2 homelands, his own & France
3. the French language served as medium of communication
4. in those days scientists & philosophes paid little attention to national frontiers
5. even when their countries were at war, they kept on visiting & corresponding
6. they worked to expose social & political abuses
7. & argued that reform was necessary & possible
COURSE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT
1. E's earliest exponents popularized rationalism and scientific ideas of 17th c
2. this led to further scientific advances 18th c.
3. all society involved
a. almost everybody who was anybody attempted scientific experiments
4. Voltaire made a serious hobby of chemistry
5. Montesquieu studied physics
6. noble French lady reportedly kept a cadaver in her carriage
7. so that she might employ her travels profitably in dissection & study of anatomy
8. by mid 18th c enlightened ideas had spread throughout Europe
9. philosophes defended each other against political & religious authorities
10. by 2nd half 18th c philosophes sufficiently safe to quarrel among themselves
11. stopped talking about general ideas
12. & started advocating specific changes
WAYS IDEAS DISSEMIATED IN ENLIGHTENMENT
1. plays
2. novels
3. books
4. pamphlets
5. philosophical essays
6. encyclopedias
7. newspapers
8. salons
9. because direct attacks on traditional society in France would not have been allowed without severe
repercussions
10. in fact, Voltaire spent time in Bastile
11. so works couched in double meaning & satirical writings
SALONS
1. salons of Paris did much to set tone of enlightenment
2. in their day salons played the essentially social function of the press
3. they were the medium in which new ideas fermented & developed
4. & by which ideas were spread through society
5. wealthy & older women presided over regular social gatherings of great & near-great in their elegant
drawing rooms or salons
6. salons open to all men & women w/good manners,
7. provided they were famous, talented, rich or important
8. ability to orchestrate a salon special gift
9. record of over 100 women at time presiding over salons
10. history's most famous saloniere Madame de Stael
a. wit lies in the likeness of things that are different, and in the difference of things that are alike...the
more I see of man, the more I like dogs...
11. your text covers Madame Geoffrin's salon
12. but prevalent idea still remained that women were intellectually inferior
13. Inspire but do not write poet's advice to women
14. Rousseau's affirmed that women existed merely to nurture and to comfort men
Grande Encyclopedie,
1. great vehicle of philosophes

4
2. 28 volumes
3. its roster of nearly 200 contributors amounted to a who's who of the E
4. for 20 years its editor-in-chief, Denis Dierote 1713-84 put in 14-hour working days,
a. every hour devoted to his crusade for reason & progress
5. it was not intended to be an objective compendium of information
6. their purpose was didactic
7. to expose vices of existing order,
8. especially its superstition & intolerance
9. & to instruct public in virtues of natural law & wonders of science
10. as Diderot himself explained they aimed to assemble knowledge in order that the labors of past centuries
should not prove useless for succeeding centuries; that our descendants, by becoming better informed, will
at the same time become happier & more virtuous
a. shades of Erasmus
11. co-edited w/Jean d'Alembert
12. avoided official censorship by including attacks on religion and social inequality in articles on metallurgy
and lace-making
13. w/in a generation Encyclopedie became a standard reference work
a. forerunner Encyclopedias today
b. as common in monastery libraries as in the homes of literate middle classes
IV. SPECIFIC IDEAS OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT
A. GENERAL VIEWS & HUMAN RIGHTS PHILOSOPHES HELD IN COMMON
1. everyone's natural rights upheld
a. born w/certain rights never to be taken away
b. yours from birth because you were human
2. desire to reform for sake of freedom
3. freedom from arbitrary power of govt
4. freedom of speech
5. freedom of trade
6. freedom to realize one's talents
7. freedom to make own way in world
8. freedom of religion
9. freedom of press
a. no censorship of books as in France
10. freedom of privacy
11. freedom from unlawful arrest
12. trial by jury
13. equality of opportunity in society
14. equality before law
15. more equal tax structure not based on class system
16. peace advocates especially Rousseau
17. written constitution
18. right for males to vote
19. must be public education
a. some allowed for parochial education
20. international exchange of ideas based on open communication
B. PHILOSOPHES IDEAS ON RELIGION
1. E thinkers blamed church more than any other institution for obstructing reason & progress
2. through its perpetuation of myth, ritual & tradition
3. philosophes denounced fanaticism, intolerance & superstition
4. favorite target was Jesuit Order under whom so many had been educated
5. many philosophes adopted religious attitude called DEISM - DEUS - GOD - LATIN
a. clockmaker God
b. great force which had set the machinery of the world in motion and then left it to run by itself
6. 2 major points in deists' creed

5
a. belief in existence of God could be empirically deduced from contemplation of nature
(1) because nature provided evidence of a rational God
(2) Then God must also favor rational morality
b. consequently other point in deists' creed
(1) belief in life after death
(2) when rewards & punishments would be meted out
(3) according to the virtue of the life a person led on this earth
c. but they denied or at least doubted that God answered prayer or extended grace
d. for the deists the role of God lay in the dim past & distant future,
e. not in immediate present
7. true worship of God, meant doing good to one's fellowman
a. Voltaire practiced this creed by turning over much of income from his books to charities & by taking
in poor lodgers
8. Thomas Jefferson - deist
9. deists dismissed established churches as leeches on society
10. condemned clergy as hypocrites who incited their followers to kill in name of holiness & love
a. i.e. religious wars, etc.
11. Voltaire- if there had been no theological disputes Europe's population would be 1/3 larger
12. yet most of the philosophes did not seek abolition of religion
13. but its transformation into a humane force that would encourage virtuous living
14. & for toleration of people's beliefs
15. relative religious freedom of Britain made impression on philosophes
16. Voltaire remarked:
a. if there were just one religion in England, despotism would threaten; if there were two religions they
would cut each other's throats; but there are 30 religions and they live together peacefully & happily
17. Voltaire carried on a life-long crusade for toleration
18. in 1762 Protestant merchant of Toulouse, Jean Calas was accused of having murdered his son to prevent
his conversion to Catholicism
19. Calas died in agony, his body broken on the wheel. Voltaire discovered that accusation against Calas
based on rumor & court condemning him had acted from anti-protestant hysteria that lumped all
Huguenots together as enemies of French state & willing tools of France's enemies. Voltaire campaigned
for 3 yrs to clear Calas Name
20. the existence of evil of injustices like that which broke Calas confronted the philosophes with a major
problem.
21. most of philosophes did not accept traditional Christian teaching
a. that evil arose from original sin, from the fall of Adam & Eve
22. if God were purely benevolent,
23. why had God created a world in which evil so often prevailed?
24. Could a perfect God produce an imperfect creation?
25. Carl Becker in his Heavenly Cities of the 18th C. Philosophers
a. maintains world view of medieval Christianity continued to influence philosophers greatly
C. PHILOSOPHES VIEWS ON JUSTICE
1. Philosophes were horrified by cumbersome judicial procedures of Old Regime
2. & by its unjust & antiquated statutes
3. laws need to be humanized & simplified
4. punishment of crime needed to be both humane & effective
5. Cesare Beccaria 1838-94
a. Italian philosophe
b. Author of Essay on Crimes & Punishment
c. formulated 3 natural laws of justice
d. 1st - punishments should aim to ...prevent the criminal from doing further injury to society & to
prevent others from committing the like offence. Punishments ought to be chosen as will make the
strongest & most lasting impressions on the minds of others, with the least torment to body of the
criminal.
e. 2nd justice should act speedily because the smaller the interval of time between punishment & crime,

6
stronger & more lasting will be the association of the 2 ideas
f. & 3rdly crimes are more effectively prevented by certainty than by severity of punishment...certainty
of a small punishment will make a stronger impression than the fear of 1 more severe
g. he attacked both torture & capital punishment because they diverged so sharply from these natural
laws
h. Torture falsely assumed that pain should be the test of truth as if truth resided in the muscles & fibres
of a wretch in torture.
i. to appreciate the timeliness & novelty of Beccaria's ideas need to know what justice was like at time
j. it was characterized by
(1) secret accusations,
(2) almost complete absence of provision for the defense of the accused,
(3) extensive use of the most savage types of torture
(a) except for England - its common law did not sanction torture
(b) English procedures put onus of proving guilt on accuser
(c) whereas on Continent accused had to prove his innocence
(4) an incredibly large number of capital crimes
k. ways of carrying out the death sentence were barbarious:
(1) gibbet, mallet, axe, lashing, burning, drawn & quartering or breaking on the wheel
l. modes of torture for retribution & degradation
(1) consignment to galleys
(2) branding
(3) amputation
(4) pillory
(5) fastening to horses' tails
6. in France enlightened philosophes welcomes Beccaria's ideas
7. & helped to spread them
8. torture was abolished partially in 1780
9. & with French Revolution other needed improvements occurred
D. PHILOSOPHES IDEAS ON EDUCATION
1. in education, Old Regime failed to pass tests of reason & natural law
2. philosophes deplored the almost universal ecclesiastical control of education
3. & heavy emphasis placed on theology, Greek, Latin & ancient history
4. they demanded more consideration of science, modern languages & modern history
5. Diderot declared:
a. Under the name of rhetoric, is taught the art of speaking before teaching the art of thinking; and that of
good expression before the students have any ideas to express
6. Jean-Jacques Rousseau proposed most drastic reform of education
7. he was a rebel
8. he rebelled against
a. strict & disciplined society of his birth(1) Calvinist Geneva
b. against intensive bookish studies he forced to pursue as young boy
c. against polite conventions he later encountered in Paris salons
9. resulting in his Emile - 1762
a. plea for progressive education
b. aim of education should be self-expression not repression
c. to learn by doing rather than by reading books
V. MAJOR PHILOSOPHES OF ENLIGHTENMENT
A. VOLTAIRE 1694-1778 FRANCOIS MARIE AROUET
1. Voltaire - his pen name
2. king of the philosophes
3. chief exponent of deism in France
4. coiner of anticlerical watchword ecrasez l'infame = crush the infamous thing
5. acclaimed spokesman for E

7
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

he was almost a one-man Enlightenment show


who devoted his energy & talent to propagation of new ideas
plays, tales, epic poems, histories, essays, pithy sayings & letters poured from his pen
clear, witty, & often bitingly satirical,
they were immensely popular,
not least when they had to be printed outside France
or under assumed name in order to evade censorship
"either he is Erasmus or the Devil" one contemporary wrote of him
examples of some of his satirical wit
a. in general, the art of government consists in taking as much money as possible from one class of
citizens to give it to the other
b. marriage is the only adventure open to the cowardly
c. I have only made but one prayer to God, a very short one: O Lord, make my enemies ridiculous. And
God granted it
d. Self-love never dies
e. If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him
f. Men use thought only to justify their wrongdoing, and employ speech only to conceal their thoughts
g. It is said that God is always on the side of the big battalions
h. All the reasoning of men is not worth one sentiment of women
i. To stop criticism they say one must die
15. his ideas on tolerance
a. it does not require any great art or studied elocution to prove that Christians ought to tolerate one
another. I will go even further and say that we ought to look upon all men as our brothers. What! call
a Turk, a Jew, and a Siamese my brother? Yes, of course; for are we not all children of the same
father and the creatures of the same god? ...we are all full of weakness & errors; let us mutually pardon
our follies. This is the law of nature... Hitherto the Christians have been the most intolerant of all
men...Tolerance has never brought civil war; intolerance has covered the earth with carnage
16. CANDIDE
a. a real disaster had inspired the writing of Candide
(1) his most famous satire
b. the great earthquake, tidal wave & fire that engulfed the city of Lisbon on Nov 1, 1755 & killed
10,000 + people
c. in historical context he discussed his ideas on society
d. he attacked war & religious persecution,
e. & what he regarded as unwarranted optimism about the human condition
f. ridiculed optimists
g. & commented w/bitter sarcasm on disasters that abounded in world
h. yet Voltaire's creed of deism enabled him to effect a kind of reconciliation between a perfect God &
the imperfect world
i. as a deist Voltaire believed that God was indeed the Creator,
j. but there was no way to determine whether or not God would attempt to perfect his creation
k. Voltaire felt that religion was necessary to man as a brake & better than atheism
B. MONTESQUIEU 1689-1755
1. political thinker
2. SPIRIT OF THE LAWS 1748
a. many feel single most influential book E
b. analysis of existing governments in world
c. republics, monarchies, despotisms
(1) examined virtues & flaws of each type
(2) egs. from Africa, China, Europe, new world
d. there could be no single set of political laws that applied to all peoples at all times & in all places
e. whether monarchy or republic best form of govt matter of size of political unit, population, social &
religious customs, economic structure, its traditions, its climate
f. only careful examination & evaluation of these elements could reveal what mode of govt would prove
most beneficial to a particular people

8
g. today we would call this sociology = study of people & their customs
h. existing governments are arbitrary rather than divinely ordained
i. rational men could analyze & reform their govts to promote human perfectibility
3. one of his most influential ideas
a. must be a division of power within govt
b. used EG of England
(1) executive power resided in King
(2) legislative power in Parliament
(3) judicial power in courts
c. any 2 powers could check & balance power of other
d. SEE HOW THIS WOULD BE INFLUENTIAL ON AMERICA
C. OTHER E THINKERS' IDEAS ON FORMS OF GOVT
1. while Montesquieu liked a constitutional monarchy,
2. others wanted absolute monarchy, but one reformed,
3. others democracy like Rousseau
4. they did not agree on best form of govt
5. DO WE TODAY AGREE ON THE BEST FORM OF GOVT
a. Americas think our way is best but is it
b. how hard to change govt structure
(1) eg. cabinet elected like Eng
6. from the standpoint of contributions to American history Montesquieu & Locke most nb from E
7. from standpoint of European history, most nb Rousseau whose ideals inspired radicals of French
Revolution
D. JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU 1712-78
1. he was a strange, isolated genius never felt particularly comfortable w/other philosophes
2. no 18th thinker more influential
3. his writings raised some of the most profound social & ethical questions of the E
4. civilization & enlightenment had corrupted human nature
5. human beings in state of nature had been more dignified
6. much of the evil in the world due to mal-distribution of property
7. He questioned morality of a society
8. in which commerce & industry were regarded as the most NB of human activities
9. he felt real purpose of society was to nurture better people
a. doesn't this sound familiar to our disc today society
10. his philosophy differed from other philosophes
11. who believed human life would be improved if people could enjoyed more of the fruits of the earth or
could produce more goods
12. Rousseau raised the more fundamental questions of what the good life is
13. reached hearts & heads of his readers
14. SOCIAL CONTRACT
a. "ALL MEN ARE BORN FREE, BUT EVERYWHERE THEY ARE IN CHAINS
(1) opening lines
b. society more NB than is individual members
c. human beings living alone can achieve very little
d. thru their relationship to the larger community they become moral creature capable of significant
action
e. people were to obey laws created by the general will
f. general will = majority of voting citizens who acted w/adequate information
g. such democratic participation in decision making would bind the individual citizen to the community
h. general will must then always be right & to obey general will was to be free
15. MOST NB LEGACY TO FUTURE EUROPEANS
a. though he claimed to hate revolutions, many have seen in Rousseau's works an important impetus to
revolution
b. his philosophy would come to justify radical action for democracy
c. thus French Revolution

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Rise to Power of leaders of authoritarian single-party state leaders:


Compare and contrast
Past Questions
Paper 2

Analyse the conditions that enabled one left-wing leader to become the ruler of
a single-party state. (May 2010)
Assess the importance of economic distress and ideological appeal in the rise
to power of one left-wing and one right-wing single-party ruler. (Nov 2009)

Unpopular rulers or governments, and their overthrow, were responsible for


the formation of the majority of twentieth century single-party states. To what
extent do you agree with this assertion? (May 2009)
To what extent did the following aid the rise to power of either Lenin or
Mussolini: (a) the First World War (b) weakness of the existing regime (c)
ideological appeal? (Nov 2008)
Analyse the rise to power of either Hitler or Lenin. (May 2008)
Analyse the methods used and the conditions which helped in the rise to
power of one ruler of a single-party state. (May 2007, May 2005)
It was personality and not circumstances that brought rulers of single-party
states to power. To what extent do you agree with this statement? (Nov 2006)
For MARKSCHEME notes, see the second half of this document.

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Why do single-party states emerge? Looking at the examples of Bolshevik Russia, 1917, 192429, and Nazi Germany, 1933
Circumstances leading to establishment of SPS: overview of compare/contrast
Lenin and
Lenin and Hitler - differences and more specific details
Hitler comparisons
Political

Both leaders Lenin came to power after the collapse of an outdated and backwards
came to
looking Tsarism, represented by N2 and looking back to his greatpower
grandfather, N1s, ideas about the divinely-ordained powers of the
against the autocracy. The Provisional Government that ruled between Feb and Oct
backdrop of 1917 was just that: provisional. Though Kerensky and the liberals made
the collapse some attempts at reform, they deferred the really big questions and their
of the
proposed model of liberal democracy never really materialised before
existing
Lenin and the Bolsheviks stormed the Winter Palace in Oct. Thus Lenin
political
stepped into a situation that can accurately be described as a political
regime.
vacuum.
While Lenin seized power from a government that had been in power for

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little over 6 months, Hitler was appointed Chancellor in a liberal


democracy approaching its 15th birthday. Though some historians have
agued that Weimar democracy was doomed from the start (given its PR
voting system, its too liberal Constitution with hidden dictatorial
potential, and its shouldering the blame for defeat in WW1 and
Versailles), others have argued that before the Wall Street Crash the
hope for its survival looked good. It was only the short-term political
mistakes of the Republic after 1929 that gave Hitler his chance, and even
then he was not stepping into a political vacuum - there was still a
reasonable level of support for the idea of a liberal democracy. Like a
Trojan horse, Hitler rose to power in the context of a democracy,
subverting it dangerously from within.
Economic

Both leaders In Lenins case this was a result of the First World War intensifying
came to
long-term social and economic problems, bringing Russia to a state of
power in
virtual collapse by the time of the February revolution in 1917.
countries
experiencing For Hitler, the catalyst for the economic crisis which would aid him to
severe
power was the Great Depression prompted by the Wall Street Crash in
economic
October 1929. This economic crisis undid any progress made during the
and social
golden years of the Weimar Republic (1924 - 29), exposing the fact that
problems.
Germany was still struggling to cope with the social and economic
impact of WW1.

International/ Both leaders Russias disastrous performance in WW1, caused partly by NIIs
FP
came to
decisions and partly by general economic and military backwardness,
power, to
served to weaken support for the Tsardom and cause February revt.
some extent, Lenin took advantage of this to come to power.
as a result of
the impact of While Hitlers rise to power was not caused directly by the First World
WW1.
War, as it would be possible to argue for Lenin, the legacy of Versailles
and the way in which the First World War ended for Germany was
central in both driving Hitler into politics in the first place and shaping the
development of the Nazi party and ideology. Hitler used radical
opposition to Versailles to secure support from nationalists.

1) Failures, problems and crises in the existing system:


Note: many of the factors outlined below are obviously interlinked!

Lenin
Political
failures
of the
existing
regime

Hitler

LT - i.e. lead-up to February Revolution, 1917 LT - origins and nature of the Weimar
Republic
Failures of the Tsars, especially Nicholas II, to
modernise and adapt Russia's political
Set up after Germany's defeat in WW1 structure to fit with changing economic and
blamed by the
social realities.
right for this: 'stab in the back' myth,
'November criminals' for signing the

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AII may have introduced zemstva (1864) giving armistice. Blamed for signing the hated
some local self-government, and NII's October Versailles treaty - 'diktat' imposed on
manifesto (1905) finally granted a national
Germany by the Allies.
duma, but the emphasis was on maintaining Not a promising start to be held responsible
autocratic rule. NII, in particular, was opposed for these national humiliations!
to greater democracy, and his fundamental
laws (1906) undermined any concessions
Trying to introduce the world's most
made with the duma and national constitution. democratic political system
in a country lacking liberal traditions was
Refusal to reform meant that as well as
dangerous,
radical opposition there was also increasing especially given the severe attempts made to
middle class opposition from liberal parties in seize the state in its
the dumas.
early years from both the Left (Spartacists,
1919) and the Right (Kapp
NII's mistakes during WW1 - Rasputin,
putsch, 1920). Then using the army and the
assuming control of army (1916), failure to
right to put down the Spartacists
take support from and work with duma - left compromised the idealistic nature of the
him alienated with even his generals plotting Republic from the start, symbolizing the
to remove him.
difficult relationship it would have with the
traditional elite power groups in Germany.
ST - i.e. lead-up to October Revolution, 1917
Constitution itself posed significant
Failure of the Provisional Government to
problems: i) proportional representation led
exercise effective control to weak coalition governments unable to
undermined by the Soviets, who had real
govern effectively; ii) Article 48 gave the
power.
President powers to override democracy in
emergency situations.
Failure of PG to end the war - the Kerensky Both of these would severely undermine the
offensive (June 1917) meant to boost patriotic new Republic.
morale only leads to further defeat.
Importantly, the new democracy failed to win
Failure to make long-term binding decisions the support of the
on the 'land question' traditional elite: army, judges and civil
true to its name the 'provisional government' servants wanted return to a more
refused to take
authoritarian system. WR failed to win over
decisive action on key issues which had
'opinion builders' and leaders - i.e. church
prompted February revt.
leaders, teachers, newspaper editors - who
could have convinced the population to
support democracy. This left the regime
lacking key popular support.
ST - failure to respond to Depression
effectively
Fear of prompting hyper-inflation like 1923
meant the WR did not
take effective intervention measures to
lessen impact of depression.
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Coalition government could not agree on


what cuts were needed,
and in 1930 the Social Democrat-led
coalition collapsed as a result.
This was perceived by the electorate as a
failure to deal with the crisis,
and votes for anti-democratic parties
increased hugely (Nazis, Communists) in
September 1930 election.
Economic LT - Witte's industrialisation drive of the 1890s LT - Economic boom and success of the
failures created a new class of urban industrial
WR's 'golden years' (1924 - 29) only
of the
workers forced to work long hours in harsh
superficial, and built on fragile foundations of
existing conditions for low pay, and to live in
US Capital. Dawes and Young Plan reduced
regime overcrowded, unsanitary housing.
levels of
Furthermore, even though Stolypin wagered reparations allowing Germany industry to
on the kulaks to solve Russia's agricutlural
recover to pre-war levels by 1927. But this
problems, there were still many unresolved
was based on an over-reliance on foreign
issues relating to the peasantry: land
loans, which would have dangerous
pressure given population increase,
consequences after the Wall Street Crash.
resentment at taxes and poverty, periodic
Furthermore, German agriculture failed to
famine. Many peasants driven into the cities recover, and German farmers were getting
to seek work, adding to the numbers of
into debt with falling food prices - pushing
discontented workers there.
many of them to support the Nazis who
In short,Tsarist regime failed to address
promised to help rural Germany.
problems facing peasants and workers, which
in turn increased political opposition.
ST - impact of the global economic slump,
following the Wall Street Crash in October
ST - impact of WW1 in worsening social and 1929. By 1932 6 million unemployed, 1/3 of
economic conditions in Russia to breaking
workforce - much greater number affected in
point. Devastating impact saw inflation,
terms of families, lost business customers
unemployment, food and fuel shortages, etc etc. Many farmers and businesses went
etc.
bankrupt, as German economy trapped in
downward spiral.
Government's failure to intervene - only 'too
little too late', with public works schemes in
1932 - left many people dependent upon
local authority handouts. Many people forced
out of their homes and forced to live in
shanty towns. Desperate conditions drove
voters towards extremist parties promising
radical solutions - i.e. Jan 1932:
unemployment peaked at 6 million, Nazi vote
13 million. Communist vote 5 million.
Foreign
policy
failures

Longer-term: decline of Great Power status in Despite Streseman's efforts in the 1920s,
relation to the West.
Germany was still forced to endure the
Defeat in Crimean war (1856) highlighted
territorial losses imposed by the Versailles

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of the
existing
regime

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military weaknesses of Tsarist state.


In NII's reign, defeat in Russo-Japanese war
was a humiliating loss to a non-European
power that sparked the 1905 revolution.

treaty - something which Hitler was able to


make significant use of in his rhetoric
denouncing the 'November criminals'.
Weimar Republic was held firmly responsible
for the humiliations of Versailles - esp.
Shorter-term: most historians agree that
detestable for nationalists was denial of selfWW1 was the nail in the coffin for NII and
determination to German speaking peoples
Tsardom. It intensified the political, social and in Austria, Sudentenland, Polish corridor etc,
economic problems facing the country, and and not being allowed to defend their own
NII's mis-handling of the whole situation
border with France in the Rhineland.
rapidly lost him what support he had left and
accelerated his departure in 1917.

2) Elements in the new system - or how do leaders of single-party state take advantage of the
existing system to come to power?
Note: many of the factors outlined below are obviously interlinked!

Attractive
ideology

Lenin

Hitler

Stalin

Obvious general appeal of


Bolshevism to
industrial workers and
peasants.
More specifically, 'april
theses' included
opposition to the war,
which separated
Lenin from all other
political parties and
made Bolsheviks uniquely
attractive.
The other parties were
tainted by
association with the
Provisional Govt.

'Nationalist' element - i.e.


overturning the hated
Versailles treaty, making
Germany great again obviously had a particular
appeal as a source of
potential pride to a nation
devastated by
economic depression.
'Socialist' element, though
never seriously
considered important by Hitler
- beyond a
dislike for 'Jewish capitalists',
and the collectivist
thinking underlying the ideal of
the
volk sgemeinschaft - helped to
attract workers,
peasants and those who could
otherwise have
voted for the Communists.
Ideal of national unity in this
volk sgemeinschaft,
with its anti-individual rights
and belief that all
should serve the greater good
of the people, as

Socialism in One Country


(1924), and rejection
of Trotsky's 'permanent
revolution', allowed
Stalin to appeal to patriotic
and nationalist
Russians. Russia would build
its own socialist
state without outside hep,
and focus on fixing
their own problems.

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a powerful vision of
togetherness and community
after the divisions of the
Weimar years and the
suffering following the
Depression.
Offering
'April Theses':
solutions to - worldwide socialist revt
problems
- end to war immediately
- end to co-operating with
PG
- Soviet to take power
- land to be given to
peasants
Distinctive position!

In contrast to the weak and


indecisive democracy
of the WR, Hitler offered a
strong leader prepared
to take action to save
Germany.
Hitler also offered clear
scapegoats for
Germany's problems - Jews,
Communists,
'November criminals' - a tactic
showing Hitler's
political cunning, as it drew
Germans together
against these clearly-defined
Others.
Promised different voter groups
things specifically
targeted at them:
- unemployed would be helped
by job creation
schemes, i.e. public works
- farmers struggling with debts
would get subsidies
- law, order and return to
traditional values for the
middle classes
- defence against the
Communists, via strength of
the SA, to appeal to big
business and
conservative nationalists.

Effective
'Bread, Peace and Land' - Told people what they wanted
propaganda simple,
to hear - i.e. ideal
concise, easily repeated of volk sgemeinschaft and
even among
promises to assist
poorly-educated peasants: with agriculture helped secure
a brilliant
Nazi support
political slogan!
from the farmers.
'All power to the Soviets' - Used effective modern
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Ability to sense public


opinion and give the
people what they want to
hear in his policy i.e. once he had defeated the
figures on the
Left of the party he then
adopted their
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Charismatic
leader
and
leadership
skills

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again, simple
and catchy, even in Lenin
did not intend
to enact it!

campaigning methods to
get their message out to the
people - i.e.
Hitler being flown across the
country to make
public speeches, or use of
striking visual posters
and films and radio (role of
Goebbels in this).
In particular, the use of the
mass rally - i.e.
the annual party rally at
Nuremburg - allowed
Hitler to showcase Nazi
symbolism, and offer
a powerful experience of his
anti-individualistic
philosophy - i.e. forgetting
oneself as part of the
mass, surrendering one's
services to the nation.

Oratorical skils:
Lenin was an "orator of
enormous impact
and power, break ing down
complicated
systems into the simplest
and most
generally accessible
forms" and hammering
them home with his
audience (Sukhanov,
diarist of the revolution).

Great orator:
Political cunning:
had hypnotic effect on
Stalin took maximum
audience;
advantage of his position
master of psychology of mass as General Secretary in order
politics - i.e.
to out-maneuver
able to tell crowd what they
his opponents. In particular,
wanted and needed
when it came to
to hear, exploiting their anxiety issues that were to be voted
and promising
on in Party
solutions to their problems. As congress, Stalin could rely
with all gifted
on winning these as
politicians, Hitler had ability to he had appointed a loyal
appear 'a man
army of his own
of the people' who understood supporters in the party (after
the struggle of
Lenin enrolment
the average voter.
which changed the nature of
party from small
Effective leader:
group of dedicated
Transformed Nazi party from revolutionaries to a bigger,
small minority of
less well-educated mass.)
violence that led the failed
After winning any vote,
Munich beer hall
Lenin's 'ban on
putsch in 1923 into a national factions' (1921) prevented
political party that
Stalin's opponents
received 37% of votes in 1932. from actively opposing any
Understood that
decisions made.

Effective and decisive


timing:
Sep 1917 - to wait and not
take power now
"is to doom the revolution
to failure". Lenin
threatened to resign from
Bolshevik party,
if they did not take the
opportunity to seize
power when they had the
chance.

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criticisms of NEP, which


allowed him to reach
out to workers who angry
with 'Nepmen' etc.

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Leadership of the party:


in persuading the party to
accept that the
Bolsheviks could take
power in the name
of the working classes - a
second
revolution would be
possible, even though
Russia had a small
industrial working
class. Lenin's strong
determined
leadership was the
foundation of the
October Revolution.

the road to power lay not


through force but via
gaining national support and
gaining a foothold
in the democracy in order to
collapse it from
within.

Stalin used this ban in 1926


to defeat the Left
opposition - Trotsky,
Kammanev, Zinoviev - by
branding them 'factionalists'.
In general, Stalin was
masterful at both
creating and taking
advantage of opportunities
to consolidate and improve
his position in the
leadership race.
Stalin's RTP depended on
his skill and cunning to
take advantage of
the circumstances which
fate presented
him.
Robert Service on Stalin
and his RTP:
"At tactics and conspiracy
he was masterful. He had
reached
dominance in the party
before Trotsky,
Zinoviev, Kamanev and
Bukharin knew
what had happened."

Role of
Helped by the Germans: Put into power via
Trotsky's failure to attend
chance
who helped Lenin travel in backstairs intrigue:
Lenin's funeral:
and help of a sealed train
Hitler did not seize power but though this was not really
others
through Germany on his was invited to be
'luck' as Stalin
way back to
Chancellor on 30 January
himself tricked Trotsky by
Russia in 1917, in the
1933, by Hindenburg
telling him the wrong
belief (correct
and key army and business
date,so he was then able to
as it turned out) that
figures. These
take
revolutionary
believed that Hitler could be
a key role at the centre of the
agitation could only
used to set up a 'safe'
funeral. Stalin
weaken the Russian
authoritarian dictatorship that also established the 'cult of
war effort in WW1 to their would protect and
Lenin' in his
advantage.
serve their interests. However, speech, and set himself up
this
as Lenin's loyal
Helped enormously by underestimated Hitler's drive follower - though his critics
the PG's failures:
and determination
thought this was
Kerensky's blunders - first to destroy Weimar and replace because of his own lack of
in continuing
it with his Nazi
ideas, it was a
the war and refusing to
vision (not that of the 'old
good way of securing popular
take a stand on the
guard').
support.
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'land issue', and then in


arming the
Bolsheviks and allowing
them to be seen
as the heroes during the
Kornilov affair.
As the PG became more
unpopular, so
the Bolsheviks increased
their support over
1917.

This factor depends on the


poltical success of
Central Committee's
the Nazis - if they were not the failure to release will:
most popular
by not making Lenin's will
party, Hindenburg would not
public, Stalin
have looked towards
escaped Lenin's warning
Hitler.
comments that he
was dangerous, rude, overpowerful and
should be removed. It also
meant that positive
comments about Trotsky
were not made
public, weakening position of
Stalin's key
opponent. Zinoviev and
Kammanev played an
important role in this
decision.
Trotsky's failure to fight
Stalin:
Trotsky under-estimated
Stalin, and failed to
realise the threat he posed
until it was too late.
As an intellectual, Trotsky
considered himself
above the political 'dogfighting' and 'dirty work'
that Stalin excelled at. He
was also disliked by
other leading party members,
who considered
him arrogant and aloof; plus
as a Jew he was
subject to traditional Russian
anti-semitism.

Comparison of the early background of each SPS leader:

Lenin - middle class professional Stalin - working-class peasant Hitler - failed romantic with
revolutionary!
bureaucrat
nationalist mission
Born Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, 1870, in Born Joseph Dzhugashvili, 1879, Born 1889 in Braunau-am-Inn,
Simbirsk into
in Gori, Georgia.
Austria. Son of
a wealthy middle class family.
Working-class background lower middle-class customs
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Execution of Lenin's older brother in


1887 for failed
assassination attempt on Tsar AIII
played an important
role in driving the young Lenin
towards radical political
opposition.
Influenced in his early revolutionary
thinking by earlier
tradition of opposition in Russia,
including Chernyshevsky's
'What isto be done?' (1863) which
most likely gave Lenin the
idea of a small 'vanguard' of
committed revolutionaries to
change society.
Studied law at university where he
was exposed further to
radical ideas, and eventually thrown
out for revolutionary
agitation. He adopted the scientific
materialism of Marxism,
which would crucially shape his later
ideology.
Worked as a professional
revolutionary in St Petersburg,
arrested for encouraging strikes and
spent 4 years in prison
and in exile in Siberia, 1896 - 1900.
1903, in London, Lenin prompted the
split of the Social
Democratic Party into the
Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks
over the question of criteria for party
membership.
Played only a very minor role in 1905
revolution, not
returning to Russia until October
1905 and having little
impact when he did.
1906 - 1917, Lenin lived in exile,
trying to raise funds and
continue revolutionary agitation from
abroad via writing
pamphlets etc.
However, frustration and general lack
of impact
characterised these years - as late

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mother the daughter


official - possibly
of serfs, father a shoe-maker - 1/4 Jewish (something he of
and grew up in tough
course denied!).
conditions.
Largely a failure in school,
Started studying to become a gifted but lazy, Hitler
Priest, having done
left with no qualifications in
well in school, but here he was 1905.
attracted to Marxism
He was shy, awkward, a
ahead of religion.
dreamer who thought
Admired Lenin, and worked as a he had a big future, lonely and
revolutionary - incl.
unable to form
robbing banks to raise funds!
loving relationships (hard father,
Arrested and exiled
doting mother!)
to Siberia regularly, c. 1902 After failing to enter Arts
1913.
academy in Vienna, H
1917, editor of Pravda and put spent 6 years drifting around
forward a Pro-war
the streets, living off
line before Lenin's 'april theses' a small allowance and selling
changed his mind.
his paintings. Here
Close to the centre of the
he was exposed to the powerful
Bolshevik party, but though
political ideas that
later Soviet historiography would would later define the Nazi
claim otherwise he
ideology: German
did not play any key role in
nationalism, racism, antiOctober 1917 and the
Semitism, antiBolshevik take-over of power.
Communism and antidemocracy.
Positions within the party:
1914 - Hitler delighted when
WW1 broke out,
1917, Commissar for
joined the German army and
Nationalities - placed him close remained deeply
to Lenin, able to win his trust. committed to German
1919, appointed head of the
nationalism and the war
Orgburo, in charge of
effort. Received Iron Cross
parts of party organisation, and medal for bravery.
elected member of
1918 - in hospital, wounded,
politburo.
when he heard of
1922, party's first General
Germany's defeat, H was
Secretary in charge of
convinced that Germany
general organisation.
had been betrayed by the
socialists, jews and
These positions showed that
politicians of the new WR.
Lenin, at least at first,
1919 - works as an army spy in
trusted and respected Stalin.
Bavarian army's
Other key party
political section.
members saw him as a dull and Joins DAP (German Workers'
mediocre
Party), which in
administrator, but his position 1920 becomes the NSDAP

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as 1917, Lenin argued he


within the party
would not see a revolution in Russia enabled him to prove them
in his lifetime.
wrong!
Ideas and writings:
Lenin adapted Marx's ideas into a
theoretical body that
justified revolution now and
outlined plans for action this is called 'Leninism-Marxism'.
What is to be done? (1902) - sets
forward idea of the
revolution to be led by a 'revolutionary
vanguard', small party
of dedicated revolutionaries to guide
the working class and
peasantswho had not yet gained
'revolutionary
consciousness'.

Imperialism: the Highest Stage of


Capitalism (1916) built on Trotsky's idea of the 'weakest
link' - that WW1 was a
conflictover resources and territory
that would bring about the
collapse of capitalism. Civil war and
eventually a socialist
revolution could break out in a less
developed country like
Russia, and then spread to the more
industrialised states.
The State and Revolution (1917) Lenin's projection that
after the revolution all existing state
structures will be
dismantled and replaced temporarily
by a 'dictatorship of the
proletariat' , and in the longer term
the state would 'wither
away'. In the utopian vision of the
Communist future, the
people would manage their own
affairs in industry and
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(Nazi party) with its


25 point programme.
1921 - becomes leader (fuhrer)
of the party.
1923 - failed Munich Beer Hall
Putsch. Hitler
turned trial into political
exhibition for his ideas,
and that he was only given
minimum sentence of
5 years for treason (which
carried death penalty)
shows how sympathetic judges
were to the Nazi
cause.
1924 - released from Landsberg
prison after just
9 months, determined to take
power via legal
means.
1926 - Mein Kampf published,
Hitler's manifesto.
1928 election - Nazis received
just 2.6% of the
votes. Hitler seemed destined
to remain a lunatic
on the margins of Germany's
right-wing parties.
Key ideas (Mein Kampf):
Anti-semitism and Aryan
master-race:
Hitler was obsessed with the
'purity' of the
German people, whose blood
should not be
'contaminated' by Jewish blood.
This was based
on Hitler's view of race, that
saw the world as a
Darwinistic struggle between
different races for
resources and control, in which
only the strongest
would survive.
Extreme German
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agriculture.

nationalism:
Given his belief in the
superiority of the Aryan
race, Hitler proposed an empire
of German
speaking people, a Greater
Germany to dominate
Central Europe.
Lebensraum:
To survive and support itself,
this Greater
Germany would require
lebensraum - living
space in the East for
resources.
Anti-Marxism:
Hitler hated Communism and
the ideas of Marx,
who of course was Jewish.
However, Hitler was
prepared to take some
'socialist' ideas in order to
try and win support of the
people and divert them
away from the Communists thus
National Socialist party!

Historiography of Lenin and Hitler's RTP:

Lenin

Hitler

Key questions -

Key questions -

1) How important was Lenin's individual


contribution?
Role of individual vs role of circumstances!

1) Was the Weimar Republic doomed to


fail?

2) Was Hitler's rise to power inevitable,


2) Was October 1917 a minority coup or a popular given
uprising?
Versailles, defeat in WW1 and the nature
of German
society?
Robert Service
Was October 1917 "Lenin's revolution"?
Nazi propaganda - Goebbels
Admittedly, "Lenin had a heavier impact on the course Developed a powerful myth in the 1930s that
of events
Hitler's rise
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than anyone else", but there "were other mighty


factors at
work as well in Russia in 1917" (i.e. exhausted
workers,
war-weary soldiers, angry peasants - almost all
waiting to
be led to a revolution!)

to power was providential - i.e. fated to happen.


According to
this Nazi version of events, Hitler was destined
to rule Germany
and between 1929 and 1933 the German
people finally came
to understand this, and put their faith in Hitler.
Critique: obviously the subjective nature of this
P. Kenez
interpretation
Coup d'etat or popular revolution?
speaks for itself. Though the Nazi vote did
Most striking feature - not Bolshevik action or
increase from 2.6
workers', but
% in 1928 to 37% in July 1932, the majority of
"complete disintegration of governmental authority" . In Germans never
this sense,
voted for Hitler in a democratic election - he
not a coup d'etat but rather the "Bolshevik s seized
was appointed via
power because
the 'backstairs' intriguing of the Right. Most
the country was in the throes of anarchy".
modern historians
argue that there are a number of factors that
Trotsky
need to be
Key role played by Lenin, as an individual and leader considered beyond Hitler himself to understand
"had Lenin not managed to come to Petrograd in April his RTP, esp. the
1917, the
circumstances created by the Great
October Revolution would not have tak en place."
Depression and the way this
"If neither Lenin nor I had been present in Petrograd, exacerbated the weaknesses of the Weimar
there would
Republic.
have been no revolution" - the Bolshevik leaders
would've stopped it.
Ian Kershaw
Nothing inevitable about Hitler's RTP Soviet view
circumstances, chance
As dictated by the demands of Party ideology and the and 'backstairs intrigue' brought him to power!
Marxist view
Weimar Republic seemed likely to survive
of history: October 1917 was a popular revolution led without the Great
and enacted
Depression.
by the workers and peasants, with Lenin and the
party's guidance.
"There was nothing inevitable about Hitler's
Pomomarev: "the work ing class led the struggle of the triumph in
whole people
January 1933"
against the autocracy and against the dictatorship of "External events ... put the Nazis on the
the bourgeoisie"
political map" - i.e. the
Wall Street Crash and the Great Depression.
Western liberal view
"The future for the Weimar Republic look ed
Richard Pipes and Cold War interpretation opposed to promising.
the USSR and
And without the onset of the world economic
Communism.
crisis from 1929
October 1917 led to Stalinism and totalitarian
it might have remained so."
dictatorship: thus it
"In bringing Hitler to power, chance events and
was not a 'popular revolution', but a 'tiny minority' of
conservative
fanatical Bolsheviks
miscalculation played a larger role than any
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who seized power and forced their ideas on the


masses.
Pipes: "October was a not a revolution but a classic
coup d'etat .....
The 'masses' ...were not told they were tak ing over
until after the event."

actions of the
Nazi leader himself."
"The handover of power to Hitler on 30th
January 1933 was
the worst possible outcome to the irrecoverable
crisis of
Weimar democracy. It did not have to happen.
It was at no
stage a foregone conclusion."

Revisionists and synthesisers


The revolution itself may have been a coup, but the
political action of the
soldiers, workers and peasants can not be ignored, as Geary
it provided the
Weimar Republic seemed likely to fail in any
greater context in which the Bolsheviks operated.
case, given
Orlando Figes: October revolution was a coup only
circumstances of its creation etc.
supported by a small
minority, but "it took place amidst a social revolution, "No one in their right minds would claim that
which was centred
the terms of the
on the popular realization of Soviet power..... The
Treaty of Versailles did not play a major role in
political vacuum brought
the collapse of
about by this social revolution enabled the Bolshevik s the Weimar Republic."
to seize power in the
"The Weimar Republic had failed to build on
cities."
the fundamental
compromises achieved in 1918 and to use
them to create a
deep rooted legitimacy of its own: it had lost
the struggle for
the hearts and minds of the people."
"The economic crisis acted as a trigger,
occasioning the
abandonment of a political system that had
already lost its
legitimacy."

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What are the important causes for the beginning of the Renaissance in Europe?

What are the important causes for the beginning of the Renaissance in Europe?
The Renaissance was rendered possible by a combination of number of factors which were as follows:
1. Decline of Feudalism.
In the first place the decline of feudalism, which was the basis of life during the medieval period, greatly contributed to the rise
of Renaissance. The feudalism which began to decline by the close of the thirteenth century in France and Italy virtually
disappeared from Western European countries by the 1500 A.D.
The one major factor which played a dominant role in the decline of feudalism was the rise of the middle class comprising of
traders and businessmen. These middle classes provided the kings necessary money for the maintenance of armies and thereby
enabled them to reduce their dependence on the feudal lords.
Further, due to development of trade and commerce during this period, there was great increase in prices which greatly
benefited the craftsmen, merchants and cultivators. As the feudal lords could not in
crease their rents they were forced to
borrow to maintain themselves. As the feudal lords were not able to repay the debts they were often obliged to sell off their
lands. This gave a serious set back to feudalism and manorial life. All this paved the way for the Renaissance.
2. Impact of the Crusades.
The Crusades or the wars between the Christians and Muslims which were fought between 11th and 14th century and which
ultimately resulted in the victory of the Muslims also provided an impetus to Renaissance.
As a result of the Crusades the Western scholars came in contact with the East which was more civilized and polished than the
Christians. A number of Western scholars went to the universities of Cairo, Kufa and Cardona etc and learnt many new ideas,
which they subsequently spread in Europe.
3. Decline in the influence of Church:
The Church which dominated the medieval society suffered a set back in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The temporal
power of the Church was challenged by a number of strong monarchs. In 1296 A.D. King Philip IV of France got the Pope
arrested and made him a prisoner.

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arrested and made him a prisoner.

What are the important causes for the beginning of the Renaissance in Europe?

This gave a serious blow to the power and prestige of the Pope. Even the common people lost faith in Church due to rise of
numerous rituals. They preferred to pay greater attention to the present life rather than the life after death. No wonder they
did not find the medieval ideals of other worldliness and asceticism satisfactory.
4. Wealth and Prosperity:
The Crusades provided an impetus to trade and commerce in the 12th and 13th centuries and the trade between eastern and
western countries greatly increased. This greatly contributed to the wealth and prosperity of the people in Italy and a wealthy
class of traders, bankers and manufacturers emerged. This class tried to display its wealth and bolster its social importance by
patronizing artists and scholars.
They provided security and protection to the artists and encour
aged them to produce outstanding works. With a view to attain
refine
ment in every aspect of their culture, these wealthy classes tried to learn the rules of correct social behavior by reading
etiquette books. The open
ing of the new lands for travel to the Europeans also greatly contributed to the broadening of the
outlook and liberalization of ideas.
5. Invention of Printing Press and Paper:
The discovery of the printing press in 1454 by Gutenberg of Mainz also greatly assisted in the revival of the learning. Soon
thereafter a number of printers appeared in Italy. The printing press was introduced in England by Caxton in 1477.
The inven
tion of the printing press and availability of the paper in abundance at reasonable price greatly contributed to the
popularity of the books and gave a fillip to renaissance. Prof. Edith Sichel highlights the role of the printing in Renaissance thus,
"Printing remained the source of irrigation which fertilized the world of intelligence."
Without printing press knowledge could not have spread for and wide. Earlier, the books were produced by monastic copyist or
printed by presses set up in cloisters and only those books reached the general public which were approved by the Church.
Under changed conditions the print
ing of books passed beyond ecclesiastical control and it became possible disseminate
knowledge and opinions which were not acceptable to the , Church.
6. Fall of Constantinople:
The Fall of Constantinople, in the hands of the Turks in 1453 A.D. provided an indirect impetus to Renaissance. A large number
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What are the important causes for the beginning of the Renaissance in Europe?

of Greek and Roman scholars who were working in the libraries at Constantinople, fled to different parts of Europe with
valuable literature. They began teaching Greek and Latin in various European countries.
As passionate admirers of classical writers they searched for lost manuscripts of Greek and Latin literature and discovered
many works which had been hitherto ignored and neglected. They collected the writ
ings of classical writers studied and edited
them and later on printed their original editions.
One prominent scholar who studied works of ancient writers and edited them was Erasmus. He asserted that the priests and
theologians had distorted the simple teachings of Jesus. He published a fresh edition of New Testament in Greek to clarify the
basic teachings of Christianity. Erasmus was against intolerance and persecution and advo
cated principles of intelligence, openmindedness and goodwill towards all men.
7. Role of Progressive Rulers and Nobles:
Finally, a host of progressive rulers, Popes and nobles also played an important role in the ushering of the renaissance. Rulers
like Francis I of France, Henry VIII of England, Charles V of Spain, Christian II of Denmark etc. extended patronage to scholars
and men of learning and greatly contributed to the revival of Greeco-Roman classics.
Likewise Popes like Nicholas V, and Leo X greatly contributed to renaissance by encouraging study of ancient Greek and Roman
classical and patronizing classical art, sculpture, music etc. Apart from the Kings and Popes certain nobles also patronized
literary men, artists and scientists and contributed towards renaissance.
For ex
ample, Medici family of Florence set up an academy in Florence which was devoted to the study and research of Platonic
philosophy. This family patronized painters, artists and sculptors like Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci and Bertoldo.
8. Geographical Voyages:
The discovery of mariner's compass lead to large number of people taking long voyages because it was possible for them to
know the exact direction in which they were sailing. The people were also able to explore the distant seas. As a result the
notions about the shape and size of the world in vogue were challenged.
A little later with the discovery of telescope people were able to scan the sky and made a new beginning in the study of
astronomy. They came to know about the real position of the earth in the solar system. All this knowledge went against the
teachings of Church and no wonder contributed to the weaken
ing of the authority of the ecclesiastical system.
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What are the important causes for the beginning of the Renaissance in Europe?
teachings of Church and no wonder contributed
to the weaken
ing of the authority of the ecclesiastical system.

1/16/14

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INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
I.

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION C 1760-80 - 1880


A. DEFINITION & GENERAL REMARKS
1. 200 yrs ago
2. modern industrial society first took shape in Great Britain
3. changes industrialization brought so momentous that historians speak of them as
a. Industrial Revolution
4. in a broader sense, Ind Rev continues to this day
5. a long unfolding of new technologies & machinery that began being powered by steam
6. moved on to use of petroleum, electricity & nuclear for power to run other new machinery
7. steam-engine era of the 19th c. may look primitive from perspective of our age
a. of space exploration, electronics, & computer technology
8. but technological breakthroughs of 200 yrs ago crucial to all that has occurred since
9. Ind. Rev. process of society going from a rural agricultural & commercial society
10. to modern industrial society dependent on use of power machinery rather than man & animals
11. while process gradual & not sudden which word revolution suggests
12. economic, social & political results revolutionary
13. rural, handicraft economy of centuries
14. transformed to one dominated by urban workers
15. 1st stage of IR began slowly about 1760,
16. gathered momentum after 1815-30
17. by 1850 England workshop of world
18. only quite later did industrial revolution come to continent
19. some historians say
a. most important event in world history

II. CAUSES OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION


A. General Remarks
1. why did Industrial Revolution occur at this time?
2. & why did it occur 1st in England?
3. complex combination of events & elements unique to England caused Industrial Revolution
4. British had vigorous middle class including both skilled technicians & aggressive entrepreneurs
5. British had surplus labor produced by 18th c. Agricultural Revolution
6. they had immense amounts of capital from empire & trade & agricultural revolution
7. growing population at home & abroad to provide requisite demand
8. Britain had resources in iron & coal
9. Ind. Rev. began in textile manufacturing, notably new cotton industry
10. more willing to innovate than older, more hidebound wool industry
11. from textiles, new approach spread to heavy industry, transportation & other areas
12. & from Great Britain, new technology much later spread to western Europe, North America & on around
world
13. 11 causes that contributed to beginning of Industrial Revolution in England
1st B. NATURE OF MERCHANT CLASS
1. merchant class in England had long enjoyed acceptance and prestige
2. marriage between daughters of wealthy merchants and gentry had occurred since late middle ages
3. this upward mobility into modern times as well
4. pursuit of wealth acceptable
5. merchant class aggressive, inventive, ambitious
6. all characteristics acceptable to English
7. English society offered rewards to individuals for risk taking & innovation
2nd C. ENGLISH GOVERNMENT FAVORABLE TO BUSINESS & MERCHANT CLASS
1. generally adverse to war as offensive measure
2. govt & merchants partners in business
3. laws passed that aided & protected merchants

3rd D.

4th E.

5th F.

6th G.
7th H.

8th I.

9th J.

4. Parliament established principle of limited liability


a. indicated by LTD.
b. applied first to railroads
c. and then to other companies
5. practice of limiting each shareholder's liability to value of his shares encouraged wider public investment
INCREASING MARKETS AT HOME & ABROAD
1. great economic growth of Europe in previous centuries
2. brought about by Age of Discovery & Exploration
a. colonies & empires of European nations
3. growth of British empire & trade after successful wars against France & others
a. India, Continent, Egypt
4. gave Britain a ready market for her goods
5. also, expanding home market for whatever goods manufactured
6. English avid consumers
7. by mid 18th c yearly fashions setting styles for rich & middle class alike
AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION IN ENGLAND
1. production of food increased to feed growing population of cities
2. new crops such as potato, turnips, clover planted in rotation patterns
3. & land no longer lying fallow
4. more money to be made by farmers
5. with profits earned by agriculture excess capital went into industrial investment
6. new agricultural machinery developed simultaneously w/new factory machinery
SUFFICIENT CHEAP LABOR POOL IN ENGLAND
1. tremendous growth in total population
a. 1750 - 6 1/2 million
b. 1830 - 16 1/2 million
(1) 80% increase in 80 yrs
2. use of machinery on farms lessened demand for labor
3. freed up labor pool for towns
ENGLAND'S NAVY & MERCHANT MARINE FLEET
1. control of seas both in war and peace times
2. allowed great access to world markets
ENGLAND'S ABUNDANT RESOURCES of COAL & IRON
1. large quantities of coal & iron in fairly close proximity
2. coal & iron necessary to produce steam to run machinery
3. by 1800 9/10ths world's coal mined British Isles
SUFFICIENT CAPITAL & FAVORABLE BANKING POLICIES IN ENG.
1. with excess capital from agricultural revolution
2. & profits from overseas trade
3. investors went into manufacturing fields
4. men began to lend to industries they knew little about
5. Bankers played such an nb role they became great powers in Europe
6. international house of Rothschild epitomizes this
7. English investments made in other countries w/assistance of these banking houses
a. eg. English capital constructed French & American railroads
8. cf this w/today's investments
a. British are biggest investors in America
b. Japanese next
9. banks decreased interest rates so money cheap to borrow
a. 5% - 1700
b. 3% - 1765
10. Banks further assisted economic expansion by promoting use of checks & paper money specie
TECHNOLOGICAL SKILL & INDUSTRIAL INVENTIONS OF BRITISH
1. wave of mechanical inventions made possible by discoveries of Sci. Revolution of 17 & 18th c.
2. inventions making industrialization possible few

3
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

yet revolutionized nature of labor


workers' brains more NB now than muscles
series of successful inventions in cotton textile industry began process
& became model for industrialization in other areas
by 1760's rising demand for cheap, comfortable cotton garments over-taxed prevailing domestic system
a. cotton cloth imported from India, no longer enough
b. cheaper than wool cloth - & could be washed
(1) wool cloth industry dated from middle ages
8. James Kay's invention of flying shuttle had so increased productivity of weavers
a. only 1 person needed now instead of 2
9. by 1730's real bottleneck as spinners could not produce enough thread to keep up w/weavers
10. various groups of merchants offered prizes for invention of machine to eliminate this bottleneck
K. 1765 James Hargreaves invented spinning jenny
a. initially machine could spin 16 spindles of thread at time
b. by end of 18th c. 120 spindles
2. spinning jenny broke bottleneck, but still piece of machine used in the cottage of workers
3. invention that took cotton textile manufacture out of home & into factory was
4. Richard Arkwright's water frame 1769
a. could spin more thread than spinning jenny
b. & spun tighter & finer thread
c. but needed more power
5. not until late 18th c. was steam engine perfected by James Watt, Scot
6. factories could be located in or near existing urban centers instead of by natural water supplies
7. steam power next employed in other industries
a. use of steam-driven bellows in blast furnaces helped ironmakers switch from charcoal to coke
8. but it was mechanization of textiles that served as model for other industries
10th L. ENGLISH TRANSPORTATION CHANGES & INVENTIONS
1. over course of 19th century series of inventions speeded up distribution of raw materials to factories
2. & distribution of finished goods to customers
3. CANALS
a. by 1815 3000 miles of canal built England
b. inexpensive Irish labor used
c. movement of goods easier & cheaper
d. now can take vacations on them in England & France
4. PORTS
a. beginning w/London & other English cities building new docks facilitated movement of goods
b. London now became greatest port in world
5. ROADS
a. 1815 Scotsman, McAdam - devised durable road surfacing
(1) granite fragments packed down
6. RAILROADS
a. next significant invention
b. from 1590's horse drawn trucks on rails
c. hauled coal from mines to river
d. need for cheap means of transporting ever-larger amounts of coal from mines to cities
e. led to experiments w/steam-powered rail travel
f. locomotive dev by George Stephenson in Eng in 1814
g. by 1825 1st railroad in operation
(1) The Rocket locomotive
(2) could go 15 MPH
h.1st viable commercial line Liverpool-Manchester 1830
i.1st used to move goods then passengers
j.1st & 2nd class carriages
(1)1st class looked like stagecoaches on wheels
(2)2nd class open cars

4
k. later on railroad cars elegant
(1) as slide of pullman dining car
(2) & Queen Victoria's private car attest
l. England had 500 miles of track in 1838, 6600 miles in 1850 & 15,500 in 1870
m. w/in decade every major western country had short rail lines
n. much of RR development throughout continent & world financed by British
7. development of other means of transportation
a. early horse tram
(1) forerunner of modern bus
b. next steam driven trams
c. finally underground transportation in London developed
8. but what is most nb is RR accelerated pace & profitability of industrialization
11th M. COMMUNICATION CHANGES & INVENTIONS
1. 1840 Britain inaugurated penny post
2. to send letter from London to Edinburgh now only penny, less than 1/10th of old rate
3. electricity provided ultra-swift communications
a. 1st telegraph message 1844 Baltimore to Wash D.C.
b. 1st submarine cable under English Channel 1851
c. 1st transatlantic cable 1866
d. 1st telephone 1876
N. GREAT EXHIBITION 1851 LONDON
1. on May 1, 1851 in London, Queen Victoria opened the "Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All
Nations"
a. 1st of many world's fairs
2. this international exposition displayed latest mechanical marvels
3. in its own setting marvel of engineering
a. Crystal Palace
b. structure of iron & glass stretching like a mammoth greenhouse for more than a 1/3 of a mile in Hyde
Park
4. to visitors evident Britain workshop of world
III. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ON CONTINENT
A. SEE TEXT FOR GOOD EXPLANATION
IV. ORGANIZATION OF FACTORIES & INDUSTRIES
A. FACTORY & INDUSTRIAL OWNERS
1. early industrialists came from a variety of backgrounds
2. many from well-established merchant families
3. others of modest means, especially in early days
4. first factories developed by Arkwright to put water frames in them
5. & he found that a small factory could be started for 2000 or less
6. artisans & skilled workmen of exceptional ability had unparalleled opportunities
B. FACTORY & INDUSTRIAL WORKERS
1. who were factory workers?
2. in beginning mostly abandoned & pauper children
3. & then women
4. men refused to work initially in factories
5. because of the monotonous & long arduous hours
6. men had been used to working only Wednesday through Saturdays when they got paid
7. & then would go out & get drunk
8. & start work week again by Tuesday or Wednesday when sober
9. but working along side the men had been the wives & children
a. called cottage industries
b. entire family participated in the family economy
10. so illegitimate children & orphans were hired by factory owners

5
11. living in workhouses they were farmed out at 5 or 6 or 7 to work in factories
a. work 12-15 hrs day 6 days week
(1) or as long as could stay awake
12. but children could not provide enough workers for factories
13. people came from all over to work in cities
a. Ireland, Scotland, Wales
14. as factory workers & as laborers, builders & domestic servants
15. but they came as family united
16. continuation of the family work pattern - cottage system - of early centuries on farms
C. FACTORY & INDUSTRIAL WORKING CONDITIONS
1. what were working conditions?
2. Many factory owners hard taskmasters
3. most laid down strict rules for their workers
4. factory workmen regularly stood for 14 hrs or more in overheated rooms
5. coming to work 10 minutes late meant loss of half a day's pay
6. workers could be fired w/o pretext or notice
7. workers such as spinners in Manchester were fined as much as 1-6 shillings for:
a. opening their window
b. washing themselves
c. conversing
d. singing or whistling
8. many workers killed or disabled by crippling effects of hazardous working conditions or materials
9. workers in iron, tin & lead & lead paint risked severe pulmonary infections from fumes & chemical
solvents
10. conditions in brickyards in 19th c. as bad as in mines & worst factories
11. glaziers & pewterers susceptible to palsy
12. lacemakers rarely kept their sight unimpaired for more than a few years
a. many went blind
13. cf w/todays problems such as asbestos
14. mine cave-ins common
15. lives of lower class women & children most effected by working conditions of Industrial Revolution
16. few families could survive w/o wages of women & children
17. even though paid less then men
18. families initially not against their children working in factories
19. as they able to discipline & control themselves
20. but once factories organized in more modern format
21. when managers & foremen took over control that parents protested inhuman conditions their children were
enduring
22. not until 1819 illegal to employ children under 9 in cotton-mills
a. & illegal to keep older children at work for more than 12 hours a day
23. even then law easily & frequently evaded as no factory inspectors
24. women's endurance & docility prized by factory overseerers
25. as well as fact she would work for less than men
26. in mines women did worst tasks
27. mine work allotted to children equally severe
28. even before worked in factories, children of working mothers suffered occupational handicaps
29. as infants, regularly dosed w/"Godfrey's cordial"
a. opium mixed w/molasses to keep in a constant stupor
30.many found employment as chimney sweepers
a.boys were burned & suffocated
D. CONTEMPORARY LEGISLATION TO ALLEVIATE PROBLEMS OF WORKING CONDITIONS
1. from 1760-1830's saw increased concern for human misery especially young
2. regulation of factories through series of acts
3. 1st major accomplishment for reformers Factory Act of 1833
a. limited workday for children between 9-13 to 8 hrs

6
b.
c.
d.
e.

adolescents between 14-18, 12 hours per day


law prohibited children under 9 to work
even then law easily & frequently evaded as no factory inspectors
those under 9 were to be enrolled in elementary schools factory owners required to establish

V. DEBATE BETWEEN CRITICS & PROPONENTS OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION


A. CONTEMPORARY CRITICS OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN ENGLAND
1. earliest critics romantic poets, physicians & middle class reformers
2. 1 of most famous was Friedrich Engels
3. his famous study
a. The Conditions of the Working Class in England in 1844
b. describes factory conditions in northern England
4. referred to situation of industrial poor
a. "an ever spreading pool of misery & desolation."
5. blamed wretchedness of workers on bourgeois greed
6. yet ironically, throughout the yrs of his collaboration w/Karl Marx, Engels capitalist
a. managing Manchester factory of his family's mfg firm for 20 yrs.
7. Engel's book 1 of dozens of private & parliamentary reports drawn up
8. investigating factory & other working conditions in 1830-40's
9. although other books did not always join Engels in blaming wretchedness on bourgeois greed
10. they were unanimous in deploring industries which forced their workers to labor endlessly
B. LUDDITE RIOTS
1. handloom weavers, hard hit by competition from power looms began great loom-breaking
2. called Luddite Riots after General Lud
3. underground revolutionary movement w/a definite, if unsystematic program of action
4. workshops & knitting frames of good & honest employers left untouched
5. these acts of vandalism, although directed at new labor-saving machines that had robbed many of them of
their livelihood
6. were also inspired by discontent over living conditions & inflationary prices
7. while children of the poor were taught to venerate Gen. Ludd and to remember him in their prayers
8. this Luddite movement reached its climax in 1826
9. when factory owner Cartwright successfully drove off a luddite attack by placing a vat of concentrated
sulfuric acid at top of stairs to tip on heads of attackers
10. thereafter no mill or frame was smashed
11. but within a decade after the first Luddite riot, trade unions formed to redress workers' grievances
12. workers eventually organized, established labor unions to improve their conditions
C. CONTEMPORARY PROPONENTS OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
1. many believed living conditions were improving for working classes due to the Industrial Revolution
2. people could buy more materials goods
3. foreign visitors to England in mid 18th c repeatedly stressed comfortable circumstances in which most
people seemed to be placed
4. & qualities of goods did not seem to lessen w/Ind. Rev.
5. Even French impressed with quality of workers & goods English produced
D. MODERN OPINIONS OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN ENGLAND
1. whether Industrial Revolution beneficial or not beneficial to society has long been hotly debated by
historians
2. originally first modern historians of IR mostly socialists
3. & were very pessimistic of the IR
4. others said IR provided better life style for people
5. after doing more statistical research than contemporaries of the Industrial Revolution
6. historians such as T.S. Ashton Industrial Revolution 1960's
a. found positive conclusions re IR
(1) longer life expectancy
(2) less infant mortality
(3) better food

7
7. it has been concluded with exception ofwartime period when England fighting with Napoleon & French
8. industrialization probably brought more material benefits to people than any other historical innovation
9. but does it improve quality of life & happiness
VI. WHAT HAPPENED WHEN A COUNTRY DID NOT INDUSTRIALIZE
A. IRISH POTATO FAMINE OF MID-19TH CENTURY
1. Ireland did not go through an industrial revolution like England and Continent did in the 19th century
2. event known as Irish Potato Famine gives us a chance to look at area that did not go through
industrialization process
3. the great mass of Irish Catholic peasants
4. they rented their land from English Anglican Protestants
a. many of their landlords did not reside in Ireland
5. English landlords did not participate in the new ideas of the Agricultural Revolution
6. by 1800 Irish peasants living in abject poverty
7. yet even in these poverty areas, Irish kept multiplying population growth sped onward
8. the 4 million of 1780 reached 8 million in 1840
a. doubled in 60 years
9. during this same time nearly 25% of them (1 3/4 million people) left Ireland for Britain and America
10. potato was 1st introduced into Ireland in late 16th c.
11. by end of 18th c. principal food of Irish peasants
12. 1 acre of land planted in potatoes fed family of 6 for entire year
13. cf w/2-4 acres of grain/pastures needed
14. 10 lbs per person per day, fed the Irish & their animals
15. actually potato together w/milk gives all necessary amino acids, etc.
16. w/only need to supplement w/green vegetables for complete diet
17. peasants had no incentive to make permanent improvements on land as any increase in profits went to
landlord
18. early marriages occurred as easy to get 1 acre & throw up a sod or stone house
19. they had lots of children
20. as they were an insurance policy; social security
21. an aged or infirm person's best hope of escaping starvation was a dutiful son or daughter
22. but potato harvest had failed often & threat of widespread famine accepted part of life
23. regional famines beginning in 1830`s reached proportions of catastrophe when in 1845, 1846 and again in
1848 and 1851, the potato crop failed in Ireland
a. & throughout much of Europe
24. 3 out of 4 acres got potato blight
25. by spring of 1847, 15,000 Irish dying of starvation every day
26. people ate anything to keep alive
a. grass, other humans
27. for a few months govt in Eng kept nearly a million of 8 million Irish alive through jobs on public works
projects
28. but local English landlords reacted w/ terrifying inhumanity
29. families too weak to work were driven off their holdings
30. houses & barns were burned
31. little or nothing done by Parliament to restrain such destruction
B. CONSEQUENCES OF FAMINE FOR IRELAND
1. total losses were staggering
2. at least 1-1.5 million died
3. in face of disaster, Irish flocked to port towns & bought passage for America or Canada
4. berth in the stinking hold of a "coffin ship could be bought for 5
5. by law penniless emigrants had to be given enough food to stay alive until reached New World
6. average of 1 in 6 perished at sea
7. on arriving Emigrants' first task was to dig a mass grave for those who had succumbed to diarrhea,
tuberculosis & ship's fever.
8. consequences,

8
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

a. more Irish in America than in Ireland today


Alone among nations of Europe, Irelands population declined to nearly 1/2 of its former numbers
as result it became a land of late marriages
widespread celibacy
& cattle & sheep raising instead of the potato
in Central Russia, western Germany & southern Italy saw rapid population growth without
industrialization as in Ireland
acute poverty and crucial role of potato that supplemented meat occurred here also
the standard of living was declining in these areas like in Ireland
cf w/modern 3rd world nations that have not industrialized

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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 3.17 Hitler's RTP, ideology and aims

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Hitler's Rise to Power, Ideology and Aims


This theme asks you to look at the rise to power of Hitler as an authoritarian single-party
leader. You need to consider the circumstances in which his rise to power took place, and the
methods used by Hitler to make this successful bid for control of the German state.
Note:
Hitler represents a RIGHT-WING RULER for the Paper 2 option, and could therefore be
effectively compared with either Lenin or Stalin if the question asked you to look at one left
and one right-wing SPS ruler.

Past Questions:
Paper 3
Analyse the reasons for the collapse of the Weimar Republic and the establishment of a
Nazi dictatorship in the period 1929 to 1934. (Nov 06)
Analyse the main factors which contributed to Hitlers rise to power in January 1933.
(Nov 05)
Paper 2
Evaluate the contribution to the rise to power of Hitler of each of the following: National
Socialist ideology; the use of force; economic crises. (Nov 10)
Analyse the circumstances that helped one right-wing leader to become the ruler of a
single-party state. (May 10 TZ2)
In what ways, and to what extent, was propaganda important in the rise and rule of
Hitler? (May 10 TZ1)
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Assess the importance of economic distress and ideological appeal in the rise to power
of one left-wing and one right-wing single-party ruler. (Nov 09)
Unpopular rulers or governments, and their overthrow, were responsible for the
formation of the majority of twentieth century single-party states. To what extent do
you agree with this assertion? (May 08 TZ2)
Analyse the rise to power of either Hitler or Lenin. (May 08 TZ2)
Analyse the methods used and the conditions which helped in the rise to power of one
ruler of a single-party state. (May 07)
It was personality and not circumstances that brought rulers of single-party states to
power. To what extent do you agree with this statement? (Nov 06)
To what extent was the rise to power of either Hitler or Mao due to personal appeal
and ability? (May 06)
Analyse the methods used and the conditions which helped in the rise to power of one
ruler of a single-party state. (May 05)
**MARKSCHEME NOTES**
Key dates:
1928-Nazi party get 2.7% of votes
1932- Nazi party 37% of votes
1933-Hitler appointed chanchellor

Introduction:
The central issue to be explained is how the Nazi parties managed to transform themselves from
a marginalised party that received just 2.6% of the vote in the 1928 election into the largest
political party in Germany in July 1932, when 37 % of the German people voted for them.
The Nazi minister of propaganda, Joseph Goebbels created a powerful propaganda myth in the
1930s that explained Hitlers rise to power as providential - i.e. that it was Hitlers destiny to rule
Germany and between 1929 and 1933 the German people finally came to understand this and
put their faith in Hitler.
However, most modern historians recognise that there are a number of factors that need to be
considered beyond Hitler himself in order to understand this chain of events, in particular the set
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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 3.17 Hitler's RTP, ideology and aims

of circumstances created by the impact of the Great Depression in Germany, and the role this
played in exacerbating the weaknesses of the Weimar Republic. One final point to observe is
that Hitler did not gain the support of the majority of the German people in a democratic election:
he was appointed as Chancellor in January 1933 via the backstairs political intrigue of the
German Right who wished to use Hitler and the Nazis popular support to collapse the Weimar
democracy in their interests.
It is therefore necessary to consider how: i) the force of circumstances, ii) the role of Hitler and
the Nazis through ideological appeal and ability, and iii) the political intriguing of Hindenburg and
the Right interacted to bring Hitler to power as Chancellor in January 1933 (remember that at
that point in time he was Chancellor of a crumbling democratic regime - the Nazi dictatorship
was put into place over the following year.
Long-term factors:
Political problems of the Weimar Republic
Weak constitution:
-Through article 48, the president of the Weimar republic had the right to suspend the parliament in
times of emergency. Hitler later used this fundamental weakness of the constitution to establish a
right-wing dictatorship in conjunction with the Reichstag fire.
-Proportional representation system led to weak coaltion governments, which undermined the credibilty
of the Weimar republic. The coaltion consisted of a range of parties and they had a hard time agreeing
on anything. For example, there were six coaltion government between 1924-29.
Legacy of the Treaty of Versailles and defeat in WW1:
The new Weimar republic had to tak on the blame of the defeat in WW1 + the humiliating TOV
because the republic was set up right after the war. Right-wing + nationalistic elements in Germany
resented the fact that Weimar republic accepted TOV + forced German forces to quit the war in 1918.
Many felt that the republic had "stabbed them in the back".
Economic weakness of the Weimar Republic
The first economic crisis of the Weimar repulbc occured in the beginning of the 1920s. Germany had
been exhausted by WW1 and the Treaty of Versailles depreived Germany of many of her vital natural
resources. For example, Germany lost 75% of its iron ore resources, when Belgian and French troops
occupied the Rhineland, which was Germany's industrial centre. Germany was also forced to pay war
reprations to the allies after WW1. In response to the growing economic pressure on Germany, the
Weimar government started to print more money. As a result, there was hyperinflation and the money
syste broke down. However, the economic situation improved slightly, when the Rentenmark was
introduced and when Germany got loans from the US called the Dawes plan. But the German economy
remained weak and dependent on foreign loans, which contributed to the widespread resentement of
the republic. in 1923, industry had only reached 47% of pre-war prodution levels. The weak economy
also made voters support more radical political parties such as the Nazis.
Nazi exploitation of the 'stab in the back myth'

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Right-wing + nationalistic elements of German society believed that Germany was defeated in the First
World War not through any lack of military strength but because the Socialists, Catholics, Jews had
'stabbed Germany in the back' by their revolution in 1918. Hitler exploits this and affirs the correctness
of the "Stab in the back myth" in his election campaings. Thus, he gained support from the Right-wing
+ nationalistic voters and as a result increased the influence of the Nazi party.
Mid-term factors:
Impact of the Great Depression: how did this worsen the economic and political problems of
the Weimar regime, and favour Hitler and the Nazis?
In 1928, the flow of foreign capital dried up as the US economy went into a depression. By 1929,
German banks were forced to close and by 1932 there were 6 million people unemployed. The coalition
government at the time was deeply divdided and and failed to agree on what measures to take.But, in
the beginning of 1930s, government agreed to cut goverment expenditure on welfare to cope with the
falling tax revenue. Bruning, the president at the time also set up public workschemes, to counter the
high unemployment rates, but this was a classical example of too little too late. As a result, the public
was deeply discontented with the handling of the economic depression and began to look to more
radical parties such as the Nazis.
Hitler's use of effective propaganda to take advantage of circumstances and increase support
In response to the crisis, Hitler made use of propaganda to increase his support. In 1932, he got 37%
of all votes. The Nazi party put much effort into educating some of its key memebers to hold speeches
to ensure the quality of party campaings. In contrast to other parties, the Nazis used of the new
technology such as radio and the Cinema to attract support.
Immediate cause:
Political intrigue on the 'backstairs': why was Hitler appointed Chancellor in January 1933?
In 1932 General von Schleicher replaced von Papen as Chancellor as von Papen had dallen out of
favour with the people and the Weimar republic.
Von Schleichers policy of land reform worried the conservative President Hindenburg. In January it was
decided to get rid of von Schleicher and to try and bring the Nazis into government to try to stabilize
German politics. In 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor by Hindenburg. Hindenburg and his
conservative allies thought that they could control Hitler, but they were wrong. When Hitler was
appointed chancellor he called fresh elections for March. The SA began to attack their political
enemies especially the Communists and Social Democrats. Their papers were closed down their
offices raided, their meetings attacked and their members beaten up. In order to ensure that the
military would not intervene, Hitler promised the army that he would tear up the military clauses of the
Treaty of Versailles. The Nazis could now act as they pleased.

The Reichstag Fire


In February in 1933 a young Dutch communist Van der Lubbe set fire to the Reichstag building. Hitler
took advantage of this act and announced that it was a signal for a communist revolt. An emergency
law was passed. It allowed the chancellor to suspend the parliament. This law formed the basis of
police power in Germany and helped to create a totalitarian state. Hitler had now control over the
Weimar republic.
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The Enabling Act


The elections held in March saw the Nazis and their allies receive 52% of the vote and a majority in the
Reichstag. Hitler passed now passed the emergency law called "the Enabling Act". To gain the support
needed for the law, SA mobs surrounded the parliament and threatened any politicians that voted
against the law. Hitler succeeded to pass the law and it allowed Hitler as chancellor to pass laws
without seeking the approval of parliament or the President. It formed the legal basis of the Nazi
dictatorship. The Nazis could now close down the other opposing political parties, arrest political
opponents etc. They could crush all opposition. iIn 1934, Hitler was the sole leader of the Nazis and he
could start build the Nazi dictorship.
Historiography and evaluation of Hitler's RTP - how are these factors interrelated? Which are
most important?
G. Ritter, the Weimar republic collapsed in 1933 to due its inability to win the confidence of the general public.
The popular resentment towards Weimar republic was a major factor in helping Hitler seizing power in 1933.
I. Kershaw, chance, luck and tragic miscalculations were a major factor bringing Hitler to power, and causing the
downfall of the Weimar republic. There was nothing inevitable about Hitlers triumph in 1933.
E. Anderson, A major factor contributing to the collapse of the Weimar republic was the shrewdness of the
political leaders in the Nazi party. The government believed they could control Hitler in his new position as
chancellor in 1933. However, they were wrong Hitler managed to outmanoeuvre the government and establish a
single party state thanks to his position as chancellor.
All factors interrelate. The political and economic weaknesses of the Weimar republic, created the foundations
for for Hitler's rise to power. However, the success of Hitler's RTP does also have to be contributed to the fact
that the Nazi ideology was appealing to the German people + it was unique. Hitler also effectively took
advantage of the great depression + stab in the back myth, which hepled him to power.
Explain Nazi ideology + What were Hitler's main aims?
When Hitler was imprisoned in Landsberg prison after the Munich beer hall putsch in 1923, he wrote a
book called Mein Kampf, outlining Nazi ideology. Nazi ideology contains strong nationalistic and antisemitic elements whilst some limited socialist ideas. Hitler wanted to
a) Revise TOV
b) Unify all German speakers in EU into a "Greater German Reich"
c) Lebensraum: acquire more territor in the east to feed his future German empire. A conquest war in
the east, would also let Hitler fight Russian communism, and political ideology he deeply resented.
d) Socially reconstruct Germany into a folk community based on traditional German beliefs called
Volksgemeinschaft. The new community was very influenced by social Darwinism, It promoted equality
of opportunity, but not equality in itself. In many ways, the the Volksgemianschaft demtoted the role of
the individual in order to create a loyal German people, which would support the Nazi regime.
e) In this new community, Hitler sought to create a pure Aryan race through anti-Semitic laws.
Nazi ideology also containted a deep hatred for communists and jews. Hitler did viewed jews as a
united race that was the root of everything evil. The anti-semitic ideas had two functions in Nazi
ideology. Firstly, it provided Hitler with an explanation of everything bad in Germany. Secondly, it
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provided Hitler with a reason for the policy of Lebensraum. Hitler had to invade the USSR to defeat the
stronghold of Jewish Bolshevism (many jews lived in USSR).
Hitler resented socialism + communism, but Nazi ideology contained a few socialist elements in order
to appeal tothe workers. For example, Hitler would socialize the economy (e.g. profit sharing between
managers and workers in factories). However, very few of the socialist ideas were implemented when
Hitler rose to power, he focused on foreign + right-wing policies.
(http://www.scribd.com/doc/31086478/IB-History-Revision-Notes-Hitler-Nazi-Germany ,
http://www.johndclare.net/Weimar6.htm )
(http://www.scribd.com/doc/31086478/IB-History-Revision-Notes-Hitler-Nazi-Germany ,
http://www.johndclare.net/Weimar6.htm )
Resources:
Very useful website on this topic: http://www.historyhome.co.uk/europe/hitrise.htm
Excellent site: http://www.funfront.net/hist/total/n-german.htm#great-depression
Another useful revision site with mnemonics: http://www.johndclare.net/Weimar7.htm

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Causes of the French Revolution

History 151 The French Revolution: Causes, Outcomes, Conflicting Interpretations


Mr. Schwartz
Causes of the French Revolution
1. International: struggle for hegemony and Empire outstrips the fiscal resources of the state
2. Political conflict: conflict between the Monarchy and the nobility over the reform of the tax
system led to paralysis and bankruptcy.
3. The Enlightenment: impulse for reform intensifies political conflicts; reinforces traditional
aristocratic constitutionalism, one variant of which was laid out in Montequieus Spirit of the
Laws; introduces new notions of good government, the most radical being popular
sovereignty, as in Rousseaus Social Contract [1762]; the attack on the regime and
privileged class by the Literary Underground of Grub Street; the broadening influence of
public opinion.
4. Social antagonisms between two rising groups: the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie
5. Ineffective ruler: Louis XVI
6. Economic hardship, especially the agrarian crisis of 1788-89 generates popular discontent and
disorders caused by food shortages.
Revolutionary situation: when the government's monopoly of power is effectively challenged by
some groups who no longer recognize its legitimate authority, no longer grant it loyalty, and
no longer obey its commands. Dual or multiple sovereignty is the identifying feature of a
revolutionary situation - the fragmentation of an existing polity into two or more blocs, each
of which exercises control over some part of the government and lays claim to its exclusive
control over the government. A revolutionary situation continues until a single, sovereign
polity is reconstituted. The Third Estates Oath of the Tennis Court in June 1789 and its
claim of representing the sovereignty of the nation creates a revolutionary situation in
France.
Revolutionary Process or Stages:
One interpretation from this definition is that a revolution will continue until a single sovereign
order has been restored either by agreement or force. As the French Revolution demonstrated, the
level of violence is likely to be greater after the first outbreak of revolution or revolutionary situation,
as one group claiming sovereignty seeks to vanquish one or more other rival groups also claiming
sovereignty.
o A good example in the French Revolution is the events leading up to the
overthrow of the Constitutional Monarch on August 1792often called the Second
Revolutionand the establishment of the First French Republic.
o After the establishment of the Republic, the level of violence grew as the
Republican regime sought to repress counter-revolutionary movements in France
(Federalist revolts and the Vende uprising) while struggling at the same time to
prevent defeat in war by the combined forces of Austria, Prussia, and Britain. The
so-called reign of Terror was instituted to quash both internal and foreign forces of
counter revolution. But once these internal and foreign threats were under control in
the spring of 1794, Terror continued at the direction of the Committee of Public
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Safety, the most famous member of which was Maximiliean Robespierre. This last
period of Terror was aimed at eliminating political rivals of Robespierre and the
Committee, which included Danton. The excesses that resulted led to the overthrow
of Robespierre and the Committee on the 9th of Thermidor, Year II (July 27 1994).
o After the overthrow of Robespierre, the revolution continued still longer as the
moderate leaders of the newly established government called the Directory (17951799) attempted to bring the revolution to a close in keeping with the principles of
1789 that would be under bourgeois control and freed from the intervention and
pressures of the popular movement. This effort entailed the forceful repression of 1)
the popular movement in Paris by Napoleons so-called whiff of grapeshot. the
overturning of elections in 1797 (to oust neo-Jacobins seen as too radical) and
again in 1798 (to oust ultra conservatives). The Directory relied on the army and
military force to carry out these repressive acts at the same time it supported the
army and Napoleon in an aggressive war of expansion in Europe and Egypt. Having
relied on the army so much, the Directory was in the end overthrown by Napoleon
and military might.

Another interpretation of the Revolution divides the period of 1789-1799 into stages or phases:
o A liberal, constitutional phase of 1789-1792
o A radical, republican phase that led to authoritarian terror of the Committee of
Public Safety August 10 1792 to 9 Thermidor 1794
o Thermidor: A reactionary phase in response to the excesses of radical
republicanism (universal male franchise) and of Terror.
o The Napoleonic coup detat, the ending of the Revolution by military coup and the
restoration of order and domestic peace through an authoritarian regime.

.
Outcomes of the French Revolution, 1789-1799(1815)
1. Representative government vs. authoritarianism (the Terror, Napoleon): two different new
models of government
2. Stronger, further centralized state with a larger, more effective and more intrusive administration.
3. Abolition of special fiscal privileges, seigneurial dues owed by peasants to lords, internal tariffs,
and the establishment of uniform tax system based in principle on ones income.
4. Creation and extension of new civil rights:
a. equality before the law
b. careers open to talent
c. participation in elections or certain government positions based on property
qualifications
5. Socio-economic changes
a. single commercial code
b. abolition of guilds, i.e., workers right to organize in unions
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c. business becomes an honorable profession


d. (wealthier) peasants acquire land and more peasants become independent proprietors
e. increase in the size and influence of the bourgeoisie, through the acquisition of church
lands, greater wealth, and offices as political representatives and government
officials
6. Changes in ideas and political culture:
a. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity ; popular sovereignty : sovereignty rested with the people not
in the king, or any narrower group such as the aristocracy; democratic republicanism
b. Nationalism c. decline in religiosity, in the influence and authority of the church d. formation of a revolutionary tradition centered on the belief that revolution was a means
for bringing progressive change and further extension of popular participation and
popular sovereignty.
Conflicting Interpretations of the Revolution: Causes, nature, outcomes.
1. The Influence of Ideas: Mathiez: The Revolution had been accomplished in the minds of
men long before it was translated into fact. Taylor: Revolutionary ideology was the product,
not the cause, of a political and social crisis of revolutionary proportions. A revolutionary
situation emerged first and revolutionary thinking came out of that situation.
2. The role of the people and violence:
a. This contrast between theory and practice, between good intentions and acts of savage
violence, which was the salient feature of the French Revolution, becomes less startling when we
remember that the Revolution, though sponsored by the most civilized classes of the nation, was
carried out by its least educated and most unruly elements."
Alexis de Tocqueville, The Old Regime and the French Revolution, 1858
b. "The French Revolution gave peoples the sense that history could be changed by their action,
and it gave them, incidentally, what remains to this day the single most powerful slogan ever
formulated for the politics of democracy and common people which it inaugurated: Liberty,
Equality, Fraternity. . . . The French Revolution demonstrated the power of the common
people in a manner that no subsequent government has ever allowed itself to forget--if
only in the form of untrained, improvised, conscript armies, defeating the conjunction of the finest
and most experienced troops of the old regimes. When the common people did intervene in July
and August of 1789, they transformed conflict among elites into something quite different, if only by
bringing about, within a matter of weeks, the collapse of state power and administration and the
power of the rural ruling class in the countryside. This is what gave the Declaration of the Rights of
Man a far greater international resonance than the American models that inspired it; what made
the innovations of France--including its new political vocabulary--more readily accepted outside;
which created its ambiguities and conflicts; and, not least, what turned it into the epic, the terrible,
the spectacular, the apocalyptic event which gave it a sort of uniqueness, both horrifying and
inspiring."
E.J. Hobsbawm, Echoes of the Marseillaise, 1990
3. The Revolution as a tragedy vs. progressive change:
a. "This great drama [the French Revolution] transformed the whole meaning of political change,
and the contemporary world would be inconceivable if it had not happened. . . . In other words it
transformed men's outlook. The writers of the Enlightenment, so revered by the intelligentsia who
made the Revolution, had always believed it could be done if men dared to seize control of their
own destiny. The men of 1789 did so, in a rare moment of courage, altruism, and idealism which
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took away the breath of educated Europe. What they failed to see, as their inspirers had not
foreseen, was that reason and good intentions were not enough by themselves to transform the lot
of their fellow men. Mistakes would be made when the accumulated experience of generations
was pushed aside as so much routine, prejudice, fanaticism, and superstition. The generation
forced to live through the upheavals of the next twenty-six years paid the price. Already by 1802 a
million French citizens lay dead; a million more would perish under Napoleon, and untold more
abroad. How many millions more still had their lives ruined? Inspiring and ennobling, the
prospect of the French Revolution is also moving and appalling: in every sense a
tragedy."
William Doyle, The Oxford History of the French Revolution 1989
b. "The French Revolution was both destructive and creative. It represented an unprecedented
effort to break with the past and to forge a new state and new national community based on the
principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity. After the old government was replaced, differences
over the meaning of those principles and the ways they were to be put into practice grew more
salient and serious. Thus the revolution continued until a stable state organization was
consolidated, in part through the use of military force. Shaped and driven by passionate
ideological differences, violence, and war, the revolution bequeathed to the French and to
the World a new and enduring political vision: at the heart of progress lay liberation from
the past, egalitarianism, and broadly based representative government."
Robert Schwartz
c. The French Revolution was, essentially, the invention of a new political culture: "In my view
the social and economic changes brought about by the Revolution were not revolutionary. Nobles
were able to return to their titles and to much of their land. Although considerable amounts of land
changed hands during the Revolution, the structure of landholding remained much the same; the
rich got richer, and the small peasants consolidated their hold, thanks to the abolition of feudal
dues. Industrial capitalism grew at a snail's pace. In the real of politics, in contrast, almost
everything changed. Thousands of men and even many women gained firsthand experience in the
political arena: they talked, read, and listened in new ways; they voted; they joined new
organizations; and they marched for their political goals. Revolution became a tradition, and
republicanism an enduring option. Afterward, kings could not rule without assemblies, and
noble domination of public affairs only provoked more revolution. As a result, France in the
nineteenth century had the most bourgeois polity in Europe, even though France was never the
leading industrial power. . . . Lynn Hunt, Politics, Culture, and Class, 1984
4. A Marxist Interpretation: "After ten years of revolutionary changes and vicissitudes, the structure
of French society had undergone a momentous transformation. The aristocracy of the Old Regime
had been stripped of its privileges and social preponderance; feudal society had been destroyed.
By wiping out every vestige of feudalism, by freeing the peasants from seigneurial dues and
ecclesiastical tithes--and also to some degree from the constraints imposed by their communities-by abolishing privileged corporations and their monopolies, and by unifying the national market,
the French Revolution marked a decisive stage in the transition from feudalism to
capitalism."
Albert Soboul, The French Revolution, 1965
Further issues: Was the Revolution a failure? For whom? Not worth the cost in lives and
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treasure? Was it a social revolution resulting in the displacement of one social class/group by
another? Was it only a political revolution: change in government and governing principles but the
elites remain largely in control? Had the revolution gone far enough?

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Cause and Effect: The Outbreak of World War II | Teachinghistory.org

Teaching History.org, home of the National History Education


Clearinghouse
What were the causes of the Second World War?
Pinpointing the causes of a vast, global event like the Second World War is a challenging task for
the historian. Eventsespecially enormous, multifaceted eventshave multiple causes and
multiple inputs.
To help analyze the effects of those different A proxim ate caus e is an incident that appears to directly
inputs, historians often classify an events trigger an event...
causes into different categories. A proximate
cause is an incident that appears to directly trigger an event, as the election of Abraham Lincoln in
November 1860 and the shelling of Fort Sumter led to the outbreak of the Civil War. Such
dramatic incidents are often the ones we think of as causing an event, since the connection
between the trigger and the outcome appears both direct and obvious.
In their attempts to explore cause and effect, however, historians often probe more deeply beyond
the triggers to locate trends, developments, and circumstances that contributed equally, if not
more, to events. In the case of the Civil War, for example, historians often point to the growing
sectional polarization that divided the nation in the 1840s and 1850s, the national debate over the
future of slavery, and the divergent economic paths that distinguished North and South during the
antebellum period. Those factors created the backdrop against which Lincolns election and the
shelling of Fort Sumter led to full-blown armed conflict in the spring of 1861; those conditions
contributed to a state of affairs in which a triggering event could exert such enormous influence
and touch off a four-year war.
In the case of the Second World War, In the cas e of the Second World War, his torians generally point
historians generally point to a series of to a s eries of conditions that helped contribute to its outbreak .
conditions that helped contribute to its
outbreak. The unbalanced Treaty of Versailles (which forced a crippling peace on Germany to end
the First World War) and the global depression that enveloped the world during the 1930s (which
led to particularly desperate conditions in many European nations as well as the United States)
usually emerge as two of the most crucial. Those conditions formed the background against which
Adolf Hitler could ascend to the position of German Chancellor in the 1930s.
Virtually all historians of the Second World War agree that Hitlers rise to power was the
proximate cause of the cataclysmic war that gripped the globe between 1939 and 1945. Without
Hitler, a megalomaniacal leader bent on establishing a 1,000-year German empire through
military conquest, it becomes extremely difficult to imagine the outbreak of such a lengthy and
devastating war.
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Cause and Effect: The Outbreak of World War II | Teachinghistory.org

At the same time, Hitlers rise to power did not occur in a vacuum. Much of his appeal to the
German citizenry had to do with his promises to restore German honor, believed by many
Germans to have been mortgaged via the Treaty of Versailles. The peace agreement forced
Germany to accept full responsibility for the Great War, and levied a massive system of reparation
payments to help restore areas in Belgium and France devastated during the fighting. The Treaty
of Versailles also required Germany to disarm its military, restricting it to a skeleton force
intended only to operate on the defensive. Many Germans viewed the lopsided terms of the treaty
as unnecessarily punitive and profoundly shameful.
Hitler offered the German people an alternative explanation for their humiliating defeat in the
Great War. German armies had not been defeated in the field, he held; rather, they had been
betrayed by an assortment of corrupt politicians, Bolsheviks, and Jewish interests who sabotaged
the war effort for their own gain. To a German people saddled with a weak and ineffective
democratic government, a hyperinflated currency, and an enfeebled military, this stab in the
back mythology proved an enormously seductive explanation that essentially absolved them of
the blame for the war and their loss in it. Hitlers account of the German defeat not only offered a
clear set of villains but a distinct path back to national honor by pursuing its former military glory.
During the 1930s, Hitlers Germany embarked on a program of rearmament, in direct violation of
the terms of the Versailles Treaty. German industry produced military vehicles and weapons;
German men joined flying clubs that served as a thin pretense for training military pilots.
Rearmament and militarization provided appealing avenues for Germans seeking some means to
reassert their national pride.
Hitlers racial theories provided more context, Politicians in Britain, France, and the United States ...w ere
both for his explanation of defeat in the First reluctant to act to check Hitlers expans ionis m w ithout
irrefutable evidence of his ultim ate intentions .
World War and for his plans for a 1,000-year
German empire. In Hitlers account, Communists and Jewswhom Hitler depicted as stateless
parasites who exploited European nations for their own gainhad conspired to stab Germany in
the back in 1918. Creating the 1,000-year Reich required the creation of a racially pure cohort of
blond-haired, blue-eyed Aryans and the simultaneous liquidation of ethnic undesirables. Hitlers
vision of a racially pure German nation expanding across Europe, combined with his aggressive
rearmament programs, proved a powerful enticement for the German people in the 1930s.
Politicians in Britain, France, and the United States, encumbered with their own economic troubles
during the global depression, were reluctant to act to check Hitlers expansionism without
irrefutable evidence of his ultimate intentions.
Only later would the world learn that those intentions revolved around the methodical military
conquest of Europe from the center outward, a process one historian of the Second World War has
likened to eating an artichoke leaf by leaf from the inside out. That conquest began with the
German invasion of Poland in 1939 and the attack on France and the Low Countries six months
later. Hitlers quest for more living-space for his empire led to the invasion of the Soviet Union in
1941. By March of 1942, Hitlers fanatical desire to conquer Europealong with Japans

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Cause and Effect: The Outbreak of World War II | Teachinghistory.org

1941. By March of 1942, Hitlers fanatical desire to conquer Europealong with Japans
concurrent push across East Asia and the Pacifichad plunged the world into a war that would last
nearly six years and cost the lives of more than 50 million soldiers and civilians: by far the largest
catastrophe in human history.

teachinghistory.org

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http://goo.gl/ffgS

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Primary reasons for German unification? - Alternate History Discussion Board

Primary reasons for German unification? - Alternate History Discussion Board


Germany was unified by Prussia for a number of reasons. In terms of purely Prussian politics there are at least five causes.
First and foremost and most glaringly, the issue of giving Prussia continuous, secure, solid, land borders. Prussia's issue here were
a major motivator in all its wars up to the 19th Century.
Second, Prussia had been the state keeping up the most consistent rivalry within Germany with Austria, and Austria's disasters
with France and in 1848-9 were major limits on Austria's ultimate abilities to counter Prussia with prestige.
Third, Prussia had already been gobbling up little Germanies for some time, what Bismarck did was an increase in scale, not in any
kind of different concept.
Fourth, Prussia had the advantages relative to other German states of powerful friends in the UK and various Russian Tsars.
Without Peter III and Alexander I, Prussia dies stillborn. Empire-building is always easier when your empire favors the interests
of powers who expend strength from outside, enabling the empire-builders to conserve strength within.
Fifth, German nationalism had developed into a force in its own right, and reactionary Prussia wasn't going to see the democratic
variant of the 1840s resurrect itself on Bismarck's watch.
The course of German unification, however, was partly planned, partially contingent. At no point would the Tsars of Russia have
saved Prussia if they understood this would lead to aggressive, land-hungry Germany on their western borders.

www.alternatehistory.com

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Primary reasons for German unification? - Alternate History Discussion Board

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UNIFICATION of GERMANY and ITALY


I.

UNIFICATION OF GERMANY & ITALY


A. General Remarks
1. both unification movements of German & Italy have similar characteristics
2. both Germany & Italy geographical expressions for many centuries
a. & as 19th c unification approaches
b. although both had been united under an empireship centuries earlier
3. Austria was common obstacle to both
a. since Congress of Vienna dominated central including Northern Italy
4. mid 19th century unifying Germany & Italy appeared to be an almost hopeless task
5. but both countries would achieve unification at the same time
6. both Germany & Italy would achieve national unity thru pressure of a dynamic state
a. Italy through Sardinia
b. Germany thru Prussia
7. final victory for each country would be achieved thru efforts of a master politician & statesman
a. Cavour in Italy
b. Bismarck in Germany
8. each would find basis for unity in force = war
9. romanticism & nationalism would be NB to unification effort of each country
10. Napoleon responsible for interest of intellectuals in unification

II. UNIFICATION OF GERMANY


A. BACKGROUND
1. physically Germany "land of the center"
2. w/o natural frontiers on E & W
3. boundaries always had been fluid
a. either by push of foreigners into German lands
b. or more often pressing outward of Germany especially to East
4. Germany did not expand overseas like France, GB
a. but eastward to Poland, Russia
b. & formed islands of German language & culture & loyalty
(1) would create grave problems in future
5. no single focal point for Germany as a whole
6. like London, Rome, Paris were for England, Italy & France
7. Berlin is not heart to Germany
a. relatively modern city
b. Munich, Dresden, Cologne residents
(1) pointed w/pride to centuries old
8. Rhine is not focal point either
a. barbarian times dividing line between Roman world & barbarians
b. only recently in 18-19th centuries became romanticized
9. Ethnically Germany from homogeneous
a. Goths, Vandals, Franks, Alemanni, Burgundians, Frisians, Anglo-Saxons, Slavs
b. all mingled to form population of modern Germany
c. all had different cultures & history
d. idea of cleavage permeated Germany thinking
(1) religious disunity
(2) political disunity
(3) cultural & class cleavages
B. RELIGIOUS CLEAVAGES
1. 2 opposing religious forces
a. both Christianity & paganism runs steadily through Germany history
2. been said that Germany was never completely & thoroughly Christianized
3. eastern parts of Germany accepted Christianity only under duress

C.

D.

E.

F.

4. Christian Charlemagne overwhelmed the pagan Saxons under Widuking or Wittekind


a. Saxon leader & warrior same time as Charlemagne
b. Charlemagne offered them choice
(1) Christianity or annihilation
5. for many Germans, real hero of that time was not Karl der Grosse but pagan Widukind
a. because he resisted Christian might of Charlemagne
b. Protestant Reformation pagan tradition rekindled
c. again in Sturm und Drang of romantic periods
d. again in music dramas of Richard Wagner
e. & in philosophy of Nietzsche
f. reached its apotheosis (deification) in 3rd Reich
(1) although Hitler more proponent of Charlemagne's success at enlarging his empire
6. even greater breach was religious cleavage intro by Martin Luther
a. G birthplace of Protestant revolt
7. while other countries became predominantly Prot or Cath, G remained almost evenly divided between both
denominations
a. this caused great political division as well
POLITICAL DISUNITY
1. unlike other countries of western Europe royal power in G never achieved a central position
2. like in Fr, eg monarch power consolidated in struggle agst feudal nobility
3. HRE dominated political thinking
4. while medieval Ger emperors dreamed of universal empire
a. attention more often focused on Italy than on Germany
b. energies expended in endless struggle between Empire & might of the papacy
c. in their struggle emperors forced to call upon their feudal barons for aid & made concessions to them
(1) thus numerous principalities arose
d. other countries saw breakup of feudalism & emergence of closely knit national states
e. Germany feudalism lingered for centuries
f. but idea of universal empire was an ever-present idea in many political thinkers
ECONOMIC DISUNITY
1. in other countries w/advent of strong royal central power & lessening of barons' power coincided
w/emergence of a strong bourgeoisie
2. this lacking in Germany
3. Economic transformations brought about by Age of Discovery & Commercial Revolution did not occur in
G because she did not participate
4. until well into 19th c much Northern Germany remained predominately agrarian & feudal & w/o strong &
militant bourgeoisie
5. G liberalism as well as nationalism took on a special character which set G apart from rest of western
Europe
a. which was continuous oscillation between universalism & localism
POLITICAL STRUCTURE OF GERMANY
1. 314 states & 1474 estates = 1789 independent sovereign powers
2. held together by absolute rule of emperor & troops
3. after Napoleon's conquest of much of German area
4. still 39 German states
5. local patriotism still powerful force among Bavarians, Saxons, Prussians, Wurtembergers & others
a. German states
EMERGENCY OF PRUSSIA
1. to these above elements added another factor
2. beginnings of nationalist spirit in G toward end 18th c coincided w/emergence of Prussia as a great power
3. G national movement thus confronted w/serious rivalry between Prussia & Hapsburgs
a. who were guardians of the universal tradition of old empire & rulers of non-G peoples too
4. Prussia had a series of competent rulers who built up her subservient bureaucracy and military as ways to
achieve a strong & aggressive state
5. Frederick the Great, 1740-86

3
a. greatly increased size of Prussia thru seizure of Austrian territory & partition of Poland
b. made Prussia a G state to be reckoned w/and demonstrated that future of Ger no longer just in
Austria's hands alone
c. by his cult of military force & military success he implanted in Prussia
d. that inordinate reliance on military strength which both Bismarck & Hitler were to follow
e. Prussia's successes impressed upon the rest of G a set of values, traditions & ideals that came to be
accepted as universally G
(1) special position of the army
(2) officer's corps
(3) supremacy of military over the civil service
f. future history Germany bears witness to triumph of the Prussian spirit
G. DIVISION OF GERMANY HISTORY
1. FIRST REICH
a. CHARLEMAGNE 800 AD CROWNED=CHARLES MARTEL
b. HRE began under Otto 962
2. SECOND REICH = GERMAN EMPIRE
a. 1871-1919
3. WEIMAR REPUBLIC
a. 1919-1933
4. THIRD REICH = FASCIST STATE
a. 1933-1945
III. 19TH C. REASONS FOR UNIFICATION EFFORTS
A. GENERAL REMARKS
1. Napoleon responsible for interest of intellectuals in German unification
2. his domination of Germanies at will during Napoleonic wars brought wave of nationalistic reaction
3. heightened by shame of German inability to drive out alien French
4. some of the German states (including Austria temporarily) had even allied w/Napoleon
5. Prussia remained firmly opposed to Napoleon
6. & had shared glory of victory at Waterloo w/GB
7. Under Metternich Austria dominated Germanies since 1815
8. task of unifying Germany seemed almost hopeless in 1850"s
9. yet for most German people growing sentiment in favor of union into a nation-state
10. cf w/East & West Germany's desire today
11. businessmen urged by the conviction trade would flourish pro-unity
a. prosperity was already present in G
b. IR had come late, but by B's time enough jobs & wages good enough for people not be agitating for
their economic survival
12. nationalists demanded it on the basis of cultural & racial unity
13. rev of 1848 had dual character of a crusade for more liberal govt & movement for unifications
14. but king's refusal to become a constitutional monarch meant unification failed at this time
B. CONFIGURATION OF GERMANY ON EVE OF UNIFICATION
1. in place of Germany existed 39 German states including Austria & Prussia
2. only Prussia & Austria were strong enough to lead a unification movement
3. Austria should have been unifying of Germany
4. but she could not risk any further expansion
5. Austria Empire w/diverse nationalities opposed to unification
6. Prussia - if had a master politician might be able to accomplish unification
7. Bismarck became that individual
IV. COUNT PRINCE OTTO VON BISMARCK 1815-98
A.GENERAL REMARKS
1. as we look at famous Germans in History, Charlemagne, Luther, Hitler
2. Bismarck should be on that list too
3. a fascinating individual

4
4. Henry Kissinger intrigued by him wrote a biography
5. Carl Schurz, born & educated in Prussia
a. but fled & became a prominent American govt official
b. left us memorable picture of B as he saw him in Berlin in 1868
c. tall, erect, broad shouldered, & on those Atlas shoulders that massive head which everybody knows
from pictures - the whole figure making the impression of something colossal."a veritable Atlas
carrying upon his shoulders the destinies of a great nation "bubbling vivacity of his talk, now and then
interspersed w/French or English phrases (B a polyglot). his laugh now contagiously genial and then
grimly sarcastic
6. man of action, feelings & will power
7. if I have an enemy in my power, I must destroy him
8. I want to make music, he said, the way I like it or else nothing at all
B. BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION
1. Prussian junker (landed aristocrat)
2. von signifies this
3. after session at Univ of Gottingen & Berlin as an indifferent student, but capable duelist & rake
4. entered govt service
a. only career open for junker class aside from army
b. dismissed short time for irregular & dissipated habits
5. for centuries Junkers had furnished Prussian state w/bulk of its bureaucrats & high army officers
6. he was 1 of group of aristocrats who had urged Prussian king not to accept a "crown of shame" from
Frankfurt Assembly
a. following 1848 Revolution
7. his diplomatic experience as rep to Russia & France during 1850's made him a skilled diplomat
8. won personal friendship w/Russian Tsar
9. had keen insight into psychology of Napoleon III (ruler of France)
10. appointed minister/president by King of Prussia
11. his loyalty to his king characterized his entire public life
a. I am first and foremost a royalist, everything else comes after that
b. Prussia is not like England where ministry is responsible to parliament. We are ministers of His
Majesty the King.
c. According to Bismarck "position of Prussia in Germany will be determined not by its liberalism but by
its power"
12. respect for legality & decency is just humanitarian twaddle
13. B - not through speeches & majority decisions are great questions of day decided but through iron &
blood"
14. brilliant opportunist & manipulator = supreme Machiavellian
slide G27 15. French political cartoon view of ruthless means employed by B to obtain Ger unity thru a combination of
intimidation, cajoling, political concessions & war
16. became adept at blending right proportion of diplomacy & military force to achieve German unif.
17. master at waging war abroad to down play unrest on domestic front
a. practiced by all the rulers today & yesterday
b. w/in 8 yrs of power had unified Germany
18. B supreme manifestation of Nietzsche's will to power ideology
a. man's inherent desire for power is what dominates him
C. BISMARCK'S UNITY PLAN
1. he followed a succession of steps w/uncanny cleverness
2. 1st plotted to eliminate Austria from her commanding position in Germanic Confederation
3. there followed 3 separate wars w/Denmark, Austria & France, that achieved his aims
4. The German-Danish war tested sharpness of Prussian sword & boldness of Prussian strategy
5. Austro-Prussian War the power of Prussian military power measured against an equal partner
6. in Franco-Prussian War it was to show that the Prussian Army was now at its peak of perfection
7. Bismarck's words We Germans fear only God, nothing else in the world now seem justified.
8. each of these three wars laid basis for next one
9. & the last one helped pave the way for the world war of 1914.

D.

E.

F.

G.

10. the first war enabled Bismarck to consolidate his internal position in Prussia & lay groundwork for
defeat of his parliamentary opposition
11. the second war succeeded in ousting Austria from leadership of Germanies
12. & in consolidating Prussian hegemony in the north
13. Franco-Prussian War succeeded in bringing the South Germany states under aegis of Prussian eagle
14. & it crushed all pretense to any solution to problem of Germany unity other than through blood & iron
15. brief description of each graphically illustrates Bismarck's genius at diplomacy & power
DANISH WAR 1864
1. war w/denmark over schleswig & holstein
2. B entered into a dispute w/Denmark over possession of Schlewig & Holstein
3. inhabited largely by Germans but King of Denmark overlord
4. since 1815 Holstein included in Germanic Confederation,
5. when 1864 Danish king attempted to annex them, B invited Austria to participate in a war agst Denmark
6. brief struggle ended w/Danish ruler renouncing claim to 2 provinces in honor of Austria & Prussia
7. then sequel occurred that B wanted
8. quarrel between victors over division of spoils
9. upshot in 1866 Prussia & Austria plunged into war
7 WEEKS WAR PRUSSIA & AUSTRIA
1. since Bismarck knew Hapsburgs would be helped by Southern GERMAN provinces,
2. so Bismarck fashioned alliance w/Italy,
a. promising to reward her if victorious w/Duchy of Venice area (Austria controlled)
3. Prussia won
4. Austria gave up claims to Schlewig & Holstein, Venice area
5. plus Austria acquiesced in dissolution of Germanic Confederation
6. Statim following war, B proceeded to unite all the Germ states north of the Main River into N Ger
Confederation
7. Constitution of the union
a. B boasted he wrote it in a single night
b. provided king of Prussia = hereditary Presidency of Confederation
c. upper house representing govt of sev states
d. lower house elected by universal manhood suffrage
FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR
1. Final step in completion of German unity
2. French policy toward Germany from days of Richelieu c. 17th c was policy of continuous opposition to
national unification of Germany
3. Bismarck wrote in his Reminiscences
a. in view of the attitude of France, our national sense of honor compelled us to go to war.
4. B knew war w/FR best thing possible to kindle a G nationalism in Bavaria & Wurtemberg & remaining
states on Main River
a. southern Germany area
5. so when informed by King William I demand of Fr for perpetual exclusion of Hohenzollern family fr Sp
throne been refused,
a. B decided time ripe for action
b. altered telegram to infer King William had insulted French ambassador
c. when French people learned of it, whole nation in uproar
6. When Napoleon's ministers asked for declaration of war, only 10 negative votes
7. France had been itching a long time for war w/Prussia
8. no sooner had struggle begun than Southern German states rallied to side of Prussia
a. believed she was the victim of aggression
9. from beginning Prussia had advantage
10. disciplined German army agst inadequate & ill organized French troops.
11. After capture of Napoleon at Sedan in 1870, & conquest of Paris 4 months later, war over
12. Fr surrendered major portions of Alsace & Lorraine
13. & agreed to pay an indemnity of $1 billion.
UNIFICATION EFFORT SPURNED ON BY WARS

6
1. patriotic enthusiasm generated by wars possible for B to absorb Ger states into North Germ Confed.
2. treaties negotiated during course of war stipulating all of G be united into a Hohenzoller empire
3. agreements formalized at impressive ceremony at
a. Verseilles in 1871 (Louis XIV palace)
4. King William I of Prussia became German Emperor
5. B now raised to dignity of prince
6. became Imperial Chancellor = Prime Minister
a. answerable only to Emperor or Kaiser
b. Bismarck for 20 yrs
7. Northern German Confederation's constitution accepted as constitution of new empire
H. CONCLUSIONS RE BISMARCK & GERMAN UNIFICATION
1. Gladstone, Prime Minister England
a. Iron Chancellor made Germany great but Germans small
2. crystal ball of great Germany historian, Theodore Mommsen, 1817-1903
a. HAVE A CARE LEST IN THIS COUNTRY, WHICH HAS ONCE BEEN A POWER IN ARMS & A
POWER IN INTELLIGENCE, THE INTELLIGENCE SHOULD VANISH & NOTHING BUT THE
PURE MILITARY STATE SHOULD REMAIN
V. UNIFICATION OF ITALY = RISORGIMENTO (RE SOR' JE MEN' TO)
A. BACKGROUND
1. Italian peninsula is vastly different in climate, soil, economy
2. cf w/eastern and western Oregon's climate, population, weather
3. southern peninsula agrarian vs more urban & commercial in north
4. w/papacy in between
5. Italy has no coal, iron & few natural resources
6. under the Roman republic nearly 2500 years ago the entire peninsula was united
7. once the barbarian tribes had conquered, Roman empire became fragmentized and Italian peninsula
became divergent
8. various kingdoms & city-states formed in Middle Ages
9. each highly competitive
10. Latin language had united to some degree
a. but vast dialects differences developed in Dark & Middle Ages
b. n from south - even today hard to understand
c. Tuscan Italian became major language under Petrarch, Dante, Boccacio & their literature
(1) like Shakespeare & Chaucer had done Eng
B. 19TH CENTURY UNIFICATION MOVEMENT
1. Napoleon's creation of a Puppet Kingdom of Italy
2. stimulated movt for Italian unification on part of intellectuals & middle class
3. same question for Germany needs to be asked of Italy
4. what state would be the one responsible for unification effort
5. 19th c saw 3 major independent states in Italy
a. Kingdom of 2 Sicilies
b. Kingdom of Sardinia
(1) island of Sardinia & mainland area of Piedmont
c. Papal states
6. and other areas such as Tuscany, Lombardy & Venetia controlled by Austrian Empire
a. area around Florence, Milan & Venice respectfully
7. Italians fortunate in that Rome was thee center of their peninsula both spiritually & geographically
a. & had been for 2500 years
8. revolts of 1820's, 30's, & 1848 effectively suppressed by superior force of arms by Austrians
9. 1st identifiable patriot to set the idea of unity in motion
10. Mazzini 1805-72
a. wore only black from time he was 15
b. spiritual inspiration for Italian unification
c. known as "Soul of Italy"

7
d. Exiled from Genoa for his membership in a secret & violent organization,
(1) based in Marseilles, France
e. where he founded Young Italy movement
(1) members all under 40
f. whose influence extended throughout Europe
g. Mazzini was an impractical businessman
h. impressed his followers thru his impassioned writings
i. he became leading prophet of the Risorgimento
(1) movement for Italian unification
j. they wanted to restore nation to glorious days of Roman & Renaissance times
k. he sent propaganda literature into Italian ports hidden in cargoes of stones and grains
l. his intense dedication & visionary ideas were to be fulfilled by another generation of Italian patriots
m. but to 19th c Italians Mazzini remained
(1) the man who sacrificed everything, who loved much, who pitied much, and who hated never.
C. SUCCESSFUL UNIFICATION EFFORTS 19TH CENTURY
1. Austria always stood ready to move against any further disturbances
2. 1 of few centers of independence remaining was Sardinia (island & mainland territories of Piedmont)
3. its young king Victor Emmanuel II,
a. refused to withdraw its liberal constitution granted by his father
4. it was in Sardinia that the Italian unification movement would find its base & its leader,
D. Count Camillo Benso di Cavour 1810-61
1. in is under Cavour's leadership that Italian peninsula becomes nation of Italy
2. architect of Italian unification
3. like Bismarck, Cavour was a brilliant statesman
4. Chief minister to the king of Piedmont
5. born of noble family
6. trained for military career
7. became liberal after traveling in Switzerland, France & Britain
8. made his fortune in sugar mills, steamships, banks & railroads
9. once financially secure entered politics
10. in 1847 cofounder of newspaper Il Risorgimento
a. which urged Italian independence
11. 1852 became Premier of Piedmont
12. concentrated his efforts on freeing Italy from Austrian Empire
13. knew Sardinia could not take on Austria by itself
14. allies needed
15. to that end joined Britain & Fr in fight agst Russia in 1855 in Crimean War
16. enabled him to speak at the peace conf. after war
a. where he stated Italian desire for unification
b. made impression on Fr & Eng & prepared way for cooperation w/Napoleon III agst Austria
17. 1858 secret meeting w/Napoleon III planning strategy for war for liberation
18. In exchange for additional territory from Sardinia Fr agreed to cooperate to oust Austria
19. If Cavour could goad Austria into attacking Sardinia, France would come to Sardinia's defense
a. 1859 war w/Austria,
20. after conquest of Lombardy, Napoleon III withdrew,
a. fearful of ultimate defeat
b. & afraid of antagonizing Catholics in his own country by aiding an avowedly anti-clerical govt
21. Sardinia only able to make small land gains, but aroused nationalistic fervour in other Northern Italian
states
E. GIUSEPPE GARIBALDI 1801-1882
1. another unification movement led by this romantic free-lance adventurer began in S. Italy
2. son of a poor sailor, he personified the romantic, revolutionary nationalism of Mazzini and 1848
3. as a lad of 17 he had traveled to Rome
4. & had been converted to the New Italy, the Italy of all the Italians
5. as he later wrote in his Autobiography

8
6. the Rome that I beheld with the eyes of youthful imagination was the Rome of the future - the dominant
thought of my whole life
7. sentenced to death for his part in uprising in Genoa,
8. he escaped to S.A. where for 12 yrs led guerilla band in Urugay's struggle for independence
9. returned to Italy in fight in 1848 revolution
10. called the "Sword of Italy"
11. w/his famous regiment of 1000 red shirts set out to rescue his fellow Italians from oppression in the
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1860
12. w/in 3 mos conquered island of Sicily
13. then marched to deliverance of Naples
a. where people already in revolt
14. by Nov the whole kingdom under unpopular Bourbon Francis II had fallen to Garibaldi
15. He apparently intended to convert the territory into an independent republic
16. finally persuaded to surrender it to Kingdom of Sardinia
F. VICTOR EMMANUEL II
1. W/most of peninsula united under single rule of King of Sardinia
2. he assumed Title of King of Italy 1861
3. Venetia still in hands of Austria, but in 1866 forced by Prussians to cede it to Italy as loser in 7 Weeks war
w/Prussia
4. all that remained was annexation of Rome
5. Eternal City resisted conquest because of protection accorded to pope by Napoleon III
6. 1870 outbreak of Franco-Prussian War compelled Napoleon to withdraw his troops
7. Shortly thereafter Italian soldiers occupied Rome & In July 1871 made capital of united kingdom
G. PROBLEMS W/PAPACY
1. not until 1929 was an agreement reached w/papacy
2. until then popes shut themselves up in Vatican & refused to have anything to do w/Italian govt
3. they had been granted independent status w/in the Vatican & Lateran bldgs, along w/other concessions
a. under Victor Emmanuel
4. but the bitterness was too great until about 60 yrs had gone by
H. ITALY'S GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE
1. parliamentary govt
2. bicameral parliament
a. Senate - appointed for life by king
b. Chamber of Deputies - elected by restricted franchise
c. Cabinet of Ministers - appointed by king but responsible to parliament
I. ITALIAN ECONOMY
1. steady growth of socialism gained strength in poverty-stricken south, especially Sicily & industrialized
north
2. always wide gulf between wealthy few and large masses of illiterate peasants
3. depression in late 19th c
4. revolution prevented by mass emigration to US & S.A.
a. between 1890 & 1914 6 million left

5/1/2014

Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 2.5 Causes of WW2

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Causes of the Second World War in Europe (1939 - 45)


Past Exam Questions:

Paper 2 Analyse (a) the long-term causes and (b) the short-term causes, of the Second World War.
(May 2009)
Select two causes of the Second World War and show (a) how, and (b) why, they led to the
outbreak of war in 1939. (Specimen)
Compare and contrast the causes of the First World War and the Second World War (May
2008)
Compare and contrast the reasons for Germanys involvement in the First and Second World
Wars (Nov 2007)
In what ways did the causes of the Second World War differ from the causes of the First World
War? (May 2004)
Paper 3 For what reasons, and with what results, were appeasement policies followed in the 1930s? (Nov
2010)
For what reasons, and to what extent, did attempts to achieve collective security between 1919
and 1939 fail? (May 2010)
To what extent was the Second World War caused by Hitler's policies? (Nov 2008)
Why did the Second World War break out in 1939? (May 2008)
Why did international diplomacy fail to prevent the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939?
(Nov 2007)
**Markscheme notes for these questions**
**REVIEW NOTES ON THE CAUSES OF WAR**
Long-term causes of the Second World War in Europe: how do these contribute to instability
in the international system?

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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 2.5 Causes of WW2

Unresolved issues after WW1 and the shortcomings of Versailles


A.J.P. Taylor; "The Second World War was, in large part, a repeat performance of the first"- conveys to
the extent that the problems of 1919 were left unresolved.
1. German resentmentThe German population resented the terms that were imposed on them by the TOV and saw the
treaty as a "dictated peace" (they had expected a treaty based upon Wilson's 14 points of selfdetermination.
The treaty stripped the German reich of 25,000 square miles, 7 million habitants- in many cases
the Germans found themselves being treated differently from those that goverened the
settlements with other states.
However, even though Germany was disarmed and Anschluss was strictly forbidden, she still
retained the means to become a great power in the future (in 1945 she would be partitioned) but
now Germany still retained nearly 90% of economic resources.
It was these circumstances that enabled Hitler to rise to power in Germany and it was also the
terms of the treaty that as soon as they became public, poiliticians saw the treaty as too harsh
and led to the new diplomatic strategy of the western powers- appeasement.
2. The disintergration of wartime allied alliancesBy 1920, the alliances that had fought the war had disintigrated, especially Russia who was
completely excluded in the deliberations of 1919.
The Western powers saw Germany as a bulwark to Communism Russia and with Germany
defeated, there would no one to prevent the Communist spread in Europe. This was one of the
main reasons why the western power did not do mucg to object the remilitarization of Germany
in 1934 and onwards.
After the USA drew back to diplomatic isolation, the implementation of the peace treaty of 1919
had to be undertaken by the European powers who were in the midst of their own problems
(economic depression and social restraint).
3. Keynes and the controversy over reparationsEconomist J.M. Keynes denounced the treaty's reparation clauses by saying that such pressure
upon the German economy threatened the stability of the whole European economy.
These kinds of arguments was greatly influential in Britain and the USA and even further
contributes to the policy of appeasement.
However, E.Mantoux argues that the productivity of German industry during the 1930s,
especially armament manufacture, showed that the levels of reparations set in 1921 were after
all within Germany's capacity.
There have been many controversial idea as to if the treaty was a long term cause to the second
world war, and whilst some as Baumont argues that "the treaty righted age-old wrongs", others
claim that the main fault was not in the treaty itself but with the hopes that came with it and the
failure to implement its terms.
Orthodox view of settlement James Joll, "Europe was divided by the peace conference into those who wanted the peace
revised (Germany, Italy, Japan and Hungary) and those who wanted it upheld (France, Poland,
Czechoslovak ia and Yugoslavia), and those who were not that interested (the USA and Britain)".
E.H. Carr, self-determination and collective security as unworkable idealistic principles, and the
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settlement failed to settle the 'German problem'.


A.J.P. Taylor, Versailles as crushing, harsh and lacking in moral validity, as no Germans
accepted it and all wanted to overturn it. From this perspective, the Second World War was "

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Fontana History of Germany 1780-1918.


The Long Nineteenth Century David Blackbourn
This is a summary of his answer to the question as to how and why Germany
was united between 1862 and 1871.
Firstly, he takes for granted the basic summary of events. He then tries to
look at the world picture of these years before analysing the role of
Bismarck.
He sees in Japan another successful revolution from above in creating a
modernising state. In the USA a civil war is won by the economically
advanced North. In addition and linked to events in Germany was the
successful unification of Italy.
Germany was united as the result of three wars. Why did the Great Powers
allow this to come about?
1. No choice due to the success of Prussian arms it cannot be
emphasised to much that unification was, in the last resort, achieved
on the battlefield.
2. Russia was suffering the consequences of defeat in the Crimean War,
and was absorbed in the 1860s in a bout of internal reform. Russian
industrialisation depended on good relations with Germany
particularly Prussia. Prussia was already favoured through staying out
of the Crimean War. Bismarck encouraged Russian friendship with
the Alvensleben Convention in 1863 supporting Russian suppression
of a Polish revolt.
3. Britain was preoccupied with colonial problems and was as ever
suspicious of French intentions in Europe. Germany appeared to
neither threaten British general interests nor possess a navy. In
addition British Liberals led by Gladstone favoured national self
determination as in Italy. Finally, there were always more pressing
domestic questions.
4. The main characteristic of Austria was its isolation and weakness
having lost Russian support in the Crimean War. In addition, Austrias
real ally against French claims within the Confederation was Prussia
who was also her rival. Moreover, Austria had a permanent
nationalities problem with the demands of the Hungarians, Italians,
Slavs and Czechs.

5. Finally there was Louis Napoleons France ever restless and eager to
gain some advantage in Europe that excited universal suspicion and
found none to mourn its fate in 1870.
These factors have also to be understood in the context of a a period of
uncertainty in international relations, a diplomatic interregnum between the
breakdown of one system and the advent of another. The equilibrium of the
Concert of Europe, based on dynastic legitimacy and the status quo, had
disappeared in the Crimea. A new system based on the legitimacy of nation
states had yet to emerge.
Blackbourn argues that unification under Prussia was not inevitable in the
eyes of contemporaries but that more than just the international situation
made it likely.
Resources and circumstances (meant) Prussia was always likely to
come out on top.
1. Austria not only had chronic financial problems but also Prussia
was growing faster. Prussias national income grew twice as fast as
Austrias between the 1780s and 1850. In 1865 Prussia possessed
15,000 trains with a horsepower of 800,000, Austria just 3,400
with a horsepower of 100,000.
2. Prussias transport links made access to Prussian markets essential
for the smaller German states whatever their sympathies and gave
Prussia a decisive advantage within the Zollverein.
3. Prussias dynamism and leadership of the Zollverein helped
encourage nationalism amongst the growing middle classes who
increasingly accepted Prussia as the alternative to stagnation. The
German National Association, which supported Prussia, had
25,000 members while the Austrian equivalent only 1500.
In these circumstances, Blackbourn goes on to assess the role of Bismarck.
He quotes Bismarcks views on the role of the statesman:
Man cannot create or control the tide of time, he can only move in the same
direction and try to direct it.
Yet Blackbourn believes that Bismarck saw himself as Gods chosen
instrument a man with a destiny. In addition, he points out that although
Bismarck appeared to be a typical conservative Prussian landowner he was
always more than that; he had an up to date understanding of the new
economic forces double entry book keeping and chemical studies that
were shaping Germany. Equally he recognised that Prussia and Austria were

set on a collision course. It was not simply his view of the inevitability of
conflict but his scorn for the Confederation that made him appear quite
radical to conservatives. This was made worse by his, quite openly, arguing
that the nationalists should be used and the moderate middle classes
encouraged. Thus in Blackbourns view Bismarck was the wild man of
Prussian politics whose appointment in 1862 can be seen as a gamble.
Blackbourn dismisses any idea of Bismarck having a master plan but argues
that the chief characteristics of his policy were flexibility and the skilful
exploitation of opportunities. He argues that Bismarck was only consistent
in his policy towards Austria seeing the Gastein Convention as no more than
a truce. As to the war with France he concludes along with most historians
that Louis Napoleon was to blame and that claims to the contrary were the
product of Bismarcks later boasting of his own cleverness.
Finally, Blackbourn discusses the domestic dimension of Bismarcks
policies. He concludes that Bismarck merely flirted with public opinion
and was an intelligent and flexible conservative, very aware of liberalnationalist demands and prepared to play with fire to preserve the essentials
of the Prussian military monarchy.
Extras. How important were railways and logistics in the wars of
unification? A military historians interpretation.
Martin Van Creveld Supplying War

How important were economic factors in the unification of Germany?


The unification of Germany was the result of several different causes.
Economic factors were however crucial in developing the military strength of
Prussia that Bismarck was to exploit so successfully. Yet even Bismarck had to
depend on the King, the Minister of War and the soldiers. Finally mistakes of
Louis Napoleon and the whole complex whirl of diplomacy was part of a world
that Bismarck could only exploit but not control.
The growth of the Prussian economy was the essential prerequisite for the
process of unification. Without the increased tax revenues from a growing
economy to pay for a bigger and better army Bismarcks wars could not have
been fought successfully. The development of coal, iron and steel industries
and an efficient rail transport network provided the sinews of a successful war
economy. These in turn had grown as a consequence of the Zollverein, the
customs union that permitted the growth of free trade within the Confederation
but excluding Austria. A further consequence of economic growth was the
spreading awareness that cooperation and possible German unity was the route
to prosperity. This stimulus to nationalism was used by Bismarck to show the
benefits of cooperating with Prussia rather than Austria.

Introduction
First sentence
addresses the
issue in the
question. Then
lists the main
points of the
answer.
Main factor in the
question dealt
with first.
Look for extra
facts you can
add to illustrate
economic
growth

Economic change also began to change the European balance of power in the
1850s as Prussia grew more powerful Austria grew weaker. However not all
such changes were due to economics; Austria also grew weaker through losing
its bloody war to hold onto its Italian possessions. Moreover its support of
Britain, France and Turkey in the Crimea forfeited any future Russian support.
The balance that had helped conserve the Confederation was becoming shaky
especially given Louis Napoleons willingness to assert French interests to
increase his popularity at home. His support for Italian unification clearly
showed that the French were not committed to the frontiers agreed in 1815.

Link to the
changing balance
of power
Austria

However neither the changing economic situation or the developments in


diplomacy could have brought about unification without the statesmanship of
Bismarck. How far he planned each move can be debated, but not the fact of
the moves and their results. He understood the changed position of Prussia in
1862 and was able to take advantage of all the opportunities that arose to
pursue his aims of uniting Germany under Prussia and preserving the power of
the King and the aristocracy. Danish claims to Schleswig and Holstein allowed
him both to win over some of his bitter enemies among the National Liberals
and after victory, place Austria in a false position in Holstein such that he could
provoke a quarrel at a time of his own choosing.

Start analysis of
the role of
Bismarck

For Prussia to unite Germany Austria would have to be defeated. Bismarck


skilfully used offers of compensation in the Rhineland to ensure French
neutrality- though whether the meeting in Biarritz actually took place is open to
doubt. Just as plausibly Louis Napoleon was simply encouraging Prussia and
Austria to exhaust themselves in war thus allowing France to walk into the
Rhineland unopposed. How far Bismarck actually gained Russian neutrality by

Note that each of


these points on
the diplomatic
isolation of
Austria can be
expanded.

France

Aims
Denmark

the offer of help in suppressing a Polish rebellion has also been doubted. He
may have been more concerned about the danger of Polish nationalism in East
Prussia. However the secret offensive alliance with Italy was a carefully
planned move to provoke Austria into mobilising and so make Prussias moves
appear defensive. Finally, in the build up to war there can be no doubt that
Bismarck manoeuvred Austria into declaring war.
The rapid victory was followed by a lenient and equally rapid peace to avoid an
Austrian war of revenge and to counter French military moves. Revealing
French intentions to the South German states made a defensive alliance with
Prussias North German Confederation a rational response. It then remained to
find a way of provoking France into declaring a war that Prussia and its allies
would win. Louis Napoleons unsuccessful efforts Mexico, the attempt to buy
Luxembourg - to win domestic popularity through foreign policy success
increased the pressure on him.

Start build up to
Franco Prussian
war

France was also diplomatically isolated. The Italian government was aware that
a Franco Prussian war would force the French to remove troops from Rome
where they protected the Pope. The Russians were aware that the defeat of
France would allow them to expand their fleet in the Black Sea as Britain
would not stop them without France. In addition the British were intensely
suspicious of French intentions in the Low Countries. All these suspicions were
played on by Bismarck to isolate France.
The Hohenzollern candidacy for the empty throne of Spain was the final straw.
Although the candidate was withdrawn French nationalist demands forced
Louis Napoleon to demand that such a situation should never again arise.
Bismarcks editing of the infamous Ems telegram was sufficient to provoke
French mobilisation and a declaration of war. Prussia and its allies won rapidly
and Bismarck was able to exploit nationalist euphoria to push through
agreement to create a German Empire under the King of Prussia.

Isolation of
France

Pressure on Louis
Napoleon

Hohenzollern
Candidacy
Note the
summary of the
Ems telegram
affair

Although there can be no doubt of the importance of Bismarck we have already


seen that the economic and diplomatic situation was not of his making. Equally
he would not have achieved much without the support of the King, Wilhelm,
nor without the army created by Von Roon and led to victory by Von Moltke.
The wars against France and Austria had been won partly as a result of skilled
manoeuvre and superior weapons and training for which these men were
responsible. An ailing Louis Napoleon also made mistakes, the Mexican affair,
the attempt to purchase Luxembourg, and in allowing his country to become
isolated and fall into Bismarcks snares. A similar comment might be made
about Austrian policy before 1866. Equally the spread of nationalist feeling
which Bismarck was able to exploit had causes that began well before he came
to power.

Note how this


short summary
emphasis that the
key argument
against the claim
that economic
factors were
decisive is the
role of Bismarck.

In conclusion, this essay has demonstrated that the economic changes in


Prussia played a vital part in creating the circumstances that made unification
possible but that more was needed in particular the statesmanship of Bismarck
without which unification might not have occurred.

Conclusion:
largely repeats
the introduction.

Compare the importance of individual political figures with the role of


economic forces in the successful unification of Germany.
Introduction: Make clear
who you are going to
write about, the central
role of Bismarck, Louis
Napoleon, Wilhelm, Von
Moltke, Von Roon, the
rulers of AustriaHungary. Key economic
forces, the Zollverein,
economic growth of
Prussia, the way in which
this spread nationalism,
the importance of the
railways.
Major section where you
must demonstrate Bs
importance. 1. 1862-4
Constitutional crisis, and
war with Denmark. B
wins over the Liberal
nationalists and shows
the strength of the Army.
Places Austria in a weak
position by the
Convention of Gastein.

2. 1866 and war with


Austria emphasis on the
planning, isolating
Austria, and the making
of peace.

3. 1870 and war with


France again show the
way in which B took
advantage of Louis
Napoleons diplomatic
isolation and the
Hohenzollern candidacy

Mistakes of Louis
Napoleon 1866 to 1870.
Failing to understand Bs
intentions over Austria
and towards uniting
Germany. Failing in his
ambitious foreign policy,
Mexico, Luxembourg,
and pushing too hard
after the withdrawal of
Leopold.
Role of Wilhelm,
supporting B, Von Roon
and Von Moltke, who
inturn played an
important part in winning
Bs 3 wars.
However economic
forces were also
important role of the
Zollverein in increasing
Prussian strength as
Austria became weaker.
Role of economic factors,
industrialisation and
urbanisation in the
development of
nationalism
Economic and industrial
development as well as
railways in the success of
Prussian armies.
Conclusion: Be
balanced, B above all
had the vision to
understand the motives,
strengths and weaknesses
of the other European
states as well as his own
vision for Prussia.
However he did not
create the opportunity but
took it.

Bismarck, the Prussian Army and the Franco Prussian War


As in 1866 the war was a demonstration of aspects of Prussian superiority in the
preparations and conduct of war. In its aftermath other countries would seek to
emulate the professional skills of the General Staff, a trained officer corps, a system
of conscription, logistic organisations, effective use of railways and the employment
of an effective war of movement. Yet there are aspects of the war that demonstrate the
extent to which it was a huge gamble.
French Military Superiority?
Bismarck, according to Wawro could hardly believe his luck as he had not
anticipated the blundering of the experienced French marshals and the collapse of
the French army. With their long service experienced soldiers and an army of
400,000 men equipped with the latest chassepot rifle which outranged the now dated
Prussian rifles the French were in some respects superior to the huge but conscript
Prussian army, 300,000 full time but with conscripts up to 1.2 million.
Yet if Bismarck was doubtful his generals were not as one German officer told a
French colleague, "you may win in the morning but we will win in the evening with
our reserves". Many observers also noted the poor morale and discipline of the
French soldiers in contrast to the fit, educated and indoctrinated German soldiers
committed to the national cause.
Moreover Moltke's war planning had diverted spending from fortresses to railways in
the hope of being able to deploy Prussia's numerical superiority. French roads,
railways and forts were surveyed by Prussian officers to develop a meticulously
planned deployment. In contrast French planning was almost non existent. Moreover
their tactics were not designed to make the best use of their rifle superiority.
Finally the Prussians had learnt an important lesson from the war with Austria the
need for improved artillery. Most of the Prussian casualties were caused by shell and
shrapnel. At Konigratz the Prussians occassionally suffered a bombardment as
intense as that experienced in WW1. The solution was new high calibre, breech
loading, steel barrelled guns from Krupp, which had three times the accuracy, twice
the rate of fire, a third greater range and far greater destructiveness. This was
combined with a tactical doctrine that emphasised mobility and flexibility to allow the
artillery to blast opposition before the infantry battle began.
Wawro also notes both at the start and during the war the importance of national
feelin, patriotism as an element in Prussian morale under the stress of war. A point
about the importance of nationalist ideas in the process of unification that is often
underrated.
The War
Whatever the efficiencies of the Prusssian army and the inherent weaknesses of the
French forces, the differences were compounded by political and military errors.
Louis Napoleon abandoned the government to Eugenie for the army and the army to
Marshal Bazaine, and all three worked at cross purposes.

Interpreting the Austro-Prussian War.


Much has been written emphasising the wisdom of Bismarck, the strategy of von Moltke
and the technical superiority of the Prussian army in explaining the victory of Prussia
over Austria in 1866. A number of claims have been made which a recent American
military historian has challenged ands so modified`. These claims include:

that the alliance with Italy showed Bismarcks careful and essential preliminary
diplomacy

that Moltkes envelopment strategy ensured success

that the Prussian railway network ensured effective logistical support for the
Prussian army

that the breech loading rifle allowed the Prussians to dominate the battlefield

that Bismarck made a lenient peace with Austria as he foresaw the need to avoid
Austrian hostility in the future.
Finally these notes on the military dimension support another interpretation argued by
William Carr; that Bismarck had a tendency to gamble to go va banque, to gamble in a
crisis. At the very least the analysis of the war shows that it was very much a gamble.
Geoffrey Wawro demonstrates that the key reasons for Austrian and Italian defeat lie
within the the governments and institutions of these states and the incompetence of their
military leaders. Prussian military virtues are almost secondary or at best successfully
take advantage of their enemies weakness.
Prussia, Italy and Austria.
The obvious virtue of the April 1866 alliance lay in dividing the Austrian army. This
alliance is also paradoxical in that Austria had promised the Venetia to France and hence
Italy if Austria won a war with Prussia. Italy would gain the Venetia either way. However
for the Italians there was also an opportunity to gain the South Tyrol if victory could be
gained on the battlefield.
Albrecht in the Venetia had 130,000 men to repel 200,000. Benedek in the the North had
245,000 facing 300,000 Prusians but with the support of 150,000 in the Confederation
army. Wawro demonstrates through his analyses of the Custozza campaign that the
incompetence of La Marmora, the Italian commander was matched by the failure of
Albrecht to properly exploit his victory. Bismarcks diplomacy might have been
undermined by a properly exploited Austrian victory which might well have destroyed
Italian unity.
But for Albrechts forebearance, Austria might have taken back the Po basin. Francesco
Bourbons brigands, Pope Pius IXs Swiss and Irish guards, and the mafia junta in Sicily,

which actually launched a rebellion in November, might have seen to the peninsula and
islands. Page 123
Moltkes Envelopment Strategy the Kesselschacht.
Moltkes plan was to divide his forces into 4 army groups: one within Germany to deal
with Hanover, the Elbe army to advance through Saxony and first and second armies to
attack from Lusatia and Silesia.

The armies were to take advantage of the Prussian railway system and move more rapidly
in smaller groups. They would have to advance rapidly after leaving their trains. The Elbe
army would have to fight in Saxony while First and Second armies would have to
advance through the mountain passes to enter Bohemia. A delay in mobilisation had
allowed the Austrians to concentrate their forces at Olmutz. Moltkes intention was to
invade Bohemia and surround Benedeks army with his three mobile columns.
He was aware of the risks. Benedek had a reputation for boldness. He would be able to
invade Silesia and defeat the Prussian Second Army which would be unsupported by the
others. He could also block the exits from the mountains. The Austrians also had the
advantage of shorter lines of communication and the ability to manoeuvre between the
lines of advance of the Prussian armies.
Thus from the outset Moltkes strategy was extremely risky. It is therefore a mistake to
see its subsequent success as inevitable. Much was dependent on chance, and the actions
of the Austrians. Moltke acknowledged this no plan of operation survives the first clash
with an enemy force.

The Prussian Railway Network and Logistical Support


The Prussian divisions were strung out on a 500 km arc and needed to concentrate
wherever the Austrian army chose to move. Speed was essential or else Benedeck could
defeat the Prussian armies one by one. Yet Wawro is able to find numerous examples of
supply shortages and near fatal delays due to inadequate communications.
In truth once the Prussian armies had reached their unloading points then all depended on
the speed of march of men and horses and the flow of supplies. Falkenstein in Hanover
and Prince Freidrich Karl in Reichenberg delayed their advance for elaborate and time
consuming requisitioning of supplies. Von Bittenfelds Elbe army was famished having
invaded Bohemia on a single road without a supply train and so was forced to stop to
requisition. The Princes army then took 4 days to advance 46 kilometres surprising the
even the sluggish Austrian army at their slowness.
There are may more examples including the risky passage of the Nachod gorges into
Bohemia from the North where before the battle of Vysokov the Prussian forces got into
a terrible tangle of guns, wagon trains and men. In many respects despite the railways
there was little different from the Napoleonic wars.
The Superiority of the Breech Loading Rifle.
Time and time again the needle gun proved itself the master of the infantry battle. The
Austrians hurled their massed battalions into a hail of fire and took dreadful casualties.
The only approach to a solution was attempted at Jicin where the line troops were ordered
at one point to just load rifles for a jager battalion which successfully defeated a Prussian
advance.
The Lenient Peace?
Moltkes failure to pursue and destroy the Austrian army aws not a result of Bismarcks
intervention but simply a result of the late arrival of his reserves, and these columns
themselves being in chaotic condition.. Moreover the very success of the Prussians had
created enormous difficulties of command as units were mixed up and generals scattered.
When the pursuit began Bohemia and Lower Austria were seized and looted but the
spread of cholera in the insanitary Prussian camps led to 200 deaths a day and a high
command more anxious to make peace than march on Vienna.

Why did German unification occur in 1870?

The Role of Bismarck

The Importance of Economic Developments

The Role of German


Nationalism

Why did German


unification occur in
1870?
The Role of the Prussian Army

The Changes in the European


Balance of Power

The Roles of Wilhelm I,


Von Roon and Von
Moltke

The Errors of
Louis
Napoleon

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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 2.9 Chinese Civil War

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The Chinese Civil War (1946 - 49)


Past Questions:
With reference to two civil wars, compare and contrast the importance of ideology in (a) causing
the civil war, and (b) attracting outside involvement. (Nov 2010)
Compare and contrast the causes of two twentieth century civil wars. (May 2009)
Examine the impact of foreign intervention on either the Chinese Civil War or the Spanish Civil
War. (May 2007)
Examine the impact of foreign intervention on either the Chinese Civil War or the Spanish Civil
War. (May 2005)
**MARKSCHEME NOTES**

Defining the war: a question of dates!


the 'long civil war': 1912 - 1949, starting with the collapse of imperial power until Mao's ultimate
victory in 1949 allowed a single ruler of the country to emerge - a sustained 37 year period of
conflict.
'the first Chinese civil war': 1927 - 1937, starting with the 'white terror' the decade when Chiang
Kai Shek and the KMT tried unsuccessfully to root out the Communists, which was then
interrupted by the Japanese invasion and the Second World War, before the 'second Chinese
civil war' broke out: 1946 - 1949.
Historian Jonathan Spence argues that the Chinese Civil War should refer more narrowly to this
latter conflict between 1946 and 1949, as this produced a decisive result.
Be aware of this controversy over when the war actually starts, and what actually constitutes the war, if
you choose to answer a question on this topic. It is entirely acceptable to take the view taken by
Spence and state that the civil war proper should be seen as the more concentrated period of fighting
after the Second World War - but you do, of course, need to be aware of the long-term tensions and
divisions leading up to this (as covered in the longer interpretations of the civil war mentioned above).

Civil war? A question of definition


Armed disputes between rival factions with radically different ideas about the future shape/direction of a
country. Differences do not, however, cause civil war in themselves; also necessary is the lack of a political
system with legitimacy or monopoly of force to manage the competing claims in a society. A deeply divided
society can erupt into civil war when there is no mechanism to manage those divisions.
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Timeline of the war and important events:

1899-1901- Boxer rebellion, was a nationalistic uprising. The uprising demanded the expulsion of
foreign powers in China. This rebellion seriously undermines the support of the Qing dynasty, as the
emperor takes the help of foreign troops to crush the rebellion. This rebellion exposes how weak the
Qing dynasty was, and explains why it got overthrown in 1911.
1911 Revolution of the double tenth, (the emperor gets overthrown)
1912-1916- Yuan Shikai sets up military dictatorship.
1916-27-Warlord era, fragmented society, regionalism, no central ruler
1919-TOV, Japan given former German territory in China. This was a national humiliation for China, and
this resulted in a student demonstration called may the fourth movement. The historian Ranna Mitter
argues that May 4th movement was the birth of Chinese modern nationalism.
1921-CCP formed
1924-27 First united front CCP + KMT tried to exterminate warlords + get rid of foreign influence. They
had a common aim and that was to unite China and abolish foreign influence.
1927- White terror in Shanghai, KMT try to destroy CCP (KMT ideology shifts to the right). It can be
argued that the CCW started here as it was in 1927 two sides in the country emerged that waged an
armed conflict against each other.
1931-Japanese invasion of Manchuria
1934-5 Long march. CCP used it as a propaganda campaign to spread communism through the
country. The march shows how the KMT fails to destroy CCP.
1937-44 Japanese invasion of Manchuria, second united front between CCP + KMT, they try to oust
the Japanese from China.
1945 US drops 2 A-bombs on Japan, and the Japanese troops withdraw.
1945-6 US fails to build coalition gov between CCP and KMT.
1946-Civil war starts again between CCP + KMT. It can also be argued that the civil war started here. If
you argue that it started here, you must argue that it was only between 1946-49 that there was a
decisive result, i.e. the CCP won. The struggle between the two sides was also more intense in 1946-9
compared to before.

Causes:
Long-term
Collapse of imperial power:
Collapse of imperial power in 19th century played a fundamental role in creating the
conditions for the later civil war.
The Manchu Qing dynasty had become increasingly fragile during the later half of 19th century because
of the major external and internal threats:
China saw an increase in foreign interest in the country after the defeat of the British in the Opium wars
1839-42. The superpowers in the world started to carve up China among them and control her trade.
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The emperors inability to resist this influx of foreign involvement in the country contributed to the rising
nationalist resentment and internal opposition to the imperial power. As a result, Chinas self-image
was badly hurt and many nationalists were convinced that the abdication of the emperor was
necessary to modernize the country in order to make it a great power again. Despite late attempts at
reform, the dynasty was overthrown in 1911 in the revolution of the double tenth (a military nationalistic
uprising). As the dynasty was overthrown, a power vacuum arose, which the KMT and CCP fight over
later in the civil war. Thus, the collapse of imperial power created the conditions for the later civil war.
Warlords and regionalism:
-The immediate failure to fill the power vacuum in 1911 divided up China into different regions where
warlords brutally exercised their power over the peasants. The internal chaos in China that had arisen
from regionalism ultimately created the social and political conditions for the civil war.
In 1912 Yuan Shikai set up a military dictatorship, but he failed to resolve any of Chinas big problems
(such as foreign interest in the country) and when he died in 1916 the country descended into chaos as
he had not appointed a successor. For the next decade powerful warlords divided up the country into
independent regions. This contributed to outbreak of civil war in three ways.
1) As country was divided up, more people became nationalistic and wanted to unify China
2) The social conditions under the warlords were very poor, and the exploitation of peasants would
lead to later significant support for the CCP.
3) As China was internally weak, it had to accept the TOV and grant the former German colony of
Shangdong to Chinas greatest enemy, Japan. This created more nationalistic feelings.
As a result of the warlord era the Chinese desire for change and modernization was very intense.
Thus, two different political parties, the KMT and the CCP, were formed. The two parties both offered a
solution to Chinas problems and they were willing to fight for it as well.

Midterm
Ideological divide:
Ideology played a crucial role in bringing about war as KMT and CCP essentially fought over who
was going to unify China and solve its problems according to their respective ideology.

Ideological positions of the belligerents

CCP

KMT

-Communist ideology. Ultimate aim of


communism is to create an equal classless
society, in which the state has withered away.
-Mao adopts Soviet communism to Chinese
conditions. For example, the peasant class is
seen as the revolutionary class.
-Mao also wants to revolutionize Chinese
society. 1) Eradicate rural poverty through
collective ownership.
-Replace traditional Chinese values with CCP
values
Abolish foreign influence, and especially
western influence.

Starts of with Sun-Yat-Sen as the leader. He is the


leader from 1912-1925
Three main principles:
1) Nationalism (take away foreign influence)
2) Peoples democracy (establish a democratic state)
3) Peoples livelihood (establish socialism, where the
poor are benefitted)
Chiang Kai-Shek 1925-1949
-Chiang shifts KMT ideology to the right. He focuses
more on nationalism. Chiangs shift to the right leads
to the white terror in Shanghai in 1927

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The key difference between the two parties s


that CCP want a central economy whilst KMT
wants to maintain capitalism

Initially the parties worked together to defeat regionalism in 1926, but Chiangs shift to the right
leads to the white terror (killing of CCP officials) in Shanghai in 1927. This sparks of what some
historians have called the first Chinese civil war between 1927-37. The ideological divisions were also
to become the essential foundation of the conflict that broke out in 1946.
Failure of KMT to secure single party state:
The failure of Chiang Kai-Shek to secure a single party state and unite China under one
government meant that civil war was virtually inevitable. Chiang failed to defeat the CCP in 1927, and
the CCP were severely weakened and had to flee to the remote parts of China (Jianxi province). During
the next couples of years the nationalist government failed to establish control of China. Meanwhile,
CCP builts up its strength and emerged as much stronger in the "united front" with KMT in 1937
against the Japanese invasion. After the Japanese invasion, the fighting between KMT + CCP
continued, and now CCP had emerged in a much stronger position able to wage war against KMT.

Short-term
End of WW2 and failure of US diplomacy:
The failure of the US to secure peace in China in 1946 meant that a proper civil war broke out between
CCP and KMT in the same year. The end of WW2 with the dropping of atom bombs over Hiroshima and
Nagasaki meant that Japan had to withdraw from China, and the fighting between CCP + KMT could
commence. The country was heavily divided between communists and nationalists, and both sides
wanted to get us mouch territory in the chaos that followed the Japanese withdrawal. However, as the
cold war emerged in Europe, the US sought to stall a communist victory in China. Thus the US
intervened to promote a coalition government in China between KMT + CCP. The US war hero General
Marshall led the negotiations between CCP + KMT, but both parties were not prepared to honour the
terms of the agreement in practice. By Februari in 1946 both sides were fighting again as they moved
troops into Manchuria (northern China). Consequently, the failure of US diplomacy has to be seen as a
cause of the Chinese civil war.

Course: reasons for Communist victory:


Mao's prestige rose steadily after the failure of the Comintern-directed urban insurrections. In late 1931 he
was able to proclaim the establishment of the Chinese Soviet Republic under his chairmanship in Ruijin,
Jiangxi Province. The Soviet-oriented CCP Political Bureau came to Ruijin at Mao's invitation with the intent of
dismantling his apparatus. But, although he had yet to gain membership in the Political Bureau, Mao
dominated the proceedings.

In the early 1930s, amid continued Political Bureau opposition to his military and agrarian policies and the
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deadly campaigns being waged against the Red Army by Chiang Kai-shek's forces, Mao's control of the
Chinese Communist movement increased. The epic Long March of his Red Army and its supporters, which
began in October 1934, would ensure his place in history. Forced to evacuate their camps and homes,
Communist soldiers and government and party leaders and functionaries numbering about 100,000
(including only 35 women, the spouses of high leaders) set out on a retreat of some 12,500 kilometers
through 11 provinces, 18 mountain ranges, and 24 rivers in southwest and northwest China. During the Long
March, Mao finally gained unchallenged command of the CCP, ousting his rivals and reasserting guerrilla
strategy. As a final destination, he selected southern Shaanxi Province, where some 8,000 survivors of the
original group from Jiangxi Province (joined by some 22,000 from other areas) arrived in October 1935. The
Communists set up their headquarters at Yan'an, where the movement would grow rapidly for the next ten
years. Contributing to this growth would be a combination of internal and external circumstances, of which
aggression by the Japanese was perhaps the most significant. Conflict with Japan, which would continue
from the 1930s to the end of World War II, was the other force (besides the Communists themselves) that
would undermine the Nationalist government.

Hungry for raw materials and pressed by a growing population, Japan initiated the seizure of Manchuria in
September 1931 and established ex-Qing emperor Puyi as head of the puppet regime of Manchukuo in 1932.
The loss of Manchuria, and its vast potential for industrial development and war industries, was a blow to the
Nationalist economy.
The Chinese resistance stiffened after July 7, 1937, when a clash occurred between Chinese and Japanese
troops outside Beijing (then renamed Beiping) near the Marco Polo Bridge. This battle not only marked the
beginning of open, though undeclared, war between China and Japan but also hastened the formal
announcement of the second Kuomintang-CCP united front against Japan. The collaboration took place with
salutary effects for the stressed CCP. The distrust between the two parties, however, was hardly hidden. The
uneasy alliance began to break down after late 1938, despite Japan's steady territorial gains in northern
China, the coastal regions, and the rich Chang Jiang Valley in central China. After 1940, conflicts between the
Nationalists and Communists became more frequent in the areas not under Japanese control. The
Communists expanded their influence wherever opportunities presented themselves through mass
organizations, administrative reforms, and the land- and tax-reform measures favoring the peasants - while
the Nationalists attempted to neutralize the spread of Communist influence.

At Yan'an and elsewhere in the "liberated areas," Mao was able to adapt Marxism-Leninism to Chinese
conditions. He taught party cadres to lead the masses by living and working with them, eating their food, and
thinking their thoughts. The Red Army fostered an image of conducting guerrilla warfare in defense of the
people. Communist troops adapted to changing wartime conditions and became a seasoned fighting force.
Mao also began preparing for the establishment of a new China. In 1940 he outlined the program of the
Chinese Communists for an eventual seizure of power. His teachings became the central tenets of the CCP
doctrine that came to be formalized as Mao Zedong Thought. With skillful organizational and propaganda
work, the Communists increased party membership from 100,000 in 1937 to 1.2 million by 1945.

Belatedly, the Nationalist government sought to enlist popular support through internal reforms. The effort
was in vain, however, because of the raging corruption in government and the accompanying political and
economic chaos. By late 1948 the Nationalist position was bleak. The demoralized and undisciplined
Nationalist troops proved no match for the People's Liberation Army (PLA). The Communists were well
established in the north and northeast. Although the Nationalists had an advantage in numbers of men and
weapons, controlled a much larger territory and population than their adversaries, and enjoyed considerable
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international support, they were exhausted by the long war with Japan and the attendant internal
responsibilities. In January 1949 Beiping was taken by the Communists without a fight, and its name
changed back to Beijing. Between April and November, major cities passed from Kuomintang to Communist
control with minimal resistance. In most cases the surrounding countryside and small towns had come
under Communist influence long before the cities. After Chiang Kai-shek and a few hundred thousand
Nationalist troops fled from the mainland to the island of Taiwan, there remained only isolated pockets of
resistance.

Course: reasons for, and impact of, foreign intervention:


The League of Nations, established at the end of World War I, was unable to act in the face of the Japanese
defiance. The Japanese began to push from south of the Great Wall into northern China and into the coastal
provinces. Chinese fury against Japan was predictable, but anger was also directed against the Kuomintang
government, which at the time was more preoccupied with anti-Communist extermination campaigns than
with resisting the Japanese invaders. The importance of "internal unity before external danger" was forcefully
brought home in December 1936, when Nationalist troops (who had been ousted from Manchuria by the
Japanese) mutinied at Xi'an. The mutineers forcibly detained Chiang Kai-shek for several days until he
agreed to cease hostilities against the Communist forces in northwest China and to assign Communist
units combat duties in designated anti-Japanese front areas.

In 1945 China emerged from the war nominally a great military power but actually a nation economically
prostrate and on the verge of all-out civil war. The economy deteriorated, sapped by the military demands of
foreign war and internal strife, by increase in inflation, and by Nationalist profiteering and speculation.
Starvation came in the wake of the war, and millions were rendered homeless by floods and the unsettled
conditions in many parts of the country. The situation was further complicated by an Allied agreement at the
Yalta Conference in February 1945 that brought Soviet troops into Manchuria to hasten the termination of war
against Japan. Although the Chinese had not been present at Yalta, they had been consulted; they had
agreed to have the Soviets enter the war in the belief that the Soviet Union would deal only with the Nationalist
government. After the war, the Soviet Union, as part of the Yalta agreement's allowing a Soviet sphere of
influence in Manchuria, dismantled and removed more than half the industrial equipment left there by the
Japanese. The Soviet presence in northeast China enabled the Communists to move in long enough to arm
themselves with the equipment surrendered by the withdrawing Japanese army. The problems of
rehabilitating the formerly Japanese-occupied areas and of reconstructing the nation from the ravages of a
protracted war were staggering, to say the least.

During World War II, the United States emerged as a major factor in Chinese affairs. As an ally it embarked in
late 1941 on a program of massive military and financial aid to the hard-pressed Nationalist government. In
January 1943 the United States and Britain led the way in revising their treaties with China, bringing to an end
a century of unequal treaty relations. Within a few months, a new agreement was signed between the United
States and China for the stationing of American troops in China for the common war effort against Japan. In
December 1943 the Chinese exclusion acts of the 1880s and subsequent laws enacted by the United States
Congress to restrict Chinese immigration into the United States were repealed.

The wartime policy of the United States was initially to help China become a strong ally and a stabilizing force
in postwar East Asia. As the conflict between the Nationalists and the Communists intensified, however, the
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United States sought unsuccessfully to reconcile the rival forces for a more effective anti-Japanese war effort.
Toward the end of the war, United States Marines were used to hold Beiping and Tianjin against a possible
Soviet incursion, and logistic support was given to Nationalist forces in north and northeast China.

Through the mediatory influence of the United States a military truce was arranged in January 1946, but
battles between Nationalists and Communists soon resumed. Realizing that American efforts short of largescale armed intervention could not stop the war, the United States withdrew the American mission, headed
by General George C. Marshall, in early 1947. The civil war, in which the United States aided the Nationalists
with massive economic loans but no military support, became more widespread. Battles raged not only for
territories but also for the allegiance of cross sections of the population.

Effects: what were the main results of the conflict?


For China:
- The CCP with the lead of Mao ultimately consolidated its control over China as a result of the Chinese
Civil War.
- The society was militarised and was was given a God-like status.
- China remained a single party state in which individual rights and freedoms were suppressed- in 1989
when young protesters in the Tiananmen Square (Beijing) were forcibly dispersed with guns and tanks,
the battles for the Civil War was used to justify the actions of the state.
Challenges facing the Government:
1) In 1949, China's economy and its people were exhausted after years of war and conflict in addition to
eight years of war against the Japanese occupation.
2) As peasants had been taken away from land in order to fight, agriculture production had fallen and
food shortages was a serious problem in urban areas- industrial production had also fallen.
3) The financial sitation of China had worsened by the fact that Guomindang officres had taken all of
China's reserves of foreign currency with them when they fled to Taiwan.
4) The Communist victory had created a rift between China and the Western powers; cut off from trade
and contact with the west, China's only source of foreign assistance was from the Soviet Union.
5) Internally, the new government was not yet in full control if all areas of China, especially provinces
and semi-autonomous regions. No government since 1911 had managed to break down the power of
local landlords or overcome China's deel social and ethnic divisions.
Actions:
First priority was to stabilize the economic and social situation and extent the Government's control!

Inflation was brought under control through strict regulation of the economy; taxes were raised
and a new currency introduced- the renminbi.
Property of Guodmindand supporters who had fled to Taiwan was confiscated by the state.
All foreign assets in China, including those frmo the Spviet Union, were confiscated.
Tha banks, gas and electricity supply and transport industries were nationalised.
In three "unification" campaigns in 1950 and 1951, the PLA established central government
control in three regions; Tiber, Guangdong and Xinjiang.
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A new system of government was established in which the dominant political position of the
Communist Party was recognized.
Politically:
The Chinese People's Political Consultative Committee (CPPCC) which had met in September
1949, drew up a Common Program for China- setting out an agenda for economic, political and
social change.
Article 5 of the program guaranteed to all (except "political reactionaries") the rights of freedom
of speech, thought, publication, assembly, association and religious belief.
Emphasis was put on universal and free education as well as economic land reform.
Land refoms:
Before 1949, in areas controlled by the Communists, land reform was essential as the CCP had
gained the support of the peasants in order to win the Civil War.
The land reform meant nothing less than the confiscation and redistribution of land to poorer
peasants and landless labourers.
However, only land belonging to the rich landlords was confiscated as Mao knew the importance
of leaving the holdings of better-off peasants untouched as the food produced by the richer
peasants was essential to the country as a whole.
Local peasant's associations were created in the "key point" villages to carry out the revolution
to more remote areas and local peasants were encouraged to identify their landlords who were
then subjected to humiliation and violence.
Many landlords and their relatives were sentenced to death.
In long term, Mao's aim was to collectivize agriculture as a way to increase food production. In
early 1950s however, Mao thought that a policy of forcing peasants into larger collective farms or
communes would encounter resistance and threaten to underminre the peasant support for the
revolution.
It was instead encouraged by teh CCP to peasants to set uo mutual-aid teams (grouping of
about 10 families) that shared labour and equippment.
Successful as it soon became occurent to the peasants that they could not obtain the tools and
equippment that they needed to cultivate their land unless they joined these teams, but there
was yet no compulsion for them to do so.
Social reforms:
- Emancipation of women
Before:
In traditional Chinese society, women had to obey "proper" authority and the practice of
footbinding was common.
There were arranged marriages, often involving the payment of a dowry and rich and powerful
men kept concubines (mistresses).
Before 20th century, very few women were able to recieve any kind of education and lives of
peasant women was especially hard as they had to carry the burden of child rearing and
household as well as labour in the fields and handicraft work at home.
The revolution of 1911 had brought some changes for women in terms of equality as during the
1912 constitution, women were not granetd the gith to vote but during the warlord era in the
growing cities, educated women were able to challange traditional attitudes and made their way
into professional occupations.
However, in 1922, women accounted for a mere 2.5% of total number of students recieving
university education and on the countryside the progress was almost non-existent.
Under the CCP:
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In Jiangxi provinces in the 1930s, arranged marriages were outlawed and it became illegal to
pruchase wives.
Divorce was made easier and women were also given the right to vote! Mao emphasised that at
least one quarter of those elected to representative bodies had to be women.
However- greater equality also increased their burdens as younger men were taken away to fight
against the GMD, women were expected to do the heavy farm labour as well as their previous
tasks.
In 1949, one of the first reforms addressed the issue of women's rights.
New Marriage Law in 1950 outlawed arranged marriages and dowries, concubined were banned
and unmarried, divorced or widowed women were given the same rights to own property as men.
Even though attitudes in the rural areas was slow to change, the reforms did provide legal and
social framewoek for women to establish equal rights with men.
Improvemens in education:
Previously entry to school and universities was severely restricted by high costs and the heavy
demands on the academic curriculum showed very low pass rates in the imperial examinations
(only 5%!).
After 1949, the development of an educational professional class in China was promoted by
educational opportunities to study at Western universities.
In early 20th century only 30% of adults were literate and before 1949, 20% Chinese children
attended primary school.
Mao rejected the traditional Chinese form of education for its elitism, old fashion curriculum and
teaching methods and also opposed Western influence in schools and unis.
The shortage of educated people in China in 1949 was a serious problem for the suture
development of the country.
Emphasis was put on primary education but the progress was slow; by 1956, less than half of
children aged between 7 and 16 were in full-time education.
Some 20 yeras later, this had reached 96%.
The new govt. did not make spending on education a high priority and in 1952 the investment
was merely a 6.4% of the budget.
Furthermore, education did not entirely break away from the traditional Chinese model as in
each district there were "key schools" to where the best teachers were directed.
There was a heavy emphasis on testing, examinations and physical education and in practice it
was mostly children of high-ranking party and govt. officials who occupied most of the places at
these schools.
University education was focused on technical and scientific subjects (reflecting the country's
need for specialists) and large numbers of students were also sent to study in the USSR until
the late 1950s when China became isolated from the West.
West and USA:
US Cold War anxiety- new military budget to fund struggle against the spread of communism.
Refuses to recognize CCP- seat in UN in Taiwan (KMT) and not PRC (chinas) seat.
New front in Cold War- US interpretations of USSR being the mastermind behind the CCW- cold war
context.
Ping-Pong diplomacy- end of cold war tensions and improved relations.

Resources:
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The French Revolution: Ideas and Ideologies | History Today

The French Revolution: Ideas and Ideologies

The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789


Edmund Burke was one of the first to suggest that the philosophers of the French Enlightenment were somehow responsible for
the French Revolution, and his argument was taken up, and elaborated on, by many historians, including Tocqueville and Lord
Acton. The philosophes undoubtedly provided the ideas. It may well be that the collapse of the old regime was the consequence of
other factors - economic problems, social unrest, conflicting ambitions of groups and individuals - but in the unfolding of the
Revolution, what was thought, what was said, and what was advocated, was expressed in terms and categories that came from
political theorists of the Enlightenment.

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political theorists of the Enlightenment.

The French Revolution: Ideas and Ideologies | History Today

Those theorists were far from sharing the same ideas; but, then, the French Revolution itself was not animated by a single
revolutionary programme. Unlike the English and American Revolutions, the French Revolution went through a series of phases,
each of which almost amounted to a revolution in itself; and as the Revolutionists repudiated one policy to adopt another, more or
less its antithesis, they were able to turn from one philosopher of the Enlightenment, to an alternative, competing or rival theorist
from the same stable.
The first phase of the French Revolution was the one in which the dominant ideas were those of Montesquieu, notably those
expounded in his masterpiece, L'Esprit des lois first published in 1753. Montesquieu claimed that a liberal constitutional monarchy
was the best system of government for a people who prized freedom, on the grounds that by dividing the sovereignty of the nation
between several centres of power, it provided a permanent check on any one of them becoming despotic. Montesquieu suggested
that the English had achieved this by sharing sovereignty between the Crown, Parliament and the law courts. The French, he
suggested, would need, if they were to adopt the same idea, to make use of the estates with which they were themselves already
familiar: the Crown, the aristocratic courts, the Church, the landed nobility and the chartered cities.
Montesquieu's project gives a conspicuous share of the sovereignty to the aristocracy the class to which he himself belonged both the noblesse de robe in the courts and the noblesse de race on the land. Some of the people most active in the earliest stages
of the Revolution were aristocrats, who undoubtedly identified the cause of national freedom with the interests of their own estate.
When the French Revolution began, Louis XVI took it to be an enterprise on the part of some of his privileged subjects to do what
the Whig nobles of England had done in 1688, and replace an absolute monarch with a constitutional monarch. It was in order to
avoid being another James II of England that Louis XVI tried to play the part of another William III.
The comte de Mirabeau, the leading orator among the revolutionists of this early phase, was very much the disciple of
Montesquieu in his demand for a constitutional monarchy. On the more abstract level Mirabeau believed that the only way to
ensure freedom was to institute a divided sovereignty, but he did not agree with Montesquieu as to which estates in France should
have a share in that divided sovereignty. Despite being a nobleman himself, Mirabeau was out of sympathy with most of his peers.
Indeed one big difference between the French liberal noblemen who were prominent in the early stages of the French Revolution Lafayette, Condorcet, Liancourt, Talleyrand, as well as Mirabeau - and the English Whig aristocrats of 1688 is that they did not
represent the views of a large section of their own class.
Even before Mirabeau's death in April 1791, Montesquieu's dream of devolving a large share of national sovereignty on to the
peerage and the Church had been rendered unrealisable by the attitude of the First, the ecclesiastical, and the Second, or the noble
Estates when the Estates-General first met in May 1789. The privileged orders proved more eager to hold on to their privileges
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The French Revolution: Ideas and Ideologies | History Today

Estates when the Estates-General first met in May 1789. The privileged orders proved more eager to hold on to their privileges
than to accede to the powers Montesquieu had wished them to have. Instead it was less privileged groups represented in the Third
Estate - the commons - who demanded to share the sovereignty of the nation with the Crown.
Nevertheless, while the idea of shared sovereignty continued to inform the struggle for freedom, Montesquieu remained the most
important political philosopher of the French Revolution; even those orators and journalists who invoked the name of John Locke
as the great theorist of modern freedom did not move far from Montesquieu's conception of things, since Montesquieu saw himself
as Locke's successor in the liberal tradition, and modestly claimed only to wish to adapt Locke's general principles to the particular
conditions of France.
But there was one element of Locke's thinking that Montesquieu was less attracted to than were the Revolutionists of 1789, and
that was Locke's theory of the natural rights of man to life, liberty and property. The French revolutionists made much of this
because the American revolutionists had done so in 1776. Lafayette, having taken part in person in the American war of
independence, and Condorcet, who had been made an honorary citizen of New Haven, were among those most active in having the
French Revolution justify itself to the world and the people, by proclaiming the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen as
early as August, 1789. However, as later critics pointed out, a 'declaration' has no force in law, and the proclamation made no
material difference to the institutions and procedures by which the constitutional monarchy was governed. The division of
sovereignty between the Crown and the legislature was still thought of as the central achievement of the Revolution of 1789.
What put an end to all this was the king's flight to Varennes, which made it fairly obvious that he did not want to share his
sovereignty with the legislature; and the failure thereafter of liberal monarchists to patch up the constitution gave a signal to those
who had no desire for the people to share sovereignty with the Crown. Thus the theory of divided sovereignty came to be
overthrown in favour of the theory of undivided sovereignty; the constitutional monarchy gave way to a republic: Montesquieu, in
effect, yielded to Rousseau.
Burke, with remarkable prescience, saw Rousseau as the chief ideologue of the French Revolution as early as 1790; but it was only
after the king's flight to Varennes had undermined his liberal reputation that republicanism came to the fore- front of the
revolutionary agenda. As Rousseau replaced Montesquieu, his conception of the meaning of liberty replaced that of L'Esprit des
lois. Where Montesquieu had understood freedom as being unconstrained and unimpeded in doing what one chooses to do so long
as it is lawful, Rousseau defined freedom as ruling oneself, living only under a law which one has oneself enacted. On Rousseau's
philosophy of freedom, there was no question of the people dividing and diminishing sovereignty, because the people were to keep
sovereignty in their own hands. In Rousseau's conception of a constitution, the nation became sovereign over itself.
The second phase of the French Revolution can be dated as it is in the

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The French Revolution: Ideas and Ideologies | History Today

The second phase of the French Revolution can be dated as it is in the


revolutionary calendar from September 1792, or Vendemiaire of Year One, to Napoleon's coup d'etat in November 1799, or 19
Brumaire of Year Eight. This is the republican phase, for which Rousseau not only furnished the terminology of revolutionary
discourse, but was generally acknowledged to have done so. Unlike Montesquieu, whose name had been cited with the same
passionless respect as that of Aristotle or Locke, Rousseau was idolised and venerated. His body was disinterred from its grave in
Ermononville, taken in a solemn procession to Paris and placed in the Pantheon.
It is said that not many people had actually read the book called The Social Contract where Rousseau expounded his republican
theories, but Rousseau had made his ideas well known in more popular writings and his personality became familiar through his
Confessions.
He had contrived to make himself known as the man of the people, one who had not only proclaimed his love of virtue and
freedom, but had demonstrated that love in an exemplary life and a constant struggle against oppression. He was the plebeian
among philosophers, Jean-Jacques the martyr and champion of the poor; but he also provided arguments which served the
purposes of the Terror. For while he said a people could only be free if it ruled itself, Rousseau also said that a man could be forced
to be free; he suggested the cult of a civil religion being established in place of Christianity; he authorised the head of the republic
to overrule the dictates of private consciences together with the use of state powers to suppress immorality as well as crime.
It would be unfair to Rousseau to say that Robespierre put the theory of The Social Contract into practice, but he used Rousseau's
language, and exploited while distorting several of Rousseau's ideas in the course of his reign of terror. At all events, the
discrediting of Robespierre did not result in the discrediting of Rousseauism. Whereas the departure of Cromwell from the scene
had left the English with a lasting hatred of republican government, the execution of Robespierre did not mean that the French had
ceased to be republicans. The idea that the nation might be sovereign over itself has never ceased to command a widespread and
profound assent in France; and no French king was ever to be secure on his throne after that belief took root in the French national
consciousness.
When the First French Republic was brought to an end by Napoleon, his coup d'etat did not mark the end of the French
Revolution, but only its passage to the third, or imperial, phase. Again he had to look no further for his ideas than to those provided
by the French Enlightenment. This time it was the turn of Voltaire, and his doctrine of enlightened absolutism. This theory, like
that of Rousseau, kept the sovereignty of' the state undivided, but in Voltaire's case it was not transmitted to the people but kept,
without question, in the hands of the monarch.
Voltaire proclaimed himself to be, like Montesquieu, a disciple of the English philosophers, and having visited England at much the
same time, he described the English kingdom, in much the same terms, as the homeland of liberty. Again, like Montesquieu,
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The French Revolution: Ideas and Ideologies | History Today

same time, he described the English kingdom, in much the same terms, as the homeland of liberty. Again, like Montesquieu,
Voltaire named Locke as the prince of English philosophers, and there can be no doubt that he owed much to Locke's inspiration.
Voltaire's own Traite sur la tolerance, for example, adds little to the arguments of Locke's Letter for Toleration. But Voltaire did
not join Montesquieu in subscribing to the theory of divided sovereignty and constitutional government as set forth in Locke's Two
Treatises of Government. Voltaire was far more attracted to the political ideas of another Englishman, Francis Bacon, the
philosopher of progress. Although Bacon had died in 1626, Voltaire considered him the most up- to-date of thinkers: one whose
message had a kind of actuality and relevance for eighteenth-century France that exceeded even that of Locke, whose message
was mainly a message to the English, who already had experience of parliamentary government which the French had not.
Voltaire admired Bacon first as a man of science. It was not that Bacon had made any scientific discoveries of his own; he simply
proclaimed the doctrine that science can save us. What was distinctive about his approach was his stress on utility. Science, he
suggested, was not just an intellectual exercise to give us knowledge, but a practical enterprise to give us mastery over our world.
Once men knew how nature worked, they could exploit nature to their advantage, overcome scarcity by scientific innovations in
agriculture, overcome disease by scientific research in medicine, and generally improve the life of man by all sorts of developments
in technology and industry.
Voltaire thrilled to this vision of progress, and he was no less excited by the programme Bacon sketched out as a means of
achieving it. First, the abolition of traditional metaphysics and of idle theological disputes on which scholarship was wasted. Second,
the repudiation of old-fashioned legal and political impediments to the efficient organisation of a progressive state. Bacon was
frankly in favour of an enlarged royal prerogative at the expense of the rights of the Church, Parliament and the courts. Voltaire
approved. Bacon had, in his time, the scheme of fostering the desire of James I to become an absolute monarch so that he himself
might enact the role of philosopher at the elbow of a mighty king; Bacon failed, but Voltaire was more than sympathetic to his
effort.
Besides, the Baconian plan seemed to him to have a better chance of success in France, because France had had, in Voltaire's
opinion, an altogether happy experience of absolute monarchy under the Bourbon kings of the seventeenth century. One can
readily understand Voltaire's admiration for Henri IV; it is less easy to understand his veneration for Louis XIV, the persecutor of
Protestants, the oppressor of dissent and the protector of the pious. It has been suggested that Louis XIV appealed to the aesthetic
side of Voltaire's imagination, which saw the king as an artist imposing unity on the chaos of society. In any case, Voltaire saw no
necessary threat to freedom in the centralisation of royal government. On the contrary, he considered that in French experience
the great enemies of liberty were the Church and the institutions controlled by the nobility, including the parlements. By
suppressing or emasculating such institutions, a strong central government could enlarge the citizen's liberty; it had done so in the
past in France and could do so in the future. He would not accept Montesquieu's doctrine of power checking power to produce
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The French Revolution: Ideas and Ideologies | History Today

past in France and could do so in the future. He would not accept Montesquieu's doctrine of power checking power to produce
freedom through equilibrium. For Voltaire, one single power that can be trusted is needed not to counter-balance, but rather to
subdue those other powers which menace freedom.
The idea of 'philospher-king', of course, dates back at least as far as Plato. In the eighteenth century, several European monarchs
were persuaded by Enlightenment philosophy to try to enact the role, among them, the Empress Catherine of Russia, the Emperor
Joseph of Austria, as well as several lesser princes. Frederick of Prussia was the one who approached Voltaire in person, and
invited him to join his Court at Potsdam. It was a doomed enterprise. Voltaire found himself unable to control the mind of a king
who considered himself a philosopher already, and who wanted no advice, but only praise.
The French kings took no interest whatever in Voltaire's ideas: but Napoleon did. And once Napoleon had seized power, he made
the Baconian, or Voltairean, project his own. Napoleon could fairly claim to be something other than a military dictator. He
introduced what he thought of as scientific government. He gave his patronage to those intellectuals who saw themselves as the
heirs of the Enlightenment: to Destutt de Tracy, Volney, Cabanis and Daunou, exponents of what they called the 'science of ideas.'
He furthered the creation of such essentially Baconian institutions as the Polytechnique, the lycees, and the several ecoles
normales. He made education a central feature of imperial policy, and he made that education state education.
Assuredly, Napoleon modified the Voltairean theory of enlightened absolutism in directions that Voltaire would not have approved.
Napoleon introduced something approaching a democratic element by making his despotism plebiscitary, something which the
earlier phases of the French Revolution had made almost inevitable. Voltaire had never cared much for democracy, because he
considered the majority of people to be hopelessly unenlightened, but once the people had been brought into the French political
arena, Napoleon saw that there was no way of pushing them out. They had only to be persuaded to let themselves be led, and
Napoleon, of course, proved something of a genius in doing this. Voltaire, had he lived, might have admired him for this, but he
would not have admired, or approved either of Napoleon's re-establishment of the Catholic Church or his military adventures. It
was Frederick's wars which did most to alienate Voltaire; and Napoleon's wars would have, pleased him no more; especially as'
Napoleon's conquests seemed to diminish rather than increase his attachment to the ideals of science and of freedom.
Nevertheless, one cannot deny that the fifteen years of Napoleon's consulate and empire, while rejecting the institutions of the
republic, did much to consolidate and perpetuate the institutions which the earlier phases of the Revolution had introduced into
France, and which the ideas of the Enlightenment had inspired. Napoleon was not a counter-revolutionary in any sense. Even his
restoration of the Church was the introduction of a cult over which he kept control rather than to which he submitted. The only
French royal and noble titles that he recognised were those of his own creation. He kept the republican character of his empire,
much as the Romans had done in the ancient world.

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The French Revolution: Ideas and Ideologies | History Today

Indeed the very fact that the Romans had transformed their re- public into an empire made it all the easier for Napoleon to do so
in France. Once the French revolutionists had rid themselves of their king, they began increasingly to think of themselves as the
Romans of the modern world. Their art and architecture, the military organisation of their new army, even the names of civil
ranks such as 'consul' and 'senator' were conscious copies of the Roman model. In doing this they did not depart very far from the
more modern and democratic ideas of Rousseau; for although Rousseau preferred Sparta to Rome, and believed that freedom
could only be realised in a small city state, he, too, was all in favour of reviving Roman ideals in place of Christian ideals, and looked
forward to the emergence of a new man in the shape of the citizen-soldier of antiquity reborn.
Rousseau even made the singular prediction that the island of Corsica would one day produce a leader who would astonish the
world. That leader owed much of his success, while that success lasted, to adopting the policies of Voltairean enlightened despotism
while dressing them all up in republican language and trappings that were inspired by Rousseau; it was not a genuine synthesis,
because it took the substance from one and the appearances from the other, but at least it enabled Napoleon to achieve all the
popularity he needed in France, so that his regime could only be overthrown by a coalition of foreign governments and armies.

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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 2.3 WW1 Peace Settlements

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WW1 Peace Settlements: Germany and Russia


Past Questions:
Paper 3
Analyse the successes and failures of one post-First World War treaty. (May 2010)
Paper 2
Analyse the results of one twentieth century treaty or peace settlement. (May 2008)
Peace settlements create conditions for new conflicts. With reference to at least two settlements explain to
what extent you agree with this statement. (Nov 2005)
"Those who can win a war well can rarely make a good peace." Select one peace treaty and, by examining its
clauses, explain how the winners treated the losers, and if you agree with the quotation. (specimen)

**MARKSCHEME NOTES**
Treaty of Brest-Litvosk (1918)

Background context and attitudes informing the settlement:


Russia; October 26, 1917: Decree on Peace signed by the Bolsheviks, with the hope of a just peace settlement
based on "no annexations, no indemnities".
Bolshevik imperative to end the war - their rise to power had, to a degree, depended on the promise of "peace".
Difficulty facing Lenin: 'peace at any price' to save the revolution at home (not possible to carry on fighting
Germany and build socialism!) vs peace at any price that causes so much opposition (Tsarist Generals,
Mensheviks, SRs, nationalists, etc.) that the revolution is overthrown anyhow! Lenin: "All other demands can
and should be granted" - apart from the Bolshevik government being overthrown!
Trotsky's policy of "neither peace nor war" - hopes to stall negotiations long enough for German soldiers to revolt
against their masters, and for the 'world socialist revolution' to spread amongst the other Western belligerents.
Bolshevik naivety going into the talks about how aggressive Germany might be - belief that Germany did not
want more territory. Lenin:1920, "we gained a little time, and sacrificed a great deal of space for it";
Germany: "establishing a good economic and political relationship with the new Russia, in order to k eep our
rear military completely free, while at the same time detaching huge areas from the present Russia and building
up these districts into effective bulwark s on our frontiers" - Lebensraum? Fischer thesis.
"A peace which only assured the territorial status quo would mean that we had lost the war. Such a peace in the
East has never been considered."
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Terms of the Treaty:

Russia lost: 1/6 of population (62 million people); 27% of farming land (of highest quality in the Ukraine); 74% of
iron ore and coal reserves; Germany set up 'semi-independent' governments in Belarus, Ukraine and Georgia,
while Baltic states became independent republics. Russian-held area of Poland became part of the independent
state of Poland, and Finland remained independent.
Strengths and weaknesses of the Treaty:
For Russia: + Lenin keeps his promise and ends the war, which allows focus on consolidation of power at home.
On the one hand, it did lead to the civil war - i.e. increased problems for Lenin - but on the other hand, it allows
Lenin to deal with his opposition and secure power over the entire country. Shows Lenin\s pragmatic flexibility in
keeping power, and control over the Bolshevik party. - Loss of resources, territory, population - but on the other
hand, he did not have control over these areas yet anyway, and by the end of 1918 Germany had lost the war
and the treaty was annuled!; complete failure to spread world revolution!
For Germany: land, resources and military buffer-zone; Kaiser Wilhelm, described treaty as one of the "greatest
successes of world history". Temporary boost to German morale.
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Key results of the Treaty:


For Russia: Adam Ulam - "the most humiliating peace in Russia's modern history!": patriotic Russians horrified
by loss of 'motherland', pushed them to join anti-Bolshevik forces (esp- Kadets); caused splits within the
Bolshevik party (left wing wanted revolutionary war to spread Bolshevism, and not to end the war which allowed
Germany to continue as an imperialist nation); Left SRs left sovnarkom in protest; increased opposition to
Bolshevism leads to Russian Civil war.
For Germany - short term: Germany doesn't need to fight war on the Eastern front, and also can bolster their
supplies with some of the new territiories and resources. longer term: Allies used this treaty in order to justify
harsh settlement of Versailles; but on the other hand, it has also been noted that treaty did not give away any
Russian territory!
Treaty of Versailles, part of the Paris Peace Settlements (1919)

Background context, aims and attitudes informing the settlement:

Britain:
- 1 million people killed and faced public demands at home to "Hang the Kaiser".
- Lloyd George though that the territory should go to the winners and colonies should be divided amongst the winners
as well.
- Germany should not be smashed into pieces- needs to recover as a trading partner which would also favor the Allies'
economy as Germany still remained a great economic power after the war.
- Reparations should be reasonable to allow Germany to recover and the money would be used to pay for war penions
and pay debts to the USA.
- The German army should be reduced but not to the extent that she would be unable to defend herself from France but
her navy however, should never threaten the British Empire again.
- Wanted to BLAME GERMANY!
- The attitude towards the League of Nations was indifferent but thought it was a good way to preserve peace- Germany
would be allowed to join when she was proven to seek for peace instead of military actions.
France:
- Much of the fighting was fought on French soil so Clemenceau entered the negotiations reluctant to be diplomatic
towards Germany.
- 1.5 million killed. The public at home sought for revenge.
- Clemencau also wanted the territory and colonies to go to the winners.
- The Saar which was rich in coal and iron should go to France for industrial reconstruction.
- The Rhineland should become an independent state.
- Alsace and Lorraine (stolen from France in the France-Prussian war in 1870) should be returned and Germany should
be broken up altogether!
- Reparation payments should be massive to punish Germany and be used to rebuild homes and industry and pay
debts to USA.
- Germany's army should be completely dismantled so she would never be able to threaten France again and the
BLAME SHOULD BE PUT ON GERMANY!
- The attitude towards the League of Nations was this it was "a waste of time" and should be enforced as a way of
enforcing the TOV- should definetely have an army. Germany should never be alllowed to join.
USA:
- The war had a limited impact on the US as they only joined the war in 1916 and the public demands on President
Woodrow Wilson was to go into isolationism and leave Europe to its own problems.
- Wilson thought that the occupied territories should be allowed to vote on its won future ("self-determination") through
plebiscites.
- Colonies should become mandates- supervised by the winners but under the control of the League of Nations.
- The reparation payments should be minimal so that Germany would not seek revenge - some interpretations have also
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been that the reparations should remain minimal so that Britain and France would have to stay in debt to the USA.
- Thought that the army should be dismantled by all countries, not just Germany, as this was the only way to preserve
world peace and avoid another arms race.
- wanted to BLAME GERMANY!
- Attitudes towards the League of Nations was "obsessed" and this was the first thing to be set up under the TOV and
Germany could join when proven to be peace-loving.
Terms of the Treaty:

Germany lost her colonial Empire which was shared among the winners.
Alsace-Lorraine (which consisted of 75% of Germany's iron resources) was returned to France.
The Saar was handed over to the League for 15 years- France was to run its coal mines.
West Prussia was given to Poland so that she could gain access to the sea (the Polish corridor) which split
Germany into 2.
Actual sum of war reparations was not fixed at Versailles but Germany signed a "blank cheque" (later settled at
6,600 million in 1921).
Germany's army was limited to 100,00 men and conscription was banned as well as tanks and submarines.
The navy was limited to 6 warships and the airforce dismantled.
Rhineland was permanently demilitarised (German military permanently prohibited)!
Under Article 231, Germany was to be held fully to blame for the war.
The League of Nations was hoped to be able to solve international disputes and was the first issue dealt with at
the conference.
Revision mnemonic for key terms of the Treaty: Territorial losses, Reparations, Army, War-guilt, League of Nations
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to be set up: TRAWL.


Revision mnemonic for territorial losses imposed on Germany in the Treaty: Saar, Colonies, Rhineland, AlsaceLorraine, Polish Corridor: SCRAP.
Strengths and weaknesses of the Treaty:
+:
- According to some historians, the treaty was successful because "Germany lost remarkably little territory,
considering how thoroughly she had lost the war"- Sally Marks.
Historiography of the Treaty:

Orthodox view of settlement James Joll, "Europe was divided by the peace conference into those who wanted the peace revised (Germany,
Italy, Japan and Hungary) and those who wanted it upheld (France, Poland, Czechoslovak ia and Yugoslavia),
and those who were not that interested (the USA and Britain)".
E.H. Carr, self-determination and collective security as unworkable idealistic principles, and the settlement failed
to settle the 'German problem'.
A.J.P. Taylor, Versailles as crushing, harsh and lacking in moral validity, as no Germans accepted it and all
wanted to overturn it. From this perspective, the Second World War was "a war over the settlement of Versailles;
a war which had been implicit when the First World War ended because the peace-mak ers had not solved the
German problem."
Revisionist view of Versailles Sees the settlement as a brave attempt to deal with huge, long-term problems, and argues the problem was not
with the Treaty but with the failure to enforce its terms!
Ruth Henig, treaty as a "creditable achievement", but one that failed because of economic and social problems,
divisions between the Allies, and reluctance of leaders to enforce the treaty. The failure to do this meant a
stronger Germany, and further indecision in the form of appeasement meant war.
Paul Birdsall, US refusal to commit to upholding the settlement undermined both the League of Nations and the
idea of a united democratic front supplying 'collective security', and thus was crucial in explaining the failure of
the treaty in the longer-term
Paul Kennedy, 1920s - the settlement worked, like the League of Nations; but 1930s - it was crushed by
militarism of Italy, Japan and Germany, a collapse caused by the Great Depression and its effects.

Key results of the Treaty:

Resources:

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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 3.24 Compare and contrast Hitler and Mussolini's FP

3.24 Compare and contrast Hitler and Mussolini's FP


Compare and contrast Hitler and Mussolini's domestic policies
Past Questions:
Paper 3
Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Hitler and Mussolini.

MARKSCHEME NOTES
Key Dates:

1922 Mussolini comes to power in Italy


1933 Hitler comes to power in Germany, takes Germany out of the League of Nations
1934 Mussolini deters Hitler from seizing control of Austria by sending troops to the
Brenner Pass
1935 The Stresa Front: Mussolini forms a bloc with France and Britain against Germany
1935 Anglo-German Naval Agreement: Hitler breaks up the Stresa Front by reaching a
deal with Britain regarding German naval expansion
1936-39 Spanish Civil War: Mussolini and Hitler give their support to Franco
1936 Rome-Berlin Axis: Mussolini formally aligns Fascist Italy with Nazi Germany
1938 Mussolini offers no resistance when Hitler announces the Anschluss of Austria with
Germany
1939 Pact of Steel: Mussolini commits Italy to supporting Germany should war break
out, even if Germany is the aggressor
1940 Mussolini brings Italy into World War Two on the side of Nazi Germany
1943 Mussolini falls from power in Italy
1945 Mussolini is murdered; Hitler commits suicide

Introduction:
Foreign policy was absolutely central to the thinking and rule of the two dominant fascist
dictators of interwar Europe, Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler. Both leaders rose to power, at
least in part, by exploiting nationalist resentment towards the perceived injustices of the Paris
Peace Settlements: with Mussolini coming to power in 1922 in Italy, while Hitler became
Chancellor a decade later in 1933 in Germany. Putting into place an aggressive foreign policy
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Chancellor a decade later in 1933 in Germany. Putting into place an aggressive foreign policy
was for both leaders a fulfillment of their radical fascist and Nazi ideologies, and also a means of
trying to increase support and popularity for their regimes domestically. Looking at the foreign
policies of the two leaders at a broad level, the most obvious contrast is that Hitler, in power for
considerably less time than Mussolini, conducted his policies over a much shorter time scale.
However, in both cases it was over-ambitious foreign policies that ultimately led to the leaders'
downfall and the collapse of their much-vaunted new empires of ideology. This essay will
compare and contrast the foreign policies of the two dictators, and argue that though there are
many common features between them, Hitler's policies tended to be more focused on achieving
pure 'power' while Mussolini was driven by a desire to increase the 'prestige' of Italy, and
himself, in the eyes of the world.
Running Comparison: key similarities with nuances
Aims and planning
Both leaders based their respective foreign policies on opposition to the Paris Peace
Settlements, with a shared grievance against the failure to apply Wilson's principle of selfdetermination. Uniting all German speakers for Hitler, and Italian speakers for Mussolini,
was foundational for their thinking on foreign policy.
Both leaders also put forward a radical fascist ideology that put great stress on national
expansion and military strength as proof of national vitality and strength in the
international arena. Their respective societies were to be militarised - in term of rearmament, and the spreading of militaristic values to the youngest ages - in preparation
for war and in pursuit of national conquest.
Historians have struggled to agree on how far both leaders had clear foreign policy aims
and plans for action. Though A.J.P. Taylor dismissed Hitler's plans for world-domination
as mere 'day dreams' and instead argued that he was an opportunist, Hitler consistently
pursued his aims to over-turn Versailles and assert Germany as the dominant power in
Central Europe throughout the 1930s. Mussolini, on the other hand, may have wished to
make Italy "great, respected and feared", but the economic weakness of Italy
determined that he was almost a pure opportunist in foreign policy decisions. He may
have wished to become the dominant power in the Mediterranean, but there is at least
some truth in A.J.P. Taylor's view of him as "a vain, blundering boaster without either
ideas or aims."

Aggressively expansionist policies


Both leaders put their rhetoric about aggressive foreign policy into action, though Hitler
did this over a more concentrated period of time in a more focused and coherent manner.
Hitler and Nazi Germany: 1936, re-miltarised the Rhineland; 1938, anschluss with
Austria, and Sudetenland; 1939, Czechoslovakia and Poland. Thus persistently
overturning the losses inflicted upon Germany after the Versailles settlement in 1919.
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overturning the losses inflicted upon Germany after the Versailles settlement in 1919.
Mussolini and Fascist Italy: 1923, Corfu incident with Greece; 1924, port of Fiume
obtained from Yugoslavia; 1926, puppet-state set up in Albania, to strengthen Italy's hold
over the Mediterranean; 1935, invasion of Abyssinia; 1939, invasion of Albania.

Ideological intervention in the Spanish Civil War


With the increasingly clear ideological divide that emerged in the 1930s, between liberal
democracy in the West, communism in the USSR and fascism in Italy, Germany and
Japan, both Hitler and Mussolini were prepared to make a stand for their ideological
opposition to Communism and support Franco in his struggle against the Popular Front to
gain control of the Spanish state in 1936. In this way, both leaders actively intervened in
the Spanish Civil War in support of fascism.
Nature of support - Hitler: helped to airlift Franco and his troops to mainland Spain in
July 1936, offered air-support via testing out his new luftwaffe and military supplies to
Franco's nationalists; Mussolini: gave the greatest amount of foreign support, in the form
of 75,000 troops, planes, tanks and weapons supplied to Franco to assist the nationalist
war effort.
However, a key contrast between Hitler and Mussolini's foreign policies can be identified
through considering their differing motivations for supporting Franco. For Hitler, a
central concern was with increasing his economic power. He thus supplied Franco with
military materials in return for an agreement that gained him access to 75% of Spain's
ores - key natural resources that Hitler needed to prepare for war. Mussolini, on the
other hand, was more concerned simply with 'prestige', i.e. being seen by the rest of the
world to be playing an important part in support of the fascist fight against communism
and the left. He had little in terms of economic aims, and he made no economic benefits as
a result of his intervention. This neatly shows what Russel Tarr has highlighted as Hitler's
focus on power vs Mussolini's focus on prestige - an important difference that undermines
the apparent similarities between the two dictator's policies.

Running Comparison: key differences with nuances


Nature of Empire
While both Hitler and Mussolini sought to embark upon imperialist ventures, the nature
of their respective imperial projects differed importantly.
Hitler's drive for lebensraum in the East was based upon the Nazi's carefully developed
racial theories, which also included an important economic element. According to Hitler's
vision of the Aryan 'master race', the Slavic races of the East were intrinsically inferior to
Germans and it was therefore in the natural order of things that they should be absorbed
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into the Third Reich as slave labour to work the land and provide food for the Motherland.
Hitler's imperial expansion, like his intervention in the Spanish civil war, was clearly
intended to increase the economic power base of Germany as the dominant power in
Central Europe (i.e. Austria's key natural resources, the Skoda arms factory in the
Sudetenland), and this economic justification for empire rested on a clear racial
classification of fellow German speakers, and thus Aryans (in Austria and the
Sudetenland), and the inferior slavs in the East.
If Hitler's imperial policy thus rested, as Hugh Trevor-Roper stressed, on a radically new
idea of race, Mussolini's imperial thinking remained firmly backwards looking in its
reliance on ideas that developed in the late nineteenth-century 'scramble for Africa'.
Hitler was fuelled by his idea of an inevitable struggle between different races and the
biological superiority of the aryans, but Mussolini had no clearly-defined theory of race
beyond the vague idea of European superiority over Africans commonly shared among
non-fascist colonial powers such as France and Britain. And where Hitler had wanted
lebensraum in order to get clear economic benefits, Mussolini's colonial policy in Abyssinia
was based more upon the desire to boost Italian prestige in the eyes of the world. A key
factor motivating Mussolini's decision to invade just Abyssinia in 1935 was shaped by his
wish to seek revenge for the defeat Italy had suffered there in 1896, suggesting
nationalist pride was of far more importance than any desire for economic gain (and of
course Italy's imperial adventures in Africa did very little to achieve any economic power
for Mussolini, in striking contrast to Hitler's policy.)

Relations with the Western powers and 'collective security'


Though Hitler withdrew Germany from the League of Nations in 1933, in feigned disgust
at the failure of the Western powers to honour their earlier disarmament pledges,
Mussolini had a more ambiguous relationship with the Western powers and the concept of
'collective security'. Indeed, as the Stresa Pact of 1934 with Britain and France suggests
Mussolini was at first concerned to work together with the Allies in the face of the
potential threat posed by the newly-elected Hitler. Alone amongst the European powers,
Mussolini actually used military force to stand up to Hitler by sending troops to the
Austrian border to prevent Hitler's early attempt at anschluss in 1934. So initially at least,
Mussolini seemed to be siding with Britain and France, and thus by inference the League
of Nations, against Hitler and Nazi Germany.
It was only after Britain and France refused to grant Mussolini his claims to Abyssinia,
and the joint experience of supporting Franco in the Spanish Civil War, that Mussolini
turned towards Hitler and formalised this allegiance with the Rome-Berlin Axis of 1936.
In part this was a result of Mussolini's disappointments over the British betrayal of the
Stresa Pact, and the Abyssinian crisis, but it also reflected his opportunism and
pragmatism in as far as by 1936 he judged that the balance of power lay in Hitler's hands
and not the appeasers. So while Hitler was fairly consistent in departing from the League
and carefully pursuing his aims in contravention of the Allies, Mussolini swapped sides
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and carefully pursuing his aims in contravention of the Allies, Mussolini swapped sides
and followed a more opportunistic line of allegiances.

Foreign policy consistency and the lead up to WWII


While historians continue to disagree about the consistency of Hitler's war aims, it is
possible to agree with Hugh Trevor-Roper that Hitler's policies from 1936 onwards
followed a clear line towards war. Indeed, the thrust of the Hossbach memorandum, 1937,
from a meeting between Hitler and his generals, is that Germany needed to provoke, fight
and win the war for European supremacy before his opponents had the time to increase
their military strengths. In this sense, it can make sense to state that though Hitler might
not have expected this war to break out over just Poland in 1939 he was in general
seeking such a war.
Such a determined and clear direction was, on the other hand, clearly missing from
Mussolini. Though he had signed the 'pact of steel' with Hitler in 1939, pledging to support
Germany in the event of any future war regardless of the circumstances, when the
Second World War broke out in September over the issue of Polish independence
Mussolini was unwilling to honour this agreement. Instead, and in contrast to all of his
bold rhetoric, Mussolini kept Italy out of the war initially claiming military
unpreparedness. Though this point about military weakness may well be true, Mussolini's
failure to keep to the terms of the agreement hint at a level of uncertainty almost entirely
lacking from the terrifying determination of Hitler. Here we see a vital distinction
between the foreign policies of the two fascist leaders: Hitler the single-minded seeker of
power - economic, military and diplomatic - and Mussolini the undecided opportunist hoping to boost Italian prestige and create the new Roman empire, but restricted by
military and economic weakness and his indecision (delightfully shown in Louis de
Berniere's wonderful portrayal of him in the novel Captain Corelli's Mandolin from the
mid-1990s).

Resources:

Russell Tarr essay in History today: 'The foreign policies of Hitler and Mussolini' (2009),
on questia here: link

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om/3.24+Compare+and+contrast+Hitler+and+Mussolini'

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THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA--IMPERIALISM


I.

SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA


A. INTRODUCTION
1. LAST SEVERAL DECADES OF 19TH C & INTO 20TH C
2. SAW AGGRESSIVE IMPERIALISM IN WHICH
a. BRITAIN,
b. FRANCE,
c. GERMANY,
d. ITALY,
e. JAPAN
f. & U.S.
g. CONQUERED & ANNEXED OTHER AREAS OF WORLD
(1) IN NAME OF CIVILIZATION
3. SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA MAJOR PART OF THIS EXTRAORDINARY AGGRESSION IN
HISTORY
4. SCRAMBLE BEWILDERED EVERYONE,
a. FROM HUMBLEST AFRICAN PEASANT
b. TO MAJOR STATESMEN OF AGE
5. AT FIRST EUROPEAN GOVTS ATTEMPTED TO REMAIN ALOOF FROM THIS RACE FOR
AFRICA
6. WHAT DID DESERT OR MALARIAL SWAMPS & JUNGLE OFFER TO EUROPEANS
SLIDE A3 - NATURAL VEGETATION & CLIMATIC ZONES IN AFRICA
7. BUT EUROPE UNDERGOING PERIOD OF ECONOMIC STAGNATION
8. & BLACK AFRICA MIGHT BE EL DORADO,
a. MAYBE DIAMONDS & GOLD WOULD BE FOUND
9. HUGE NEW MARKET FOR UNSOLD COTTON & OTHER GOODS
B. BACKGROUND
1. BY MID 1870'S MUCH AFRICA STILL KNOWN TO WHITES
2. FOR NO WHITE EXPLORER HAD PENETRATED INTERIOR
a. ALTHOUGH SOME EXPLORERS BEGINNING TO
SLIDE B27 - HEINRICH BARTH'S CAMP LAKE CHAD REGION & HIS BOOK ON 19TH AFRICA GREAT SOURCE OF
INFORMATION
3. EUROPEANS PICTURED MOST OF CONTINENT AS VACANT
a. LEGALLY NO MAN'S LAND
b. SO CALLED IT DARK CONTINENT
4. BEST-KNOWN PART WAS NORTH AFRICA
a. WHERE 90 MILLION MOSLEMS LIVED
5. OLDEST INDEPENDENT COUNTRY ABYSSINIA OR ETHIOPIA
6. YOUNGEST INDEPENDENT COUNTRY - LIBERIA
7. FOUNDED 1822 BY AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY
a. SETTLEMENT FOR FREED BLACK SLAVES FROM U.S.
b. YET FEW WENT THERE
8. ONLY ALGIERS HAD EXPERIENCED EUROPEAN OCCUPATION
9. IN 1830'S FRENCH MOVED INTO AREA TO GET RID OF PIRATES PREYING ON THEIR SHIPS
10. 300 YRS OF EUROPEAN EXPLORATION BEGINNING IN 15TH C. ALONG AFRICAN
COASTLINE
11. HAD RESULTED IN WHITE TRADING POSTS ON EAST & WEST COAST
12. & BRITISH & DUTCH SETTLEMENTS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA
13. MILLIONS OF AFRICANS HAD BEEN EXPORTED TO FOREIGN LANDS AS SLAVES
14. BUT BY MID 19TH C. SLAVERY HAD BEEN OUTLAWED IN WESTERN LANDS
15. SO WHY BEGINNING IN 1880'S & CONTINUING TO 1902?
a. DID 5 EUROPEAN POWERS
(1) BRITAIN, FRANCE, GERMANY, BELGIUM, ITALY
b. GRAB ALMOST ALL AFRICA'S 10 MILLION SQ MILES

2
c. ESTABLISHING 30 NEW COLONIES & PROTECTORATES
d. & BEGIN RULING OVER 110 MILLION BEWILDERED NEW SUBJECTS
16. WHY THIS UNDIGNIFIED RUSH BY LEADERS OF EUROPE TO BUILD EMPIRES IN AFRICA?
17. HISTORIANS AS PUZZLED NOW AS POLITICIANS THEN
II. CAUSES & METHODS OF IMPERIALISM
B28 A. DR DAVID LIVINGSTONE 1813-1873
1. MANY HISTORIANS THINK SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA CAME FROM HEROIC ADVENTURES &
DEATH OF MISSIONARY-EXPLORER-DOCTOR DAVID LIVINGSTONE
2. 1840 SCOTTISH DR. LIVINGSTONE SENT BY LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY TO AFRICA
3. 3 DECADES HE TREKKED CONTINENT
a. CENTRAL & SOUTHERN REGIONS
4. MAPPING & EXPLORING UNKNOWN REGIONS
5. SEARCHING FOR THE SOURCE OF THE NILE
6. SO PEOPLE & SUPPLIES COULD BE BROUGHT
a. TO HEART OF CONTINENT FROM MED. SEA
b. FOR COLONIZATION & CHRISTIANIZING
7. HE WROTE POPULAR PRESS ACCOUNTS OF BRUTAL SLAVE TRADE
a. CONTROLLED BY ARABS IN EAST AFRICA
b. SO TRADE COULD BE STOPPED
8. IN 1860'S HE DISAPPEARED
9. NEW YORK HERALD NEWSPAPER FINANCED
a. HENRY M. STANLEY,
B30
b. ADVENTURER, WRITER & EXPLORER
c. TO FIND HIM
10. STANLEY'S ACCOUNT OF HIS PERILOUS JOURNEYS
a. WHERE HE ONLY EUROPEAN SURVIVOR
11. & HIS FAMOUS MEETING WITH DR. LIVINGSTONE IN 1871
B31
a. DR. LIVINGSTONE I PRESUME
12. MADE EXCITING READING
13. LIVINGSTONE'S DEATH STIRRED UP EVEN MORE INTEREST
14. WHEN DR. LIVINGSTONE DIED HIS FAITHFUL COMPANIONS BURIED HIS HEART & OTHER
INTERNAL ORGANS WHERE HE HAD DIED
a. MAY 1873, AT ILALA IN HEART OF CONTINENT
15. & THEN AFTER SUN-DRYING HIS BODY FOR FORTNIGHT
a. KEEPING NIGHT WATCH SO HYENAS WOULD NOT GET BODY
16. THEY BROUGHT BODY SURREPTITIOUSLY
a. WRAPPED IT IN SKIN & PUT IN CYLINDER OF BARK
b. TO COASTAL REGION AFTER 5 MONTHS JOURNEY
17. 11 MONTHS LATER LIVINGSTONE BURIED IN WESTMINSTER ABBEY BACK IN ENGLAND
18. LIVINGSTONE'S CALL FOR AFRICA TO BE REDEEMED BY 3 C'S
a. COMMERCE, CHRISTIANITY & CIVILIZATION
b. AIMED AT CONSCIENCE OF CIVILIZED WORLD
19. LITTLE DID HE KNOW 4TH C WOULD BE ADDED
a. CONQUEST
B. CHRISTIANITY & MISSIONARIES
1. HUNDREDS OF MISSIONARIES WENT TO WEST AFRICA IN EARLY 19TH C
2. BUT THEY WENT WITH SAME MENTALITY OF MISSIONARIES WHO WENT TO AMERICA OR
PACIFIC NORTHWEST
a. NATIVES CONSIDERED INFERIOR
b. NATIVE CULTURE NEEDED TO BE OBLITERATED
c. IN ORDER FOR CHRISTIANIZATION & CIVILIZATION TO TAKE EFFECT
d. WHERE THOU FINDEST IGNORANCE, STUPIDITY, BRUTE MINDEDNESS ... ATTACK IT, I
SAY, SMITE, SMITE IT IN THE NAME OF GOD
3. ALL TOO OFTEN NATIVE POPULATIONS LEARNED MORE ABOUT INHUMANITY FROM

3
EUROPEANS THAN ABOUT CHRISTIANITY
4. EUROPEAN MISSIONARY PREPARING TO BAPTIZE AFRICAN WOMAN BY IMMERSION AS
B41
GROUP OF FOLLOWERS LOOKS ON
C. TO CIVILIZE THE AFRICANS
1. NO ACCIDENT GREAT COMPETITION FOR COLONIAL TERRITORIES
2. COINCIDED W/POPULARITY OF THEORIES OF RACIAL SUPREMACY
a. SOCIAL DARWINISM
b. SURVIVAL OF FITTEST IDEA
c. LESSER RACES WOULD PERISH
(1) OR BE TAKEN OVER BY SUPERIOR RACES
3. HISTORIANS, PHILOSOPHERS, THEOLOGIANS, NATURALISTS,
4. ALL BELIEVED WHITES SUPERIOR TO BLACK & ORIENTAL PEOPLES
a. THOUGHT 4 SPECIES OF GENUS HOMO
(1) EUROPEANS & OTHER CAUCASIANS
(2) ORIENTAL
(3) BLACKS
(4) ORANGUTANS
5. MUCH OF WRITING RELATED TO SUPERIORITY OF ANGLO-SAXON RACE
a. THERE WOULD BE A FINAL COMPETITION OF RACES
b. & ANGLO-SAXONS OR ARYANS WOULD WIN
6. KARL PEARSON, GERMAN WRITER REMARKED IN 1900 IN ARTICLE "STANDPOINT OF
SCIENCE"
a. HOW MANY CENTURIES, HOW MANY THOUSAND OF YEARS, HAVE NEGRO HELD
LARGE DISTRICTS IN AFRICA...YET HAVE NOT YET PRODUCED A CIVILIZATION IN
LEAST COMPARABLE WITH ARYAN...
7. MANY FELT BLACKS HAD NO SOUL
a. PAPACY TRIED TO COUNTERACT THIS VIEW OF BLACKS
8. BUT DIFFICULT TO CHANGE MENTALITY OF EUROPEANS
9. WHOSE FATHERS & GRANDFATHERS HAD OWNED SLAVES & PROFITED FROM SLAVE
TRADE
10. EVEN AFTER LOCAL AFRICAN POPULATIONS CONVERTED TO CHRISTIANITY
a. WHITES DID NOT SEE THEM AS EQUALS
11. IT WAS A RARE TRAVELER TO AFRICA FROM EUROPE WHO DID NOT BELIEVE
a. WHITE'S MAN'S BURDEN
(1) TO BRING CHRISTIANITY & CIVILIZATION
12. BRITISH POET RUDYARD KIPLING
a. CHARACTERIZED AFRICANS AS
(1) SULLEN, NEW CAUGHT PEOPLES, HALF DEVIL & HALF CHILD
13. 1 MISSIONARY WROTE IF WE REALLY WISH TO DO GOOD IN AFRICA WE MUST TEACH
HER SAVAGE SONS THAT WHITE MEN ARE THEIR SUPERIORS...OTHERWISE WE NEVER
WILL SUCCEED IN RAISING THAT QUARTER OF THE WORLD FROM ITS PRESENT
EXTREMELY DEBASED & DEMORALIZED STATE
14. ONLY SHORT STEP FROM VIEWS OF THIS KIND TO A JUSTIFICATION OF TOTAL EUROPEAN
TAKEOVER OF AFRICA
D. ECONOMIC
1. BEFORE LONG ADVENTURERS & PROFITEERS OUTNUMBERED DEDICATED MISSIONARIES
2. INDUSTRIALISTS, BANKERS & INVESTORS
a. HOPED TO PROFIT FROM NEW MARKETS & INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES
3. STANLEY ONCE OBSERVED THAT IF ALL THE CONGOLESE COULD BE PERSUADED TO
WEAR CLOTHES ONLY ON SUNDAYS, THEY WOULD CREATE AN IMMEDIATE MARKET
FOR OVER 300 MILLION YARDS OF BRITISH COTTON CLOTH
4. ALSO INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS CONSTANTLY SEEKING CHEAP RAW MATERIALS
5. THEY NEEDED SUPPLIES OF COAL, IRON ORE, COPPER,
6. & LATER RUBBER & PETROLEUM
7. THESE NEW AREAS ALSO OFFERED POTENTIAL SUPPLY OF CHEAP LABOR

4
8. AS LABOR UNIONS IN EUROPE DEMANDING HIGHER WAGES & BETTER WORKING
CONDITIONS
9. MANY INDUSTRIALISTS TRANSFERRED THEIR BUSINESSES ABROAD
a. SHADES OF TODAY
10. BRITAIN, FRANCE & GERMANY HAD LOTS OF SURPLUS CAPITAL TO INVEST
11. MARXISTS ECONOMISTS AT TIME BELIEVED IMPERIALISM REPRESENTED A DESPERATE
EFFORT TO SAVE CAPITALISM FROM ITS INEVITABLE DECLINE
12. 'LENIN ARGUED THAT IMPERIALISM: THE HIGHEST STATE OF CAPITALISM HAD
EXHAUSTED [MARKETS] AT HOME...UNLESS THEY TURNED THEIR AGGRESSIVE NEED
FOR COMPETITION & PROFITS OUTWARD THEY WOULD DEVOUR ONE ANOTHER AS
MARX HAD PREDICTED
13. YET IRONY OF IT
a. COLONIES ECONOMIC LIABILITY
14. OF BRITISH & EUROPEAN INVESTMENTS OVERSEAS
a. ONLY SMALL % WENT TO NEW COLONIAL AREAS
15. MOST WENT INTO EUROPE ITSELF
16. OR INTO OLDER, WELL-ESTABLISHED AREAS
a. US, CANADA, AUSTRALIA & NEW ZEALAND
17. BASICALLY COLONIES AN ECONOMIC LIABILITY
18. BRITAIN PAID FAR MORE IN ACQUIRING & MAINTAINING HER EMPIRE
19. THAN SHE REGAINED IN PROFITS FROM ITS MARKETS
20. 1913 FRANCE WAS SPENDING 500 MILLION FRANCS A YR SIMPLY ON DEFENDING HER
COLONIES
a. A SUM 1/3 AS LARGE AS TOTAL VOLUME OF HER COLONIAL TRADE
21. ITALY & GERMANY EMPIRES LOSING PROPOSITION MONETARILY
22. COLONIES OF POORER NATIONS - ESP SPAIN & PORTUGALa. HUGE DRAIN ON GOVTS
E. POLITICAL PRESTIGE & POWER
1. HAVING COLONIES NB IN POWER & PRESENTIGE RACE AMONG NATIONS
2. LIKE POWER STRUGGLE AMONG INDIVIDUALS
3. LIKE KEEPING UP W/JONES'
4. & CAN EXPLAIN WHY FRANCE
a. ONE OF LEAST INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS AT TUNE
b. TOOK OVER LANDLOCKED IMPOVERISHED REGIONS IN AFRICA
c. FRANCE'S LOST TO GERMANY
(1) FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR
F. COLONIES' STRATEGIC MILITARILY
1. EUROPEAN POWERS WANTED CONTROL OF STRATEGIC AREAS & ESTABLISHMENT OF
MILITARY BASES
2. COLONIES ALSO SERVED AS NEW SOURCE OF MILITARY MANPOWER
EG
3. WHEN EGYPT'S STABILITY WAS THREATENED BY INTERNAL TROUBLES IN 1880'S
4. BRITISH MOVED IN & ESTABLISHED A PROTECTORATE
5. THEN TO PROTECT EGYPT THEY ADVANCED INTO SUDAN
III. CONTEST FOR EMPIRE
A. SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS FACILITATING NEW IMPERIALISM IN AFRICA
B89 RIVER STEAMER LOADING PASSENGERS
B90 STERN-WHEELER
1. STEAMBOATS BEGAN PENETRATING RIVERS IN 19TH C.
a. LED TO INCREASED MOBILITY FOR EUROPEANS
2. WITH DISCOVERY OF QUININE AS PROPHYLAXIS AGAINST MALARIA
a. EUROPEANS ABLE TO TRAVEL IN AFRICA WITH MUCH REDUCED FEAR
3. INVENTION OF GATLING & MAXIM MACHINE GUNS
B69 - BRITISH TROOPS ATTACKING BENIN FORCES 1897
4. SHIFTED MILITARY BALANCE OF POWER DECISIVELY AGAINST AFRICANS

5
5. SO LONG AS MUSKETS STANDARD FIREARMS BALANCE MAINTAINED
6. BUT WITH ADVENT OF REPEATING RIFLES & MACHINE GUNS
7. AFRICANS ALMOST AS OUTCLASSED AS AZTECS & INCAS HAD BEEN BY SPANIARDS
WITH THEIR MUSKETS & HORSES
8. LATER ON RAILWAYS & TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS FACILITATED PENETRATION
OF AFRICA
B. AFRICAN RESISTANCE TO EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM
1. AFRICAN SOCIETIES DID NOT ACCEPT OUTSIDE DOMINATION WITHOUT STRUGGLE
2. THEY OFTEN LAUNCHED MASSIVE RESISTANCE MOVEMENTS
B66 MAP SHOWING AREAS OF VIOLENT RESISTANCE TO EUROPEAN RULE DURING IMPERIAL ERA 19-20TH C.
B33 AFRICAN VIEW OF ENGLISHMAN
3. MANY MUSLIM AFRICAN SOCIETIES IN PARTICULAR LED WELL-ORGANIZED &
EFFECTIVE STRUGGLES AGAINST FOREIGN INVADERS
4. IN CERTAIN REGIONS OF AFRICA EUROPEAN CONQUEST TOOK CONSIDERABLE TIME
5. FOR INSTANCE, CONQUEST OF WEST AFRICA TOOK 25 YRS
6. IN MANY COLONIES ATROCITIES COMMONPLACE DURING FIRST PHASE OF OCCUPATION
BY EUROPEAN POWERS
a. GERMAN BRUTALITY IN SOUTH WEST AFRICA PROVOKED REVOLT BY HEREROS
B76 GERMANY GENERAL ISSUED EXTERMINATION ORDER AGAINST WHOLE TRIBE, WOMEN & CHILDREN INCLUDED
b. ABOUT 20,000 OF THEM DRIVEN AWAY FROM WELLS GERMANS SEALED
(1) TO DIE IN OMAHEKE DESERT
c. FOR MONTHS GERMAN PATROLS ENCOUNTERED REMNANTS TRYING TO BREAK
BACK TO WEST
(1) WALKING SKELETONS TO BE SHOT & BAYONETED
7. IN END ONLY 1/4 OF 80,000 HEREROS SURVIVED
8. NEXT YEAR SUPPRESSION OF MAJI REVOLT IN GERMAN EAST AFRICA
a. 75,000 DIED
b. NEARLY ALL VICTIMS OF ARTIFICIALLY CREATED FAMINE
9. BUT SIMILAR METHODS EMPLOYED BY AMERICAN TROOPS IN 1900 DURING
SUPPRESSION OF FILIPINO REVOLT
10. ASKED BY SENATE INVESTIGATING COMMITTEE TO DEFEND BURNING OF VILLAGES
11. GENERAL ROBERT P. HUGHES ANSWERED
a. THESE PEOPLE ARE NOT CIVILIZED
12. WHILE IT GENERALLY CONCEDED IT WAS GUERILLA WARFARE BY NATIVES
a. THAT CAUSED THESE ATROCITIES ON PART OF IMPERIALISTS
b. EUROPE HAD IMPOSED ITS WILL ON AFRICA AT POINT OF GUN
13. IT WAS LESSON THAT WOULD BE REMEMBERED 50 YRS LATER WHEN AFRICA CAME TO
WIN ITS INDEPENDENCE
C. BELGIUM: LEADER OF SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA
1. BELGIUM ITSELF A NEW NATION IN 1830
B64
2. WHEN ITS KING LEOPOLD II HEARD STANLEY'S DESCRIPTIONS
3. & REALIZED AFRICA'S GREAT NATURAL WEALTH
4. BY USING FAMILY & BANKING MONEY
5. 1879 HE HIRED STANLEY AS HIS AGENT TO PURCHASE 900,000 SQ MILES OF REAL ESTATE
6. FROM LOCAL CHIEFS WHO COULD NOT COMPREHEND MEANING OF SCRAPS OF PAPER
7. WITH THEIR COMMUNAL LANDHOLDING TRADITIONS LIKE NATIVE AMERICAN INDIANS
8. THEY SIGNED IN RETURN FOR
a. CASES OF GIN & RUM
b. BRIGHTLY COLORED COATS, CAPS & HANDKERCHIEFS
9. NEW BELGIUM CONGO NEARLY 80 TIMES LARGER THAN BELGIUM
10. WHEN LEOPOLD SOLD OFF HIS LARGE TRACTS OF LAND TO HIGHEST BIDDERS
a. THIS LED TO SOME OF WORST ATROCITIES & ABUSES OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES &
RESOURCES IN ENTIRE COLONIAL PERIOD
B93 BRITISH CARTOON CRITICIZING ABUSES OF LEOPOLD
11. WITH THIS PRIVATE INVESTMENT

6
a. RACE ON TO EXPLOIT AFRICA
12. OTHER MEN BOUGHT AFRICA REAL ESTATE FOR FRANCE & GERMANY
a. SAME WAY STANLEY DID FOR LEOPOLD
13. GB & FRANCE ALSO BEGAN TO MOVE INLAND TO LAY CLAIMS TO LARGE AREAS
14. IMPERIALISTIC NEWCOMERS GERMANY & ITALY QUICKLY FOLLOWED
D. BERLIN CONFERENCE 1884-5
1. FEAR OF CONFLICTS AMONG EUROPEAN NATIONS LED BISMARCK TO CALL
B65 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE 1884-5 IN BERLIN
a. LAID DOWN SIMPLE RULES FOR EXPLOITATION OF AFRICA
b. INCLUDING STIPULATIONS THAT EFFECTIVE EUROPEAN OCCUPATION HAD TO BE
DEMONSTRATED
c. SO CONFLICT WOULD NOT ENSUE AMONG EUROPEAN POWERS
d. NO AFRICANS WERE IN ATTENDANCE
2. THIS TREATY CLEARED WAY FOR GREATEST LAND GRAB IN HISTORY
3. AT BEGINNING OF SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA
a. LESS THAN 10% OF AFRICA UNDER EUROPEAN DOMINATION
4. BY 1914 WHEN IT ENDED
a. LESS THAN 10% OF AFRICA INDEPENDENT
IV. OTHER EUROPEAN NATIONS SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA
A. FRENCH
1. FRENCH CONSIDERED THEMSELVES TO HAVE MOST SUPERIOR CULTURE
a. & ESPECIALLY BETTER THAN BRITISH
2. WITH THEIR TOEHOLD IN ALGERIA FROM 1830
3. FRANCE NEXT ESTABLISHED PROTECTORATE OVER TUNISIA EARLY 1880'S
4. EXTENDED THEIR INFLUENCE THROUGHOUT WESTERN SAHARA
5. GAINED STRONG FOOTHOLD IN FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA
6. CONTROLLED LARGE AREA IN W. AFRICA 1895
7. FRENCH GUINEA 1886
8. TO FRENCH MOST NB WAS SPREAD OF FRENCH LANGUAGE SO THAT NEWLY
CONQUERED AFRICANS
9. WOULD LEARN ACHIEVEMENTS & SUPERIORITY OF FRENCH CIVILIZATION
10. & IN TIME WOULD FEEL THEMSELVES PART OF FRENCH CULTURE
B. ITALY
1. ATTEMPTS TO GAIN ETHIOPIA
a. EARLIER ROUT OF AN ITALIAN ARMY BY ETHIOPIAN TROOPS 1896
2. PUT AN END TO ITALIAN COLONIAL AMBITIONS IN ETHIOPIA UNTIL ANOTHER ATTEMPT
UNDER MUSSOLINI IN 20TH C.
3. BUT DISTURBED COMPLACENT VIEW THAT EUROPEAN TROOPS INVINCIBLE
4. ITALY DID GAIN ITALIAN SOMALILAND, LIBYA & ERITREA
C. PORTUGAL
1. ANGOLA (PORTUGUESE WEST AFRICA)
2. MOZAMBIQUE OR EAST AFRICA
3. PORTUGUESE GUINEA
D. SPAIN
1. RIO DE ORO
2. CANARY ISLANDS
E. GERMANY
1. CAME RELATIVELY LATE TO GAME
2. BISMARCK GENERALLY RELUCTANT TO ENGAGE IN COLONIALISM
3. AS FELT WOULD DO LITTLE TO PROFIT GERMANY EITHER POLITICALLY OR
ECONOMICALLY
4. EVENTUALLY HE CONCLUDED GERMANY COULD NOT AFFORD TO LET OTHER POWERS
DIVIDE CONTINENT AMONG THEMSELVES
5. GERMAN EAST AFRICA 1890

7
6.
7.
8.

9.

a. BECAME GB POST WWI


CAMEROONS 1884
a. BECAME FRENCH AFTER WWI
TOGO ON WEST COAST
a. BECAME FRENCH AFTER WWI
S-W AFRICA 1884
a. DESERT-LIKE TERRITORY
b. BECAME GB AFTER WWI
NONE OF THESE PLACES PARTICULARLY VALUABLE OR OF INTRINSIC STRATEGIC
IMPORTANCE

V. BRITISH
A. BRITISH COLONIAL RULE
1. BRITISH BIG WINNER IN AFRICAN SCRAMBLE
2. IN BRITAIN SCRAMBLE TAKEN CALMLY AT FIRST
3. THEN GROWING RESENTMENT TOWARDS WHAT THEY CONSIDERED INTRUDERS
4. BRITAIN HAD PIONEERED EXPLORATION & CHRISTIANIZATION OF CENTRAL AFRICA
5. & AS ONLY GREAT MARITIME EMPIRE
6. SHE NEEDED TO PREVENT HER RIVALS OBSTRUCTING STEAMER ROUTES TO EAST, VIA
SUEZ & CAPE OF GOOD HOPE
7. THAT MEANT DIGGING IN AT BOTH ENDS OF AFRICA
8. BESIDES AS JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN, A COLONIAL SECRETARY & LATER PRIME MINISTER
9. BRITISH RACE WAS GREATEST OF GOVERNING RACES THAT WORLD HAS EVER SEEN &
FOR THIS REASON ALONE IT WAS BRITAIN'S MISSION TO PROTECT & ENLARGE HER
EMPIRE
10. AT APEX OF IMPERIALISM GB ALONE CONTROLLED ALMOST 1/4 OF WORLD'S
POPULATION
11. SUN NEVER SET ON GREAT BRITAIN'S EMPIRE
12. BRITISH INVOLVED IN NUMEROUS BATTLES TO GAIN & KEEP ITS EMPIRE
13. EVEN QUEEN VICTORIA REMARKED ENGLISH MUST BE RESIGNED TO WAR AS PRICE OF
WORLD PREEMINENCE
B. EGYPT
1. VASSAL STATE OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE
2. BUT FRENCH INFLUENCE BECAME STRONG IN 18TH C
3. FRENCH CULTURAL INFLUENCE PERSISTS AMONG EGYPTIAN UPPER CLASSES &
INTELLECTUALS TODAY
4. UNDER FRENCH SUPERVISION SUEZ CANAL BUILT BETWEEN 1859 & 1869
a. SHORTED SEA TRIP BY 6000 MILES
5. BRITISH HAD BITTERLY OPPOSED BUILDING OF CANAL UNDER FRENCH PATRONAGE
6. BUT NOW CANAL FINISHED BECAME ESSENTIAL PART OF "LIFELINE" OF BRITISH EMPIRE
7. PURCHASED BY BRITISH UNDER PRIME MINISTER DISRAELI
8. & GB MILITARY OCCUPATION 1882 ELIMINATED FRENCH
9. MUCH WAS DONE BY BRITISH TO MODERNIZE EGYPT
a. ASWAN DAM ON NILE 1902,
b. 1ST OF SERIES OF PUBLIC WORKS
c. IMPROVED PUBLIC HEALTH LOWERED MORTALITY RATE
d. STRENGTHENED NUMBERS & PROSPERITY OF MIDDLE CLASS
10. BUT RESULT EGYPTIANS HATED BRITISH
a. GROWING NATIONALISM
b. EGYPT FOR EGYPTIANS
11. THIS PATTERN WILL BE FOUND ELSEWHERE AS WELL
C. RHODESIA 1895
C21
1. CECIL RHODES 1853-1902
2. CECIL RHODES' NAME SYNONYMOUS W/BRITISH IMPERIALISM IN SOUTHERN AFRICA
3. RENAMED ZIMBABWE AFTER HIMSELF - RHODESIA

8
4. BORN IN BRITAIN, RHODES IMMIGRATED TO SOUTH AFRICA
a. WHERE HE MADE FORTUNE IN DIAMONDS & GOLD
b. ELECTED TO CAPE PARLIAMENT IN 1881
c. & SERVING LATER AS PRIME MINISTER
d. RHODES SOUGHT TO EXTEND BRITISH INFLUENCE OVER BOER REPUBLICS & INTO
INTERIOR OF CONTINENT
C22 THIS PUNCH CARTOON OF 1892 CAPTURES RHODES' IMPERIAL AMBITIONS
e. HE AIMED TO BUILD RAILWAY FROM CAIRO TO CAPE TOWN
f. BY 1910 TRACKS LAID AS FAR NORTH AS ELIZABETHVILLE IN CONGO
C23 BY MEANS OF LABOR GANGS LIKE THESE
g. RHODES SCHOLARSHIPS
D. BRITISH TERRITORIES OF CAPE COLONY & NATAL
1. HERE CECIL RHODES' AMBITIONS
2. & DISCOVERY OF DIAMONDS & GOLD IN BOER LANDS
C13 DIAMOND MINERS
3. BRITISH PUBLIC PERSUADED TO SUPPORT A FINAL IMPERIAL ADVENTURE
4. BITTER & SAVAGE WAR BOER WAR 1899-1902
a. DRAGGED OUT OVER 30 YRS
b. WITH BOERS HEAVILY OUTNUMBERED
C29 BOER GUERILLA FIGHTERS
c. COST BRITISH 45,000 DEAD
d. HANDFUL OF DUTCH SETTLERS WON
e. DISILLUSIONED MANY IN EUROPE ABOUT ADVANTAGES OF IMPERIAL RULE
E. OTHER BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA
1. GOLD COAST
2. NIGERIA 1900
3. KENYA 1920
4. UGANDA
5. SUDAN
6. BRITISH EAST AFRICA 1888
7. TANGANIKA 1922
8. BRITISH SOMALILAND 1862
VI. CONCLUSIONS
A. GENERAL REMARKS
B78 MAP OF AFRICA PARTITIONED AMONG EUROPEAN COLONIAL POWERS C 1914
B79 COMPARED WITH 1985 POLITICAL MAP OF AFRICA
COUNTRY
# COLONIES
GREAT BRITAIN
55
FRANCE
29
GERMANY
10
BELGIUM
1
PORTUGAL
8
NETHERLANDS
8
ITALY
4
SPAIN
4
1. TOTAL AREA: OVER 20,000,000 SQ MILES
2. TOTAL COLONIAL POP CONTROLLED
a. ALMOST 600 MILLION
VII.

AREA
OVER 12,000,000 SQ MILES
OVER 4,100,000 SQ MILES
OVER 1,200,000 SQ MILES
OVER 900,000 SQ MILES
OVER 800,000 SQ MILES
OVER 750,000 SQ MILES
ALMOST 600,000 SQ MILES
ABOUT 100,000 SQ MILES

EUROPE'S IMPACT ON AFRICA


A. ECONOMIC
1. SINCE ECONOMIC MOTIVES PROMINENT IN PARTITIONING OF AFRICA
2. IT IS NOT SURPRISING THAT DRASTIC ECONOMIC CHANGES FOLLOWED IN ITS WAKE

9
3. EXPLOITATION OF AFRICA'S NATURAL RESOURCES FOLLOWED CONQUEST
4. GOLD, DIAMONDS, COPPER, PALM OIL, RUBBER & IVORY
B96 BAGGING COCOA BEANS
5. GHANA BECAME WORLD'S LARGEST PRODUCER OF COCOA
6. AS TRADE IN SLAVES FROM WEST AFRICA DECLINED EXPORTS OF PALM OIL INCREASED
SUBSTANTIALLY
B94 AFRICAN WORKER GATHERING BUNCHES OF OIL PALM NUTS IN NIGERIA
7. EUROPEAN & AMERICAN COMPANIES BOUGHT VAST PLANTATIONS IN SUCH REGIONS AS
a. CONGO, CAMEROONS, FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA
b. FIRESTONE CORPORATION 1926 GIVEN 90 YR LEASE ON 100,000 ACRES OF LAND IN
LIBERIA
B48 RUBBER TREES BEING TAPPED FOR LATEX
8. FOREIGN SETTLERS TOOK OVER MUCH OF GOOD AGRICULTURAL LAND
9. EUROPEAN SETTLERS FLOCKED IN PARTICULARLY TO SOUTHERN RHODESIA & EAST
AFRICA
10. TO TRANSPORT MINERALS & AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES EUROPEANS BUILT
NETWORK OF RAILROADS IN AFRICA
B86 AFRICAN WORKERS CONSTRUCTING RAILWAY
B87 AFRICAN WORKERS BUILDING BRIDGE SHOWS ROUGH TERRAIN
11. RAILWAYS DESIGNED TO FACILITATE EXPORT OF PRODUCE
12. RATHER THAN TO STIMULATE GENERAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT WITHIN AFRICA
13. TRADITIONAL BARTER GAVE WAY TO MONETARY SYSTEM
14. NO LONGER DID AFRICANS EXCHANGE SLAVES, GOLD & IVORY FOR EUROPEAN GOODS
15. INHABITANTS OF TEMPERATE PLATEAU AREAS MOST AFFECTED BY LOSS OF LANDS
TAKEN BY WHITE SETTLERS
16. IN SOME CASES WHOLE DISTRICTS RESERVED FOR WHITES ONLY
17. CONSEQUENTLY AFRICANS FORCED TO WORK FOR WAGES ON WHITE MAN'S
PLANTATIONS
18. IN OTHER REGIONS AFRICANS FOUND IT NECESSARY TO LEAVE THEIR FAMILIES & GO TO
WORK IN MINES
C16 AFRICAN MINE WORKERS IN FRONT OF GOLD MINE
19. MINE WORKERS LIVED IN HOUSING COMPOUNDS
a. WHILE THEIR FAMILIES REMAINED IN RURAL COMMUNITIES
20. IF AFRICANS REFUSED TO PROVIDE LABOR NEEDED FOR PLANTATIONS & MINES
21. VARIOUS TYPES OF FORCED LABOR USED
a. UNDER FRENCH COLONIAL LAWS EVERY MALE BETWEEN 18 & 60
B85 AFRICAN LABORERS
b. REQUIRED TO CONTRIBUTE CERTAIN NUMBER OF DAYS TO STATE EACH YEAR
B85 AFRICAN LABORERS BUILDING ROAD
22. THESE VARIOUS DEVELOPMENTS REDUCED TRADITIONAL ECONOMIC SELFSUFFICIENCY OF AFRICANS
23. WITH INTENT BY COLONIALISTS TO DEVELOPMENT CASH CROP PRODUCTION
24. WHICH WHEN ACCOMPLISHED DECLINE IN FOOD PRODUCTION ENSUED
25. SO COUNTRIES BECAME INCREASINGLY VULNERABLE TO FLUCTUATIONS IN WORLD
COMMODITY PRICES
B. CULTURAL
1. MISSIONARIES CHANGED AFRICAN WAY OF LIFE
2. THEY USED EDUCATION, MEDICINE & RELIGION TO DO SO
B43
3. SCHOOLS OFFERING WESTERN EDUCATION & WESTERN IDEALS INTEGRAL PART OF
EVERY MISSION STATION
4. THESE SCHOOLS PARTICULARLY INFLUENTIAL SINCE MOST COLONIAL GOVERNMENTS
LEFT JOB OF EDUCATING TO MISSIONARIES
5. MISSIONARY EDUCATION ALSO ENCOURAGED INDIVIDUALISM
6. WHICH WAS CONTRARY TO COMMUNAL AFRICAN WAY OF LIFE
7. NOT SURPRISING THAT AFRICANS AFTER SEVERAL YRS OF MISSIONARY SCHOOLING

10
8. USUALLY LOATHE TO RETURN TO THEIR VILLAGE
9. INSTEAD THEY LOOKED FOR JOBS ELSEWHERE
a. WITH COLONIAL GOVERNMENTS
b. OR IN PRIVATE BUSINESS
C. POLITICAL
1. WHEN BOUNDARIES OF VARIOUS COLONIES DRAWN
2. NO ATTENTION PAID TO INDIGENOUS PEOPLE
3. HENCE ONE GROUP OF PEOPLE MIGHT BE UNDER RULE OF SEVERAL EUROPEAN POWERS
4. EG SOME OF SOMALI RULED BY FRENCH
5. OTHERS BY BRITISH
6. STILL OTHERS BY ITALIANS
7. & SOME EVEN WITHIN ETHIOPIA
8. EUROPEANS GOVTS LACKED POPULATION TO RULE ALL PEOPLES DIRECTLY
9. SO THEY RESORTED TO VARIOUS FORMS OF INDIRECT RULE
10. ADMINISTRATION CONDUCTED THROUGH TRIBAL CHIEFS WHO ALLOWED TO RETAIN
SOME OF THEIR AUTHORITY
11. USUALLY BRITISH ALLOWED CHIEFS MORE LEEWAY THAN DID FRENCH
12. ON SURFACE AFRICANS RETAINED THEIR TRADITIONAL POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS
13. THEY STILL HAD THEIR
a. COUNCILS OF ELDERS
b. THEIR LAWS
c. THEIR COURTS
d. THEIR CHIEFS
14. BUT IN PRACTICE POLITICAL STRUCTURE UNDERMINED
15. CHIEFS COULD BE APPOINTED OR REMOVED BY LOCAL EUROPEAN ADMINISTRATORS
16. & THEIR DECISIONS NO LONGER HAD FORCE OF LAW SINCE PEOPLE OF TRIBES COULD
GO OVER THEIR HEADS TO EUROPEAN OFFICIALS WHOSE WORD FINAL
D. CONCLUSIONS
1. ALTHOUGH TODAY IMPERIALISM MAY BE CONDEMNED IN TOTO
2. LATE 19TH C. IMPERIALISTIC SPIRIT CANNOT BE UNDERSTOOD UNLESS IT IS REALIZED
THAT IT INCLUDED CONSIDERABLE ELEMENT OF
a. PEACE CORP IDEALISM
3. ONCE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA BEGAN IT IS SURPRISING IT DID NOT LEAD TO GENERAL
WAR BETWEEN GREAT POWERS
4. ALTHOUGH COME 20TH C. IMPERIALISM & INCREASED RIVALRY AMONG EUROPEAN
NATIONS
5. WILL BE AN IMPORTANT FACTOR IN BRINGING ABOUT THE OUTBREAK OF WWI

1/15/14

Causes of the French Revolution

Causes of the French Revolution


Causes of the French Revolution (1789)
Bankruptcy: French kings had engaged France in a variety of expensive wars and conflicts, some of which proved to be illconceived, such as the French & Indian War (175463), which was devastating to the French colonial empire, its national psyche
and its economy. T he role of the French in the American Revolutionary War was also financially crippling. Plus, the king and his
court continued to spend lavishly. Even during times of economic crisis, the spending continued. Especially in the years preceding
the Revolution, France was no longer a trading power, compared to UK, Netherlands, Spain or Portugal, since it had lost most of its
colonial empire. It had to rely on generating revenues internally, so it had to increase taxation. The non-aristocratic class
(peasants, bourgeoisie, those in un-inheritable positions) carried the tax burden, as nobles/aristocrats had generally purchased
their positions of privilege, and could not be legally taxed under their then-current system. The king was unwilling and unable to
reform the system which heavily taxed the poor majority, while ensuring privilege for the aristocrats. As a result of this limited tax
base, the government became bankrupt, and could no longer secure loans, as it had defaulted several times in recent decades.
(Continued Below)
Starvation: A colder weather pattern struck during the economic melt down, causing food to become even more scarce.
Social Inequity: France had a parliamentary system, which advised the king on governance, but it was still an absolute
monarchy in practice. The king and aristocracy lived a life of great privilege, while the majority in the middle and lower classes
were overtaxed, and even faced food shortages and starvation. During this age of enlightenment, and with the influence of the
American Revolutionary War, the lower and middle classes were far from willing to accept of such an outdated and oppressive fate.
The Roman Catholic Church (RCC) was also a target, since they successfully imposed their influence upon the king, maintaining
Catholicism as the state religion. The RCC was highly favored, not subject to taxes, while collecting a required 10% from the nonaristocracy (adding to their excessive tax burden). Clergy also led a fairly lavish life compared to the middle/low classes, a fact not
lost upon the general public.
Lack of Action: Despite the desperation of the situation, no effective measures were ever put into place to solve the worsening
economic shipwreck which was France in the late 18th century.
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Causes of the French Revolution


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French Revolution

The French Revolution


Film clips: La Marseillaise (1938), Tale of Two Cities (1935), and Danton (1982)
Causes of the Revolution:
Geopolitical challenges: the cost of war for hegemony and empire
Insufficiencies of state finance and bankruptcy
The problem of privilege
The Failure of fiscal and political reform
The Enlightenment and the growth of public opinion and criticism
Economic crisis and hardship: impact on ordinary people
Consquences of the Revolution
The creation of modern democratic republicansim (desacralization of kingship)
The establishment of the concept and model of modern revolution
The strengthening of the central state
The emergence of the nation-state
The emergence and strengthening of the propertied middle class or bourgeoisie
as a part of the social and political elite.
A fuller treatment of the causes, process, and consequences of the French Revolution
with examples of differing interpretations of its meaning and significance by various
historians.

https://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/hist151s03/french_rev.htm

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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - February Revolution, 1917

February Revolution 1917 - Why was Nicholas II forced to


abdicate?

Past Questions:

Compare and contrast the causes and nature of the two 1917 Russian Revolutions. (May
2010)

The outbreak of war in 1914 postponed the downfall of Nicholas II but also contributed to
his overthrow in the first 1917 Russian revolution. To what extent do you agree with this
statement? (Specimen)

Analyse the causes of the 1917 February/March Russian Revolution. (May 2009)

Compare and contrast the causes and consequences of the 1905 and February/March 1917
Russian Revolutions. (Nov 2006)

Analyse the long term and short term causes of the 1917 February/March Russian
Revolution. (May 2006)

Why did Nicholas II survive the 1905 revolution, but lose his throne in the February/ March
1917 revolution? (Nov 2005)

To what extent was the revolution of February/ March 1917, in Russia, due to the nature of
Tsarism and the policies of Nicholas II (1894-1917)? (May 2005)

**MARKSCHEME NOTES**
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Key dates:
1891- Famine
1904- Defeat in Russo-Japanese war
1905- Bloody sunday and revolution
1917, February 23rd- International Women's Day + worker's revolt
Long term causes
The Russian People and Russification:
Large parts of the Empire added to Russia only in the 19th century- for example Causcaus
1864.
Russia therefore contained a vast amounts of different nationalities- Russians only
half the population.
These nationalities had their own language, culture and traditions which made it very
difficult to keep under one rule especially since the Tsar had little, if not none, contorl over
these vast areas of the empire.
Many nationalities resented Russian control- especially the policy of Russification which
was intensified by Alexander III and kept during Nicholas II's reign.
This policy aimed to suppress other nationalities and minorities than the Russian- use
Russian language instead of their own and adapt to Russian customs. Key example in Poland
where it became forbidden to teach Polish in schools.
National minorities saw this as discrimination and during the late 19th century, there was an
increasing amount of uprisings and strikes for these minorities, seeking greater autonomy.

The social structure of Tsarist Russia:


Middle classes: Small number but growing number of merchants, bankers and
industrialists as the industry developed. The professional clamiss (lawyers, doctors) was
increasing and beginning to play a significant role in local governments- growing intellectual
class who sought more participation in politics!
Peasants: Life difficult as most owned only small patches of land and working on the states
of the nobility. Years of bad harvest there would be widespread starvation; in 1891 400,000
died. Most poor, illiterate and uneducated.
Land and agriculture: Methods were inefficient and backwards- still used wooden
ploughs and very few animals and tools. Not enough land to go around, vast expansion of
peasant population in the later half of the 19th century led to overcrowding and competition
for land.
Urban workers and industry: Around 58% were litterate, twice the national average

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Urban workers and industry: Around 58% were litterate, twice the national average
which meant that they could articulate their grievances and were receptive to revolutionary
ideas. Wages were generally low and high number of deaths from accidents and work related
health issues. The industry production was very low in the start of the 19th century but
increased fast and by 1914, Russia was the fourth largest producer of iron, steel and coal.

Mid-term causes, 1914 - 1917


Modernization and its contradictions:

At the beginning of the 20th century, Russia was stil a very backwards country and the Tsar
wanted Russia to become a world power- Russia had to modernize.
Russia was poor, agriculture hopelessly inefficient and thousands of peasants starved when
the harvest was poor.
There were often peasant unrest and uprisings which made the regime unstable and it was
essential to modernize agriculture and industry to take the surplus of people from the land
into the cities.
However, modernization meant a serious threat to the regime - it was difficukt to maintain
Tsarist autocarcy as most modern industrial countries had democracies and parliaments in
which the middle class was featured.
Social tensions were created when millions moved frmo land to cities and growing discontent
among the workers led to instability.
The need for an educated workforce made people a larger challenge to the government the
growth of the middle class created pressure for political change and more representative
governments.
Difficult to modernize within the framework of autocracy!

The First World War:


The majority of historians acknowledge that the First World War played a major role in
bringing about the February Revolution.
Military failures: There were heavy defeats and huge number of Russians were killed in
1914 and 1915- led to anger about the way the Tsar and the government were conducting
war. In September 1917 the Tsar went to the front to take personal charge; he was
from then on held personally responsible for the defeats!
Difficult living conditions: The war caused acute distress in the cities, especially
Petrograd and Moscow. The war meants that food, goods and raw materials were in short
supply and hundreds of factories closed and thousands of workers put out of work. Led to
inflation and lack of fuel meant that most were cold as well as hungry- urban workers
became were hostile towards the Trsarist government. In the countryside, peasants became
increasingly angry about the conscription of all young men who seldom returned from the
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increasingly angry about the conscription of all young men who seldom returned from the
Front.
Role of the Tsarina and Rasputin: The Tsar made a huge mistake in leaving his wife
and the monk Rasputin in charge of the government while he was at the Front. Ministers
were changed frequently in favour of friends or people who performed poorly and as a result,
the situation in the cities detoriated quickly with food and fuel in short supply. They became
totally discredited and were ridiculed by cartoon etc. The Tsar was also blamed for putting
them in charge and the higher intelligensia of the society and army generals became
disenchanted with the tsar's leadership and no longer supported him- by beginning of 1917,
very few people were prepared to defend him.
Failure to make political reforms: During the war, the Tsar had the chance to make
some concessions which could have saved his rule- for example a constitutional monarchy
which would have taken away the pressure from the Tsar personally. The Duma was fully
behind the Tsar in fighting the war. The "Progressive Bloc" emerged who suggested that the
tsar establish a "government of public confidence" (letting them rule the country) but the
tsar rejected their approach and any other concessions.

Short-term causes, 1917:


Impact of the war!- support for the Tsar by the end of 1916 was practically inexistent. the
generals told the Tsar that they would no longer support him! (key contrast to revolution in 1905).
International Women's Day:
Frustrations from the workers after the cold and harsh winter of 1916 exploded in the
streets of the main cities.
Shortages of food, fuel and other materials- caused by the war- had driven up the prices and
strikes and riots had caused hihg levels of tension in the capital, Petrograd.
When news of bread rationing hit the streets towards the end of February 1917, the queues
and scuffles over the remaining bread stocks turned into riots.
23rd of February- International Women's Day- the discontent became more focused and
women took the lead in politicising a march through Petrograd.
By the afternoon, women had persuaded the men from factories to join them and the protest
started to gather momentum.
Over the next three days, the demonstrations grew and the demands for bread were
accompanied by demands for the end of the war and an end to the Tsar!

The mutiny of the soldiers:


By 25th and 26th of February, the soldiers joined the demonstrations and most of them were
desperate not to be sent to the front line where the Russian army were facing huge losses.
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As the Tsar heard of the trouble in Petrograd, he ordered troops to put down the disorderon Sundat 26th of Febrary some regiments opened fire on the crowds.
The crowds became more hostile and one by one, the regiments moved over to the side of
the people and as Orlando Figes states; "The mutiny of the Petrograd garrison turned the
disorders of the last four days into a full-scale revolution".
The main struggle took place between the soldiers and police and the revolution had officially
begun!

Nature of the revolution (i.e. how planned and organised was it? Who made up the
bulk of those carrying out the revolution? Popular?)
Planned and organised:
There seemed to be no general organisation of the events as no political party was in chargeall main leaders of the revolutionary parties were abroad or on exile.
However, socialist cells, particularly from the Bolshevik revolutionary party were active in
spreading the protest and getting workers out on the streets with their red plags and
banners.

Effects of revolution?

After the mutiny of the soldiers and the full-scale outbreak of the revolution, most people
looked to the duma, the Russian parliament, to control the situation.
However, the socialists were already forming their own organisation to represent the
interest of the workers- the Soviet!
When the Tsar realised that the situation in petrograd had gone out of control, he had
ordered troops to march to the capital to restore order. He had also suspended the Duma
however the Duma members remained in the Tauride Palace and meanwhile people milled
outside demanding that the Duma take control over the situation- on 2nd of March the tsar
abdicated for himself and his son in favor of his brother Michael; but Michael realising that
the people would not want another autocratic government, refused and the Romanov
dynasty came to a swift end!
The Duma started forming a new government- the Provisional Government.

Resources:

http://www.funfront.net/hist/russia/revo1917.htm#A%20SUMMARY

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http://www.funfront.net/hist/russia/revo1917.htm#A%20SUMMARY

https://sites.google.com/site/ibhistoryrussia/syllabus-overview---imperialrussia/i-march-revolution-1917
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/February_Revolution#Tsar.27s_return_and_abdicat
ion

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http://rudbeck-ib-history-revision.wikispaces.com
/February+Revolution%2C+1917
http://goo.gl/ffgS

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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 2.2 Total War

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World War One and "Total War"

Past Questions:
Define total war and examine to what extent either the First World War or the Second World
War was a total war. (Nov 2008)
Even in the twentieth century the term total war could not be applied to any war. To what
extent do you agree with this judgment? (May 2008)

**MARKSCHEME NOTES**
Defining 'total war'?
In short, a total war is a war in which the entire nation is involved in. However, there are many
ways in which an entire nation can be involved in a war. The following social, economical, military and
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political characteristics of a society/conflict signify a total war/society that wages a total war.
Social characteristics:
-A total war does not only involve soldiers but civilians as well both in the areas of fighting and on the
home front.
-Recruitment of women into male-dominated work places (such as industry during the WW1) in order to
keep up with the needs of the soldiers.
Economical characteristics:
-The "civilian" economy of the nation is reconstructed to a war economy. This could involve rationing of
various goods for civilians in order to supply the soldiers fighting the war.
-Focus of industry is shifted from consumer goods to war goods.
Military characteristics:
-Conscription enforced to raise and mobilize a massive army
-Relentless intensity and vast scale of war
-Massive destruction and high casualty rates
-Belligerent use all weapons at their disposal in order to fight the enemy, biochemical weapons as well
as weapons of mass destruction
-Belligerents aim to destroyed other opponents
Political characteristics:
-Power is centralized.
The state becomes more interventionist and passes decrees in order to control economy/society and
gear them for war.
-Use of propaganda to encourage involvement in the war on the home front and reinforce nationalistic
feelings by demonizing the enemy.
Question to consider in a conclusion?
Is a war "total" if only one of the fighting sides are fully involved in it and the other side's involvement
limited?
Why is WW1 considered to be a 'total war'?
Argument 1 that WW1 was a 'total war': AIMS
World War 1 is considered to be the first total war for several reasons:
- Both sides fought the war, not for limited aims but for total victory
- Governments used all weaponry that they had at their disposal in order to win the war. They also
developed new technologies and weaponry as the war progressed
- It involved all people of the major countries - not only soldiers but also civilans. Civilians were
deliberately targeted during the military conflict and they suffered from the economic warfare carried out
by both sides. Women also played a major role in the war effort at home
- In order to fight the kind of battles waged in World War 1. and to weld the state into a united, efficient
war-making machine, nations developed new ways of controlling the economy and their populations.
- The aims of tge powers involved in the fighting were 'total' and made any negotiated peace very difficult
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to achieve.
- All the Great powers developed ambitious war aims that they were reluctant to give up. France was
determined to regain Alsace-Lorraine and both France and Britain had committed themselves to
crushing Prussian militarism.
Argument 2 that WW1 was a 'total war': Role of CIVILIANS
In a total war, the entire society plays a part in mobilizing and getting the country ready for its war effort
as well as keep up the work at home whilst the soldiers fight the war. Civilians plays an important role
in the war in the following ways:
The First World War saw a rapid growth in industry as the countries tried to keep up with the
demands that a total war put upon the society and its resources.
In Britain, France and Germany this meant women joining the workforce to fill the empty space
left by the men leaving to fight the war.
By 1917, one of four of the workers were women and Joseph Joffre claimed that "if the women in
the war factories stopped for 20 minutes, we would lose the war".
The impact of the fighting on civilians:
There were an increasing number of civilian casualties as new technology became availible on
both sides of the fighting.
Paris was shelled from a distance of 126km by the massive German gun "Long Max" and later
planes made raids on Britain.
British planes also inflicted severe damage on German factories and towns in the last years of
the war, moving some of the fighting and casualties from the battlefield and towards the cities.
On the Eastern front, civilians were caught up in the battles as great advances and retreats that
took place on this front meants that civilians were involved in the violence, sometimes
accidentally and sometimes deliberately.
For example Jews were actively attacked by advancing Russians and other minorities such as
Germans, Gypsies, Hungarians and Turks also suffered as they were all deported from Russia's
western provinces during the war.
Ethnic violence also took place in the Balkans as Niall Ferguson writes, in the East "there were
death throes of the Old Central and east European empires had dissolved the old boundaries
between combat and civilian. This k ind of war proved much easier to start than to stop".
Argument 3 that WW1 was a 'total war': increased GOVERNMENT control
In short, a total war is a war in which the entire nation is involved in. However, there are many
ways in which an entire nation can be involved in a war. The following political characteristics of a
society/conflict signify a total war/society that wages a total war.
Political characteristics:
-Power is centralized.
The state becomes more interventionist and passes decrees in order to control economy/society and
gear them for war.
So, to what extent was government control increased during WW1?

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In Britain in 1914, the DORA (Defence of the Realm Act) decree passed, which allowed government to
interefere in people's everyday lives in order to satisfy the war demands. For examples, newspapers
were censored, letters home from soldiers were censored to give a "cheerful" impression of life at the
front and the opening hours of pubs were restricted to ensure that people would go to work the next
day.
The British government also centralized the control over the country by setting up new ministeries that
ran the munitions production, coal mines, railways etc.
British also nationalized key industries such as coal mining to meet the demands of the war.

In France, 33 new departments were set up to centralize and control the economy as well as society.
In Russia, Nicholas II centralized the control of the state by reasserting autocratic rule without the
involvement of the Duma.
Conclusions: how far do we think the First World War should be seen as a 'total war'?
Women:
Even though the female workforce increased, in all countries there was resistance to employing
women and it was not until 1915 that serious recruitment for women into industries began.
Even then, there was little enthusiasm from employers and trade unions for women entering the
workforce and in Britain there had to be negotations to reach agreements on women entering
"men's jobs" in munition and engineering as this would only be temporary and women would not
be trained to "fully skilled tradesmen".
Women were supposed to recieve equal wages as men for similar jobs but this rarely happened
as wages remained low.
The impact of the war upon civilians was also limited as on the western front there was relatively
little movement and civilians were able to keep away frmo the actual fighting. Casualties here
only resulted due to inaccurate artillery fire.
However, the lives of civilians in all countries were affected by the war in the sense of the huge
losses of soldiers; all families and villages across Europe faced the consequences of the "lost
generation" (this also led to military conscription in 1915 for France and 1916 for Britain)
Conclusions: how far do we think the First World War should be seen as a 'total war'?
However,The First World War should be seen as a 'total war' for two reasons. First of all, the
major powers involved fought the war not for limited aims but for total victory. This interrelates
with the second reason which is that the governments used all weaponry at their disposal in
order to win the war. In other words, they went all in to achieve total victory.

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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 1917 and Lenin's RTP

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1917 and Lenin's rise to power: the October Revolution


Past Questions:
Paper 3

Compare and contrast the causes and nature of the two 1917 Russian
revolutions. (May 2010)
Analyse the causes and immediate consequences (up to 1921) of the October
1917 Russian Revolution. (Nov 2009)
Analyse the reasons for the success of the Bolsheviks in the second
(October/November) 1917 Russian Revolution. (May 2008)
Why was the Provisional Government in Russia unable to consolidate and
maintain its power in 1917? (Nov 2007)
Compare and contrast the roles of Lenin and Trotsky in the 1917 Bolshevik
Revolution in Russia, and in the foundation of the new Soviet State until 1924.
(May 2007)
Paper 2

Analyse the conditions that enabled one left-wing leader to become the ruler of
a single-party state. (May 2010)
Assess the importance of economic distress and ideological appeal in the rise
to power of one left-wing and one right-wing single-party ruler. (Nov 2009)

Unpopular rulers or governments, and their overthrow, were responsible for


the formation of the majority of twentieth century single-party states. To what
extent do you agree with this assertion? (May 2009)

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To what extent did the following aid the rise to power of either Lenin or
Mussolini: (a) the First World War (b) weakness of the existing regime (c)
ideological appeal? (Nov 2008)
Analyse the rise to power of either Hitler or Lenin. (May 2008)
Analyse the methods used and the conditions which helped in the rise to
power of one ruler of a single-party state. (May 2007, May 2005)
It was personality and not circumstances that brought rulers of single-party
states to power. To what extent do you agree with this statement? (Nov 2006)
MARKSCHEME

notes for these questions.

Key dates and events in 1917:


March
2 Provisional government formed (Tsar abdicates)
June
16 June offensive
July
3-4 July days
August
26-30 Kornilov affair
October
25-26 Bolshevik seizure of power
Analysing the factors that caused the October Revolution and which explain how Lenin was
able to seize power
1) NOTE: for LONG and MID-TERM causes - Social, Political, Economic - see causes of
February Revolution, as these issues which caused the abdication of the Tsar are still present
in October 1917 and form the foundation for the ongoing crisis in Russia which Lenin and the
Bolsheviks are able to exploit.
Social + political problems
Middle classes: Small number but growing number of merchants, bankers and industrialists as
the industry developed. The intelligentsia sought more participation in politics!
Land and agriculture: Methods were inefficient and backwards- still used wooden ploughs and
very few animals and tools. Not enough land to go around, vast expansion of peasant population
in the later half of the 19th century led to overcrowding and competition for land. Peasants
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wanted social change!


Urban workers and industry: Around 58% were literate, twice the national average which meant
that they could articulate their grievances and were receptive to revolutionary ideas. Wages were
generally low and high number of deaths from accidents and work related health issues. The
industry production was very low in the start of the 19th century but increased fast and by 1914,
Russia was the fourth largest producer of iron, steel and coal. Instability in cities and the misery
of the workers led to social + political instability in the towns.
Economic problems:
Inflation: From 1914-1917 inflation increased by 400 percent
Crisis in cities : Overcrowded + poor housing + poor living and working conditions (created by
economic problems in Russia) led to social tension in Cities
2) Continued impact of WW1 (social and economic problems):
The war caused acute distress in the cities, especially Petrograd and Moscow. The war meant that
food, goods and raw materials were in short supply and hundreds of factories closed and thousands of
workers put out of work. Led to inflation and lack of fuel meant that most were cold as well as hungryurban workers became were hostile towards the PG. In the countryside, peasants became increasingly
angry about the conscription of all young men who seldom returned from the Front.
3) Weaknesses and failures of the Provisional Government (political problems, interrelated
with social and economic problems):
Political problems, interrelated with social and economic problems
The political failures of the government undermined their power and authority, which created the
circumstances for Lenin's RTP:
1) Nature of PG helped Lenin to power. PG was not elected by the people, it saw itself as a temporary
body, which could not make any binding long-term decisions for Russia.
2) Divisions in PG helped Lenin to power. In PG there were divisions between socialists + liberals who
often blocked each others decisions. This internal weakness of the PG crippled their ability to enforce
control over the country.
3) Nature of PG helped Lenin to power. The PG had only power over government affairs, real power lay
in the hands of the soviets (worker's unions). Soviets had all the practical power in petrograd such as
the control over factories and railways.
4) Government passes legislation that allowed freedom of speech, press as well as the dismantling of
the secret police. Now political parties could mobilize publically and attract members more easily. The
opposition to the PG got it a lot easier to rebel, and the PG had dismantled the secret police, so they
couldnt stop the uprisings.
The four above factors made Lenin's RTP possible, as they made the PG a weak political body, which
could not resist any oppostion.
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The PG also committed several blunders during the months leading up to the october revolution, which
benefitted the Bolsheviks directly.
June offensive:
In June PG launched an all out offensive on Germany to put the country in a better position in the war
(WW1). The offensive (called June offensive) ended in disaster and PG was deeply discredited. As a
result, the Bolsheviks and other political parties got increased support.
July days:
In July a spontaneous uprising occured, which consisted of 500 000 soldiers, workers and sailors
rebelled in Kronstadt. They later marched to petrograd to demand overthrow of PG. However, the
rebellion was dismantled as PG still retained control of some loyal Russian troops. Even though this
affair hurt the reputation of the PG, it also damaged the Bolshevik reputation as the PG blamed them
for the whole incident.
Fitzpatrick argues that "the whole affair damged Bolshevik morale and Lenin's credibility as a
revolutionary leader"
Kornilov affair:
In August 1917, general Kornilov took his army and marched to Petrograd to overthrow PG. He was
discontent with the way PG handled politics and WW1. Alexander Kerensky, leader of PG, panicked
and since he was unable to put up an adequate defence by using loyal forces, he armed the Bolsheviks
so they could help him. However, Kornilov's army did not reach Petrograd as some of his soldiers
mutinied and railway workers sabotaged the railways. Now the PG reputation was shattered and the
government started to disintergrate. Meanwhile, the Bolsheviks got more support because they were
percieved as the defenders of Petrograd, and they were also armed now compared to other political
parties.
4) Ideological appeal of Lenin and Bolshevism, and role of Lenin (appeal of radical alternative,
charismatic and dynamic leader, taking advantage of crisis situation in Russia in 1917 with all
the problems listed above)
Lenin's political ideas attracted widespread support among the Russian people. On 16th of April 1917,
Lenin held a speech called the April Theses. The sppech called for a 1)World wide socialist revolution
2) Land reform to peasants 3) immediate end to WW1 3) immediate end to cooperation with PG 4)
Urged Soviets to take power.
The ideas in the speech were made into simple but effective and radical slogans such as "all power to
the soviets" or "bread, peace and Land". These slogans attracted a lot of support for the Bolsheviks, as
they appealed to the workers. They provided the workers with a radical solution to the problems in
Russia.
The speech also made the Bolshevik party unique, since their standpoint about the war issue was
unique. No other political party wanted an immediate end to the war. The uniqueness of the Bolshevik
party attracted them a lot of support among the workers.
In the April Theses Lenin also revised Karl Marx ideas, which claimed that Russia was not ready for a
revolution. Lenin however proclaimed that Russia was in fact ready, and revolution had to happen now
because the PG was so weak at this point in time! Lenin succeeded to persuade the party, and in the
end of April the revolution was being planned. Without Lenin and his speech, the Bolshevik revolution
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would never have taken place.


Lenin's leadership also inspired the masses to join the party + revolution. Lenin held many speeches
during 1917, and his rhetorical skills attracted enormous amounts of public support. Lenin was also a
practical leader and could adapt his policies to the wants and needs of the workers. Thus he gained
even more support.
5) Role of Trotsky in executing the revolution (ruthlessly efficient organiser)
Trotsky was elected Chairman of Petrograd Soviets in 1917, which gave him immense practical power
over the city (control of bridges, railways etc.), which was a valuable assest to Bolsheviks. Trotsky also
used his position as Chairman to claim that the Bolsheviks were seizing power in the name of the
Soviets, and hence workers accepted that Bolsheviks conducted the revolution. It was not until Lenin
closed down the new parliament that workers realized that they had been fooled.
Trotsky also played a key role in setting up and organizing the red army, as well as the actual take
over of power. Trosky also persuaded Lenin to wait until october to conduct the revolution, when
Bolsheviks had firmly established their power in the Soviets.
Trotsky was as also an excellent orator and helped to inspire the masses.
Historiography of the October Revolution and Lenin's RTP - minority coup d'etat vs popular
revolution?
Communist view Party's view of October revolution:
-Inevitable result of class struggle
-Lenin's leadership was vital
-Popular revolution, inspired + organized by Bolsheviks and in praticular Lenin
Liberal view of October revolution (e.g. Robert Conquest, Richard Pipes)
-Coup d'etat, Bolshevik used the weaknesses of th PG to seize power
-Bolsheviks had only limited popular support
-Bolsheviks were successful because of the leadership of Trotsky + Lenin
Revisionist view of October revolution (e.g. Orlando figes)
-Emphasizes impotance of revolution from below (i.e. popular revolution)
-However, Bolsheviks "hijacked" popular revolution and ruthlessly betrayed the people by imposing a
single-party dictatorship, surpressing the Soviets
Resources:
https://rudbeckib.managebac.com/classes/10016451/events/10123763
http://www.s114478754.websitehome.co.uk/hostoryasrevisionguiderevolutionaryrussia.htm

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6/6

ITALIAN RENAISSANCE IN POLITICS & LITERATURE

I.

ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 14-16th CENTURIES


A.
INTRODUCTION
1.
IN ITALIAN TOWNS DURING 14 & 15TH C. THINKERS & ARTISTS
BEGAN TO VIEW 1000 YRS ELAPSING SINCE FALL OF ROME AS "DARK
AGES"
a.
A TIME OF STAGNATION & IGNORANCE
b.
A MIDDLE AGE BETWEEN CLASSICAL & THEIR NEW WISE &
WONDERFUL AGE
(1)
OR MEDIEVAL
(2)
MEANING MEDIOCRITY
2.
IN FACT TERMS DARK AGES & MIDDLE AGES COINED BY THESE
ITALIANS IN 14-15TH CENTURIES
a.
THESE WERE DERISIVE TERMS
3.
THESE ITALIANS SAID THEY PARTICIPATING IN AN INTELLECTUAL &
AESTHETIC REVOLUTION SPARKED BY REBIRTH OF THE VALUES &
IDEAS OF CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY THAT OCCURRED 1000 YRS
PREVIOUSLY
4.
REBIRTH - MEANING OF TERM
5.
MODERN HISTORIANS HAVE ACCEPTED TERM RENAISSANCE AS
CONVENIENT LABEL FOR THIS AGE

II.

CHARACTERISTICS OF ITALIAN RENAISSANCE


A.
GENERAL REMARKS
1.
HISTORIANS TODAY ALMOST UNIVERSALLY AGREE THAT
CULTURAL HERITAGE FROM CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY HAD NEVER
ACTUALLY DISAPPEARED FROM MEDIEVAL WEST
2.
IN FACT, RENAISSANCE ARTISTS & INTELLECTUALS OWED A
SUBSTANTIAL DEBT TO THEIR MEDIEVAL PREDECESSORS
3.
BUT SOME DISTINCT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN LATE MEDIEVAL &
RENAISSANCE CULTURE IN ITALY
4.
RENAISSANCE PEOPLE MORE MATERIALISTIC, SKEPTICAL, MANCENTERED & INDIVIDUALISTIC THAN MEDIEVAL PEOPLE
5.
GREATEST CHANGE FROM EMPHASIS ON A GOD-CENTERED WORLD
IN MA TO MAN AS CENTER OF UNIVERSE IN RENAISSANCE
6.
MEN WERE ATTEMPTING TO CREATE THINGS, TO DO THINGS & TO
STUDY THINGS AS ENDS IN THEMSELVES
7.
RATHER THAN AS THE MEANS TO THE GLORIFICATION OF GOD &
THEIR SALVATION
8.
AS 1 HSX AS OBSERVED (CHABOD)
a.
ART FOR ART'S SAKE, POLITICS FOR POLITICS' SAKE &
SCIENCE FOR SCIENCE'S SAKE
9.
LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI 1404-1472)
a.
WRITER, ARCHITECT, MATHEMATICIAN REMARKED
b.
MEN CAN DO ALL THINGS IF THEY WILL
B.
HUMANISM
1.
ONE OF WAYS TO REVIVE ANCIENT CULTURE - REFORM EDUCATION
BY STUDYING CLASSICS
2.
ANCIENT AUTHORS HAD BEEN STUDIED IN MIDDLE AGES
3.
BUT MEDIEVAL PEOPLE HAD INVESTIGATED ANCIENTS IN ORDER TO
KNOWN GOD
4.
RENAISSANCE HUMANISTS STUDIED CLASSICS TO UNDERSTAND
HUMAN NATURE
a.
CALLED THEMSELVES HUMANISTS
5.
NAME DERIVED FROM STUDIA HUMANITATIS OR HUMANISTIC
STUDIES
a.
ROMANS HAD USED IN SENSE OF LIBERAL OR LITERARY

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

EDUCATION
6.
TERM HAD NOTHING TO DO W/HUMANITY OR RIGHTS OF MAN
7.
WE USE TERM TODAY IN NEGATIVE CONNOTATION
a.
CALL HUMANISTS NON-BELIEVERS IN GOD
8.
HUMANISTS IN RENAISSANCE - CHRISTIANS
9.
STUDIED CLASSICS BECAUSE THEN YOU WOULD BE MORE
VIRTUOUS
10.
RENAISSANCE HUMANISTS DEVELOPED AN INSATIABLE APPETITE
FOR MANUSCRIPTS FROM ANCIENTS
PETRARCH 1265-1321
1.
CONSIDERED FATHER OF HUMANISM
2.
HIS LIFE GOOD EXAMPLE OF THIS NEW PURSUIT OF CLASSICAL
LITERATURE
3.
HE WROTE A PRIVATE AUTOBIOGRAPHY, THE SECRETUM
a.
DISCUSSED W/HIS CHOSEN MENTOR ST. AUGUSTINE HIS
VANITY, HIS DESIRE FOR FAME, HIS OBSESSION W/MARRIED
WOMAN, LAURA
4.
HE ESCAPED MELANCHOLY INTO ONLY SOCIETY HE FOUND
CONGENIAL,
a.
THAT OF THE GREEK & ROMAN WRITERS OF ANTIQUITY
b.
HOW MUCH MORE I FIND MY DELIGHT AMONG THE DEAD
THAN W/THE LIVING
5.
CONDEMNING SCHOLARS OF THE MIDDLE AGES AS
a.
"MISGUIDED FOOLS WHO WRITE NOTHING, KNOW LITTLE &
YELL MUCH & OFF THE POINT"
6.
BY HIS DEATH OTHER SCHOLARS WERE BEGINNING TO SHARE
PETRARCH'S ENTHUSIASM FOR THE ANCIENT CLASSICS
INFLUENCE OF CLASSICAL LATIN & VERNACULAR LANGUAGES
1.
BY LATE 15TH C. HUMANISTS HAD DEVELOPED PASSION FOR
CICERONIAN LATIN - CLASSICAL LATIN
2.
ONE HUMANIST CARDINAL EVEN HESITATED TO READ ST. PAUL'S
EPISTLES FOR FEAR THEY MIGHT CORRUPT HIS LATIN STYLE
3.
MEANT HUMANISTS REGARDED MEDIEVAL LATIN AS BARBAROUS IN
ITS VOCABULARY, SYNTAX
4.
VITAL LIVING LANGUAGE OF MEDIEVAL LATIN KILLED IN ORDER TO
REVIVE A DEAD LANGUAGE
5.
BUT RENAISSANCE DID LAY BASIS FOR MASS NATIONAL LITERACY
BY PATRONIZING VERNACULAR TONGUES
a.
ITALIAN, SPANISH, FRENCH, ENGLISH
6.
IN FACT, 2 OF MOST FAMOUS, CASTIGLIONE & MACHIAVELLI,
WROTE IN ITALIAN
SECULAR OR WORLDLY SPIRIT
1.
SECULAR SPIRIT PERMEATED ALL AREAS OF LIFE
2.
NO LONGER ACCEPTED MEDIEVAL RELIANCE ON EXCLUSIVE TRUTH
OF CHRISTIANITY
3.
NON-CHRISTIAN CULTURES POSSESSED WORTHY TRUTHS TOO
4.
TRUTH NO LONGER IDENTIFIABLE ONLY W/CHURCH
5.
BASIC CONCERN W/MATERIAL WORLD OF PRESENT NOT HEAVENLY
WORLD THEY WOULD LIVE IN SOMEDAY
CIVIC HUMANISM
1.
SECULAR SPIRIT MOST EVIDENT IN PEOPLE'S DESIRE TO
PARTICIPATE IN POLITICAL STRUCTURE
2.
ONE UTILIZED ONE'S CLASSICAL LEARNING FOR THE BENEFIT OF
SOCIETY
3.
CHANCELLOR OR FLORENTINE REPUBLIC L. BRUNI, SUGGESTED
MAN COULD FULFIL HIMSELF ONLY AS AN ACTIVE CITIZEN
INDIVIDUALISM - EGOCENTRICITY
1.
RENAISSANCE SAW STRONG QUEST FOR FAME & GLORY AS

H.

INDIVIDUAL
2.
RENAISSANCE IS HISTORY OF INDIVIDUALS EXPRESSING
THEMSELVES IN VARIETY OF WAYS
3.
NOT ANONYMOUSLY WORKING TOWARDS COMMON GOAL AS IN
MIDDLE AGES
a.
EG. CATHEDRAL BUILDING IN MIDDLE AGES
4.
ONE MUST REMEMBER RENAISSANCE MOVEMENT WAS A MINORITY
MOVEMENT
5.
TREMENDOUS INDIVIDUAL CONFIDENCE & EGO
a.
MATTEO PALMIERI - MID 15TH C.
(1)
"THANK GOD THAT I WAS PERMITTED TO BE BORN IN
THIS NEW AGE, SO FULL OF HOPE & PROMISE, WHICH
HAS A GREATER ARRAY OF NOBLY-GIFTED SOULS
THAN THE WORLD HAS SEEN IN THE PREVIOUS 1000
YRS.
6.
BANKER JACOB FUGGER OF AUGSBURG, GERMANY
a.
WHILE NOT ITALIAN THE EPITAPH HE COMPOSED
EPITOMIZES RENAISSANCE SPIRIT OF ITALIANS: TO THE
BEST, GREATEST GOD, JACOB FUGGER OF AUBSBURG, THE
ORNAMENT OF HIS CLASS & PEOPLE, IMPERIAL UNDER
MAXIMILLIAN I & CHARLES V, WHO WAS BEHIND NO ONE IN
THE ATTAINMENT OF EXTRAORDINARY WEALTH, IN
GENEROSITY, PURITY OF MORALS & GREATNESS OF SOUL, IS
AS HE WAS NOT COMPARABLE WITH ANYONE IN HIS
LIFETIME, EVEN AFTER DEATH NOT TO BE COUNTED AMONG
THE MORTALS."
7.
RISE OF PORTRAITURE IN ART REFLECTS THIS EGO
a.
ATTEMPT TO EMULATE ANCIENT ROME'S USE OF PROFILES
ON COINS, BUSTS,
b.
IN 1500 MOVED INTO FULL BODY & FRONTAL VIEWS
8.
THEY FELT THEMSELVES UNIQUE & LIVING IN NEW ERA
9.
LEAVING MEDIEVAL WORLD BEHIND
10.
PROGRESSING TOWARDS NEW WORLD VIEWS
11.
MAN IS THE MEASURE OF ALL THINGS
a.
APT QUOTE FOR THE MEN OF THE RENAISSANCE
UNIVERSAL MAN
1.
LIFE WAS BEST LIVED WHEN THE HUMAN PERSONALITY SHOWED
ITS VERSATILITY BY EXPRESSION IN MANY FORMS
a.
ADVANCEMENT OF THE MIND
b.
PERFECTION OF THE BODY
c.
CULTIVATION OF SOCIAL GRACES
d.
APPRECIATION & CREATIVITY IN THE ARTS
2.
TO BECOME AN UNIVERSAL MAN WAS CONTEMPORARY IDEAL
3.
BUT DIFFICULT TO FIND MANY PEOPLE WHO EPITOMIZED THIS
4.
TODAY WE EQUATE RENAISSANCE MAN W/UNIVERSAL MAN
5.
RENAISSANCE PEOPLE THOUGHT NB TO BE WELL-VERSED IN
a.
CLASSICAL LITERATURE & LANGUAGES
b.
INVOLVED IN CIVIC LIFE
c.
KNOWLEDGEABLE IN MUSIC
6.
LEONARDO DA VINCI'S PROBABLY MOST NB EXPONENT OF THIS
CONCEPT OF UNIVERSAL MAN
a.
ENGINEER, SCULPTOR, PAINTER, INVENTOR (FLYING
MACHINE, TANKS, PARACHUTES, SUBMARINES), BOTANIST
b.
FRANCIS I OF FRANCE
(1)
NO OTHER MAN HAD BEEN BORN WHO KNEW AS
MUCH AS LEONARDO
c.
LEONARDO'S PUPIL
(1)
IT IS A HURT FOR ANYONE TO LOSE SUCH A MAN, FOR

d.
e.
f.

III.

NATURE CANNOT AGAIN PRODUCE HIS LIKE


WHEN NOT GETTING KIND OF COMMISSIONS FROM HIS
PATRON, LORENZO DE MEDICI
LEONARDO WROTE TO LODOVICO SFORZA, THE MOOR, OF
MILAN, ASKING FOR POSITION.
"I HAVE PLANS FOR BRIDGES, VERY LIGHT & STRONG, PLANS
FOR SIEGE ENGINES, FOR CANNON THAT HURL SMALL
STONES W/EFFECT OF HAIL, I CAN MAKE ARMORED VEHICLES
WHICH WILL ENTER THE RANKS OF THE ENEMY WITH
ARTILLERY AND BEHIND THESE THE INFANTRY WILL BE
ABLE TO FOLLOW. IN TIMES OF PEACE, I BELIEVE I CAN GIVE
YOU AS COMPLETE SATISFACTION AS ANYONE ELSE IN
ARCHITECTURE....ALSO I CAN EXECUTE SCULPTURE IN
MARBLE, BRONZE, R CLAY & ALSO PAINTING. ALSO I CAN
SING AND PLAY THE LUTE

WHY DID RENAISSANCE OCCUR IN ITALY


A.
GENERAL COMMENTS
1.
KEY LIES IN POLITICAL & ECONOMIC LIFE OF ITALY
2.
3 MAIN REASONS
a.
POLITICAL STRUCTURE OF ITALY
b.
ITALIAN WEALTH
c.
ITALY'S STRONGER CLASSICAL ROMAN HERITAGE ROOTS
B.
POLITICAL STRUCTURE OF ITALY
1.
BY 14-15TH C. ITALY HAD DEVELOPED INTO 5 MAJOR CITY-STATES
a.
REPUBLIC OF FLORENCE
b.
REPUBLIC OF VENICE
c.
PAPAL STATES
d.
KINGDOM OF NAPLES
e.
DUCHY OF MILAN
2.
WHAT MIGHT HAVE HAPPENED TO AMERICA IF 12 ORIGINAL STATES
NOT ADOPTED CONSTITUTION & BECAME U.S.A.
3.
CITY-STATES EVENTUALLY SETTLED ON 2 TYPES OF GOVT
a.
SIGNORI OR DESPOTS OR 1 MAN RULE OR TYRANTS
b.
OLIGARCHIES OF WEALTHY MERCHANTS
(1)
MISNAMED REPUBLICS
c.
SOME OF THESE TYRANTS WERE MILITARY MEN WHO HAD
BEEN LEADERS OF BANDS OF MERCENARY SOLDIERS
(1)
CONDOTIERRI
(a)
I.E. SFORZAS, GONZAGAS
i)
GREAT READING BY SHELLEBERGER,
PRINCE OF FOXES
d.
BUT MOST OF TYRANTS HAD COME TO POWER AT
INVITATION OF SEGMENT OF THE CITY
e.
UNREST IN CITIES BETWEEN POORER & WEALTHIER
MEMBERS OF SOCIETY
f.
LED THEM TO BELIEVE OUTSIDER BEST REPRESENT THEIR
INTERESTS & IMPOSE ORDER
(1)
LIKE TODAY WHEN A CITY BRINGS IN AN OUTSIDE
MANAGER
g.
YOUR TEXT COVERS THIS DEVELOPMENT FROM COMMUNES
TO THESE TYPES OF GOVT STRUCTURES
4.
BOTH OLIGARCHIES & DESPOTS HAD THEIR OWN
a.
COURTS
b.
MILITIA
c.
CURRENCY
d.
INTERNATIONAL AMBASSADORS
5.
SOVEREIGN IN THEIR OWN RIGHT JUST LIKE FRANCE & ENGLAND

6.
7.

C.

REMINISCENT OF ANCIENT GREEK CITY-STATES


CONSEQUENTLY ITALIAN PENINSULA WILL BE TOO EMBROILED IN
INDIVIDUALISM TO COALESCE INTO A NATION
8.
PEOPLE THOUGHT OF THEMSELVES AS FLORENTINES OR
VENETIANS RATHER THAN AS ITALIANS
9.
THEIR PATRIOTIC LOYALTY WENT TO THEIR CITY OR DUCHY
10.
SPIRIT OF COMPETITION AMONG TOWNS DEVELOPED
a.
CAMPANILISMO = BELL TOWER IDEA
(1)
MY BELL TOWER IS HIGHER THAN YOURS
(2)
NB FACTOR FOR PATRONAGE OF ARTISTS
(3)
HIGHEST BIDDER GOT BEST ARTISTS
11.
THE TINY REPUBLIC OF SAN MARINO ON EASTERN COAST OF ITALY
RELIC OF THIS PERIOD
12.
ALTHOUGH ITS 24 SQ MILES ARE ENTIRELY SURROUNDED BY
ITALIAN SOIL, IT IS LEGALLY INDEPENDENT OF ITALY
13.
CLAIMS TO BE THE OLDEST STATE IN EUROPE
WEALTH OF ITALY
1.
THESE CITY-STATES WERE THRIVING CENTERS OF TRADE &
COMMERCE
2.
CITIES OF CENTRAL & NORTHERN ITALY IS WHERE RENAISSANCE
ORIGINATED
3.
BACKBONE OF THIS WEALTH WAS 3-PRONGED
a.
LUXURY TRADE W/EAST
(1)
VENICE MAIN CONTRIBUTOR TO THIS
b.
LUXURY CLOTHE INDUSTRY
(1)
FLORENCE MAIN CENTER
(2)
FLORENCE CENTER FOR WEAVING OF LUXURIOUS &
QUALITY WOOLEN & SILK CLOTHE
(3)
CLOTHED THE RULERS, ARISTOCRATS & WEALTHY OF
EUROPE
(4)
BROCADES, VELVETS, SILVER & GOLD CLOTH,
TAFFETA, SATIN, SILK
c.
BANKING INDUSTRY
4.
ITALIANS ALWAYS HAD BEEN BANKERS TO KINGS & POPES DURING
MIDDLE AGES
5.
FAMILY BANKING HOUSES
a.
MEDICI
(1)
WORLD FAMOUS
(2)
BRANCHES ALL OVER EUROPE
6.
BY 14TH C PROFITS OF THIS TRADE & COMMERCE MEANT ITALIAN
CITIES HAD BECOME LAVISH PATRONS OF ARTS & LETTERS
7.
WHENEVER POSSIBLE THEY CONSPICUOUSLY DISPLAYED THEIR
WEALTH
8.
NOT EVEN A PERIOD OF DEPRESSION AGGRAVATED BY BLACK
DEATH FAILED TO EFFECT PATRONAGE
9.
WHEN PROFITS FELL, ITALIAN MERCHANTS & BANKERS LEARNED
TO BECOME MORE EFFICIENT IN THEIR BUSINESS METHODS
10.
ITALIANS DEVELOPED
a.
DOUBLE ENTRY BOOKKEEPING
(1)
EASILY CAN TELL WHETHER MAKING OR LOSING
MONEY
b.
MARINE INSURANCE
(1)
COVERED HAZARDS OF STORMS & PIRACY
c.
BILLS OR EXCHANGE OR CREDIT
(1)
PRECURSOR TO OUR CHECKING SYSTEM
11.
ITALIAN BUSINESSMEN DIVERSIFIED & INVESTED IN CULTURE FOR
ITS PERMANENCE OF VALUE
a.
MUCH AS BUSINESSMEN BUY FASHIONABLE ART TODAY FOR

INVESTMENT
D.

IV.

FLORENCE
1.
BUT FLORENCE WHERE MAJOR FLOWERING OF RENAISSANCE TOOK
PLACE
2.
WHERE MAJORITY OF ARTISTS & WRITERS CALLED HOME
a.
DANTE - BOCCACCIO - PETRARCH - MACHIAVELLI
BOTTICELLI- DONATELLO - LEONARDO DA VINCI MICHELANGELO
3.
WHY FLORENCE?
4.
SHE HAD GOOD PRESS SHE DEVELOPED HERSELF
a.
MASTER AT TOOTING HER OWN HORN
5.
WEALTH FROM CLOTH & BANKING INDUSTRIES FINANCED
RENAISSANCE IN FLORENCE
6.
FLORENCE YOU SEE TODAY IS FROM RENAISSANCE PERIOD
7.
IN FACT MUCH OF N. ITALIAN CITIES BEAUTIFIED DURING REN.
PERIOD
8.
ALL MORE REMARKABLE THAT SO MANY OF FLORENTINES DIED
FROM BLACK DEATH
9.
LABOR PROBLEMS - IE. CIOMPI REBELLION
10.
REPUDIATION OF DEBT TO BANKERS BY EDWARD III OF ENGLAND
DURING FIRST PART OF 100 YRS WAR
11.
FLORENTINES DELIGHTED IN CREATING BEAUTY
12.
FOR THE CITY BEAUTY WAS & IS A WAY OF LIFE
a.
THIS LEGACY HAS CONTINUED TODAY
(1)
BEAUTIFUL LEATHER WORK, GOLD JEWELRY
13.
ARTISANS, CRAFTSMEN, PEOPLE OF FLORENCE NEVER STINTED
WHEN IT CAME TO EMBELLISHING FLORENCE
a.
CATHEDRAL, CHAPELS, HOMES, ART WORKS
14.
IN FLORENCE ART COMMISSIONED BY COMPETITION
15.
ALL CITIZENS INVOLVED
16.
APPEALED TO PEOPLE'S DESIRE TO ENHANCE CITY'S BEAUTY &
FAME
17.
WANTED FLORENCE TO BE MOST RENOWN CITY
18.
CF W/TODAY WHEN CITIES COMPETE W/EACH OTHER FOR SPORTS'
TEAMS NOT INTELLECTUAL OR ARTISTIC PURSUITS

FAMOUS PATRONS OF ITALIAN RENAISSANCE


A.
MEDICI
1.
FAMOUS FLORENTINE FAMILY
2.
DE FACTO RULERS OF FLORENCE 300 YRS +
3.
WHILE OFFICIALLY JUST MEMBERS OF THE RULING COUNCIL
a.
NOT ELECTED TO PUBLIC OFFICE
4.
NO ONE DOUBTED WHO REALLY RAN FLORENCE
5.
IN SAME WAY MANY THEORETICALLY DEMOCRATIC AMERICAN
CITIES HAVE BEEN RUN EFFECTIVELY BY PARTY BOSSES FOR LONG
PERIODS OF TIME
a.
I.E. CHICAGO
6.
COSIMO DE MEDICI
a.
MEDICI BANKING BUSINESS REACHED ITS ZENITH UNDER
HIM
b.
SAID TO BE RICHEST MAN IN WORLD
c.
BANKER WHO FOUNDED BRANCHES ALL OVER EUROPE
d.
BIGGEST CUSTOMER WAS POPE
(1)
CLOSE FRIEND OF 3 SUCCESSIVE POPES
(2)
CONFERRED TREMENDOUS PRESTIGE ON MEDICI
(3)
COLLECTED CHURCH REVENUES FOR A COMMISSION
(4)
AS BANKERS TO POPE, COULD THREATEN
DEFAULTING DEBTORS W/EXCOMMUNICATION

(5)

B.

V.

AT TIMES HALF THEIR PROFITS FROM PAPAL


ACCOUNTS
(6)
OFTEN HAD TO BAIL POPE OUT OF FINANCIAL
DIFFICULTIES
(a)
1 OCCASION ACCEPTED HIS JEWELLED MITER
IN PAWN
e.
DE FACTO RULER OF FLORENCE FOR 30 YRS
f.
SPENT A FORTUNE ON BEAUTIFYING FLORENCE
g.
ESTABLISHED PLATONIC ACADEMY
h.
MANY HUMANISTS GRAVITATED TO PLATONISM AS
REBELLION AGAINST ARISTOTELIAN EMPHASIS ON NATURAL
SCIENCE
i.
& BECAUSE THEY WERE LOOKING FOR A CLASSICAL
PHILOSOPHY THAT STRESSED MORAL PURPOSE & RELIGIOUS
IDEAS
(1)
HEADED BY MARSILIO FICINO
(a)
WHO ALWAYS KEPT A CANDLE BURNING
BEFORE BUST OF PLATO
(b)
MADE FIRST COMPLETE LATIN TRANSLATION
OF PLATO'S WORKS
(c)
SHOWS RENAISSANCE SPIRIT OF COMBINING
RELIGIOUS & SECULAR IDEAS
(d)
HIS TREATISE PLATONIC THEOLOGY
7.
LORENZO DE MEDICI
a.
COSIMO'S GRANDSON
b.
MOST FAMOUS
c.
HAD THE FACE OF A PRIZEFIGHTER BUT THE SOUL OF A POET
d.
ENJOYED POWER & PRESTIGE OF A PRINCE
e.
CALLED THE MAGNIFICENT
(1)
COURTESY TITLE APPLIED TO ANY PROMINENT MAN
f.
BOLSTERED BY INTERNATIONAL FAME OF BANK
g.
MERGED FAMILY MONEY W/CITY'S MONEY TO GENEROUSLY
PATRONIZE ARTS & LEARNING
h.
LONG-TIME PATRON OF MICHELANGELO
OTHER FAMOUS PATRONS OF RENAISSANCE
1.
STUDY OF OTHER CITY-STATES & TOWNS ILLUSTRATE THAT OTHER
FAMOUS FAMILIES PATRONS OF RENAISSANCE
2.
VISCONTI, SFORZAS, RULERS OF DUCHY OF MILAN,
3.
GONZAGAS, RULERS OF MANTUA
4.
ESTES, BORGIAS,
5.
POPES
6.
REN. POPES W/FEW EXCEPTIONS AS WORLDLY AS THEIR FELLOW
CITIZENS
7.
POPES TRANSFORMED ROME INTO FAMOUS CENTER OF ART &
LEARNING THAT AT TIMES RIVALED FLORENCE
8.
POPE ALEXANDER VI
a.
TOOK NAME AFTER ALEXANDER THE GREAT
9.
FATHER OF UNSCRUPULOUS CONDOTIERRI CAESARE BORGIA &
NOTORIOUS POISONER LUCREZIA
10.
DEVOTED MORE TIME & THOUGHT TO FURTHERING FORTUNES OF
FAMILY THAN TO RELIGIOUS MATTERS
11.
WEALTHY FAMILIES ACTIVELY SOUGHT TO CONTROL THE PAPACY
12.
MEDICI SUCCEED IN PLACING TWO OF THEIR MEMBERS, LEO X, SON
OF LORENZO & CLEMENT VII NEPHEW OF LEO IN OFFICE
13.
LEO, WHO WROTE TO HIS BROTHER, GOD HAS GIVEN US THE
PAPACY - LET US ENJOY IT

LITERARY REPRESENTATIVES OF ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

A.

B.

GIOVANNI BOCCACCIO 1313-75


1.
PETRARCH'S FRIEND &
2.
CHIEFLY KNOWN FOR HIS WITTY STORES, THE DECAMERON
3.
WHICH WON FOR HIM THE NAME "FATHER OF ITALIAN PROSE"
4.
MORE IMPORTANT WAS HIS PART IN CARRYING ON THE REVIVAL OF
LEARNING CLASSICS FROM PETRARCH
5.
FOR BOCCACCIO 1ST ITALIAN IN 7 CENTURIES TO LEARN TO READ
CLASSICAL GREEK
6.
IN ADDITION HE WROTE MANY LATIN WORKS OF SCHOLARSHIP
WHICH AIDED IN SEARCH FOR & IDENTIFICATION OF LOST
WRITINGS OF ANCIENT LITERATURE
7.
SOON HUNDREDS OF EAGER SCHOLARS WERE ENGAGED IN WORK
OF SPREADING ABROAD NEW LEARNING
8.
PRINCES, CHURCHMEN, & NOBLES IN ITALY NOW GAVE TO
LITERATURE & ART THE ATTENTION WHICH NORTH OF THE ALPS
WAS BESTOWED UPON THE STABLES & KENNELS
9.
PLACE OF KNIGHT ERRANT WAS TAKEN BY THE WANDERING
HUMANISTS WHO SOUGHT MSS AS THE FORMER HAD SOUGHT
ADVENTURES
10.
DECAMERON
a.
MASTERPIECE
b.
100 STORIES, RELATED DURING 10 DAYS (DECAMERON) BY
GROUP ESCAPING BLACK DEATH IN FLORENCE
c.
PORTRAYS WORLDLY SPIRIT OF RENAISSANCE
d.
TALES OF SENSUAL LOVE, PHILANDERING & ADVENTURE
(1)
PLAYBOY IN THEIR RIBALD CLASSICS
e.
WIDELY READ IN EUROPE
f.
OTHER WRITERS COPYING BOCCACCIO CALLED THEIR SHORT
STORIES = NOVELLAS
(1)
WHENCE OUR WORD NOVEL
NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI 1469-1527
1.
HIS NAME IS BYWORD FOR POLITICAL DUPLICITY
2.
MOST WELL-KNOWN OF RENAISSANCE WRITERS
3.
IN SUCCEEDING CENTURIES MOST INFLUENTIAL RENAISSANCE
WRITER
4.
BUREAUCRAT (CHANCELLOR) FLORENCE WHILE MEDICI IN EXILE (14
YRS)
5.
WHEN THEY RETURNED 1512 HE WAS FIRED, TORTURED, THEN
BANISHED FROM FLORENCE
6.
GAVE HIM LEISURE TO STUDY CLASSICS & WRITE
7.
HIS PATRIOTIC DREAM OF UNIFIED ITALY LED HIM TO WRITE
PRINCE
a.
MANUAL FOR PRINCES OR TYRANTS
b.
FASHIONED HIS PRINCE IDEAL ON CAESARE BORGIA
c.
TAUGHT DOCTRINE THAT DIVORCES PRIVATE OR
INDIVIDUAL MORALITY FROM STATES' MORALITY
d.
EXCUSED USE OF DECEIT, HYPOCRISY & FORCE
e.
FAMOUS DICTUM SUMMARIZES THIS
(1)
END JUSTIFIES THE MEANS
f.
THE END JUSTIFIED THE MEANS & THE END WAS POWER
g.
CHRISTIAN CODE FROM BIBLE WOULD LEAD TO DISASTER
FOR STATE HE STATED
h.
OTHER RULERS AT TIME FELT FAILURE OF STATE WAS DUE
TO INDIVIDUAL WEAKNESS & SIN BUT STATE COULD
FOLLOW A MORAL CODE
i.
HE REPRESENTS 1ST ATTEMPT TO REMOVE AREA OF
BEHAVIOR FROM RELIGIOUS MORALITY
j.
ALSO HE REPRESENTS A NEW KIND OF PESSIMISM

(1)
(2)

C.

HUMAN WORLD CANNOT BE CHANGED


SO THEREFORE MUST LEARN TO DEAL W/EVIL &
VIOLENCE
k.
THE PRINCE FOR MACHIAVELLI WAS THEREFORE
RESPONSIBLE TO ENSURE THE STATE WOULD SURVIVE
l.
PRINCE BECAME A HANDBOOK OF RULES FOR SURVIVAL OF
THE STATE
m.
OTHER DICTA FROM PRINCE: A PRINCE MUST IMITATE THE
FOX AND THE LION - BE A FOX TO RECOGNIZE TRAPS & A
LION TO FRIGHTEN AWAY WOLVES. WHILE ONE SHOULD
AVOID BEING HATED, IT IS BETTER FOR A RULER TO BE
FEARED THAN LOVED ...BECAUSE FEAR INSTILLS OBEDIENCE
MUCH MORE SURELY THAN LOVE, WHICH IS FICKLE - MEN
HAVE LESS HESITATION IN OFFENDING A MAN WHO IS LOVED
THAN ONE WHO IS FEARED, FOR LOVE IS HELD BY A BOND OF
OBLIGATION WHICH, AS MEN ARE WICKED, IS BROKEN
WHENEVER PERSONAL ADVANTAGE SUGGESTS IT, BUT FEAR
IS ACCOMPANIED BY THE DREAD OF PUNISHMENT WHICH
NEVER RELAXES
8.
FOR HIS REALISTIC STUDY OF POLITICS MACHIAVELLI IS
CONSIDERED FOUNDER OF MODERN POLITICAL SCIENCE
9.
HE WAS READ BY ALL NB LATER RULERS
a.
QUEEN ELIZABETH I
b.
LOUIS XIV
c.
LENIN
d.
STALIN
e.
ADOLF HITLER
BALDASSARE CASTIGLIONE 1478-1529
1.
ELEGANCE OF MANNERS AS WELL AS A CULTIVATED MIND WERE NB
TO WEALTHY ITALIAN CITIZENS
2.
CONSEQUENTLY THEY READ ETIQUETTE BOOKS TO LEARN RULES
OF CORRECT SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
3.
MOST FAMOUS & INFLUENTIAL BOOK ON RENAISSANCE MANNERS
PUBLISHED IN 1528 WAS BOOK OF THE COURTIER
4.
NO BOOK HAD MORE INFLUENCE AT TIME
5.
BY BALDASSARE CASTIGLIONE
6.
ITALIAN COURTIER, DIPLOMATE FROM ARISTOCRATIC FAMILY
7.
WHEREAS FORMERLY THE SAINT, THE ASCETIC OR CHIVALROUS
KNIGHT HAD BEEN IDEAL TYPES IN M.A.
8.
THE PRINCE & THE COURTIER CAME TO SUPPLANT THEM
9.
IDEAL COURTIER RE CASTIGLIONE'S OWN WORDS:
a.
MASTER OF ETIQUETTE & CLASSICS...WITTY, GRACEFUL,
WARRIOR...VERSATILE PARAGON, EQUALLY GIFTED IN
ATHLETICS, MUSIC & CULTURED ELOQUENCE...ONE'S
ATHLETIC SKILL IN SWIMMING, LEAPING, VAULTING &
CASTING THE STONE WERE EXPECTED TO EQUAL ONE'S
SINGING VOICE & ELEGANT WRITING STYLE & COMPOSING
SONNETS UNFORTUNATELY CASTIGLIONE NOTED MANY
COURTIERS LITTLE MORE THAN ACCOMPLISHED
NARCISSISTS WHO CURL THEIR HAIR, GLOSS THEIR FACES &
CULTIVATE A WALK SO LIMP & LANGUID THAT THEIR LIMBS
ARE LIKE TO FALL APART
10.
BOOK BECAME ESSENTIAL READING FOR NOBILITY
11.
SET STYLE FOR ELIZABETHAN GENTLEMEN
12.
EVEN EXTENDED ITS INFLUENCE TO EARLY AMERICA
a.
GENTLEMEN FARMERS USED IT TO BRUSH UP ON THEIR
MANNERS

VI.

10

CONCLUDING REMARKS ON ITALIAN RENAISSANCE


A.
LONG-LASTING LEGACIES
1.
SO PERSUASIVE WAS IDEAL OF "RENAISSANCE MAN"
2.
& A CLASSICAL ALL-AROUND EDUCATION THAT WESTERN EUROPE
FOLLOWED THAT PATTERN UNTIL THIS CENTURY
3.
AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES STILL FOLLOW THE REN. PATTERN
a.
BY EMPHASIZING LIBERAL ARTS REQUIREMENTS
4.
& PROBABLY MOST REMARKABLE LEGACY
5.
FOR FIRST TIME IN WESTERN HISTORY MEN STRESSED THE FACT
THAT FEMALES SHOULD BE EDUCATED TOO
a.
SOME THINK IT WAS INFLUENCE OF PLATONISM
b.
WILL BE COVERED IN NEXT LECTURE ON N. RENAISSANCE

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The Philosophical Foundations of the American Revolution

The Historical and Philosophical Foundations of the American Revolution


I. Perception and Reality It is not reality that defines our beliefs and opinions but our perception of reality
A. Cognitive Dissonance the tendency to deny discrepancies between ones pre-existing views and new information
1. Todd Gitlin: There is a phenomenon in politics -- and the left isn't any more exempt from it than the
right -- of cognitive dissonance, in which you bend the world, you hypnotize yourself into seeing the world
in such a way as to make it unnecessary for you to rethink your first premises.
2. Paul Simon: Still a man hears what he wants to hear and disregards the rest.
A. Our views of the world are shaped by political socialization and personal experience: Family, media, peers,
schools, political leaders

II. There are two historical myths regarding the American Revolution A. Historical Myth - Holocaust historian, Lucy Davidowicz said, "We look at the past through the prism of the present
and try to discern the future." A historical myth is a distortion of that prism that presents an overly simplistic view of
the past which is then used to support present policies or to predict future events. These myths are useful because
they support a persons views and policies.
B. The Myth of American Exceptionalism: American Revolution as a unique event without precedent and was the
original idea of the founding fathers.
1. This myth helps instill patriotism and national pride. It appeals to people who think that the world should
follow the example of the U.S. as the most powerful and most free nation in the world.
2. In reality, the American Revolution was a continuation and expansion of the philosophical and political
developments in Great Britain and on the European Continent.
C. The Myth of American Oppression the Revolution was a sham, merely a means of enriching the founding fathers
who didnt really care about the ideals they espoused.
2. This myth appeals to people who are very critical of past and current US policies and who seek to undermine
the myth of American Exceptionalism.
3. In reality, although the founders were mostly elites, who sought to protect their own interests in their design
for government, they also recognized that human nature was such that they had to place checks on themselves
and their successors and, as a result, included some remarkable structures which limited the power of
government
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III. European Influences- Revolutions of 1640, 1689 and 1776. Period of turmoil in England also played out in colonies.
A. The Enlightenment: A movement in 17th and 18th century Europe the advocated the use of reason to understand
the world and human behavior
1. Rejection of Medieval view of the world
2. Rejection of the Divine Right of Kings
3. Belief in the power of science
4. Response to a changing society
a. Mercantile with a growing middle class
b. Understanding of the natural world at odds w/ scripture
c. Loss of centralized religious authority after the Reformation
B. Two Schools of Philosophical Epistomology
1. Continental Rationalism ( Read more about Continental Rationalism) We know what we know because we
have used our minds in a logical fashion to deduce it.
a. Rene Descartes (1596-1650) - understanding is vastly superior to the senses, and, in the question of what
constitutes truth in science, only man's reason can ultimately decide
b. Used the model applied to Mathematics to apply to all knowledge
c. Tends to be more absolute (Dont confuse me with the facts)
2. English Empiricism (Read more about British Empiricism)What we know we know because we have
experienced it.
a. Francis Bacon (1561-1626) Scientific knowledge based on experimentation and observation
b. Tends to be less absolute ready to accept new evidence and change beliefs
IV. Preceding English Revolutions American Revolution can bee seen as the third in a series of revolutions to limit the
power of government
A. 1642 Oliver Cromwell vs. King Charles I- English civil war
1. The Court and King vs. the Landed Gentry and the Parliament
2. Charles I sought to rule as an absolute monarch like the King of France and tried to suppress the growing
power of the Legislative Branch
3. Parliament sought to:
a. Make king accountable to parliament for money
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b. Put limits on bureaucracy c. Put the army under Parliament's control


d. Have royal ministers approved by Parliament
e. Require Parliaments consent to war.
4. Charles I response - dissolve Parliament- rule by decree, arresting opponents and seizing property of those who
supported Parliament.
5. Cromwell and Whig (Parlimentarian) Response war, the capture and execution of Charles I.
6. Results:
a. Irreparable damage to divine right of kings doctrine
b. distaste for disorder on the part of most English
B. Glorious Revolution of 1689 The name is an attempt to justify the forced removal of the heir to the British
Throne.
1. After Cromwells death Charles II (son of the headless Charles I) returned as King compromise with Whigs
2. Upon his death - James II returned from the Catholic French Court.
a. Tried to reinstate Catholicism in England.
b. Tried once again to rule as an absolute monarch.
3. Removed from office and sent into exile. Replaced by William of Orange, a - Dutch nobleman whose wife
was related to British throne.
4. The Glorious Revolution Included a Bill of Rights - 1689
a. Religious toleration
b. Relative Free Press
c. Parliament meeting regularly - not just at Kings request
d. Increased the number of men eligible to vote
e. limited money and power of the purse to King
V. Comparison of two influential political philosophers: Locke and Hobbes -

A.

Thomas Hobbes: 1588-1679


1. Wrote on the war between Athens and Sparta in Ancient Greece saw democracy in Athens as a failure and

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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

cause of much suffering.


Mathematician and rationalist
exiled in 1640 along with other supporters of the King
Saw the need for a strong Authoritative state - Major work Leviathan
The role of government was to protect people from disorder and the only time it is legitimate to remove a
government is if it has failed to do so.
Saw life in nature as "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."

John Locke: 1632 - 1704 son of member of parliament - country gentleman


Early writing on theories of knowledge empiricist
Worked with Chemist Robert Boyle.
Parliamentarian - exiled in 1683 - returned with William of Orange.
Major work: Treatises on Government- attempt to justify the deposing of a legitimate King
Government is there only to protect the liberty of individuals. When ever a government fails to do that, one
can overthrow it and organize another.

VI. Other European Influence on the American Revolutionaries


A. Montesquieu dividing government into three branches as a means of preventing concentration of power
B. Rousseau -"Man is born free but everywhere is in chains." preference for the least amount of government possible.
C. Voltaire -against organized religion, fanaticism, intolerance and superstition. Widely read both in French and in
translation.
VII. Reaction to English Civil War/ Revolutions in the Colonies
A. Colonists operated with significant autonomy due to distance from England.
1. Colonies had written laws and legislative bodies.
2. They felt they were English and entitled to the same rights as Englishmen in the mother country - wanted to be
treated equally. "Englishmen."
B. Pre Revolutionary War period - growing dissatisfaction with British government
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1. Largely the result of British policies following the French and Indian War 1754-1763. Part of a major conflict
between the Great Powers of the time.
2. Huge British War debts - colonists expected to help pay
3. French eliminated as a threat - colonists could afford to be rebellious
4. Stamp Act 1765, Tea Act 1772 - corporate bailout of East India Tea Co.
5. Attempt by British to restore order to unruly colony.
VIII. American Revolution/ Civil War - focus on liberty - freedom vs order conflict
A. Shifting back and forth between the two values
1. Colonial Rule - order
2. Articles of Confederation freedom
3. Constitution toward order
4. Bill of Rights shift back toward freedom
B. Began as a move for claiming rights as Englishmen - became more revolutionary. Resulted in a more radical change
in principles, opinions, identity of American people.
1. Dissatisfaction w/ English Rule not addressing the needs of colonies
2. economic- rejection of colonialism the control of the country by a foreign power, exploitation of natural
resources, creation of a market for finished goods
3. political - liberties not protected colonial inhabitants not seen as having the same rights as Englishmen
C. Belief that the British government was corrupt but focus on "mend it dont end it." After armed conflict broke out
the focus changed to independence.
D. The War was presented as against King George, but at this time the British monarchy was steadily losing power.
Action against the colonies were taken by Parliament not just by the King.
IX. Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson
A. a lawyers brief of complaints against the crown
B. a justification for unlawful acts.- supported by the philosophical underpinnings of unalienable rights - Lockean
C. Taking the previous reform a step further
D. Powers of the government are only those granted by the governed.
E. Had to convince the populace rebels in the minority (20% favored Independence, 20% strongly loyalist, 60%
largely uninvolved)

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X. Articles of Confederation Written in 1777, ratified in 1781


A. Loose association of the rebellious colonies
1. All states had to agree to change anything. All votes required 9/13 states
2. No real executive (president) no ability to collect taxes.
3. Had moved the pendulum toward freedom.
B. Wide disparity in State Constitutions
1. Massachusetts State Constitution included a requirement for a specific amount of property to serve in
government
2. Pennsylvania no property requirement
3. Various states did not allow Jews or Catholics to vote, others barred them from holding public office.
XI. The Post Revolutionary War period
A. A long, protracted war -America couldn't have won w/o the help of the French who sought to undermine their
rival Britain
1. Economic Chaos - Britain lost but was still the most powerful nation in the world
a. Britain placed an embargo on American Goods, (Britain had been the primary market for the Americans
b. U.S. was $60 million debt w/ no means to collect taxes
c. No uniformity of tariffs - interstate rivalry states taxing each other.
d. Widespread debt especially for small farmers
2. Political Chaos
a. states were breaking foreign treaties when they did not see them as being in their interests.
b. States were refusing to honor other state's laws or Constitutions
c. Great powers (France, Spain, Britain) were waiting to carve up weak new nation.
3. Social Chaos Shays rebellion. War veterans unable to pay debts took up arms against the Government of
Massachusetts.
4. Ongoing political conflict between those who wanted more order - Hamilton, Washington, Madison, and
those who wanted to keep freedom Paine, Jefferson
"A little rebellion now and then is a good thing. The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood
of patriots and tyrants." Jefferson

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UNIFICATION of GERMANY and ITALY


I.

UNIFICATION OF GERMANY & ITALY


A. General Remarks
1. both unification movements of German & Italy have similar characteristics
2. both Germany & Italy geographical expressions for many centuries
a. & as 19th c unification approaches
b. although both had been united under an empireship centuries earlier
3. Austria was common obstacle to both
a. since Congress of Vienna dominated central including Northern Italy
4. mid 19th century unifying Germany & Italy appeared to be an almost hopeless task
5. but both countries would achieve unification at the same time
6. both Germany & Italy would achieve national unity thru pressure of a dynamic state
a. Italy through Sardinia
b. Germany thru Prussia
7. final victory for each country would be achieved thru efforts of a master politician & statesman
a. Cavour in Italy
b. Bismarck in Germany
8. each would find basis for unity in force = war
9. romanticism & nationalism would be NB to unification effort of each country
10. Napoleon responsible for interest of intellectuals in unification

II. UNIFICATION OF GERMANY


A. BACKGROUND
1. physically Germany "land of the center"
2. w/o natural frontiers on E & W
3. boundaries always had been fluid
a. either by push of foreigners into German lands
b. or more often pressing outward of Germany especially to East
4. Germany did not expand overseas like France, GB
a. but eastward to Poland, Russia
b. & formed islands of German language & culture & loyalty
(1) would create grave problems in future
5. no single focal point for Germany as a whole
6. like London, Rome, Paris were for England, Italy & France
7. Berlin is not heart to Germany
a. relatively modern city
b. Munich, Dresden, Cologne residents
(1) pointed w/pride to centuries old
8. Rhine is not focal point either
a. barbarian times dividing line between Roman world & barbarians
b. only recently in 18-19th centuries became romanticized
9. Ethnically Germany from homogeneous
a. Goths, Vandals, Franks, Alemanni, Burgundians, Frisians, Anglo-Saxons, Slavs
b. all mingled to form population of modern Germany
c. all had different cultures & history
d. idea of cleavage permeated Germany thinking
(1) religious disunity
(2) political disunity
(3) cultural & class cleavages
B. RELIGIOUS CLEAVAGES
1. 2 opposing religious forces
a. both Christianity & paganism runs steadily through Germany history
2. been said that Germany was never completely & thoroughly Christianized
3. eastern parts of Germany accepted Christianity only under duress

C.

D.

E.

F.

4. Christian Charlemagne overwhelmed the pagan Saxons under Widuking or Wittekind


a. Saxon leader & warrior same time as Charlemagne
b. Charlemagne offered them choice
(1) Christianity or annihilation
5. for many Germans, real hero of that time was not Karl der Grosse but pagan Widukind
a. because he resisted Christian might of Charlemagne
b. Protestant Reformation pagan tradition rekindled
c. again in Sturm und Drang of romantic periods
d. again in music dramas of Richard Wagner
e. & in philosophy of Nietzsche
f. reached its apotheosis (deification) in 3rd Reich
(1) although Hitler more proponent of Charlemagne's success at enlarging his empire
6. even greater breach was religious cleavage intro by Martin Luther
a. G birthplace of Protestant revolt
7. while other countries became predominantly Prot or Cath, G remained almost evenly divided between both
denominations
a. this caused great political division as well
POLITICAL DISUNITY
1. unlike other countries of western Europe royal power in G never achieved a central position
2. like in Fr, eg monarch power consolidated in struggle agst feudal nobility
3. HRE dominated political thinking
4. while medieval Ger emperors dreamed of universal empire
a. attention more often focused on Italy than on Germany
b. energies expended in endless struggle between Empire & might of the papacy
c. in their struggle emperors forced to call upon their feudal barons for aid & made concessions to them
(1) thus numerous principalities arose
d. other countries saw breakup of feudalism & emergence of closely knit national states
e. Germany feudalism lingered for centuries
f. but idea of universal empire was an ever-present idea in many political thinkers
ECONOMIC DISUNITY
1. in other countries w/advent of strong royal central power & lessening of barons' power coincided
w/emergence of a strong bourgeoisie
2. this lacking in Germany
3. Economic transformations brought about by Age of Discovery & Commercial Revolution did not occur in
G because she did not participate
4. until well into 19th c much Northern Germany remained predominately agrarian & feudal & w/o strong &
militant bourgeoisie
5. G liberalism as well as nationalism took on a special character which set G apart from rest of western
Europe
a. which was continuous oscillation between universalism & localism
POLITICAL STRUCTURE OF GERMANY
1. 314 states & 1474 estates = 1789 independent sovereign powers
2. held together by absolute rule of emperor & troops
3. after Napoleon's conquest of much of German area
4. still 39 German states
5. local patriotism still powerful force among Bavarians, Saxons, Prussians, Wurtembergers & others
a. German states
EMERGENCY OF PRUSSIA
1. to these above elements added another factor
2. beginnings of nationalist spirit in G toward end 18th c coincided w/emergence of Prussia as a great power
3. G national movement thus confronted w/serious rivalry between Prussia & Hapsburgs
a. who were guardians of the universal tradition of old empire & rulers of non-G peoples too
4. Prussia had a series of competent rulers who built up her subservient bureaucracy and military as ways to
achieve a strong & aggressive state
5. Frederick the Great, 1740-86

3
a. greatly increased size of Prussia thru seizure of Austrian territory & partition of Poland
b. made Prussia a G state to be reckoned w/and demonstrated that future of Ger no longer just in
Austria's hands alone
c. by his cult of military force & military success he implanted in Prussia
d. that inordinate reliance on military strength which both Bismarck & Hitler were to follow
e. Prussia's successes impressed upon the rest of G a set of values, traditions & ideals that came to be
accepted as universally G
(1) special position of the army
(2) officer's corps
(3) supremacy of military over the civil service
f. future history Germany bears witness to triumph of the Prussian spirit
G. DIVISION OF GERMANY HISTORY
1. FIRST REICH
a. CHARLEMAGNE 800 AD CROWNED=CHARLES MARTEL
b. HRE began under Otto 962
2. SECOND REICH = GERMAN EMPIRE
a. 1871-1919
3. WEIMAR REPUBLIC
a. 1919-1933
4. THIRD REICH = FASCIST STATE
a. 1933-1945
III. 19TH C. REASONS FOR UNIFICATION EFFORTS
A. GENERAL REMARKS
1. Napoleon responsible for interest of intellectuals in German unification
2. his domination of Germanies at will during Napoleonic wars brought wave of nationalistic reaction
3. heightened by shame of German inability to drive out alien French
4. some of the German states (including Austria temporarily) had even allied w/Napoleon
5. Prussia remained firmly opposed to Napoleon
6. & had shared glory of victory at Waterloo w/GB
7. Under Metternich Austria dominated Germanies since 1815
8. task of unifying Germany seemed almost hopeless in 1850"s
9. yet for most German people growing sentiment in favor of union into a nation-state
10. cf w/East & West Germany's desire today
11. businessmen urged by the conviction trade would flourish pro-unity
a. prosperity was already present in G
b. IR had come late, but by B's time enough jobs & wages good enough for people not be agitating for
their economic survival
12. nationalists demanded it on the basis of cultural & racial unity
13. rev of 1848 had dual character of a crusade for more liberal govt & movement for unifications
14. but king's refusal to become a constitutional monarch meant unification failed at this time
B. CONFIGURATION OF GERMANY ON EVE OF UNIFICATION
1. in place of Germany existed 39 German states including Austria & Prussia
2. only Prussia & Austria were strong enough to lead a unification movement
3. Austria should have been unifying of Germany
4. but she could not risk any further expansion
5. Austria Empire w/diverse nationalities opposed to unification
6. Prussia - if had a master politician might be able to accomplish unification
7. Bismarck became that individual
IV. COUNT PRINCE OTTO VON BISMARCK 1815-98
A.GENERAL REMARKS
1. as we look at famous Germans in History, Charlemagne, Luther, Hitler
2. Bismarck should be on that list too
3. a fascinating individual

4
4. Henry Kissinger intrigued by him wrote a biography
5. Carl Schurz, born & educated in Prussia
a. but fled & became a prominent American govt official
b. left us memorable picture of B as he saw him in Berlin in 1868
c. tall, erect, broad shouldered, & on those Atlas shoulders that massive head which everybody knows
from pictures - the whole figure making the impression of something colossal."a veritable Atlas
carrying upon his shoulders the destinies of a great nation "bubbling vivacity of his talk, now and then
interspersed w/French or English phrases (B a polyglot). his laugh now contagiously genial and then
grimly sarcastic
6. man of action, feelings & will power
7. if I have an enemy in my power, I must destroy him
8. I want to make music, he said, the way I like it or else nothing at all
B. BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION
1. Prussian junker (landed aristocrat)
2. von signifies this
3. after session at Univ of Gottingen & Berlin as an indifferent student, but capable duelist & rake
4. entered govt service
a. only career open for junker class aside from army
b. dismissed short time for irregular & dissipated habits
5. for centuries Junkers had furnished Prussian state w/bulk of its bureaucrats & high army officers
6. he was 1 of group of aristocrats who had urged Prussian king not to accept a "crown of shame" from
Frankfurt Assembly
a. following 1848 Revolution
7. his diplomatic experience as rep to Russia & France during 1850's made him a skilled diplomat
8. won personal friendship w/Russian Tsar
9. had keen insight into psychology of Napoleon III (ruler of France)
10. appointed minister/president by King of Prussia
11. his loyalty to his king characterized his entire public life
a. I am first and foremost a royalist, everything else comes after that
b. Prussia is not like England where ministry is responsible to parliament. We are ministers of His
Majesty the King.
c. According to Bismarck "position of Prussia in Germany will be determined not by its liberalism but by
its power"
12. respect for legality & decency is just humanitarian twaddle
13. B - not through speeches & majority decisions are great questions of day decided but through iron &
blood"
14. brilliant opportunist & manipulator = supreme Machiavellian
slide G27 15. French political cartoon view of ruthless means employed by B to obtain Ger unity thru a combination of
intimidation, cajoling, political concessions & war
16. became adept at blending right proportion of diplomacy & military force to achieve German unif.
17. master at waging war abroad to down play unrest on domestic front
a. practiced by all the rulers today & yesterday
b. w/in 8 yrs of power had unified Germany
18. B supreme manifestation of Nietzsche's will to power ideology
a. man's inherent desire for power is what dominates him
C. BISMARCK'S UNITY PLAN
1. he followed a succession of steps w/uncanny cleverness
2. 1st plotted to eliminate Austria from her commanding position in Germanic Confederation
3. there followed 3 separate wars w/Denmark, Austria & France, that achieved his aims
4. The German-Danish war tested sharpness of Prussian sword & boldness of Prussian strategy
5. Austro-Prussian War the power of Prussian military power measured against an equal partner
6. in Franco-Prussian War it was to show that the Prussian Army was now at its peak of perfection
7. Bismarck's words We Germans fear only God, nothing else in the world now seem justified.
8. each of these three wars laid basis for next one
9. & the last one helped pave the way for the world war of 1914.

D.

E.

F.

G.

10. the first war enabled Bismarck to consolidate his internal position in Prussia & lay groundwork for
defeat of his parliamentary opposition
11. the second war succeeded in ousting Austria from leadership of Germanies
12. & in consolidating Prussian hegemony in the north
13. Franco-Prussian War succeeded in bringing the South Germany states under aegis of Prussian eagle
14. & it crushed all pretense to any solution to problem of Germany unity other than through blood & iron
15. brief description of each graphically illustrates Bismarck's genius at diplomacy & power
DANISH WAR 1864
1. war w/denmark over schleswig & holstein
2. B entered into a dispute w/Denmark over possession of Schlewig & Holstein
3. inhabited largely by Germans but King of Denmark overlord
4. since 1815 Holstein included in Germanic Confederation,
5. when 1864 Danish king attempted to annex them, B invited Austria to participate in a war agst Denmark
6. brief struggle ended w/Danish ruler renouncing claim to 2 provinces in honor of Austria & Prussia
7. then sequel occurred that B wanted
8. quarrel between victors over division of spoils
9. upshot in 1866 Prussia & Austria plunged into war
7 WEEKS WAR PRUSSIA & AUSTRIA
1. since Bismarck knew Hapsburgs would be helped by Southern GERMAN provinces,
2. so Bismarck fashioned alliance w/Italy,
a. promising to reward her if victorious w/Duchy of Venice area (Austria controlled)
3. Prussia won
4. Austria gave up claims to Schlewig & Holstein, Venice area
5. plus Austria acquiesced in dissolution of Germanic Confederation
6. Statim following war, B proceeded to unite all the Germ states north of the Main River into N Ger
Confederation
7. Constitution of the union
a. B boasted he wrote it in a single night
b. provided king of Prussia = hereditary Presidency of Confederation
c. upper house representing govt of sev states
d. lower house elected by universal manhood suffrage
FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR
1. Final step in completion of German unity
2. French policy toward Germany from days of Richelieu c. 17th c was policy of continuous opposition to
national unification of Germany
3. Bismarck wrote in his Reminiscences
a. in view of the attitude of France, our national sense of honor compelled us to go to war.
4. B knew war w/FR best thing possible to kindle a G nationalism in Bavaria & Wurtemberg & remaining
states on Main River
a. southern Germany area
5. so when informed by King William I demand of Fr for perpetual exclusion of Hohenzollern family fr Sp
throne been refused,
a. B decided time ripe for action
b. altered telegram to infer King William had insulted French ambassador
c. when French people learned of it, whole nation in uproar
6. When Napoleon's ministers asked for declaration of war, only 10 negative votes
7. France had been itching a long time for war w/Prussia
8. no sooner had struggle begun than Southern German states rallied to side of Prussia
a. believed she was the victim of aggression
9. from beginning Prussia had advantage
10. disciplined German army agst inadequate & ill organized French troops.
11. After capture of Napoleon at Sedan in 1870, & conquest of Paris 4 months later, war over
12. Fr surrendered major portions of Alsace & Lorraine
13. & agreed to pay an indemnity of $1 billion.
UNIFICATION EFFORT SPURNED ON BY WARS

6
1. patriotic enthusiasm generated by wars possible for B to absorb Ger states into North Germ Confed.
2. treaties negotiated during course of war stipulating all of G be united into a Hohenzoller empire
3. agreements formalized at impressive ceremony at
a. Verseilles in 1871 (Louis XIV palace)
4. King William I of Prussia became German Emperor
5. B now raised to dignity of prince
6. became Imperial Chancellor = Prime Minister
a. answerable only to Emperor or Kaiser
b. Bismarck for 20 yrs
7. Northern German Confederation's constitution accepted as constitution of new empire
H. CONCLUSIONS RE BISMARCK & GERMAN UNIFICATION
1. Gladstone, Prime Minister England
a. Iron Chancellor made Germany great but Germans small
2. crystal ball of great Germany historian, Theodore Mommsen, 1817-1903
a. HAVE A CARE LEST IN THIS COUNTRY, WHICH HAS ONCE BEEN A POWER IN ARMS & A
POWER IN INTELLIGENCE, THE INTELLIGENCE SHOULD VANISH & NOTHING BUT THE
PURE MILITARY STATE SHOULD REMAIN
V. UNIFICATION OF ITALY = RISORGIMENTO (RE SOR' JE MEN' TO)
A. BACKGROUND
1. Italian peninsula is vastly different in climate, soil, economy
2. cf w/eastern and western Oregon's climate, population, weather
3. southern peninsula agrarian vs more urban & commercial in north
4. w/papacy in between
5. Italy has no coal, iron & few natural resources
6. under the Roman republic nearly 2500 years ago the entire peninsula was united
7. once the barbarian tribes had conquered, Roman empire became fragmentized and Italian peninsula
became divergent
8. various kingdoms & city-states formed in Middle Ages
9. each highly competitive
10. Latin language had united to some degree
a. but vast dialects differences developed in Dark & Middle Ages
b. n from south - even today hard to understand
c. Tuscan Italian became major language under Petrarch, Dante, Boccacio & their literature
(1) like Shakespeare & Chaucer had done Eng
B. 19TH CENTURY UNIFICATION MOVEMENT
1. Napoleon's creation of a Puppet Kingdom of Italy
2. stimulated movt for Italian unification on part of intellectuals & middle class
3. same question for Germany needs to be asked of Italy
4. what state would be the one responsible for unification effort
5. 19th c saw 3 major independent states in Italy
a. Kingdom of 2 Sicilies
b. Kingdom of Sardinia
(1) island of Sardinia & mainland area of Piedmont
c. Papal states
6. and other areas such as Tuscany, Lombardy & Venetia controlled by Austrian Empire
a. area around Florence, Milan & Venice respectfully
7. Italians fortunate in that Rome was thee center of their peninsula both spiritually & geographically
a. & had been for 2500 years
8. revolts of 1820's, 30's, & 1848 effectively suppressed by superior force of arms by Austrians
9. 1st identifiable patriot to set the idea of unity in motion
10. Mazzini 1805-72
a. wore only black from time he was 15
b. spiritual inspiration for Italian unification
c. known as "Soul of Italy"

7
d. Exiled from Genoa for his membership in a secret & violent organization,
(1) based in Marseilles, France
e. where he founded Young Italy movement
(1) members all under 40
f. whose influence extended throughout Europe
g. Mazzini was an impractical businessman
h. impressed his followers thru his impassioned writings
i. he became leading prophet of the Risorgimento
(1) movement for Italian unification
j. they wanted to restore nation to glorious days of Roman & Renaissance times
k. he sent propaganda literature into Italian ports hidden in cargoes of stones and grains
l. his intense dedication & visionary ideas were to be fulfilled by another generation of Italian patriots
m. but to 19th c Italians Mazzini remained
(1) the man who sacrificed everything, who loved much, who pitied much, and who hated never.
C. SUCCESSFUL UNIFICATION EFFORTS 19TH CENTURY
1. Austria always stood ready to move against any further disturbances
2. 1 of few centers of independence remaining was Sardinia (island & mainland territories of Piedmont)
3. its young king Victor Emmanuel II,
a. refused to withdraw its liberal constitution granted by his father
4. it was in Sardinia that the Italian unification movement would find its base & its leader,
D. Count Camillo Benso di Cavour 1810-61
1. in is under Cavour's leadership that Italian peninsula becomes nation of Italy
2. architect of Italian unification
3. like Bismarck, Cavour was a brilliant statesman
4. Chief minister to the king of Piedmont
5. born of noble family
6. trained for military career
7. became liberal after traveling in Switzerland, France & Britain
8. made his fortune in sugar mills, steamships, banks & railroads
9. once financially secure entered politics
10. in 1847 cofounder of newspaper Il Risorgimento
a. which urged Italian independence
11. 1852 became Premier of Piedmont
12. concentrated his efforts on freeing Italy from Austrian Empire
13. knew Sardinia could not take on Austria by itself
14. allies needed
15. to that end joined Britain & Fr in fight agst Russia in 1855 in Crimean War
16. enabled him to speak at the peace conf. after war
a. where he stated Italian desire for unification
b. made impression on Fr & Eng & prepared way for cooperation w/Napoleon III agst Austria
17. 1858 secret meeting w/Napoleon III planning strategy for war for liberation
18. In exchange for additional territory from Sardinia Fr agreed to cooperate to oust Austria
19. If Cavour could goad Austria into attacking Sardinia, France would come to Sardinia's defense
a. 1859 war w/Austria,
20. after conquest of Lombardy, Napoleon III withdrew,
a. fearful of ultimate defeat
b. & afraid of antagonizing Catholics in his own country by aiding an avowedly anti-clerical govt
21. Sardinia only able to make small land gains, but aroused nationalistic fervour in other Northern Italian
states
E. GIUSEPPE GARIBALDI 1801-1882
1. another unification movement led by this romantic free-lance adventurer began in S. Italy
2. son of a poor sailor, he personified the romantic, revolutionary nationalism of Mazzini and 1848
3. as a lad of 17 he had traveled to Rome
4. & had been converted to the New Italy, the Italy of all the Italians
5. as he later wrote in his Autobiography

8
6. the Rome that I beheld with the eyes of youthful imagination was the Rome of the future - the dominant
thought of my whole life
7. sentenced to death for his part in uprising in Genoa,
8. he escaped to S.A. where for 12 yrs led guerilla band in Urugay's struggle for independence
9. returned to Italy in fight in 1848 revolution
10. called the "Sword of Italy"
11. w/his famous regiment of 1000 red shirts set out to rescue his fellow Italians from oppression in the
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1860
12. w/in 3 mos conquered island of Sicily
13. then marched to deliverance of Naples
a. where people already in revolt
14. by Nov the whole kingdom under unpopular Bourbon Francis II had fallen to Garibaldi
15. He apparently intended to convert the territory into an independent republic
16. finally persuaded to surrender it to Kingdom of Sardinia
F. VICTOR EMMANUEL II
1. W/most of peninsula united under single rule of King of Sardinia
2. he assumed Title of King of Italy 1861
3. Venetia still in hands of Austria, but in 1866 forced by Prussians to cede it to Italy as loser in 7 Weeks war
w/Prussia
4. all that remained was annexation of Rome
5. Eternal City resisted conquest because of protection accorded to pope by Napoleon III
6. 1870 outbreak of Franco-Prussian War compelled Napoleon to withdraw his troops
7. Shortly thereafter Italian soldiers occupied Rome & In July 1871 made capital of united kingdom
G. PROBLEMS W/PAPACY
1. not until 1929 was an agreement reached w/papacy
2. until then popes shut themselves up in Vatican & refused to have anything to do w/Italian govt
3. they had been granted independent status w/in the Vatican & Lateran bldgs, along w/other concessions
a. under Victor Emmanuel
4. but the bitterness was too great until about 60 yrs had gone by
H. ITALY'S GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE
1. parliamentary govt
2. bicameral parliament
a. Senate - appointed for life by king
b. Chamber of Deputies - elected by restricted franchise
c. Cabinet of Ministers - appointed by king but responsible to parliament
I. ITALIAN ECONOMY
1. steady growth of socialism gained strength in poverty-stricken south, especially Sicily & industrialized
north
2. always wide gulf between wealthy few and large masses of illiterate peasants
3. depression in late 19th c
4. revolution prevented by mass emigration to US & S.A.
a. between 1890 & 1914 6 million left

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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 3.18 Hitler's domestic policies, 1933 - 39

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3.18 Hitler's domestic policies, 1933 - 39


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Hitler's domestic policies, 1933 - 39


This theme asks you to look at what kind of domestic programme was put into place by Hitler,
and how his economic and social policies were created and implemented. An awareness of
the results of these policies is also essential so you need to be aware of their relative
successes and failures.
Note:
This topic is useful for both Paper 3, when there might be a direct question on this, and Paper
2, for instance if there is a question about 'domestic policy' or even possibly women and/or
youth.

Past Questions:
Paper 3
Compare and contrast the domestic policies of Hitler and Mussolini. (May 2010)
Compare and contrast the repressive policies of Hitler and Stalin. (May 2009)
Compare and contrast the social and economic policies of Hitler and Mussolini. (Nov
2008)
Compare and contrast the domestic policies of Hitler and Stalin up to the outbreak of
the Second World War. (Nov 2006)
Compare and contrast totalitarian rule in Hitlers Germany and Mussolinis Italy, up to
1939. (May 05)

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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 3.18 Hitler's domestic policies, 1933 - 39

General SPS questions

MARKSCHEME NOTES
EXCELLENT IB REVISION NOTES ON THIS TOPIC
Hitler's overall aims in terms of domestic policy?
"Volksmeinschaft" (people's community) --> Build a classless society by replacing individual
liberty with securing the greater good of the nation
Remove non-Nazi influences
Shaping the attitudes of the population to support Hitler's aims
Focus on foreign policy and military
Methods to achieve these?
Hitler put extreme focus on the youth and women of Germany, given that they were to become
the strong future patriots of Germany!
Successes: Hitler succeeded given that he managed to impose his ideology onto the people. Also,
through a harsh way of rule, Hitler managed to keep receive the support he needed to pursue his
foreign interests.
Failures: Despite this, Hitler was only in power for 12 years, 6 of which were spent in war. Essentially,
after the end of the Second World War including Hitler's suicide, Germany no longer purused Nazi
ideology as a way of rule! This suggests that Hitler was not effective enough in this domestic policies to
leave an impact on his Reich after his death, as he aspired to do.
Youth:
Aims
Indoctrinate with Nazi ideology
Create loyalty and willingness to sacrifice to greater good of nation --> nationalism/anti-individualism
"Seperate spheres" --> boys were to be strong fighters --> girls were to bear children
1933 - Government takes over and increases in supporters --> expansion of movement
1936 - Membership and all other youth organizations banned
Camping outdoor activity, fun games --> intimidation and oath to loyalty
Later, greater focus on military drills and Nazi ideology --> seperate for boys and girls
Successes:
95% loyal to Hitler
Rapid membership increase after 1933, plus compulsory membership
Brainwashed kids --> students prepared to sacrifice themselves for the Nazi loyalty
Hitler Youth became the dominant monopoly over German's Youth's spare time
Failures:
Many youth managed to escape the "compulsory memberships" and rival groups emerged
Many turned away from Hitler Youth in later 1930s
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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 3.18 Hitler's domestic policies, 1933 - 39

The Hitler Youth became less successful with more military training and Nazi lectures etc.
Growing opposition to Hitler Youth - rejection of it + non-Nazi ideas
Education:
Nazifying - an attempt to control the teachers
97% of teachers joined the Nazi Teacher's League in 1937
Purge and discuss unreliable teachers
Politicize the curriculum to reflect
Nazi ideology - control textbooks --> History, Biology, Physical Education (2h per day)
Anti-intellectual, pro-strong/healthy --> future Aryan race
Greater focus on needlework for girls, music and home crafts
Successes:
Control over teachers - 1937
Effective way of spreading Nazism
Failures:
Poor quality of students
Created ignorant individuals who could not think for themselves - very much dependent on Nazi
ideology
Women and Social control:
Aims
"Seperate spheres" for men and women - whereas men were expected to work and fight for the Reich,
women were expected to work and fight for the family
The attitudes towards women was summarised by the slogan Kinder, Kirche, Kuche (Children, Chruch,
Kitchen)
The policy had the support of churches traditional rural groups, but ran contrary to ideas of female
emancipation - would have been given the vote in and got careers in the Weimar period
Why did Hitler have these policies?
Ideological - Peasant-based Volksgemeinschaft invovled the rejection of "modern" and "Bolshevik"
ideas about female emancipation
Pragmatic - Given the steady birth rate decline in Germany, Hitler considered it essential for the
continued economic growth of the Reich, as he planned to conquer and populate lands in the east
What did Hitler do?
Reduced the amount of women in employment - Married women were excluded from the civil
service and other professions. Employers were encouraged to employ men in favour of women.
The numbers of women allowed into university was restricted.
Increased the amount of marriages and births - Divorce was made easier for childless couples.
Aryan women were offered an interest fee marriage loan; the amount to be repaid fell by a
quarter with each child loan - only granted to women who agreed to stay out of work
Generous welfare payments for mothers
Motherhood skills were taught by the "Women's Enterprise" (DFW)
Medals ("Honour Cross of the German Mother") - any women who had more than 8 children
received a gold medal from Hitler personally
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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 3.18 Hitler's domestic policies, 1933 - 39

Abortion was restricted and the use of bith control for Aryans was condemned.
Increased the quality of births - 1933 Sterilisation law was passed against all those with a
hereditary disease/mental health problems (inc. alcoholism/feeble-mindedness)
320,000 people sterilised by the Nazi 1933 - 1945
Racial policies:
The Nazis believed -->
1. The blonde-haired, blue-eyed Nordic Germans (or Aryans) were a Volk, or a race.
2. They were the master race. All the other, inferior, races were arranged in a hierarchy beneath them.
3. Near the bottom of this hierarchy came black peoples, and beneath them 'non-people' such as
gypsies and Jews.
4. It was their duty to keep the German race 'pure' by having children only with fellow Aryans and
restricting what other races could do, especially with Jews.
5. It was their destiny to conquer the lands of inferior races, such as the Slavs to the east, and use
them to provide resources and living space for the master race.
The persecution of minority groups
The Nazis persecuted undesirable minority groups in Germany, which consisted of:
1. Homosexuals - sent to concentration camps
2. Gypsies - sent to concentration camps, shot or gassed
3. The mentally ill - sent to concentration camps
The Euthansia Programme in 1939
Euthansia means a quiet and easy death. Hitler introduced this programme to kill people with mental or
physical disabilities who the Nazis judged to lead worthless lives at the expense of the State. 5000
children were killed by starvation or lethal injections. 71,000 adults were killed by injections or gassing.
In 1941, Hitler stopped the programme in the face of protests started by the Catholics.
The persecution of Jews
Through the use of propaganda, Hitler blamed the Jews for:
1. Germany's defeat in 1918
2. The inflation of 1923
3. The economic collapse of 1929-1932
4. In schools children were taught to hate Jews, and textbooks put across anti-semitic ideas.
5. Nazi-controlled newspapers and magazines bombarded adults with anti-semitic articles and
cartoons.
Successes:
These policies can be seen as successful given that Hitler managed to take control over society by
imposing his ideology onto the everyday lives of ordinary Germans. This is proven by the fact that Hitler
Failures:
Overall evaluation of Hitler's domestic policy: was any revolutionary change made, or it was it
all just random, improvised and reactionary?

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http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/IB_European_History#Foreign_and_Domestic_Policy

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Causes of World War I

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Causes of World War I


1. Colonial Rivalries. European powers shared an insatiable appetite for
expansionism and wealth creation. Natural resources were required to feed
their growing industrialization capabilities. Most land throughout the world the
could be feasibly conquered was already under European colonial control,
leaving colonial powers to fight over increasingly limited territory, such as the
African interior. By the late 1800s, bitter rivalries developed as colonial powers
butted heads with greater frequency.
2. Arms Race. As economic rivalries and colonial competition came to a boiling
point, nations began to build their military arsenals at an unprecedented rate.
Armament build-ups continued to spiral out of control as European powers
sought to gain a military advantage over one another.

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3. Unmitigated Nationalism. European kingdoms had given way to nationstates throughout the 1800s following the Napoleonic Wars, lending widespread
support to colonial, economic and military expansion. The Napoleonic Wars
taught Europeans that it was critical to consolidate and strengthen one's nation

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Causes of World War I

taught Europeans that it was critical to consolidate and strengthen one's nation
in relation to potential rivals. Furthermore, new nations and new colonial
powers such as the German Empire and Italy (formed comparatively recently,
during the mid-1800s) were especially fervent, as they had been under foreign
domination for so long, and were eager to reverse the situation. Their tactics
became increasingly brutal and hostile as they felt compelled to play catch up
with established colonial powers such as the United Kingdom, France and Spain.
4. Complex Network of Alliances. As tensions grew, alliances were formed.
Nearly all of the European powers were mobilized and prepared to go to war at
the drop of a hat. As Germany grew in strength, France and the UK formed an
alliance to keep it in check. By the late 1800s, Germany was threatening UK
naval dominance. France had just lost an important region to Germany from
their loss in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, and remained vulnerable to this
still-growing power along their eastern border. Russia and Austria-Hungary had
become distrustful of one another, as both were interested in gaining control
over the Balkans. France and the UK recruited Russia to their alliance to force
Germany into a two-front war in the event of hostilities, while Russia sought
help in order to counterbalance the Austrian threat. Consequently, Germany
and Austria-Hungary became natural bedfellows. They recruited the Ottoman
Empire based in Turkey to neutralize Russia, with the promise of regaining lost
Balkan territories used as a carrot.

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5. The Catalyst. The Balkans had become a tinder box, as both Austria and
Russia had designs on the region. When the heir to the Austrian throne was
assassinated in Bosnia in 1914, Austria reacted harshly, resulting in war. Serbia
was prepared to concede to Austria, but Russia made a strong showing of
support, giving it courage to standup to Austria. Austria then declared war, and
all the treaties and alliances were triggered, initiating The Great War (WWI).

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Causes of World War I

Causes of World War I


1. Colonial Rivalries. European powers shared an insatiable appetite for expansionism and wealth creation.
Natural resources were required to feed their growing industrialization capabilities. Most land throughout
the world the could be feasibly conquered was already under European colonial control, leaving colonial
powers to fight over increasingly limited territory, such as the African interior. By the late 1800s, bitter
rivalries developed as colonial powers butted heads with greater frequency.
2. Arms Race. As economic rivalries and colonial competition came to a boiling point, nations began to
build their military arsenals at an unprecedented rate. Armament build-ups continued to spiral out of
control as European powers sought to gain a military advantage over one another.
(Continued Below)
3. Unmitigated Nationalism. European kingdoms had given way to nation-states throughout the 1800s
following the Napoleonic Wars, lending widespread support to colonial, economic and military expansion.
The Napoleonic Wars taught Europeans that it was critical to consolidate and strengthen one's nation in
relation to potential rivals. Furthermore, new nations and new colonial powers such as the German Empire
and Italy (formed comparatively recently, during the mid-1800s) were especially fervent, as they had
been under foreign domination for so long, and were eager to reverse the situation. Their tactics became
increasingly brutal and hostile as they felt compelled to play catch up with established colonial powers
such as the United Kingdom, France and Spain.
4. Complex Network of Alliances. As tensions grew, alliances were formed. Nearly all of the European
powers were mobilized and prepared to go to war at the drop of a hat. As Germany grew in strength,
France and the UK formed an alliance to keep it in check. By the late 1800s, Germany was threatening
UK naval dominance. France had just lost an important region to Germany from their loss in the FrancoPrussian War of 1870, and remained vulnerable to this still-growing power along their eastern border.
Russia and Austria-Hungary had become distrustful of one another, as both were interested in gaining
control over the Balkans. France and the UK recruited Russia to their alliance to force Germany into a
two-front war in the event of hostilities, while Russia sought help in order to counterbalance the Austrian
threat. Consequently, Germany and Austria-Hungary became natural bedfellows. They recruited the
Ottoman Empire based in Turkey to neutralize Russia, with the promise of regaining lost Balkan territories
used as a carrot.
5. The Catalyst. The Balkans had become a tinder box, as both Austria and Russia had designs on the
region. When the heir to the Austrian throne was assassinated in Bosnia in 1914, Austria reacted harshly,
resulting in war. Serbia was prepared to concede to Austria, but Russia made a strong showing of
support, giving it courage to standup to Austria. Austria then declared war, and all the treaties and
alliances were triggered, initiating The Great War (WWI).
#1 - RE P L Y - 0 2 /1 3 /2 0 1 3 - 0 7 :2 7

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June 28 in Sarajevo
We'll start with the facts and work back: it may make it all the easier to understand how World War One
actually happened. The events of July and early August 1914 are a classic case of "one thing led to
another" - otherwise known as the treaty alliance system.
The explosive that was World War One had been long in the stockpiling; the spark was the assassination
of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. (Click
here to view film footage of Ferdinand arriving at Sarajevo's Town Hall on 28 June 1914.)
Ferdinand's death at the hands of the Black Hand, a Serbian nationalist secret society, set in train a
mindlessly mechanical series of events that culminated in the world's first global war.
Austria-Hungary's Reaction
Austria-Hungary's reaction to the death of their heir (who was in any case not greatly beloved by the
Emperor, Franz Josef, or his government) was three weeks in coming. Arguing that the Serbian
government was implicated in the machinations of the Black Hand (whether she was or not remains
unclear, but it appears unlikely), the Austro-Hungarians opted to take the opportunity to stamp its
authority upon the Serbians, crushing the nationalist movement there and cementing Austria-Hungary's
influence in the Balkans.
It did so by issuing an ultimatum to Serbia which, in the extent of its demand that the assassins be
brought to justice effectively nullified Serbia's sovereignty. Sir Edward Grey, the British Foreign
Secretary, was moved to comment that he had "never before seen one State address to another
independent State a document of so formidable a character."
Austria-Hungary's expectation was that Serbia would reject the remarkably severe terms of the
ultimatum, thereby giving her a pretext for launching a limited war against Serbia.
However, Serbia had long had Slavic ties with Russia, an altogether different proposition for AustriaHungary. Whilst not really expecting that Russia would be drawn into the dispute to any great extent
other than through words of diplomatic protest, the Austro-Hungarian government sought assurances
from her ally, Germany, that she would come to her aid should the unthinkable happen and Russia
declared war on Austria-Hungary.
Germany readily agreed, even encouraged Austria-Hungary's warlike stance. Quite why we'll come back
to later.
One Thing Led to Another
So then, we have the following remarkable sequence of events that led inexorably to the 'Great War' - a
name that had been touted even before the coming of the conflict.
#2 - s pamamn - 0 3 /0 1 /2 0 1 3 - 0 7 :5 5

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Name

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REVIEW
CALIFORNIA CONTENT
STANDARD 10.7.1

Causes and Consequences


of the Russian Revolution

Specific Objective: Understand the causes and consequences of the Russian


Revolution, including Lenins use of totalitarian means to seize and maintain control.
Read the summaries to answer questions on the next page.

Copyright McDougal Littell/Houghton Mifflin Company

The Russian Revolution


The Russian Revolution is dated to November 1917 (October 1917 on the Russian
calendar), when Bolshevik Party forces took over the government offices in Petrograd.
However, the problems that led toward revolution had been developing for generations.
The revolutions consequences, too, were far-reachingthe Communist Party, which
formed to lead post-revolutionary Russia, remained in power until 1991.
Causes
Widespread suffering under autocracya form of government in which one
person, in this case the czar, has absolute power
Weak leadership of Czar Nicholas IIclung to autocracy despite changing times
Poor working conditions, low wages, and hazards of industrialization
New revolutionary movements that believed a worker-run government should
replace czarist rule
Russian defeat in the Russo-Japanese War (1905), which led to rising unrest
Bloody Sunday, the massacre of unarmed protestors outside the palace, in 1905
Devastation of World War Ihigh casualties, economic ruin, widespread hunger
The March Revolution in 1917, in which soldiers who were brought in for crowd
control ultimately joined labor activists in calling Down with the autocracy!
Consequences
The government is taken over by the Bolshevik Party, led by V. I. Lenin; later, it
will be known as the Communist Party.
Farmland is distributed among farmers, and factories are given to workers.
Banks are nationalized and a national council is assembled to run the economy.
Russia pulls out of World War I, signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, conceding
much land to Germany.
Czarist rule ends. Nicholas II, his wife and five children are executed.
Civil war, between Bolshevik (red) and anti-Bolshevik (white) forces, sweeps
Russia from 1918 to 1920. Around 15 million die in conflict and the famine
The Russian economy is in shambles. Industrial production drops, trade all but
ceases, and skilled workers flee the country.
Lenin asserts his control by cruel methods such as the Gulag, a vast and brutal
network of prison camps for both criminals and political prisoners.

CSS Specific Objective 10.7.1: Review 73

wh10ec.PG73-78.indd 73

2/17/05 3:53:29 PM

Name

Date

PRACTICE
CALIFORNIA CONTENT
STANDARD 10.7.1

Causes and Consequences


of the Russian Revolution

Directions: Choose the letter of the best answer.


One factor that led to the Russian
Revolution was
A

problems associated with


industrialization.

civil war between red and white


forces.

nationalization of the banking


industry.

the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.

labor activists.

revolutionaries.

prison camps.

worker-owned factories.

Which event was a direct result of


the Russian Revolution?
A

The Russian economy rebounded.

Who was the leader of the


Bolsheviks?

Factory workers began to demand


their rights.

Nicholas II

Karl Marx

Russia was defeated in the


Russo-Japanese War.

V. I. Lenin

Russia pulled out of World War I.

Joseph Stalin

6
3

The Gulag was a network of

After the Russian Revolution, the


czar and his family were
A

exiled to Siberia.

executed by revolutionaries.

figureheadspolitical figures with no


actual power.

advisers to Russias first parliament.

Which statement best describes


conditions surrounding the March
Revolution of 1917?
A

Lenin was concerned about


competition from other
revolutionaries.

Support for revolutionary activity was


increasing.

Peace with Germany was considered


more important than keeping
territory.

The czar would stop at nothing to


protect the autocracy.

Copyright McDougal Littell/Houghton Mifflin Company

74 CSS Specific Objective 10.7.1: Practice

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The Age Of Reason, The Enlightenment


And Deism
In university courses on philosophy and history, they refer to the Age of Reason, the
Age of Enlightenment and the philosophy of Deism. The Age of Reason covers the 1600s and
1700s A.D. and the Age of Enlightenment relates to the 1700s and possibly early 1800s.
There is some overlapping in time and ideas among these two eras. But there also are
distinctions between them. Deism was a religious philosophy closely associated with both the
Age of Reason and the Enlightenment.

The Age of Reason


The Age of Reason refers to the period in European, British and American history in
which the rationalist philosophies of Rene Descartes (1596-1650), Gottfried Leibnitz (16461716), Bendedict de Spinoza (1632-1677) and Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) were major
influences in the universities and among the highly educated and ruling classes of Europe,
Britain and the United States.
Each of these philosophers believed in God but their primary emphasis was on human
reason.
Spinoza taught that1:
a)
b)
c)
d)

supernatural events do not occur.


our only knowledge comes from human reason and not from revelation from God.
our emphasis should be on nature and not on God.
in the realm of ethics and morals, the highest good is equated with our human
understanding or reason and humans must conform to the concept of natural law or natural
justice. In other words, what humans decided with their human reason was right is right
and was wrong is wrong.

From these ideas developed the non-Christian philosophies of Deism, secular humanism
and natural law ethics. Even though the Romanticist philosophers of the late 1700s and early
1800s did not support rationalism, they found Spinozas teachings on ethics and nature
attractive. 2
The rationalists not only opposed the idea that truth can be obtained by revelation from
God through the Bible. They also attacked the empiricist philosophy of 1700s to 1900s which
stated that truth is obtained only through the experiences of the physical senses.

1
2

Walter Elwell (editor), Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, Baker, Grand Rapids, 1984, page 1041.
Ibid.

The Age of Enlightenment


The Age of Enlightenment had its roots in the philosophy of rationalism which was
taught by Descartes, Spinoza, Leibnitz and others, but it went beyond these. Here are some of
the main features of the so-called Age of Enlightenment3:
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

When discussing What is Enlightenment?, one of the leaders of the Enlightenment, Kant
stated that it was the emergence of the human race from a state of immaturity to a state of
maturity. Kant described immaturity as relying on authorities like the Bible, the Church
and the State to tell us what to think and do. Maturity was using our own God-given reason
and understanding to decide what to think and how to act. Kant said it was an offence to
God-given human nature to think and act as the Bible, Church or State commands and
instructs us.
The Enlightenment philosophers stated that because humans possessed the wonderful Godimparted gift of reason, there was no limit to how far the human race could progress. The
advances in science and technology at the time seemed to confirm this idea.
The leaders of the Enlightenment said that human reason indicated there were certain
natural rights that each human has. Examples of these are life, justice, liberty, equality,
property, security and the pursuit of happiness.
While many of these values have a Biblical base, the followers of the Enlightenment often
defined these in ways contrary to the Bibles teachings. For example, their definitions of
the concepts of liberty, justice and equality justified various types of wickedness in relation
to sex and easy divorce. Their concept of the pursuit of happiness quickly degenerated into
a worship of both God-given pleasures and evil perverted usages of these.
The philosophers of the Enlightenment taught rightly that God did not appoint kings and
queens with the absolute right to command their subjects to do whatever the kings or
queens chose. This was an attack on the European idea of the divine right of kings to rule.
The Enlightenment philosophers did not agree with many of the teachings of the Bible, but
instead followed the teachings of deism. Deism acknowledged Gods existence but taught
that humans should choose their own morals, ethics and customs according to the logic of
their human reason and in accord with the subjective concept of natural justice.
The philosophers of the Enlightenment formulated various humanistic goals or ends for
society and taught that the means of achieving these goals must be determined by human
reason and not by the Bible.
The Enlightenment philosophers taught their followers to also worship modern sciences
study of nature. They also stated that the universe was like a machine governed by natural
laws which can be discovered by human reason. They said that God had originally created
the universe and had given it the laws of nature, but He had left it like a machine to run
itself. This why they argued that God does not perform miracles in the natural realm. They
believed that if God performed miracles, this would have undermined the supposedly
unchangeable natural laws He had originally determined. Another result of such thinking
was the Enlightenment philosophers regarded the human body as a machine with natural
laws governing it which could supposedly only be properly discovered and dealt with by

Ibid, pages 355-356.

male doctors. The Enlightenment philosophers assumed males had the superior faculties of
reason and logic to females, making males and not females suitable to be doctors.
8. One of the leaders of the Enlightenment was the Frenchman, Jean Jacques Rousseau (17121778 A.D.) He was a deist and humanist. He attacked the Biblical teaching on the Fall of
Man. He believed that all humans are born basically good, but their wickedness is caused
by the corruption of society and by religion, especially Christianity.
Rousseau taught that children should be educated separate from the supposed evil
influences of the church. He also said children should be allowed to follow their own
natural desires and not be forced by teachers or parents into learning various types of
predetermined thoughts and behaviours. He said that teachers were to facilitate the childs
free inquiry about what was true, right and wrong. Teachers were not to teach children that
some things were absolutely true, right and wrong.
Like other Deists, Rousseau taught that God exists. But he qualified this by saying that we
should test all beliefs and ethics by our own human reason and conscience, and not by the
Bible.
Rousseau put his own anti-Christian beliefs into practice in that each time he got his
mistress pregnant, he convinced her to leave the babies in a type of orphanage where nearly
every resident child died.
9. Francois Voltaire (1694-1778) was another French leader of the Enlightenment. He was a
Deist. Therefore he believed in God but rejected most of the teachings of the Bible. He
urged tolerance of all religions except the Christian Church. His slogan against the Church
was: Blot out the infamous one.
10. The Enlightenment had some good effects. For example, it challenged the unbiblical
teaching about the supposed God-given right of kings and queens to do whatever they
wished. Such wicked teachings were the political foundations in France and Austria up
until the French Revolution in 1789 and the 1848 revolutions in Europe.
11. But the Enlightenment had many evil effects. It:
a)
b)

c)
d)
e)

led millions of its followers into rejecting Jesus Christ and His teachings.
taught millions in Europe, Britain, the United States and Canada to determine their
ethics or morals by the reasonings of their own human mind and/or by what they
believed their consciences were saying. Because most people in Europe and the above
nations rejected the Bible as the source of their morals in the 1700s and early 1800s,
these were times of dreadful wickedness in these places. The United States had
generally better ethical standards in the early 1700s because of the influence of the
Puritans and other sincere Christians who colonised there in the late 1600s and because
of the Great Awakening revival associated with George Whitefield and Jonathon
Edwards. But by the late 1700s, the United States had declined greatly morally and
socially.
laid the foundation for the French Revolution which replaced the tyranny and evil of the
dictatorial French kings with the similar wickedness of the French revolutionaries.
laid the foundation for the dictatorship of Napoleon in France and for his constant
dreadful wars throughout Europe.
encouraged the spread of the cult of Freemasonary throughout many countries. The
Freemasons religious philosophy fitted in well generally with the thinking of the

f)
g)

Enlightenment with its emphasis on God but rejection of Jesus Christ and many of the
teachings of the Bible.
led to millions beginning to worship science.
deceived multitudes into imagining they are basically good people who can bring about
the almost unlimited progress of the human race in every area. The latter philosophy
experienced revivals in times of peace in the 1800s and 1900s. But during the
Napoleonic Wars, the First World War and the Second World War, this philosophy was
shown to be foolish.

Deism
Deism was a very popular religious movement which began in England in the mid
1600s and spread later to Europe and North America. Deism4:
1.
2.

3.

4.

taught that God exists and should be worshipped.


claimed that true religious and ethical teachings did not come from the Scriptures or from
the Church but instead was acquired through the use of God-given human reason. As a
result, Deists rejected many basic Christian Biblical teachings and moral standards because
they believed these were not confirmed by human reason and scientific research.
taught that after God created the universe, He no longer directly intervened in its workings.
As a result, Deists said that He does not perform miracles. On the basis of the teaching of
Isaac Newton (1642-1747) that the universe is governed by God-given natural laws, the
Deists theorised that the universe is a machine with natural laws that even God never
changes or suspends.
applied the new scientific method or inductive method 5 of Francis Bacon (1561-1626) to
religion and morals. Previously Christians had obtained their beliefs and morals from the
Bible and/or the proclamations of the Catholic, Anglican or other churches and/or the
logical deductions of their human reason. 6 But the Deists said all beliefs and ethics must
be tested by repeated supposedly scientific experiments and social research which
examined whether the belief or ethics were true. This sounded so objective but was actually
very subjective. Those doing this research often ended up proving their own beliefs and
ethics which suited their own evil inner desires.
It is no co-incidence that the spread of Deism and the associated philosophies of
rationalism and empiricism in the late 1600s and 1700s was accompanied by one of the
most wicked and immoral periods in the history of Europe and Britain. It was a period in
which crime, drunkenness, sexual immorality, pornography, stealing, the murder of
newborn and little children, immodest attitudes to exposing breasts and genitals and a lack
of concern for the poor abounded.

Elwell, Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, pages 304-305 and Cairns, pages 406-411.
Inductive method refers to testing and experimenting with many specific examples in order to work out general
principles or theories about what is true.
6
I personally do not believe our beliefs and morals can be determined on the basis of the decisions of church
denominations or the logical deductions of Christians. Churches should aim to teach what the Scriptures instruct and
command.

5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

16.

17.
18.

deny the Trinity, the God-given authority of the Bible, the incarnation of Jesus Christ, the
atonement of Christ on behalf of fallen humans, the resurrection of Christ and the reality of
being born-again of the Holy Spirit.
taught that Christ was a good moral teacher but not God.
claimed that God was gentle, loving and kind but never would exercise vengeance in
judgment.
stated that the human soul was immortal and would be rewarded or punished on the basis
of good works.
taught that all religions were basically the same.
stated that tolerance of all religions was a prime virtue.
said that it was wrong to be enthusiastic about any religion. Lord Shaftesburys Letter
Concerning Enthusiasm written in 1708 especially spread this idea.
claimed that their logic and scientific research showed that humans are basically good and
can progress towards perfection in all areas of living through their own natural abilities.
began what is called in university circles the higher criticism of the Bible.
co-operated with Christians in many humanitarian projects to help needy people. The
Deists believed in doing certain types of good works and being kind to others.
was taught in England by leaders like Lord Herbert of Cherbury (1583-1648), Lord
Shaftesbury (1671-1713), John Toland (1670-1722) and David Hume (1711-1776).
Between about the mid-1600s and the end of the 1700s, Deism dominated the ruling
upper classes in England who greatly influenced the laws made through Parliament and the
King.
spread to Germany through translation of Lord Shaftesburys writings. German Deists were
Leibnitz, Reimarus, Lessing and Kant. Reimarus was the person who initiated the liberal
pursuit of trying to find an historical Jesus who was supposedly not God but only a great
moral teacher. 7
spread to France through the influence of Deists like Voltaire, Rousseau and Denis Diderot
(1713-1784).
spread to North America through the influence of the Deists Tom Paine, Voltaire,
Rousseau, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin and George Washington.

A mixture of truth and myth


Many Americans pride themselves on their claim that America was founded as a
Christian country. There is a strong element of truth in this in the fact that many of the migrants
who came to North America in the 1600s and early 1700s, were committed Christians.
But note that by the late 1700s when the Unites States became an independent selfruling nation, its ethical standards, laws and Constitution were based more on the teachings of
the heretical movement called Deism than on the teachings of Jesus Christ and the Bible.
The Evangelical Dictionary of Theology records the following about prominent
American Deists in the 1700s: Among great Americans who considered themselves deists were
Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson and George Washington.
7
8

Elwell, page 356.


Ibid, page 304.

Note that Benjamin Franklin, George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, were three of
the most important American politicians in the late 1700s who helped to establish what were
the features of the American national government, national laws and the American Constitution.
Benjamin Franklin was President of the American state from 1783 the year the British
surrendered in the War of American Independence to 1788. In 1788, George Washington
became the first elected President of the United States and was re-elected against his will in
1792. In 1801, Thomas Jefferson became the third President of the United States and was reelected in 1805. He retired in 1809.
Note that the Evangelical Dictionary of Theology states: By the end of the eighteenth
century, deism had become a dominant religious attitude among intellectual and upper-class
9
Americans. Deisms ethical or moral standards were derived from the religious reasonings of

the human mind and not from the revealed written Word of God. Therefore, the ethical
standards which underlay the Constitution and most of the national laws of the United States in
the late 1700s and early 1800s were based on the religious reasonings of the pagan-Christian
cult of Deism mixed with a few Biblical standards.

Ibid, page 305.

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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 3.24 Compare and contrast Hitler and Mussolini's FP

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3.24 Compare and contrast Hitler and Mussolini's FP


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Compare and contrast Hitler and Mussolini's domestic policies


Past Questions:
Paper 3
Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Hitler and Mussolini.
MARKSCHEME NOTES
Key Dates:

1922 Mussolini comes to power in Italy


1933 Hitler comes to power in Germany, takes Germany out of the League of Nations
1934 Mussolini deters Hitler from seizing control of Austria by sending troops to the
Brenner Pass
1935 The Stresa Front: Mussolini forms a bloc with France and Britain against Germany
1935 Anglo-German Naval Agreement: Hitler breaks up the Stresa Front by reaching a
deal with Britain regarding German naval expansion
1936-39 Spanish Civil War: Mussolini and Hitler give their support to Franco
1936 Rome-Berlin Axis: Mussolini formally aligns Fascist Italy with Nazi Germany
1938 Mussolini offers no resistance when Hitler announces the Anschluss of Austria with
Germany
1939 Pact of Steel: Mussolini commits Italy to supporting Germany should war break out,
even if Germany is the aggressor
1940 Mussolini brings Italy into World War Two on the side of Nazi Germany
1943 Mussolini falls from power in Italy
1945 Mussolini is murdered; Hitler commits suicide
Introduction:
Foreign policy was absolutely central to the thinking and rule of the two dominant fascist dictators of
interwar Europe, Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler. Both leaders rose to power, at least in part, by
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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 3.24 Compare and contrast Hitler and Mussolini's FP

exploiting nationalist resentment towards the perceived injustices of the Paris Peace Settlements: with
Mussolini coming to power in 1922 in Italy, while Hitler became Chancellor a decade later in 1933 in
Germany. Putting into place an aggressive foreign policy was for both leaders a fulfillment of their radical
fascist and Nazi ideologies, and also a means of trying to increase support and popularity for their
regimes domestically. Looking at the foreign policies of the two leaders at a broad level, the most
obvious contrast is that Hitler, in power for considerably less time than Mussolini, conducted his policies
over a much shorter time scale. However, in both cases it was over-ambitious foreign policies that
ultimately led to the leaders' downfall and the collapse of their much-vaunted new empires of ideology.
This essay will compare and contrast the foreign policies of the two dictators, and argue that though
there are many common features between them, Hitler's policies tended to be more focused on
achieving pure 'power' while Mussolini was driven by a desire to increase the 'prestige' of Italy, and
himself, in the eyes of the world.
Running Comparison: key similarities with nuances
Aims and planning
Both leaders based their respective foreign policies on opposition to the Paris Peace
Settlements, with a shared grievance against the failure to apply Wilson's principle of selfdetermination. Uniting all German speakers for Hitler, and Italian speakers for Mussolini, was
foundational for their thinking on foreign policy.
Both leaders also put forward a radical fascist ideology that put great stress on national
expansion and military strength as proof of national vitality and strength in the international arena.
Their respective societies were to be militarised - in term of re-armament, and the spreading of
militaristic values to the youngest ages - in preparation for war and in pursuit of national
conquest.
Historians have struggled to agree on how far both leaders had clear foreign policy aims and
plans for action. Though A.J.P. Taylor dismissed Hitler's plans for world-domination as mere 'day
dreams' and instead argued that he was an opportunist, Hitler consistently pursued his aims to
over-turn Versailles and assert Germany as the dominant power in Central Europe throughout the
1930s. Mussolini, on the other hand, may have wished to make Italy "great, respected and
feared", but the economic weakness of Italy determined that he was almost a pure opportunist in
foreign policy decisions. He may have wished to become the dominant power in the
Mediterranean, but there is at least some truth in A.J.P. Taylor's view of him as "a vain,
blundering boaster without either ideas or aims."
Aggressively expansionist policies
Both leaders put their rhetoric about aggressive foreign policy into action, though Hitler did this
over a more concentrated period of time in a more focused and coherent manner.
Hitler and Nazi Germany: 1936, re-miltarised the Rhineland; 1938, anschluss with Austria, and
Sudetenland; 1939, Czechoslovakia and Poland. Thus persistently overturning the losses inflicted
upon Germany after the Versailles settlement in 1919.
Mussolini and Fascist Italy: 1923, Corfu incident with Greece; 1924, port of Fiume obtained from
Yugoslavia; 1926, puppet-state set up in Albania, to strengthen Italy's hold over the
Mediterranean; 1935, invasion of Abyssinia; 1939, invasion of Albania.
Ideological intervention in the Spanish Civil War
With the increasingly clear ideological divide that emerged in the 1930s, between liberal
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democracy in the West, communism in the USSR and fascism in Italy, Germany and Japan,
both Hitler and Mussolini were prepared to make a stand for their ideological opposition to
Communism and support Franco in his struggle against the Popular Front to gain control of the
Spanish state in 1936. In this way, both leaders actively intervened in the Spanish Civil War in
support of fascism.
Nature of support - Hitler: helped to airlift Franco and his troops to mainland Spain in July 1936,
offered air-support via testing out his new luftwaffe and military supplies to Franco's nationalists;
Mussolini: gave the greatest amount of foreign support, in the form of 75,000 troops, planes,
tanks and weapons supplied to Franco to assist the nationalist war effort.
However, a key contrast between Hitler and Mussolini's foreign policies can be identified through
considering their differing motivations for supporting Franco. For Hitler, a central concern was with
increasing his economic power. He thus supplied Franco with military materials in return for an
agreement that gained him access to 75% of Spain's ores - key natural resources that Hitler
needed to prepare for war. Mussolini, on the other hand, was more concerned simply with
'prestige', i.e. being seen by the rest of the world to be playing an important part in support of the
fascist fight against communism and the left. He had little in terms of economic aims, and he
made no economic benefits as a result of his intervention. This neatly shows what Russel Tarr
has highlighted as Hitler's focus on power vs Mussolini's focus on prestige - an important
difference that undermines the apparent similarities between the two dictator's policies.

Running Comparison: key differences with nuances


Nature of Empire
While both Hitler and Mussolini sought to embark upon imperialist ventures, the nature of their
respective imperial projects differed importantly.
Hitler's drive for lebensraum in the East was based upon the Nazi's carefully developed racial
theories, which also included an important economic element. According to Hitler's vision of the
Aryan 'master race', the Slavic races of the East were intrinsically inferior to Germans and it was
therefore in the natural order of things that they should be absorbed into the Third Reich as slave
labour to work the land and provide food for the Motherland. Hitler's imperial expansion, like his
intervention in the Spanish civil war, was clearly intended to increase the economic power base of
Germany as the dominant power in Central Europe (i.e. Austria's key natural resources, the
Skoda arms factory in the Sudetenland), and this economic justification for empire rested on a
clear racial classification of fellow German speakers, and thus Aryans (in Austria and the
Sudetenland), and the inferior slavs in the East.
If Hitler's imperial policy thus rested, as Hugh Trevor-Roper stressed, on a radically new idea of
race, Mussolini's imperial thinking remained firmly backwards looking in its reliance on ideas that
developed in the late nineteenth-century 'scramble for Africa'. Hitler was fuelled by his idea of an
inevitable struggle between different races and the biological superiority of the aryans, but
Mussolini had no clearly-defined theory of race beyond the vague idea of European superiority
over Africans commonly shared among non-fascist colonial powers such as France and Britain.
And where Hitler had wanted lebensraum in order to get clear economic benefits, Mussolini's
colonial policy in Abyssinia was based more upon the desire to boost Italian prestige in the eyes
of the world. A key factor motivating Mussolini's decision to invade just Abyssinia in 1935 was
shaped by his wish to seek revenge for the defeat Italy had suffered there in 1896, suggesting
nationalist pride was of far more importance than any desire for economic gain (and of course
Italy's imperial adventures in Africa did very little to achieve any economic power for Mussolini, in
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striking contrast to Hitler's policy.)


Relations with the Western powers and 'collective security'
Though Hitler withdrew Germany from the League of Nations in 1933, in feigned disgust at the
failure of the Western powers to honour their earlier disarmament pledges, Mussolini had a more
ambiguous relationship with the Western powers and the concept of 'collective security'. Indeed,
as the Stresa Pact of 1934 with Britain and France suggests Mussolini was at first concerned to
work together with the Allies in the face of the potential threat posed by the newly-elected Hitler.
Alone amongst the European powers, Mussolini actually used military force to stand up to Hitler
by sending troops to the Austrian border to prevent Hitler's early attempt at anschluss in 1934.
So initially at least, Mussolini seemed to be siding with Britain and France, and thus by inference
the League of Nations, against Hitler and Nazi Germany.
It was only after Britain and France refused to grant Mussolini his claims to Abyssinia, and the
joint experience of supporting Franco in the Spanish Civil War, that Mussolini turned towards
Hitler and formalised this allegiance with the Rome-Berlin Axis of 1936. In part this was a result of
Mussolini's disappointments over the British betrayal of the Stresa Pact, and the Abyssinian
crisis, but it also reflected his opportunism and pragmatism in as far as by 1936 he judged that
the balance of power lay in Hitler's hands and not the appeasers. So while Hitler was fairly
consistent in departing from the League and carefully pursuing his aims in contravention of the
Allies, Mussolini swapped sides and followed a more opportunistic line of allegiances.
Foreign policy consistency and the lead up to WWII
While historians continue to disagree about the consistency of Hitler's war aims, it is possible to
agree with Hugh Trevor-Roper that Hitler's policies from 1936 onwards followed a clear line
towards war. Indeed, the thrust of the Hossbach memorandum, 1937, from a meeting between
Hitler and his generals, is that Germany needed to provoke, fight and win the war for European
supremacy before his opponents had the time to increase their military strengths. In this sense, it
can make sense to state that though Hitler might not have expected this war to break out over
just Poland in 1939 he was in general seeking such a war.
Such a determined and clear direction was, on the other hand, clearly missing from Mussolini.
Though he had signed the 'pact of steel' with Hitler in 1939, pledging to support Germany in the
event of any future war regardless of the circumstances, when the Second World War broke out
in September over the issue of Polish independence Mussolini was unwilling to honour this
agreement. Instead, and in contrast to all of his bold rhetoric, Mussolini kept Italy out of the war
initially claiming military unpreparedness. Though this point about military weakness may well be
true, Mussolini's failure to keep to the terms of the agreement hint at a level of uncertainty almost
entirely lacking from the terrifying determination of Hitler. Here we see a vital distinction between
the foreign policies of the two fascist leaders: Hitler the single-minded seeker of power economic, military and diplomatic - and Mussolini the undecided opportunist - hoping to boost
Italian prestige and create the new Roman empire, but restricted by military and economic
weakness and his indecision (delightfully shown in Louis de Berniere's wonderful portrayal of him
in the novel Captain Corelli's Mandolin from the mid-1990s).
Resources:
Russell Tarr essay in History today: 'The foreign policies of Hitler and Mussolini' (2009), on
questia here: link
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SCIENTIFIC ADVANCEMENTS OF THE 19TH CENTURY


I.

Background to New Scientific Advancements


A. General Remarks
1. with publication of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species
a. Victorians shattered with their ideas of
(1) God's in his heaven: all's right with the world concept
2. time of revolutionary changes that precipitated enormous cultural & scientific discoveries & changes

II. New Scientific Advancements - Geology


A. Neptunist & Volcanists
1. Neptunists discussed biblical account of Noah's flood
2. said earth much older than 6000 years
3. Volcanists said mountains formed by molten rock bubbling up & hardening weathering then broke rock
down & built soil
a. slowly eroding mountains to hills
B. Charles Lyell 1797-1875
1. Englishman
2. maintained earth far older than biblical story of Genesis
3. all geological formations subject to natural forces of wind & water
a. over hundreds of thousands even millions of years
4. discovery of fossils
a. seemed to indicate earth millions rather than thousands years old
5. a Philip Gosse suggested God had planted fossils in rocks to test our faith
6. other Victorians rebelled at idea of such deception
a. dismissing it as unsporting on God's part
7. most educated people accepted Lyell's theory
8. leading many to wonder if same might be true of animal kingdom - evolving over time too
9. Principles of Geology
a. organic Evolution
III. New Scientific Advancements - Biology
A. Jean Baptist Lamarck
1. French naturalist
2. suggested theory of biological evolution decades earlier than Darwin
a. through inheritance acquired characteristics developed
3. but he unable to assemble persuasive evidence to buttress his claims
B. Charles Darwin 1809-1892
1. first to offer plausible explanation of process
2. naturalist
3. he succeeded as he had immense accumulation of data to support his hypothesis
4. over 25 years of it
5. most everyone before Darwin shared common belief
a. immutability of species
b. world same now as had ever been
c. called "argument for design"
d. God had preplanned animals with certain characteristics
C. Charles Darwin 1809-1982
1. trained for ministry at Cambridge & medicine at Edinburgh
a. but not successful either place
b. lousy student
2. interest in hunting & collecting beatles
3. in desperate attempt for father to make something of his son
a. arranged for Darwin to sail on Beagle on 5 year voyage
b. as a naturalist

2
(1) study of animal & plant life
c. while gone gathered plant & animal specimens in South America & islands
4. returned home & spent 25 years in research
5. not to 20 years after voyage he published his findings
a. Origin of Species in 1959
D. Darwin's Discoveries
1. fossils he collected demonstrated earth far older than theologians & geologists willing to admit
a. church said world 6000 years old
2. Darwin's discoveries about continual appearance of new species
a. whose survive depended on arbitrary environmental factors
b. seemed to deny Judeo-Christian idea of unified creation guided by God
3. Mankind no more than recent link in chain of species
a. a product of blind natural forces or selection
4. Not God but natural selection had created mankind
5. Origin of Species
a. formulated theory of evolution base don survival of the fittest
b. sold out completely 1st day of publication
c. Darwin anticipating major arguments against his theories
d. had postulated them & answered them
6. Darwin did not originate evolutionary theory
a. but he first to scientifically formulate & prove it
7. By a remarkable coincidence, another English naturalist
a. Alfred R. Wallace 1823-1913
(1) working independently
(2) arrived at same conclusion as Darwin at same time
8. only after 1900 when work on hereditary of the Austrian monk Gregor Mendel received public attention
a. did mystery of those variations begin to be unraveled
E. Descent of Man 1871
1. applied theory of evolution to man
2. maintained man & anthropoid apes had descended from earlier common ancestor
3. Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin
F. Effects of Darwin's works
1. tremendous explosive effect on society
2. his ideas frightened & unsettled his contemporaries
3. people said he removed God from biological order of creation
a. & this threatened moral order of society
4. in mid-Victoria era, Darwinism was worse than Satanism
5. His theories meant that people closer to beasts than angels
6. led to decline in literal interpretation & belief in the Bible
7. became popularized & in vogue in late 19th c. to justify people's beliefs outside natural history of fossils
a. atheists
(1) cited Darwin's research as evidence God could not exist
b. communism
(1) used in defense of revolution by Karl Marx & subsequent marxists
c. imperialism
(1) justification of white man's burden concept
d. racism
(1) justified maintained of white supremacy
(a) most superior nationality - Anglo-Saxons
e. anti-semitism
(1) anti-Jewish
(2) leading to Zionism
(a) Jewish nationalist movement
f. justification of war to eliminate inferior beings
g. summary

3
(1) white race superior to black race
(2) non-Jews superior to Jews
(3) rich superior to poor
(4) British Empire superior to her colonists
8. even Darwin became non-believer
G. Celebrated debate on evolution
1. Darwin's ideas defended & popularized by Thomas Huxley
a. especially in famous debate with Bishop of Oxford, Samuel Wilberforce
b. Bishop made mistake of trying to turn Darwin into a joke
c. He inquired of audience if anyone was willing to trace his descent from an ape
(1) & if so whether through his grandmother or grandfather
d. Huxley rejoined that only ancestor of which he would feel ashamed of was a man like Bishop
(1) who so misused his talents to make light of such a serious issue
e. as consequence Huxley called Darwin's bulldog
2. Thomas Huxley 1825-1895
a. while he did not reject possibility of supernatural power
b. said no evidence of existence of God
c. Said Christianity compound of some of best & some of worst elements of paganism & judaism
d. thus coining word agnosticism
(1) neither existence nor nature of God nor ultimate character of universe is knowable

WORLD WAR I & ITS AFTERMATH


I.

LINE-UP OF THE BELLIGERENTS


A. ALLIES
1. GB, FR, BELGIUM, RUSSIA, GREECE, RUMANIA, JAPAN, ITALY, 14 OTHER NATIONS, US IN
1917
a. ITALY PULLS OUT OF TRIPLE ALLIANCE
(1) REMAINS NEUTRAL FOR A YR THEN GOES IN ON SIDE OF ALLIES
(2) QUIP FROM CHURCHILL
2. ADVANTAGES
a. APPROXIMATELY 2 TO 1 IN MANPOWER & RESOURCES, PLUS NAVAL SUPERIORITY
b. 40 MILLION MEN MOBILIZED VS 21 MILLION FOR CENTRAL POWERS
3. STRATEGY
a. FORCE GERMANY TO FIGHT ON 2 FRONTS SIMULTANEOUSLY
b. FRANCE TO ATTACK ALSACE LORRAINE ON WESTERN FRONT
c. RUSSIA TO ATTACK EAST PRUSSIA ON EASTERN FRONT
B. CENTRAL POWERS
1. GERMANY, AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, TURKEY, BULGARIA
2. ADVANTAGES
a. SUPERIOR GERMAN ARMY EXERCISING UNITY OF COMMAND
b. GEOGRAPHICAL ADVANTAGE OF GREATER MOBILITY ALONG THE CENTRAL AREA
c. INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF GERMANY
(1) BY 1ST OF 20TH C GERMANY SURPASSED GB
(2) WHEN WAR BROKE OUT 2ND LARGEST INDUSTRIAL NATION IN WORLD
(a) CLOSE BEHIND U.S.
3. STRATEGY
a. SCHLIEFFEN PLAN
b. CHIEF OF GENERAL STAFF 1891-1906
c. CHANGED IT, PERFECTED IT, ELABORATED ON IT AND EMBELLISHED IT RIGHT UP TO
HIS DEATH
(1) ON DYING LIPS 1913 KEEP RIGHT STRONG
d. KNEW HE WOULD HAVE TO FIGHT FR & RUS
e. COULD FIGHT A WAR BACK TO BACK BUT NOT SIMULTANEOUSLY ON 2 FRONTS
f. FIGURED IT WOULD TAKE 6 WKS FOR RUSSIA TO MOBILIZE
g. SO HAD 6 WEEKS TO KNOCK OUT FRANCE
(1) REMEMBER HOW QUICK FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR
h. PLAN TO GO THROUGH NEUTRAL BELGIUM NOT FRONTAL ATTACK ON FRANCE
(1) SCHLIEFFEN FELT FRANCE'S NETWORK OF FRONTIER FORTRESSES IMPREGNABLE
i. CONCENTRATE GER STRENGTH ON RIGHT WING OF ARMY FACING FRANCE
j. AIMING FOR PARIS
k. WHEN MOLTKE TOOK OVER CHANGED RATIO 3 TO 1
(1) HAD BEEN 9/10 TO 1/10

II. IMPORTANT BATTLES & THEIR CONSEQUENCES


A. GENERAL REMARKS
1. EVENTUALLY THE WAR WAS FOUGHT ON VARIOUS "FRONTS" THROUGHOUT EUROPE
a. WESTERN FRONT, EASTERN FRONT, ITALIAN FRONT, BALKAN FRONTS,
DARDANELLES,
b. PLUS NEAR EAST & COLONIES,
c. & WAR AT SEA
2. FIRST THRUST WAS GERMANS THRU BELGIUM TO FRANCE
3. GERMANY ARMY ALMOST REACHED PARIS
a. THEY WERE ABLE TO SEE THE TOPS OF THE EIFFEL TOWER
4. BUT WERE THROWN BACK BY THE FRENCH IN THE 1ST BATTLE OF THE MARNE
B. BATTLE OF THE MARNE SEPT 5-9 1914

2
1. 1 OF MOST IMPORTANT BATTLES IN HISTORY
2. WHOEVER WOULD HAVE WON THIS BATTLE WOULD HAVE WON WAR
3. FRENCH ARMY OF ABOUT 4 MILLION WAS PRACTICALLY EQUAL IN SIZE TO GERMAN
ARMY
4. FRENCH NOT SURPRISED GERMANS CAME THROUGH BELGIUM
5. WHAT THEY DID NOT EXPECT WAS THE GERMANS WOULD IMMEDIATELY USE SO MANY
OF THEIR RESERVES AS FIRST-LINE TROOPS
a. GAVE GERMANS MORE EFFECTIVE MAN POWER
b. 11,000 BOXCARS LOADED W/GERMAN SOLDIERS
6. BUT NEITHER SIDE WON
C. SLAUGHTER OF THE TRENCHES
1. FR SOLDIERS SPONTANEOUSLY BEGAN TO DIG SHELTERS, THEN DEEP TRENCHES IN
BATTLE OF MARNE
2. BEFORE LONG THE ENTIRE WESTERN FRONT FROM BELGIAN SEACOAST TO VERDUN
WAS A MAZE OF TUNNELS, TRENCHES
a. OVER 300 MILES
b. THOUSANDS OF SOLDIERS FACED EACH OTHER
3. ASSAULTS BEGAN TO BE MEASURED IN YARDS INSTEAD OF MILES
4. IN FACT FRONT DID NOT MOVE IN EITHER DIRECTION MORE THAN 10 MILES FOR NEXT 3
YRS
5. PATTERN OF WAR SET IN ITS EARLY MONTHS
6. MURDEROUS TROOP SACRIFICES FOR TINY GAINS
a. LED TO ENORMOUS CASUALTIES
7. DURING FIRST 4 MONTHS OF TRENCH WARFARE OVER 1,600,000 CASUALTIES ON
WESTERN FRONT
8. SUPERIORITY OF DEFENSIVE WEAPONRY TURNED ATTACK INTO CERTAIN SLAUGHTER
9. NOTHING BEFORE OR SINCE HAS COME CLOSE TO THE DESTRUCTION, CARNAGE &
FUTILITY OF THE TRENCH WARFARE OF WWI
10. DEADLY FIREPOWER CONCENTRATED AT CLOSE RANGE
a. ONLY A FEW HUNDRED YARDS SEPARATED THE FRONT LINE TRENCHES OF THE
OPPOSING SIDES
11. WAS BACKED UP BY MASSIVE BARRAGES FROM HOWITZERS & HUGE KRUPP
EARTHQUAKE GUNS WHOSE SHELLS WEIGHED A TON APIECE
12. POISON GAS
a. 1ST USED IN 1915 CHOKED THOSE WHO ESCAPED THE ROCKETS & DAISY CUTTERS =
MACHINE GUNS WERE CALLED
13. MANY BROKE UNDER STRAIN & RUSHED OUT SUICIDALLY INTO THE FIRE ZONE
14. MUCH HAS BEEN WRITTEN ABOUT HORRIBLE CONDITIONS IN TRENCHES
15. ERICH MARIA REMARQUE'S NOVEL ALL QUIET ON THE WESTERN FRONT (1929)
a. MOST FAMOUS LITERARY WORK FROM WWI
b. GERMAN VETERAN OF TRENCHES HIMSELF
c. GRAPHICALLY DESCRIBED SLAUGHTER ROBBING EUROPE OF ITS YOUNG MEN
16. AT BATTLE OF SOMME JULY-NOV 1916 600,000 BRITISH & FR TROOPS DIED TO GAIN LESS
THAN TEN MILES OF GROUND
17. SEEING REMAINS OF CARNAGE RE BRITAIN'S SOMME OFFENSIVE ENGLISH POET SASSON
a. I AM STARING AT A SUNLIT PICTURE OF HELL
18. STALEMATE ON WESTERN FRONT LASTED FROM FALL OF 1914 UNTIL SPRING OF 1918 = 3
1/2 YRS
D. BATTLE OF TANNENBURG & MASURIAN LAKES
1. 29 AUG 1914 & SEPT 1914
2. MOST NB BATTLES ON EASTERN FRONT
3. GERMANY UP AGAINST RUSSIA
4. CALLED HINDENBURG TO COME RESCUE GERMANY
5. AREA IN EAST PRUSSIA SPECIAL TO GERMANY
a. GREAT PART OF OFFICERS IN GERMAN ARMY JUNKER FAMILIES HAD ESTATES IN

3
INVADED REGION
b. CRADLE OF PRUSSIAN MONARCHY
c. KAISER'S FAVORITE HUNTING LODGE LOCATED THERE
d. RUSSIA LOST BOTH BATTLES
6. BROUGHT FAME TO FORMERLY RETIRED GERMAN GEN VON HINDENBURG & CHIEF OF
STAFF GEN LUDENDORFF
7. RUSSIA HAD STAGGERING LOSSES IN DEAD & PRISONERS
a. 2.5 MILLION KILLED, WOUNDED OR IMPRISONED
8. BOTH BATTLES CATASTROPHES FOR RUSSIA
9. DEMORALIZING TO RUSSIANS & BEGINNING OF THEIR DISENCHANTMENT W/WAR
10. NEXT YEAR TWO MORE JOINT OFFENSIVES BY GERMANY & AUSTRIA INFLICTED STILL
MORE DAMAGE ON THE RUSSIANS
a. FROM WHICH THEY NEVER RECOVERED
11. BUT ALLIES IN WEST WOULD NEVER HAVE BEEN ABLE TO WITHSTAND GERMANS &
AUSTRIANS WITHOUT RUSSIA TYING UP MANY OF THEIR SOLDIERS IN EAST
E. BATTLE OF VERDUN - FEB-OCT 1916
1. LONGEST & BLOODIEST BATTLE OF WAR
2. ALMOST 1 MILLION KILLED
F. BATTLE OF JUTLAND 1916
1. GERMAN SURFACE FLEET DID NOT CHALLENGE ALLIED CONTROL OF OCEANS UNTIL
NOW
2. 75+ YRS AGO ON MAY 31, 1916
3. BRITISH CRUISER FLEET MET GERMAN HIGH-SEAS FLEET OFF DANISH COAST
4. ONLY MAJOR NAVAL BATTLE OF WAR
5. OUTNUMBERED GERMANY NAVY INFLICTED HEAVIER LOSSES ON BRITISH FLEET
6. BUT GERMAN FLEET FORCED TO WITHDRAW
7. GERMANY FLEET REMAINED BOTTLED UP IN PORT REST OF WAR
8. MADE POSSIBLE CONTINUED BLOCKADE OF GERMANY
9. AT END OF 1918 MANY GERMANS SUFFERING FROM MALNUTRITION
a. NB FACTORY IN GERMAN WILLINGNESS TO SURRENDER W/O FIGHTING TO BITTER
END
G. NEAR EAST
1. IN A SERIES OF DESERT CAMPAIGNS ROMANTIC COLONEL T.E. LAWRENCE
a. AN ENGLISHMAN WHO KNEW ARABS INTIMATELY PLAYED LEADING PART
b. BY END OF 1917 BRITISH HELD BAGHDAD & JERUSALEM
c. BY SEPT 1918 GREAT BRITISH OFFENSIVE IN PALESTINE SO SUCCESSFUL
(1) TURKS CONCLUDED ARMISTICE TAKING THEM OUT OF THE WAR
2. THESE CAMPAIGNS GREAT NB IN MAKING WORLD WE LIVE IN TODAY
a. COUNTRIES OF SYRIA, LEBANON, IRAQ, JORDAN, SAUDI ARABIA, EGYPT ISRAEL
3. NOV 1917 BALFOUR DECLARATION
a. BRITISH PROMISED THE ESTABLISHMENT IN PALESTINE OF A NATIONAL HOME FOR
THE JEWISH PEOPLE
III. NEW WEAPONS USED IN WAR
A. MACHINE GUN (DAISY CUTTER)
1. MACHINE GUN ASSERTED A BRITISH COMMANDER AS LATE AS SPRING 1915 IS A MUCH
OVERRATED WEAPON &* 2 PER BATTALION IS MORE THAN SUFFICIENT"
2. THE MACHINE GUN IS SAID TO HAVE KILLED EVERY 9 OUR OF 10 MEN
a. THANKS TO STUDENT DAVID HOLLAND
3. SO SUMS UP THE MAXIM MACHINE GUN INVENTED BY AMERICAN HIRIAM MAXIM
4. PERFECTED ON BOTH SIDES TO INFLICT TERRIBLE TOLL
B. TANK
1. DURING SOMME OFFENSIVE BRITISH INTRODUCED NEW WEAPON
2. ARMORED VEHICLE W/CATERPILLAR TREADS
a. BUILT ON TRACTOR OF FARMERS

4
3.
4.
5.
6.

DEV SECRETLY
DIFFERENT PARTS MADE IN DIFFERENT BRITISH FACTORIES
SOME OF THE PARTS WERE ROLLED STEEL PLATES
THESE LOOKED LIKE THEY COULD BE USED TO MAKE CONTAINERS FOR WATER OR
GASOLINE
7. WORKMEN REFERRED TO THEM AS TANKS
8. BRITISH USED THIS TERM AS A CODE NAME DURING VEHICLES DEV
9. BECAME NEW WEAPON'S PERMANENT NAME
C. WAR IN THE AIR
1. BALLOONS & AIRPLANES 1ST USED MAINLY TO CARRY OBSERVERS
2. BY 1915 PHOTOGRAPHS OF ENEMY POSITIONS BEING TAKEN FROM AIRPLANES
a. ROLE RECONNAISSANCE
3. THEN PLANES BEGAN SHOOTING DOWN ENEMY OBSERVATION PLANES
a. USING REVOLVER OR RIFLES FIRST
b. THEN MACHINE GUNS
4. GERMANS DEV MACHINE GUN THAT WAS SYNCHRONIZED TO FIRE THROUGH WHIRLING
PROPELLER OF A FLYING PLANE
a. FR & B SOON DEV THEIR VERSIONS ALSO
5. CASUALTIES HIGH FOR AIRMEN
a. AVERAGE AIRMAN IN LATE 1916 KILLED IN 1ST 3 WEEKS
6. ALTHOUGH HEROES LIKE RED BARON
a. FAILED 1ST FLYING TEST
b. THEN WENT ON TO BECOME GERMANY'S MOS CELEBRATED ACE
7. GERMANY'S COUNT FERDINAND VON ZEPPELIN
a. HAD SEEN VALUE OF BALLOON AS AERIAL OBSERVATION POST IN AMERICAN CIVIL
WAR
b. DEV A NAVIGABLE AIRSHIP
c. A ZEPPELIN 1ST USED TO BOMB LONDON IN MAY 1915
d. DURING WAR ZEPPELINS MADE A TOTAL OF 51 RAIDS
e. USE AS A WAR WEAPON FINALLY ABANDONED
D. POISON GAS
1. BECAUSE OF STALEMATE OF TRENCH WARFARE NEW WEAPONS DEVELOPED
2. TOXIC GAS 1ST USED BY GERMANS ON EASTERN FRONT 1915
a. CHLORINE & TEAR GAS FIRST ONES USED
b. THEN MORE DEADLY PHOSGENE & MUSTARD GASES
(1) MUSTARD GAS MOST CASUALTIES FROM
3. WEAPON VIOLATION OF HAGUE CONV OF 1907
4. 1ST GAS MASKS PIECES OF MATERIAL - USELESS
5. NO ALARM SYSTEM, SO FRYING PANS USED
6. 1 MILLION CASUALTIES FROM GAS ON BOTH SIDES
a. LUCKY ONES GOT SIGHT BACK W/IN FEWHOURS
b. UNLUCKY ONES BLINDED FOR LIFE
c. OR LUNGS SO BADLY DAMAGED PROGNOSIS SEVERE
d. COMPASSION RATHER THAN CURE ALL MEDICAL SCIENCE COULD OFFER THESE MEN
e. 79,000 KILLED
E. GERMANY'S SUBMARINE CAMPAIGN
1. IN BEGINNING OF WAR SUBMARINE CONSIDERED MAINLY AN INSTRUMENT OF OFFENSE
AGAINST WARSHIPS
2. WHEN IT BECAME EVIDENT THAT GERMAN NAVY WAS TO BE SHUT UP INDEFINITELY IN
HARBOR BY BRITISH FLEET BLOCKADE,
a. GERMANY TURNED TO USING SUBMARINE AS A CIVILIAN COMMERCIAL DESTROYER
b. WATERS AROUND GB, INCLUDING ENGLISH CHANNEL WERE IN THE WAR ZONE
c. MERCHANT SHIPS FOUND IN THIS ZONE WOULD BE DESTROYED
d. THIS INCLUDED SHIPS OF NEUTRAL NATIONS
3. MAY 7 PASSENGER LINER LUSITANIA TORPEDOED & SUNK OFF KINSALE HEAD, IRELAND

5
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

11.
12.

a. 124 AMERICANS AMONG 1198 DROWNED


WILSON GOT GERMANY TO SAY SHE WOULD OPERATE UNDER RULES OF
INTERNATIONAL LAW
a. NOT SINK W/O WARMING & W/O SAVING HUMAN LIVES UNLESS SHIPS ATTEMPTED TO
ESCAPE OR OFFER RESISTANCE
ALL WAS OK UNTIL JAN 1917 WHEN GERMANY OPENED UP UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE
WARFARE
GERMANY DID NOT REALLY BELIEVE U.S. WOULD BE A SERIOUS FACTOR IN FIGHTING
ANOTHER FACTOR WAS INCREASED TECHNOLOGY OF SUBMARINE
GERMANY FRANTICALLY IMPROVING IT
ORIGINALLY A RANGE OF 300 MILES BY FEB 1917 WHEN UNRESTRICTED USE OF THEM
RANGE 10,000 MILES
BY 1917 WHEN US ENTERED WAR GERMANY HAD SUNK
a. 16% OF GB MERCHANT FLEET
b. GB HAD ONLY 3 WEEKS SUPPLY FOOD LEFT
IN RETALIATION GB STRETCHED NETS ACROSS BRITISH CHANNEL
MINES FROM SCOTLAND TO COAST OF NORWAY
a. AMERICAN NAVAL ENGINEERS MADE POSSIBLE

IV. WAR & THE HOME FRONT


A. GENERAL REMARKS
1. HOW THE WAR WAS GOING DIRECTLY INFLUENCED HOME FRONT
2. RELATIONSHIP CAN BE DIVIDED INTO 4 PHASES
B. FIRST PHASE
1. CHARACTERIZED BY INITIAL WAR MOVEMENT &
2. LASTING UNTIL SPRING 1915
3. EVERY COUNTRY AT WAR EXPERIENCED SURGE OF PATRIOTISM & SENSE OF NATIONAL
UNITY FOR WAR
4. BUSINESS AS USUALLY W/MINIMUM OF STATE INTERFERENCE WAS PREVAILING POLICY
5. ON ASSUMPTION OF SHORT, DECISIVE WAR,
6. GENERALS EVERYWHERE GIVEN WIDE & ILL-DEFINED POWERS
C. SECOND PHASE
1. MID 1915 TO END 1916
2. CONFLICT SPREAD AS NEW BELLIGERENTS LIKE ITALY & RUMANIA BECAME INVOLVED
3. GOVTS NOW FORCED TO TAKE DRASTIC MEASURES TO HARNESS ALL THEIR RESOURCES,
HUMAN & MATERIAL TO WAR EFFORT
4. GOVTS NOW CONTROLLING ECONOMY THROUGH RATIONING, PRICE & WAGE CONTROLS
5. ALL EFFORTS GOING INTO WAR INDUSTRIES
6. ALTHOUGH MORE TRUE IN GERMANY THAN GB OR FRANCE
D. THIRD PHASE
1. PENULTIMATE ONE 1917
2. STRAIN OF TOTAL WAR EVIDENT ON HOME & MILITARY FRONTS
3. STRIKES, FOOD RIOTS, INCREASED DESERTION & MUTINIES
4. EVERYTHING THAT MADE LIFE TOLERATE BECOMING DESPERATELY SHORT
a. ADEQUATE CLOTHING, HEATING, FOOD
5. IN GERMANY
a. BLACK CROWS IN BUTCHER SHOPS NOW
b. CALLED TURNIP WINTER
c. PEOPLE STAYED IN BED AS TOO COLD AS NO COAL
d. PEOPLE STILL GOING TO THEATER, CINEMAS & MUSIC HALLS
(1) IRONICALLY MOST POPULAR ENGLISH PLAYWRIGHTS
(a) SHAKESPEARE, BERNARD SHAW, OSCAR WILDE
6. IN FRANCE
a. CF W/GERMANY IT WAS A LAND OF ABUNDANCE
b. REAL FRENCH BREAD NO LONGER AVAILABLE

6
c. NOT ENOUGH COAL EITHER - PEOPLE BITTERLY COLD
7. FRENCH ARMIES BADLY AFFECTED BY MUTINIES
a. AT LEAST 100,000 SOLDIERS MUTINIED
b. THREATENED TO SPREAD TO ENTIRE ARMY
c. REVOLT SAVAGELY CHECKED BY EXECUTIONS & DEPORTATIONS
d. BAH BAH - LAMBS TO SLAUGHTER
8. IRONICALLY BY 1917 SEVERE MANPOWER SHORTAGE ON FARMS & SO SOME SOLDIERS
SENT HOME TO BRING IN HARVEST
a. OR TO MINES, RAILROADS
9. MOST MOMENTOUS EVENT WAS RUSSIAN COLLAPSE INTO REVOLUTION
10. BY NOW STATESMEN STRUGGLING TO REASSERT THEIR AUTHORITY EARLIER CEDED TO
GENERALS
11. IN FRANCE, PERSON OF CLEMENCEAU SUCCESSFUL
12. GERMAN GENERALS HINDEBURG & LUDENDORFF HAD BECOME VIRTUAL DICTATORS
E. FOURTH PHASE 1918
1. CRUCIAL QUESTION WAS WHETHER GERMANY COULD WIN WAR IN WESTERN EUROPE
BEFORE HER ALLIES COLLAPSED &
2. BEFORE U.S. MILITARY POWER WAS AVAILABLE TO ALLIES
3. WAR-WEARINESS WAS UNIVERSAL
4. IN COUNTRIES FACING DEFEAT CLEAR CONNECTION BETWEEN MILITARY REVERSES &
DISINTEGRATION ON HOME FRONTS
5. STARVING & MALNOURISHMENT PREVALENT IN GERMANY
F. SOCIAL & ECONOMIC CHANGES IN SOCIETY
1. YOUR TEXT DISCUSSES NEW ROLE OF CHILDREN IN GERMANY
2. PLUS ROLE OF WOMEN IN WAR EFFORT
3. WILL ADD A FEW REMARKS ON WOMEN
4. AS MEN BY MILLIONS VOLUNTEERS OR CONSCRIPTED FOR FIGHTING
5. THEIR PLACES IN FARMS & FACTORIES TAKEN BY WOMEN
6. SHOCKING IMAGES OF WOMEN DOING MEN'S WORK ABOUNDED
7. IN MOST COUNTRIES WAR WORK WAS EXTOLLED TO WOMEN AS PATRIOTIC VIRTUE
8. GB ANY WOMAN WHO BY WORKING HELPS TO RELEASE & EQUIP A MAN FOR FIGHTING
DOES NATIONAL WAR SERVICES
9. BUT MOST WOMEN NEEDED LITTLE URGING
10. FOR 1ST TIME THEY FOUND THEMSELVES ABLE TO COMMAND HIGH WAGES
11. AS WELL AS INDEPENDENCE MONEY BROUGHT
12. ALTHOUGH AT WAR'S END MANY ABANDONED AGRICULTURE &INDUSTRY
13. PLACE OF WOMEN ALONGSIDE MEN IN WORKPLACE PERMANENTLY ESTABLISHED
14. IMPORTANT STEP FORWARD IN FEMALE EMANCIPATION
a. WOMEN GOT VOTE POST WWI
15. PRODUCT OF TIMES - WEAKENING OF CUSTOMARY MORAL TABOOS & INCREASED
SEXUAL LAXITY
a. AMONG GERMANS, FRENCH & BRITISH
b. NUMBER OF BROKEN HOMES
c. RESULT OF NEW FREEDOM BEING ENJOYED BY WOMEN
d. FOR FIGHTING MAN FEELING THAT LIFE MIGHT BE SHORT
G. PROPAGANDA CAMPAIGN
1. WARTIME PROPAGANDA SKILLFUL & EFFECTIVE
2. GOVTS DID THEIR BEST TO CONTROL PUBLIC OPINION TO BOLSTER MORALE
3. USED ALSO FOR RECRUITMENT
a. ST. GEORGE SLAYING TEUTONIC DRAGON
4. OR TO SELL WAR BONDS
5. NEWSPAPERS, LETTERS & PUBLIC ADDRESSES RIGOROUSLY CENSORED
6. GOOD NEWS WAS OVERSTATED
7. BAD NEWS WAS REPRESSED OR DISTORTED
8. PATRIOTIC POSTERS & SLOGANS FANNED PR CAMPAIGN TO SHORE UP CIVILIAN MORALE

7
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

GERMANICA DEFENDING HER SHORES AGAINST MARAUDING BRITISH NAVY


EVEN EXTENDED TO BECOMING ACCEPTED GREETING TO EACH OTHER
& OPENING TO TELEPHONE CONVERSATIONS
HYMN OF HATE RECITED IN CAFES
POSTCARDS SHOWING ZEPPELINS IN ACT OF MURDERING SLEEPING BABIES OF
ENEMY CITY PROUDLY CIRCULATED IN GERMANY
9. PROPAGANDA BUREAUS ON BOTH SIDES MANUFACTURED ACCOUNTS OF TORTURE,
MUTILATION, & BRUTALITY BY THE ENEMY
10. GERMAN NEWSPAPERS TOLD OF FRENCH OFFICERS WHO THREATENED TO FILL GERMAN
CASTLES W/CHILDREN'S HEADS
11. BRITISH INTELLIGENCE OFFICE SPREAD RUMOR THAT GERMANS USED THE CORPSES OF
WAR DEAD IN THEIR MANUFACTURING PLANTS
12. ALTHOUGH FOR MOST PART OVERT ANTI-GERMANISM WAS RARE FOR GB
13. FRENCH ANTI-GERMAN PR SHOWING HOW WOMAN VIOLATED IN PRESENCE OF HER 3-YR
OLD DAUGHTER
14. RUMANIAN NEWSPAPERS REPORTED THAT GERMAN WOMEN WORE THE GOUGED OUT
EYES OF WOUNDED FRENCHMEN IN NECKLACES
15. ATROCITY MUSEUMS IN PARIS & PETROGRAD GAVE THESE ACCOUNTS AN AURA OF
FACT
16. BACKLASH OF SUSPICION & HATRED SENT THOUSANDS OF GERMANS & AUSTRIANS
LIVING IN BRITAIN INTO DETENTION CAMPS
a. CF W/JAPANESE HELD WWII
17. EVEN ENGLISH ROYALTY HAD TO ABANDON THEIR GERMAN SURNAMES
18. KING GEORGE V EXCHANGED WITTIN FOR WINDSOR & HIS BATTENBURG RELATIVES
BECAME MOUNTBATTENS
H. BOMBING OF CIVILIANS
1. NEW ERA IN WARFARE
2. INITIALLY PRECISION BOMBING ONLY
a. AIMING AT MILITARY TARGETS,
b. INCLUDING FACTORIES, NAVAL DOCKYARDS, AIRFIELDS & COMMUNICATIONS
CENTERS
c. W/REASONABLE DEGREE OF CONFIDENCE THEY COULD BE LOCATED & HIT
d. CIVILIANS & THEIR PROPERTY WOULD ONLY BE INJURED INCIDENTALLY & BY
ACCIDENT
3. INDISCRIMINATE
a. NEXT STEP LED TO DELIBERATE INDISCRIMINATE BOMBING
(1) OF INDUSTRIAL AREAS WHERE MILITARY TARGETS NOT PRECISELY IDENTIFIED
(2) & CIVILIAN HOUSING WAS REGARDED AS A LEGITIMATE TARGET
b. WANTED TO UNDERMINE CIVILIAN MORALE
c. & DIVERT RESOURCES FROM MILITARY PURPOSES
4. NEXT STEP - NIGHT BOMBING BY BOTH BRITAIN & GERMANY
a. SWEPT ASIDE LAST PRETEXTS OF PRECISE TARGETING
5. FIRING AT CHURCH SPIRES USED AS OBSERVATION POSTS INEVITABLY CAUSED
WIDESPREAD DAMAGE
6. GERMAN BIG BERTHA SIEGE GUNS SHELLING PARIS FROM 70 MILES AWAY
a. EG OF FRIGHTENING CIVILIANS
V. END OF WAR & PEACE CONFERENCE
A. FINAL BATTLES & ARMISTICE 1918
1. BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION NOV 1917 LED TO RUSSIAN ARMISTICE W/GERMANY (DEC)
2. 1 MILLION FRESH AMERICAN TROOPS LANDED FRANCE BETWEEN MARCH & JULY
3. GREAT GERMAN SPRING OFFENSE MAR-AUG
a. GERMANY'S FINAL EFFORT FOR VICTORY IN WEST
b. BROKE BRITISH & FRENCH LINE & BY MAY 30 W/IN 40 MILES PARIS
4. SECOND BATTLE MARNE JULY-AUG TURNING POINT

8
a. GERMANS FORCED BACK
b. INITIATIVE PASSING TO ALLIES
c. PURSUED RETREATING GERMANS UNTIL GERMAN ARMISTICE
5. ABDICATION OF GERMAN KAISER FORCED BY WILSON
6. ARMISTICE SIGNED ON NOV 11
a. 11TH HOUR, 11TH MONTH, 11TH DAY
B. REPRESENTATIVES OF PEACE CONFERENCE
1. JAN 1919 REPS OF VICTORIOUS POWERS ASSEMBLED IN PARIS TO DRAW UP PEACE
SETTLEMENT
a. WOODROW WILSON
b. DAVID LLOYD GEORGE, PM GB
c. GEORGES CLEMENCEAU, PREMIER FRANCE
d. VITTORIO ORLANDO, PREMIER ITALY
2. GERMANY NOT ALLOWED TO PARTICIPATE
3. RUSSIAN IN ITS REVOLUTION
4. WILSON'S POPULARITY IN EUROPE WAS EXTRAORDINARY
5. HE BECAME MODERATING VOICE AT PEACE CONF
6. URGED ACCEPTANCE OF HIS 14 POINTS FOR KEEPING PEACE
a. HE HAD ADVOCATED PREVIOUS YEAR
b. BUT ONLY PART ACCEPTED
7. AMONG ALLIED COUNTRIES, CONVICTION GREW THAT SOMEONE MUST PAY FOR THE
WRECKAGE & CARNAGE
8. QUESTION OF WAR GUILT HAUNTED PEACE SETTLEMENT & POSTWAR YRS
9. TO MOST SIGNATORIES OF THE VERSAILLES TREATY, GUILT SEEMED TO REST
SQUARELY W/GERMANY
10. GERMANY FORCED TO SIGN IN FAMOUS HALL OF MIRRORS AT VERSAILLES
11. ARTICLE 231 OF VERSAILLES TREATY
a. SET TONE FOR THE TREATMENT OF POSTWAR GERMANY THE ALLIED & ASSOCIATED
GOVTS AFFIRM & GERMANY ACCEPTS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF GERMANY & HER
ALLIES FOR CAUSING ALL THE LOSS & DAMAGE...AS A CONSEQUENCE OF THE WAR
IMPOSED UPON THEM BY THE AGGRESSION OF GERMANY & HER ALLIES
12. EVEN THOUGH ON EASTERN FRONT, GERMANY HAD WON WAR
a. RECEIVING VAST TERRITORIES
13. KAISER & OTHERS WERE CONDEMNED AS WAR CRIMINALS TO BE TRIED IN
INTERNATIONAL COURTS
14. GERMANY LOST ECONOMICALLY WILL BE MAJOR FACTOR FOR RISE OF HITLER
a. 1/2 COAL
b. 2/3 IRON ORE
15. MOST DISASTROUS OF ALL FOR GERMANY
a. SHE TO PAY FOR ALL CIVILIAN WAR DAMAGES
(1) 33 BILLION DOLLARS
C. CREATION OF NEW COUNTRIES OUT OF DISMEMBERED EMPIRES OF
1. RUSSIAN, HAPSBURG, OTTOMAN & GERMAN
2. TERRITORIES OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE DIVIDED AMONG WESTERN POWERS
a. AS MANDATES TO BE EDUCATED FOR SELF-GOVT.
b. SYRIA & LEBANON BECAME FRENCH MANDATES
c. PALESTINE & IRAQ BRITISH MANDATES
(1) INCLUDED JEWISH NATIONAL HOMELAND BRITISH PROMISED AS EARLY AS 1917
3. RUMANIA ENLARGED BY ADDITION OF FORMER AUSTRIAN TERRITORIES
4. YUGOSLAVIA, A NEW STATE CREATED AROUND SERBIA
5. HUNGARY
a. LOST 3/4 FORMER TERRITORY UNDER HAPSBURGS
b. LOST 2/3 POP
c. 3 MILLION HUNGARIANS BECAME MINORITY PEOPLES IN RUMANIA, YUGOSLAVIA &
CZECHOSLOVAKIA

D.

E.

F.

G.

(1) GREATEST VIOLATION OF PRINCIPLE OF SELF-DETERMINATION


6. CZECHOSLOVAKIA, ANOTHER NEW STATE
a. INCLUDED PART OF BOHEMIA & HUNGARIAN TERRITORY
7. POLAND, NON-EXISTENT SINCE LATE 18TH C
a. CREATED OUT OF FORMER GERMAN, AUSTRIAN & RUSSIAN LANDS
8. PEACE TREATY DID NOT COMPLETELY SATISFY ALLIES
9. BUT LIKE DAVID LLOYD GEORGE SAID
10. I THINK I DID AS WELL AS MIGHT BE EXPECTED SEATED AS I WAS BETWEEN JESUS
CHRIST AND NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
a. HE IS REFERRING TO WILSON & CLEMENCEAU
CHANGE IN ATTITUDE TOWARDS WAR
1. MILITARY EVENTS OF WAR CAUSED FUNDAMENTAL CHANGE IN POPULAR ATTITUDES
TO WAR
2. W/CONSPICUOUS EXCEPTIONS OF FASCIST ITALY & NAZI GERMANY,
3. WAR WOULD NEVER AGAIN BE REGARDED COOLLY AS A VIABLE INSTRUMENT OF STATE
POLICY
4. OR EMBARKED UPON BY A NATION AS A WHOLE W/THE OPTIMISM OR INSOUCIANCE
(CAREFREE, INDIFFERENT) OF 1914
LEAGUE OF NATIONS
1. INTERNATIONAL BODY CREATED BY VERSAILLES TREATY
2. SPONSORED BY WILSON
3. INTENDED TO PROVIDE A FORUM FOR ARBITRATION AMONG MEMBER NATIONS
4. IN END INEFFECTUALNESS OF LEAGUE DURING 1930'S MADE ALL BUT INEVITABLE BY
FAILURE OF AMERICA TO JOIN
CASUALTIES
1. APPROXIMATELY 10 MILLION MEN KILLED
a. RUSSIA LOST MOST 1,700,000
b. GERMANY LOST 1,600,000
c. FRANCE LOST 1,400,000
d. GB 850.000
(1) OF 8M MEN MOBILIZED, 2 MILLION WOUNDED
e. U.S. 49,000
2. 20 MILLION SERIOUSLY WOUNDED
3. 5 MILLION WIDOWS
4. 9 MILLION ORPHANS
5. 10 MILLION REFUGEES
6. EVEN MILLIONS OF ANIMALS DIED IN WAR
7. DIRECT COST OVER $180 BILLION
8. TOTAL ECONOMIC LOSSES: $ 270 BILLION
WILLIE MCBRIDE SONG
1. SUNG BY FUREYS
2. THE KILLING & DYING WERE ALL DONE IN VAIN
3. FOR YOUNG WILLIE MCBRIDE IT ALL HAPPENED AGAIN AND AGAIN AND AGAIN AND
AGAIN AND AGAIN
4. THIS WAR DID NOT END CONFLICTS IN EUROPE
5. IN 20 YRS ANOTHER WAR

1/19/2014

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What was the ideology of the American Revolution?

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Jake asked 5 years ago

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.What cause the Colonist to fight against Parliament.


.What were some key events of the revolution
. Important Leaders of the revolution
. What were The Stamp Act, Intolerable Act,Townsend Act, Sugar Act,
Navigation Act

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mrm answered 5 years ago


Very generally, the Europeans (mostly from the British isles originally)
who migrated to The New World, did so because they were dissatsified
with The King of England and their way of life. They wanted more voice in
the daily running of their lives. They wanted the opportunity to improve
themselves and their positions
Once in North America, physically separate and apart from the daily
control of the King, the desire for improvement gave way to a desire for
autonomy. The King tried to enhance his power over the colonists by
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1/19/2014

What was the ideology of the American Revolution?

way of taxation---and some of the Acts you reference in your question


are representative of those attempts. The problem was that the colonists
felt they got nothing in exchange---no say in government, no voice, no
power. Been there, done that. It is from this set of facts that the famous
colonial rallying cry "Taxation without representation is tyranny" came
about. That's one of those phrases that everybody knows, but few have
really thought about what it means. If you think for a moment, what the
colonists were saying is that taxing me without giving me a say isn't
government, it's tyranny, and you King are the Tyrant!
So, in order to escape the tyranny, and to govern themselves in their
new land, the colonies declared their independence, the King became
annoyed, and The Revolutionary War began.

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There are those who suggest that England never had a chance for a
number of reasons---distance, impractical fighting methods and
strategies and the fact that the colonists were literally fighting for their
individual and collective lives in their new land. It is thought that the
colonial soldiers had more at stake personally than the average British
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fighting man. On the other hand, Britain had far more men, resources,
money, guns, ammunition, etc. Moreover, The King's motivation was
huge----$ in the form of the various taxes,
more importantly,
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future expansion of the Empire.

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Ashish

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So, I'm not sure the defeat of England was an automatic, but I'm glad it
worked out that way.
Source:
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bchawks answered 5 years ago


The seven years war and the intollerable acts led up to the Revo. War.
The seven year war is also known as the French and Indian War. The
colonists started this war, and Britian (because the colonists were
British citizens) came over and aided in the battle. At the end of the 7
years war, Britian was almost bankrupt, and the colonies had acquired a
massive amount of new land. Britian told the colonies that they either
needed to supply troops to protect these new areas or they needed to
pay for Britian to put them their. The colonists refused. Britain decided to
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1/19/2014

What was the ideology of the American Revolution?

get the money back from them through taxes such as the stamp act,
sugar act, and navigation act. This put the colonies in uproar because
they had never been taxed until that point and the felt the taxes were
unfair, in Britain's opinion, the colonialists were just being taxed like the
rest of the British citizens. However, because Britain had been so busy
with problems in Europe they had a hands off approach on the colonies,
and the colonies weren't used to being goverened this way; they had
been self governing. So they were mad. The British troops that were sent
to the colonies after this were often seen as very brutal by the
colonialists; for example the penalty for desertion in the british camp
was 1000 lashes...they would actually continue hitting the corpse even
thought the man was dead long before they got that many lashes. This
causes the colonialists to feel allienated from the british; they couldn't
see themselves as being like these brutal men they saw. The worst
intollerable act was the quarterring act, which said that the colonialists
had to allow british soldiers to live in their homes. During this time the
Sons of Liberty were formed, with famous people such as Sam Adams.
They started to amass arms in Lexington and Concord. The british got
wind of this through a spy and they marched from Boston up to where
the patriots were. Paul Revere (famous ride) went ahead and warned the
patriots. The patriots were able to hide most of their weapons before the
Brits got there; the brits believed they had won. On their way back to
Boston, however, they were ambushed by the patriots and lost many
soldiers of theirs.
Other events you may want to mention
Boston Tea Party
Boston Massacre
Battle of Bunker Hill
Battle of Yorktown
Declaration of Independence
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albiontubaplayer answered 5 years ago


Our history classes of Middle and High Schools tend to tell us that the
colonist rebelled against England because they were being taxed so bad
and they didn't have a voice in those decisions. That may be partially
true but historians have also began to argue that the conflict over
westward expansion really is what angered the colonists. The
Proclamation Line of 1763 limited westward movement to the
Appalachian Mountains to prevent further Native conflict.
The Navigation Acts limited colonial trade to be exclusively between the
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What was the ideology of the American Revolution?

colonies and England by enacting high tariffs and search warrants.


The Stamp Act was the first tax levied by Parliament on the colonies.
The act taxed any paper documents including playing cards that were to
be purchased in the colonies; a small stamp would appear on the item to
show the tax was paid.
The Townsend Act placed taxes on several essential goods including
tea, glass and paper. When the colonists boycotted a conflict broke out
in Boston where several colonists were shot dead (The Boston
Massacre).
The Sugar Act simply put a tax on sugar and molasses in 1764.
The Intolerable Acts outlawed town meetings in Massachusetts, a policy
of extraterritoriality was enacted (Britains accused of crimes were tried in
Britain under British Laws), closed the Port of Boston and allowed troops
to be quartered in private homes without consent.
People: George Washington, James Madison, James Monroe,
Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, Samuel Adams, Thomas Jefferson,
Benjamin Franklin, plus the numerous military leaders; Benedict Arnold,
Nathanael Greene, John Paul Jones (just to name a few) the list is
essentially endless.
Events: Boston Tea Party, Boston Massacre, Lexington & Concord,
Declaration of Independence, Battle of Brooklyn Heights, Battle of
Trenton, The Saratoga Campaign (destruction of Burgoyne's forces),
Battle of Cowpens (Somewhat depicted in The Patriot), Battle of
Yorktown, End of the War.
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4/4

ABSOLUTISM IN EASTERN EUROPE


I.

GROWTH OF ABSOLUTISM & ENLIGHTENED DESPOTISM


A. GENERAL REMARKS
1.
other rulers of Europe decided that they liked France's example
2.
& French-style absolutism spread widely
3.
by 18th c. it was also called enlightened absolutism or enlightened despotism
a.
after advent of era known as Enlightenment
4.
many kings were eager to develop more efficient govts & augment their own power
5.
centralizing their bureaucracy, creating a standing army & subduing the nobles
6.
necessary steps for establishing absolute rule
7.
having the proper palace like Versailles nb too
8.
even many of the small principalities of Germany built smaller versions of Versailles
9.
absolute rulers remodeled their cities to serve as explicit expressions of their power
10. broad avenues led to monumental squares & grand palace of monarch
11. medieval cities had masked inequalities of social order in their crowded, twisted streets
12. where social ranks often lived jumbled together in close physical proximity
13. absolutist capital cities, in contrast planned inequality
14. purposely emphasizing in their designs the vast distance separating ruler from ruled
15. most important absolute states outside of France arose in central & eastern Europe
16. Prussian, Austrian & Russian rulers by end 17th c following in France's footsteps
17. absolutist principles would last well into 19th c.
18. But it was absolutism with some differences
19. France had a larger merchant class & a freer peasantry than did eastern Europe
20. Eastern Europe power of landlords over serfs great
21. for in 16 and 17th c. hereditary serfdom re-established
22. in Poland, Prussian & Russia
23. result of estate agriculture & weak monarchs
24. monarchs not able to stand up against powerful nobles
25. made deal with them
26. monarch would have taxing & ruling rights
27. & nobles would have complete control over their peasants
28. in fact, historians have looked at serfdom in eastern Europe at this time as a clue & guide to studying
serfdom in the middle ages

II.

CATHERINE THE GREAT II 1762-96


A. GENERAL REMARKS
1.
1 of the most famous of these enlightened despots
2.
next significant Russian ruler after Peter the Great
a.
37 years after Peter
3.
not only famous but infamous rulers in Russian & Western Civilization
4.
during her reign of more than 30 yrs
5.
dominated her vast empire
6.
as easily as she did her lovers & her court
7.
& the rumors & scandal about her in her own lifetime are even more fascinating when subject to
historical research
8.
became one of most successful rulers of 18th c
B.
CATHERINE'S ASSUMPTION OF EMPRESSHIP
1.
had begun life as a minor German protestant princess
2.
w/nothing to indicate that she would become 1 of the most influential of 18th c. rulers
3.
Sophia von Anhalt-Zerbst 1729-96
4.
came to Russia as the chosen wife-to-be of the heir to the Russian throne
a.
Peter, grandson to Peter the Great
5.
but it will be 17 yrs before Elizabeth will die (Peter's daughter)
6.
during these 17 yrs Sophia used time wisely, russifying herself

2
7.

C.

D.

educating herself in politics thru voluminous reading & shrewd observation of court intrigues
a.
reading unusual especially for a Russian woman
b.
barely half population could read & 1/3 only could write
8.
she mastered Russian & embraced the orthodox church
a.
& given name Catherine
9.
she read widely the writers of the Enlightenment
a.
Montesquie, Voltaire, etc.
10. when her husband became Tsar in 1762 she immediately began plotting his downfall
11. she was 33 & had been unhappily married 17 yrs
12. led palace guards in revolt against her husband tsar Peter III
13. after her husband's murder
14. she placed the Russian crown on her own head in Moscow cathedral
a.
like Napoleon will do later
15. Frederick the Great remarked on news of Peter's overthrow
a.
he let himself be driven from the throne as a child is sent to bed
CATHERINE'S PERSONAL LIFE
1.
Catherine was involved w/a number of male favorites referred to as her house pets
2.
at first her affairs were clandestine
3.
but she soon displayed her lovers as French kings paraded their mistresses
4.
once a young man was chosen he was showered w/lavish gifts
5.
when the empress tired of him he was given a lavish going away present
6.
even rumors of animal paramours
7.
but these were traced to French sources wanting to discredit Russia
8.
Catherine like most other enlightened despots never ceased to think of herself as a superior being
9.
kind & considerate to her servants & other commoners, she never lost awareness of her rank
10. in Russia as elsewhere paternalism, not egalitarianism was keynote of benevolent despotism
11. Frederick the Great remarked
a.
that if Catherine corresponded w/God she would probably claim equal rank
RULE & ACCOMPLISHMENTS
1.
during her reign Russian people were dazzled by her political skill & cunning
2.
& her superb conduct of complex diplomacy
3.
she adopted the ruthlessness toward potential enemies traditional among Russian rulers
4.
ordering them executed even before they had a chance to rebel
5.
continued economic reform & westernization of Russian begun under Peter
6.
her education reforms were some of her most enlightened efforts
7.
during her reign schools & universities were founded all over the empire
a.
naval, military cadet schools,
b.
medical & agricultural schools
c.
state seminaries for young priests
8.
but most remarkable was her foundation of Smolny Institute for Girls in St. Petersburg
a.
modeled after Madame de Maintenon's famous Institute of Saint Cyr
b.
1st serious attempt to improve female education in Russia
c.
Catherine herself supervised curriculum
d.
it proved so successful still flourishing when Russian Revolution 1917 occurred
9.
her desires to found other schools always hampered by lack of teachers in Russia
10. there were none, so Catherine was always sending promising young men to Europe to become educated
at her expense
11. Catherine had always been so appalled at lack of education for aristocratic women in Russia
a.
Princess Dashkova hardly exaggerated when she declared that she & Catherine were only women
in country capable of holding an intellectual conversation
12. continued policy of fighting Turks for Black Sea port
13. successful & got control of Danube river, outlet on Bosphorus in Crimea
a.
consequently won her domestic support
14. also won 1/3 Poland when Poland split w/Prussia, Austria 1772
a.
2 more splits of Poland left it removed from map by 1795

3
b.

E.

F.

G.

great powers contended they were saving themselves & rest of Europe from Polish anarchy
(1) familiar ring to it - will continue to be Russia's swan song
15. also gained area known as Lithuania
16. this additional land given to nobles & her many lovers to keep them happy
17. influenced by Montesquieu she attempted to draw up a new law code for Russia
18. she formed a commission of representatives from all classes except serfs to discuss govt reform
19. a note to herself in regard to this shows her deep pessimism about effects of her reform efforts "do this
[reform] with application and honest industry, if however the information received and criticism reveal
barriers and tedious or wily difficulties then put the whole work into a deep drawer, for we do not see
for whose sake I labor and will not my labors, care and warm concern for the good of the Empire be in
vain, for I do see that I cannot make my frame of mind hereditary
20. neither project led to real change but they did make Catherine celebrated in western Europe
21. & greatly increased prestige of Russian monarchy
PUGACHEV REVOLT & ITS CONSEQUENCES
1.
before French Rev of 1789 few genuine advocates of democracy in Europe
2.
but dissatisfaction & rebellion against existing regimes grew in 18th c
3.
Initially in her reign Catherine had begun process of slowly releasing bonds of slavery
4.
but a renegade Cossack soldier Pugachev led an uprising in southwestern Russia 1773
5.
he claimed to be the Tsar Peter III, Catherine's deposed husband
6.
& he announced he was marching to St. Petersburg to punish his wife & place his son Paul on throne
7.
while main Russian army at war w/Turkey he could not be stopped
8.
only arrest & execution of Pugachev
a.
betrayed by a friend for money
b.
put end to rebellion
9.
generations later Pugachev's name & legend would again inspire revolt
10. as result of revolt Catherine she restricted serfs even more
a.
slaves could now be bought & sold
b.
extended serfdom into new areas
11. Catherine & Russian aristocracy never fully recovered from fears of social & political upheaval
12. once French revolution broke out 1789 she censored books based on enlightenment thought
13. also sent offensive authors into Siberian exile
14. beginnings of Siberian exile system for Russia
15. by close of century fear of & hostility to change permeated ruling classes
16. Catherine recognized she needed ruling class` complete cooperation to ensure her power
17. so in 1785 freed aristocrats forever from taxes & state service
a.
cf w/Louis XIV
FINAL REMARKS ON CATHERINE
1.
her fame & notoriety grew throughout her long reign & has continued to this day
2.
in USSR today she is ignored as an archaic embarrassment
3.
or attacked as a despotic foreign adventuress
4.
maybe that will change with demise of communism
a.
RISE OF AUSTRIAN EMPIRE
GENERAL FACTS
1.
today - small country central Europe
2.
Mozart-Salzburg-Alps-Vienna
3.
but in 17-18th c. only Russia surpassed Austrian Empire in Europe in size, population & variety of
nationalities
4.
encompassed areas known today as
a.
Czechoslovakia
b.
Hungary
c.
1/2 of Romania
d.
most of Yugoslavia
e.
& small part of Russia, Italy, Poland
5.
from the 13th c. to WWI Hapsburg family ruled these areas
6.
Habsburgs - German royal family deriving their name from their castle in one of the cantons of

H.

I.

III.

Switzerland (Aargau)
7.
cf with other royal houses/
a.
Capetians, Valois, Bourbons of France
b.
Plantagenets, Tudors, Stuarts, Hanovarians of England
8.
Habsburgs successfully pursued over centuries HRE crown & land through war & marriage
9.
from mid 15th c through 19th c. all Holy Roman Emperors Habsburgs except one
a.
rulers of the Germanies
10. famous saying showing their success
a.
let others make wars - thou happy Austria, marry
HABSBURGS CIRCA 17th c.
1.
close of 30 yrs War marked a fundamental turning point in the hx of the Austrian Hapsburgs
2.
Peace of Westphalia had given political autonomy to more than 300 German political entities w/in the
empire
a.
largest units
(1) Saxony
(2) Hanover
(3) Bavaria
(4) Brandenburg
b.
small cities
c.
bishoprics
d.
principalities
e.
territories of independent knights
3.
but power base for Germanies not as strong as once was because of Protestant Reformation
4.
Hapsburgs began to consolidate their power & influence within their other hereditary possessions
a.
Crown of St. Wenceslas
(1) Kingdom of Bohemia
(a) in Czechoslovakia today
b.
Crown of St. Stephen
(1) ruled Hungary, Croatia, Transylvania
(2) 17th c. successfully captured these lands from Turks
c.
Spanish Netherlands
d.
Lombardy in northern Italy
5.
each territory ruled by different title
6.
& had to gain cooperation of local nobility to rule
7.
no common basis for political unity among peoples of such diverse languages, customs, and geography
a.
like Russia today
b.
Czechs, Slovaks, Hungarians, Germans, Italians, Crotians
8.
all not Catholics as Magyar nobles calvinistic in Hungary
METHODOLOGY OF HAPSBURGS' RULE
1.
bargained w/nobles in 1 part of their domain in order to maintain their position in another
2.
maintained standing army
a.
helped to assert control over their heritary lands
3.
Baroque art
a.
buildings, fine arts, displays
b.
wove a common thread through possessions
c.
capital of Vienna served as focal point
(1) Schonbrunn Palace
(a) summer residence of Habsburgs
(b) Baroque style emulating Versailles

SIGNIFICANT RULERS
A. MARIA THERESA 1711-80 (lifespan)
1.
another famous woman ruler in 18th c.
2.
whose rise to powerful ruler is also astonishing & significant for Austrian history
3.
father Charles VI had no male heir

5
4.
5.
6.

B.

IV.

weakest precedent for a female rule


so Charles VI sought approval of his family & foreign powers to ok Maria as his heir
had them sign document called pragmatic sanction
a.
approving her succession
b.
as well as agreeing Habsburg possession should never be divided
7.
when Charles died & Maria came to throne Austrian Empire was in a sorry state
8.
Charles has spent lavishly & was nearly bankrupt
9.
Austria had no army, virtually no central administration & no sensible advisers
10. Maria at 23 was untrained to be a ruler
11. all she had going for her was her youth, her beauty & strength of character
12. France, Spain & Prussia were all unknown to her secretly planning for the dismembering of her Empire
13. even though they had pledged otherwise by signing on to the Pragmatic Sanction
14. Prussia struck first under their ruler Frederick the Great
15. grabbing rich agricultural & mineral region Silesia
a.
Maria would spend part of her reign trying to regain it back but was not successful
16. thereafter she came up against France & the Bavarians who attempted to take her capital city Vienna
17. over the course of her reign she would go from pleading with her advisers & generals
18. to ordering them to do her bidding regarding war & matters of state
19. she would be involved in series of war to defend her kingdom
20. but always on the defensive never on the offensive
21. she ruled as Archduchess of Austria 1740-80
22. & also as queen of Bohemia & Hungary
23. her husband was Emperor of HRE & she empress
24. few institutions of defense & administration existed for the empire as a whole
25. power as Holy Roman Emperor rested on cooperation not force of arms
26. Diet (legislature) & emperor regulated daily economic & political life of Germanies
a.
Diet at Regensburg until 19th c.
27. by time she died she had provided Austria w/
a.
standing army
b.
councillors of state
c.
system of education even on primary level
(1) mother of 16 children
(2) including ill-fated Marie Antoinette
d.
civil service
e.
she strengthened central govt at expense of local aristocratic assembles
(1) just as Louis XIV
28. she obliged the non-German provinces to accept the hegemony of German officials & German language
of Vienna
29. concerned w/welfare of peasants & serfs
30. she issued decrees limiting amount of labor or robot that could be demanded from the peasantry by the
landowners
JOSEPH II
1.
co - ruler w/mother 1765-80, 1780-90 alone
2.
much of Maria Theresa's skillful statecraft was destroyed in the 10 yrs of his reign
3.
he was a reformer before his time
4.
tried to make enlightened despotism work
5.
He abolished serfdom, proclaimed religious toleration
6.
he did all those things done in 20th c.
7.
but nobles felt emancipation of serfs would ruin them & Catholic church against toleration
8.
memory of his attempts at reform hindered change until 20th c.

RISE OF PRUSSIA
A. GENERAL REMARKS
1.
Prussia became a strong power in Europe in 17thc
2.
Prussia & its rise, is the story of the rise of extraordinary Hohenzollern family

6
3.

ruled eastern German territory of Brandenburg since 1417 - 15th c.


a.
lay between Elbe & Oder rivers
4.
capital city Berlin located on unimportant river Spree
5.
but had little power
6.
Thirty Years War aided Hohenzollers greatly as allowed them to increase their power
7.
by late 17th c Hohenzollers had added to their domains
8.
thru inheritance gained additional territory
a.
Duchy of Cleves
b.
counties of Mark & Ravensburg
c.
Duchy of East Prussia
1618
(1) held by teutonic knights as fief of Poland
d.
Duchy of Pomeranian
9.
none of lands contiguous w/Brandenburg except for Pomeranian
10. all of territories lacked good natural resources
a.
country mainly swamps & bleak sandy fields
b.
devastated during 30 yrs War
11. now scattered holdings 2nd in size only to Habsburgs' land
a.
all still in Holy Roman Empire
12. eventually it will be from enlarged Prussian state that Germany will be formed in late 19th c.
B.
REASONS FOR RISE OF PRUSSIA
1.
2 main reasons
2.
Hohenzollern dynasty produced sufficient male heirs from 1486-1786 w/o a single break
a.
300 yrs of freedom from regency problems as in other lands
b.
cf w/Capetian kings 500 yrs previously building French nation from Paris & Isle de France area
3.
2nd reason - 3 extremely able princes ruled for first 120 years
4.
throughout these years rulers devoted to making solid block of territory out of scattered bits of land
C.
3 MAJOR RULERS
1.
Frederick William 1640-1688 = Great Elector
2.
began process of forging these various areas & nobles into a modern state
3.
aided economy by liberal immigration policy that brought in Dutch & Huguenot w/their needed skills
4.
established strong army
5.
organized royal bureaucracy
6.
struck deal with nobles so centralized, absolute power could reside in monarch's hands
7.
gave the nobles (junkers) control over their serfs
8.
in exchange for leave to levy taxes without their consent
9.
by denying peasants access to state courts in pleas against landlords - sealed this process
10. also barred non-nobles from purchasing land of nobles
11. provided junkers w/permanent territorial base
12. son of great elector, Frederick 1 1688-1713
13. as a result of sending Prussia`s army in to help Habsburgs subdue France 14. holy roman emperor permitted Frederick to assume the title of "King in Prussia"
15. thus Brandenburg became Prussia in 1701
16. a proper title was all that Prussia had lacked to make it a nation
D. Frederick William I 1713-1740
1.
1 of most effective monarchs for Prussia
2.
continued policies of his grandfather
3.
enlarged army significantly
a.
became 3-4th largest in Europe
b.
even had a esprit de corps regiment
(1) all over 6'
(2) wore special caps over 1' high to even give more height
c.
nobility Junker class became military elite
d.
military tactics of time demanded absolutely precise movements of masses of men in close order
e.
meant drill & discipline based on threat of lash
f.
ever since his time, the popular image of the harsh trainer of soldiers has been the Prussian

E.

drillmaster
4.
military priorities & values dominated Prussian govt, society & daily life as in no other state of Europe
5.
often said whereas other nations possessed armies,
6.
Prussian army possessed its nation
7.
but for him army was not to be an aggressive force, but a symbol of Prussian power & unity
8.
he wanted to drill his soldiers not order them into battle
9.
at his death in 1740 he passed to his son Frederick II = Frederick the Great this superb military
machine,
10. but he could not pass to his son the wisdom to refrain from using it
11. almost immediately on coming to the throne, Frederick II upset the Pragmatic Sanction & invaded
Silesia
12. the Prussian David was ready to fight the Austrian Goliath
13. he thus crystallized the Austrian-Prussian rivalry for control of Germany that would dominate central
European affairs for over a century
Frederick the Great or II 1740-1786
1.
1 of the most enigmatic rulers of all time
2.
by turns brazenly aggressive & deeply contemplative
3.
Frederick was forever torn between lust for power & quiet intellectual life
4.
flutist, poet, friend to Voltaire
5.
he was also a dauntless military leader
6.
& responsible for setting the stage for the emergence of the German Empire
7.
his terrible years of childhood would make for a good psychological study
8.
as he quarrelled continually with his father
9.
over his activities
10. Frederick's passion was the flute not the battlefield
11. & he admired French culture as much as his father disdained it
12. finally Frederick rebelled as his father's denunciation of his lifestyle
13. & he attempted to escape to England
14. but he was found out & his father imprisoned him
15. even sentencing him to death
16. he was reprieved,
17. but compelled to watch from his prison window the execution of his close friend
18. Frederick capitulated to his father & set about learning about war
19. & ruling
20. in end no king tried harder to fulfill image of enlightened monarchy
21. but throughout his life his behavior had tremendous mood swings
22. he wanted Prussia to become 1st rank Europe power
23. so he set about to increase Prussia's land area & population either through war or cunning
24. according to Frederick's own letters
a.
Prussia's entire government was militarized ...the capital became the stronghold of Mars. all the
industries which served the needs of armies prospered. In Berlin were established powder mills
and cannon foundries, rifle factories, etc...the military character of the government affected both
customs and fashions. society took a military turn"
25. seized Silesia from Austria
26. Frederick said: this invasion is a means of acquiring reputation & increasing the power of the state
27. with successful war gained 1 million German subjects for Prussia
28. obtained 1/3 Poland when Russia & Austria joined him in carving up Poland
29. all Prussia's territories contiguous now
30. considered greatest military tactician of time
31. Prussia now was 1 of major European powers
32. made economic & religious changes to aid him in his bid to gain prestige & power for Prussia
33. such as
a.
drained swamps, fostered scientific forestry & cultivation of new crops
b.
promoted religious toleration
c.
invited Jesuits to seek refuge in Prussia even though Prussia predominantly protestant

34.

35.
36.
37.
38.

d.
he even declared he would build a mosque in Berlin if he could find enough Muslims to fill it
e.
yet he was always strongly anti-Semitic levying special taxes on Jews
on his own personal estates he was a model enlightened monarch
a.
abolished capital punishment
b.
granted long-term leases to peasants
but for Prussia as a whole
he did nothing to loosen bonds of serfdom that still shackled much of Prussian peasantry
a.
he could not afford to alienate the Junker elite who controlled the estates
built Sans Souci Palace at Berlin
a.
to replicate Versailles at Berlin
in final analysis Frederick embodied two often conflicting political philosophies
a.
humane principles of Enlightenment
b.
Spartan traditions of Hohenzollerns

AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
I.

AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION OF 17-18TH CENTURIES


A. GENERAL REMARKS
1. SERIES OF INNOVATIONS IN FARM PRODUCTION
2. ENABLED FEWER FARMERS TO PRODUCE MORE CROPS
3. INVESTMENT OF EXCESS CAPITAL IN AGRICULTURE
4. LED TO GREATER PROSPERITY & BETTER FOOD & INCREASED POPULATION
5. BEGAN FIRST IN LOW COUNTRIES & THEN TO ENGLAND
6. IT WOULD TAKE SEVERAL CENTURIES FOR SAME INNOVATIONS TO SPREAD TO REST OF
CONTINENT
B. BACKGROUND TO AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
1. ON EVE OF AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
a. 80% OF PEOPLE EARNED LIVING FROM AGRICULTURE
b. IN EASTERN EUROPE EVEN HIGHER
2. BUT YIELDS POOR BY MODERN STANDARDS
3. PO VALLEY
a. 1 OF RICHEST
b. EVERY BUSHEL WHEAT SOWN 1-5 BUSHELS RETURNED
4. FRANCE
a. YIELD EVEN LESS
5. TODAY'S YIELDS AMERICA OR FRANCE 1:40 OR GREATER
6. OTHER PROBLEMS HARVEST
a. FAILURE EVERY 8-9 YEARS
b. TOO MUCH RAIN ROTTED SEED
c. OR DROUGHT WITHERED YOUNG STALKS
7. GRAIN SUPPLIES EXHAUSTED & PRICES SOARED
8. DISEASES MORE DEADLY AS PEOPLE WEAK FROM STARVATION
9. OPEN-FIELD SYSTEM FROM EARLY MEDIEVAL TIMES STILL OPERATIVE
10. NOT ENOUGH MANURE OR FERTILIZER TO RESTORE SOIL FOR CROPS EVERY YEAR
11. WHAT WAS NEW & REVOLUTIONARY IN 18TH C?
a. FASTER ADVANCE IN FARMING TECHNIQUES
C. STRUCTURE OF ENGLISH SOCIETY CIRCA AGRICULTURE REV.
1. POPULATION STILL ALMOST ENTIRELY RURAL
2. TOWNS FEW & SPARSELY POPULATED EXCEPT FOR
a. LONDON - 1/2 MILLION
b. BRISTOL, YORK, NORWICH
(1) EACH 25,000 OR SO
3. MOST ENGLISH PEOPLE LIVED IN SOUTHERN & SOUTHEASTERN ENGLAND
a. ENGLAND - 5 MILLION
b. SCOTLAND & IRELAND - 1 MILLION EACH
4. DIFFERENT CLASSES ENGLAND
a. ENGLISH SOCIETY DIVIDED BY DANIEL DEFOE INTO 7 CLASSES
(1) TOUR THROUGH THE WHOLE ISLAND OF GB
(2) GREAT WHO LIVED PROFUSELY
(3) RICH WHO LIVED PLENTIFULLY
(4) MIDDLE SORT WHO LIVED WELL
(5) WORKING TRADES WHO LABORED HARD & FELT NO WANT
(6) COUNTRY PEOPLE WHO FARED INDIFFERENTLY
(7) POOR WHO FARED HARD
(8) MISERABLE WHO REALLY SUFFERED WANT
5. MOBILITY POSSIBLE FROM LOWER TO HIGHER CLASSES
6. ALTHOUGH MUCH PREJUDICE BY HIGHER TO LOWER CLASSES
a. PHYSICIANS REGARDED THEMSELVES SUPERIOR TO SURGEONS
b. GOVERNESSES TO HOUSEKEEPERS

7.
8.

9.

10.
11.

c. HOUSEKEEPERS TO COOKS
d. COOKS TO GARDENERS
EASIER IN ENGLAND THAN REST OF EUROPE TO MOVE UP
GENTRY
a. DUKES, EARLS, ETC.
b. SQUIRES
(1) NB MAGISTRATE - JUSTICE OF PEACE
c. BUILDERS OF VAST ESTATES
(1) WHAT WE SEE TODAY IN ENGLAND
YEOMEN OR FREEHOLDERS
a. NUMEROUS & INFLUENTIAL CLASS
b. 18TH C STANDARD OF LIVING OF YEOMEN W/SMALL HOLDINGS BEGAN TO DECLINE
TENANT FARMERS
a. BY END 18TH C 3/4 ALL FARMERS IN ENGLAND
HIRED LABORERS, SERVANTS, PAUPERS
a. REST

II. FACTORS ACCOUNTING FOR AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION


A. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS OF DUTCH
1. PRESSURES OF GROWING POPULATION & SHORTAGE OF LAND REQUIRED CHANGES IN
CULTIVATION
2. DUTCH LANDLORDS & FARMERS DEVISED BETTER WAYS TO BUILD DIKES & DRAIN
LAND
a. SO THEY COULD FARM MORE EXTENSIVE AREAS
b. DUTCH DRAINAGE ENGINEER - CORNELIUS VERMUYDEN
c. ENG HIRED TO DRAIN FENS OF CAMBRIDGESHIRE & YORKSHIRE
3. DUTCH PIONEERED IN CULTURE OF NEW CROPS
a. POTATOES, TURNIPS, CLOVER, ALFALFA
B. JETHRO TULL 1674-1741
1. STUDIED FRENCH TRUCK GARDENS, VINEYARDS
a. WHERE FARMERS OBTAINED HEAVY YIELDS FROM SMALL PLOTS
b. BY PLANTING SEEDS INDIVIDUALLY
c. & BY CAREFULLY HOEING SOIL AROUND EACH PLANT & VINE
2. PLANTED WHEAT USING A DRILL MACHINE
a. PULLED BY A HORSE RATHER THAN BY CASTING BY HAND
3. USED IRON PLOW TO OVERTURN EARTH MORE DEEPLY
4. HIS METHODS ALONG WITH TOWNSEND'S PERMITTED LAND TO BE CULTIVATED FOR
LONGER PERIODS W/O HAVING TO BE LEFT FALLOW
C. NEW CROP - TURNIPS
1. TURNIPS HAD BEEN AROUND FOR CENTURIES
2. CHARLES TURNIP TOWNSEND 1674-1738
a. ENCOURAGED EVEN MORE & NB INNOVATIONS
3. LEARNED FROM DUTCH HOW TO CULTIVATE SANDY SOIL W/ USE OF FERTILIZERS
4. INSTITUTED 4 YEAR CROP ROTATION
a. USING WHEAT, TURNIPS, BARLEY & CLOVER
5. NEW SYSTEM OF ROTATION ABOLISHED FALLOW FIELD
6. REPLACED IT W/FIELD SOWN IN TURNIPS
a. CROP THAT BOTH REPLACED SOIL NUTRIENTS
(1) & SUPPLIED ANIMAL FODDER
7. TOWNSEND INTRODUCED NEW VARIETIES TURNIPS
8. TURNIPS FURNISHED FEED FOR LIVESTOCK UNTIL SPRING PASTURING SEASON BEGAN
a. ELIMINATED NEED FOR MASSIVE SLAUGHTERING OF STOCK AT ONSET OF WINTER
9. ADDITIONAL FODDER MEANT MORE LIVESTOCK COULD BE RAISED
10. LARGER NUMBER OF ANIMALS INCREASED QUANTITY OF MANURE AVAILABLE AS
FERTILIZER FOR GAIN CROPS

3
D.

E.

F.

G.

H.

11. CONSEQUENTLY IN LONG RUN MORE FOOD FOR BOTH ANIMALS & HUMAN BEINGS
NEW CROPS - ALFALFA & CLOVER
1. CLOVER & ALFALFA BY FIXING NITROGEN IN SOIL
a. INCREASED FERTILITY OF LAND
NEW CROPS - POTATO
1. TOLERANT OF WIDE RANGE OF TEMPERATURES & SOIL CONDITIONS
2. FULL OF PROTEIN, STARCHES & CARBOHYDRATES
3. GROWN IN SMALL PLOTS OR HUGE FIELDS
4. LOTS OF RESISTANCE TO POTATO
5. SPAIN & ITALY FIRST ACCEPTORS OF POTATO
6. PEASANTS THOUGHT IT CAUSED IMPOTENCY & OTHER ILLNESSES
7. GENTLEMEN CONSIDERED IT FIT ONLY FOR PEASANTS & CATTLE
8. BANNED IN FRANCE UNTIL WELL INTO 18TH & 19TH CENTURIES AS CAUSED LEPROSY
9. KING LOUIS XVI OF FRANCE POPULARIZED POTATO BY WEARING POTATO FLOWERS IN
HIS BUTTONHOLE
10. & PLANTING 50 ACRES, HEAVILY GUARDED TO ENCOURAGE PEASANTS TO STEAL THEM
11. RUSSIAN PEASANTS AS LATE AS 19TH C RIOTED WHEN GIVEN POTATOES TO EAT IN TIME
OF FAMINE
a. THEY THOUGHT POTATOES DEVIL'S BALLS
b. BELIEVED THEY WOULD GO TO HELL IF ATE THEM
c. AS POTATOES NOT MENTIONED IN BIBLE
12. BY LATE 17TH C. POTATOES BECAME STAPLE FOOD OF IRISH
a. SO ENGLISH RESISTED IT AS SAID FIT FOR ONLY IRISH & CLOWNS
NEW CROPS - RAPE
1. A BRASSICACEOUS PLANT, BRASSICA NAPUS
a. LEAVES FOOD FOR HOGS, SHEEP, ETC.
b. SEEDS YIELD RAPE OIL
(1) PAINTS, ETC.
ROBERT BAKEWELL 1725-1795
1. PIONEERED NEW METHODS OF ANIMAL BREEDING
2. IN MIDDLE AGES & UP TO THIS PERIOD
a. ANIMALS PASTURED TOGETHER
b. SO BREEDING RANDOM
3. ONCE FIELDS ENCLOSED
4. THEN FARMERS COULD BREED FOR DESIRABLE TRAITS
a. WOOLLINESS
b. MEATINESS
5. PRODUCED MORE & BETTER ANIMALS &
a. MORE MILK & MEAT
6. BAKEWELL'S EXPERIMENTS IN BREEDING LED TO BETWEEN 1710 & HIS DEATH IN 1795
a. AVERAGE WEIGHT IN SHEEP TRIPLED
b. AVERAGE WEIGHT OF CATTLE DOUBLED
ARTHUR YOUNG 1741-1820
1. ABOVE IDEAS, PLUS OTHER INNOVATIONS RECEIVED WIDE-SPREAD DISCUSSION IN HIS
WRITINGS
2. BY MID 18TH C. STRONG INTEREST FOR AGRICULTURAL IMPROVEMENTS HAD SWEPT
COUNTRY
3. MORE THAN 1000 BOOKS, PAMPHLETS & JOURNALS ON AGRICULTURAL SUBJECTS
PUBLISHED BY END OF 18TH C.
4. 250 OF THEM ALONE BY ARTHUR YOUNG
5. EDITED ANNALS OF AGRICULTURE
6. 1793 BECAME SEC OF BRITISH BOARD OF AGRICULTURE
7. TRAVELED WIDELY EUROPE
8. HIS BOOKS NB DOCUMENTS OF FARM LIFE 18TH C ENG, CONTINENT
9. WON INTERNATIONAL FOLLOWING THAT INCLUDED

4
a. CATHERINE THE GREAT
b. GEORGE WASHINGTON,
c. KING GEORGE III OF ENGLAND
(1) REJOICED IN THE TITLE OF `FARMER GEORGE'
10. ARISTOCRACY, CLERGY, EVEN POLITICAL LANDOWNERS & INDUSTRIALIST
LANDOWNERS
a. PASSIONATELY CONCERNED FOR AGRICULTURAL IMPROVEMENT
III. CONSEQUENCES OF AGRICULTURE REVOLUTION
A. TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENTS
1. UP TO 18TH C. ROADS IN ENGLAND ABOMINABLE
2. ONLY DECENT ONES BUILT 1500 YRS BEFORE BY ROMAN ARMIES
a. WATLING STREET, IKNIELD WAY
(1) IN BAD SHAPE
3. 18TH C. HEAVY CAPITAL INVESTMENT
a. TOLL ROADS
b. TOLL BRIDGES
c. PRIVATE IMPROVEMENTS DESIGNED FOR PROFIT
4. NEW ROADS, ETC. HELPED DISTRIBUTE AGRICULTURE PRODUCTS TO GROWING CITIES
a. SO PROFITS INCREASED
5. ANOTHER TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENT
a. BUILDING OF CANALS
6. DURING 18TH C ALL OF CENTRAL ENGLAND CRISS-CROSSED BY NEW CANALS
a. CARRIED FARMERS' CROPS TO BIG CONSUMER MARKETS OF LONDON, ETC.
b. LONDON LARGEST CITY IN EUROPE BY NOW
B. ENCLOSURES OF 18TH C
1. ENCLOSURE PROCESS OF APPROPRIATING PORTION OF VILLAGE COMMONS
a. USUALLY BY MANORIAL LORD OR CHIEF LOCAL LANDOWNER
b. BY ERECTING HEDGE OR FENCE
2. ENCLOSURE REMOVED PASTURE LAND & SOMETIMES PLOWLAND FROM COMMUNITY
3. RESISTANCE OFTEN VIOLENT TO THIS BY PEASANTS
4. MOST ENCLOSURE BEFORE 17TH C FOR PASTURING SHEEP
a. GENTRY RAISED FOR MARKET
5. THEREAFTER INCREASINGLY JUSTIFIED AS MEANS OF RAISING AGRICULTURAL
PRODUCTIVITY
a. TO FEED GROWING POPULATION
b. THROUGH INTRODUCTION OF NEW CROPS & FERTILIZERS
c. ON LAND PEASANTS LACKED EITHER MEANS OR DESIRE TO IMPROVE
6. AGRARIAN CAPITALISM
a. REPLACEMENT OF SMALL SCALE FARMING FOR SUBSISTENCE
b. BY LARGE SCALE FARMING FOR MARKET
c. HAD BEGUN TO TRANSFORM TRADITIONAL VILLAGE
7. BUT 18TH C BEGAN PROCESS OF ENCLOSURES IN EARNEST
8. BECAME INTEGRAL PART OF AGRICULTURE REVOLUTION
9. FIELDS NOW NEEDED TO BE ENCLOSED TO PRODUCE CROPS OTHER THAN WHEAT OR
RYE
10. BY 2ND HALF CENTURY RISING PRICE OF WHEAT DUE TO INCREASED POPULATION
11. WHICH ENCOURAGED LANDLORDS TO CONSOLIDATE OR ENCLOSE THEIR LANDS EVEN
MORE TO INCREASE PRODUCTION
12. OPPOSITION TO THIS BY SMALL LANDHOLDERS & PEASANTS
a. WHO HAD USED COMMONS AREA FOR GRAZING THEIR GEESE & GATHERING WOOD,
ETC.
13. PROCESS INVOLVED FENCING COMMON LANDS
14. RECLAMATION OF PREVIOUSLY UNTILLED WASTE
15. TRANSFORMATION OF STRIPS INTO BLOCK FIELDS

5
16. WHILE THESE PROCEDURES BROUGHT TURMOIL TO ECONOMIC & SOCIAL LIFE OF
COUNTRYSIDE 17. PEOPLE AFTER AGRIC REV BETTER OFF
a. LIVED LONGER
b. BETTER DIET
c. HIGHER STANDARD OF LIVING
18. BUT ENCLOSURES VERY CONTROVERSIAL TOPIC AMONG HISTORIANS
a. AS SOME CLAIM HARMFUL TO PEASANTS
19. ENCLOSURES RESULTED IN MORE, NOT LESS, AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT FOR WAGE
WORKERS
20. BY 1840 COMMUNALLY FARMED OPEN FIELD HAD CEASED TO EXIST
21. WHAT EMERGED WAS SYSTEM OF GREAT ESTATES
a. WORKED BY TENANT FARMERS & HIRED LABORERS
b. NO LONGER PEASANTRY BUT AGRICULTURAL WORK FORCE
c. THIS SYSTEM WITH ITS VASTLY GREATER PRODUCTIVITY & EFFICIENCY
d. ENABLED BRITAIN TO FEED A POPULATION THAT HAD GROWN TO UNPRECEDENTED
RATE
22. RURAL ENGLAND ASSUMED ITS MODERN ASPECT OF LARGE FIELDS FENCED BY
HEDGEROWS
a. TODAY THAT IS WHAT YOU SEE IN ENGLAND
C. CONCLUDING REMARKS AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
1. MARKED NB STAGE IN LONG, GRADUAL SHIFT FROM LARGELY SELF-SUFFICIENT MANOR
OF MA
a. TO MODERN CAPITALIST FARM PRODUCING SPECIALIZED CROPS
2. BUT TOOK LONG TIME
3. EVEN AS LATE AS 1840'S AS MANY ACRES UNDER FALLOW AS TURNIPS
4. BUT WITHIN 100 YRS ENG FARMERS PRODUCED 300% MORE FOOD
5. ALTHOUGH NUMBER PEOPLE WORKING ON LAND HAD ONLY SLIGHTLY INCREASED
6. AGRIC INDUSTRY PROVIDED PART OF CAPITAL REQUIRED FOR INDUSTRIALIZATION OF
ENGLAND
7. IN PRUSSIA, AUSTRIA, POLAND & RUSSIA
a. ONLY VERY LIMITED AGRICULTURAL IMPROVEMENT TOOK PLACE
b. IN EASTERN EUROPE CHIEF METHOD OF INCREASING PRODUCTION
(1) TO EXTEND FARMING TO PREVIOUSLY UNTILLED LANDS
8. AS IN WEST GOAL INCREASED PROFITS FOR LANDLORDS
9. BUT ON WHOLE EASTERN EUROPEAN LANDLORDS MUCH LESS AMBITIOUS &
SUCCESSFUL
IV. BEGINNING OF POPULATION EXPLOSION
A. GENERAL REMARKS
1. POPULATION EXPLOSION SEEMS TO HAVE ITS ORIGINS IN 18TH C.
2. BEFORE THIS TIME EUROPE'S POPULATION HAD EXPERIENCED PERIODS OF INCREASES
3. BUT PLAGUES, WARS OR HARVEST FAILURES HAD IN TIME DECIMATED ANY INCREASE
4. BEGINNING IN SECOND QUARTER OF 18TH C
a. POPULATION BEGAN TO GROW W/O ANY IMPEDIMENTS
B. POPULATION FIGURES
1. EXACT FIGURES LACKING
2. BEST ESTIMATES SUGGEST IN 1700 EUROPE'S POP
a. EXCLUDING EUROPEAN PROVINCES OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
b. BETWEEN 100 MILLION & 120 MILLION PEOPLE
3. BY 1800 - 190 MILLION
4. BY 1850 - 260 MILLION
5. ENGLAND & WALES
a. 1750 - 6 MILLION
b. 1800 - 10 MILLION

6
6. FRANCE
a. 1715 - 18 MILLION
b. 1789 - 26 MILLION
7. RUSSIA
a. 1722 - 19 MILLION
b. 1766 - 29 MILLION
C. WHY DID POPULATION GROW
1. LIMITED CONSENSUS WHY
2. REASONS OFFERED
a. CLEAR DECLINE DEATH RATE
b. LESS FAMINE
c. FEWER WARS
d. FEWER EPIDEMICS
(1) PLAGUE DISAPPEARED
e. CHANGES IN FOOD SUPPLY
(1) RE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
f. W/CERTAIN FOOD SUPPLY MORE CHILDREN COULD BE REARED & MORE COULD
SURVIVE
D. THOMAS MALTHUS 1766-1834
1. HIS ESSAY ON THE PRINCIPLE OF POPULATION 1798
2. HE DREW CONNECTION BETWEEN FOOD PRODUCTION & POPULATION
3. HE SAID INCREASE IN FOOD PRODUCTION CREATED INCREASE IN POPULATION
4. FOOD PRODUCTION INCREASED SLOWLY, ARITHMETICALLY
5. BUT POPULATION INCREASED GEOMETRICALLY
6. SINCE LIMIT TO AMOUNT OF FOOD THAT COULD BE PRODUCED BY GIVEN TERRITORY
7. POPULATION WOULD ALWAYS INCREASE TO POINT AT WHICH NO LONGER ENOUGH
FOOD TO GO AROUND
8. AT THAT POINT NATURE WOULD STEP IN AND CAUSE BIG DIE-OFF
9. MALTHUS LISTED 4 SO-CALLED NATURAL CHECKS ON OVER-POPULATION
a. FAMINE, PLAGUE, WAR & VICE
10. ONE OF CONCLUSIONS ECONOMISTS DREW FROM HIS WORK ON POPULATION
a. NO POINT TO RAISE WAGES
b. IF WORKING PEOPLE MADE MORE MONEY THEY WOULD JUST HAVE MORE CHILDREN
c. & COMPETITION AMONG THOSE EXTRA PEOPLE WOULD JUST LOWER WAGES AGAIN
E. IMPACT OF POPULATION EXPLOSION GREAT
1. CREATED NEW DEMANDS FOR
a. FOODS, GOODS, JOBS, SERVICES
2. PROVIDED NEW POOL OF LABOR
3. TRADITIONAL MODES OF PRODUCTION & LIVING HAD TO BE REVISED
4. MIGRATION INCREASED
5. LABOR POOL FOR UPCOMING INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

ADDITIONAL LECTURE NOTES ON SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION


Sorry outline did not convert from word perfect correctly - AF
A.

COPERNICUS 1473-1543
1. CONSERVATIVE CATHOLIC - POLISH
A.MADE AMAZING DISCOVERY
a.EARTH REVOLVED AROUND SUN
b.NOT VICE VERSA
B.THEORY THREATENING TO PROTESTANTS & CATHOLICS
C.EDUCATED AT UNIVERSITY OF KRAKOW
a.MOSTLY IN MATHEMATICS
D.KEPT ACCOUNTS FOR CATHEDRAL CHAPTER & OTHER JOBS
E.MATHEMATICS & ASTRONOMICAL
F.INTERESTED IN OVERCOMING SOME OF DIFFICULTIES
ASTRONOMERS HAD IN PREDICTING EVENTS LIKE
a.SOLSTICES & ECLIPSES
b.& CREATING JULIAN CALENDAR
(1)BASED ON JULIUS CAESAR'S
(2)STILL 10 DAYS OUT OF WHACK
G.FARMERS & MERCHANTS HAD PRACTICAL REASONS FOR NEEDING
MORE ACCURATE CALENDAR
H.BUT MEASUREMENT OF YEAR CONFUSED BY INSISTENCE SUN
REVOLVED AROUND EARTH
I.COPERNICUS WROTE
a.THE MATHEMATICIANS ARE SO UNSURE OF THE
MOVEMENTS OF THE SUN AND MOON, THAT THEY
CANNOT EVEN EXPLAIN OR OBSERVE THE CONSTANT
LENGTH OF THE SEASONAL YEAR
J.COPERNICUS'S REVOLUTIONARY SUGGESTION
a.MANY OF MATHEMATICAL CONFUSIONS WOULD DISAPPEAR
IF EARTH MOVED AROUND SUN
(1)HELIOCENTRIC THEORY
K.BUT COPERNICUS AFRAID TO PUBLISH HIS WORK
L.SO FRIEND DID, BUT LUTHERAN THEOLOGIAN WHO SAW IT
FIRST THREATENED
M.SUPPRESSED COPERNICUS'S OWN PREFACE TO WORK
a.& PRINTED UNSIGNED PREFACE OF HIS OWN
b.SUGGESTING COPERNICUS' HYPOTHESES NEITHER TRUE
NOR PROBABLY
N.COPERNICUS HAD DEDICATED HIS BOOK TO POPE PAUL III
a.WHO ALSO TRAINED IN MATHEMATICS
b.SO BOOK NOT SUPPRESSED
2.TYCHO BRAHE 1546-1601
A.DANISH ASTRONOMER BORN 3 YEARS AFTER COPERNICUS DIED
B.CLASSIC CASE OF RICH KID WHO MAKES GOOD
C.SON OF DANISH NOBLEMAN
D.HAD GOOD UNIVERSITY EDUCATION IN 7 LIBERAL ARTS
E.THEN STUDIED LAW

2
F.TYCHO PURSUED HIS REAL INTEREST ASTRONOMY IN SECRET
G.AS HIS FAMILY HIRED TUTOR TO KEEP TRACK OF HIS LAW
STUDYING
H.HE STUDIED LAW IN DAYTIME
I.& AT NIGHT WHILE HIS TUTOR SLEPT STUDIED STARS
J.BUT ALSO ECCENTRIC
K.AT 20 FOUGHT DUEL WITH ANOTHER STUDENT TO WHO WAS
BETTER MATHEMATICIAN
a.LOST PART OF HIS NOSE
b.MADE ONE OF GOLD & SILVER PROSTHETIC
c.WHEN DIED GREEN STAIN FOUND ON NASAL OPENING
d.APPARENTLY HIS METALS WEREN'T VERY PURE
L.AS REPUTATION GREW IN MATHEMATICS & ASTRONOMY
M.HE GAINED PATRON & FAMILY INCOME & INHERITANCE
a.ALLOWED HIM TO BUILT ASTRONOMICAL THINK TANK
(1)URANISBORG
(2)MEANING HEAVENLY CASTLE
N. OTHERS JOINED HIM THERE TO HELP HIM WITH HIS
SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATIONS OF HEAVENS
O.AT URANISBORG
a.WORKSHOP FOR INSTRUMENT MAKERS
b.CHEMICAL LAB
c.PAPER MILL
d.PRINTING PRESS
e.HUGE LIBRARY WITH CELESTIAL GLOBE 5 FEET IN
DIAMETER
P.HE USED NO LENSES = ALL OBSERVATIONS MADE WITH NAKED
EYE
Q.BUT HE COULD NOT SEPARATE HIMSELF FROM GEOCENTRIC
THEORY
R.WHEN HE DIED LEFT DETAILED RECORDS OF OBSERVATIONS TO
HIS YOUNG STUDENT TURNED MATH & ASTROLOGER
TEACHER, JOHANNES KEPLER
3.JOHANNES KEPLER 1571-1630
A.REMAINED DEVOUT LUTHERAN ALL HIS LIFE
B.STUDYING STARS AS EVIDENCE OF GOD'S DESIGN
C.ALSO PART TIME ASTROLOGER
D.ONE DAY AS HE DREW SERIES OF ASTROLOGICAL FIGURES FOR
HIS STUDENTS
E.WHICH FIGURES DESIGNED TO WHAT WOULD HAPPEN DURING
CONJUNCTION OF SATURN & JUPITER IF THEY CIRCLED
SUN INSTEAD OF EARTH
F.AS HE DREW HE SAW LARGER CIRCLE IN ZODIAC
a.WHICH REPRESENTED POSITION OF JUPITER
b.ENCLOSED ANOTHER PERFECT CIRCLE FORMED FROM
POINTS OF TRIANGLES OR TRINES
c.HE USING TO INDICATE PLANETARY POSITIONS
d.SMALLER CIRCLE CORRESPONDED ROUGHLY TO POSITION
OF SATURN
G.THIS GEOMETRICAL ACCIDENT INSPIRED KEPLER SO MUCH HE
CAME OVER TO COPERNICUS' S SUN-CENTERED VIEW OF

3
THINGS
H.REALLY NO TRUTH TO DRAWINGS
I.KEPLER JUST ANOTHER IDEALISTIC MATHEMATICIAN IN LOVE
WITH SO-CALLED PERFECT FORMS
J.BUT HE PUBLISHED HIS FIRST BOOK MYSTERICUM
COSMOGRAPHICUM AS FIRST OUT-SPOKEN DEFENSE OF
COPERNICUS'S THEORIES
a.TAKEN 50 YEARS FOR HELIOCENTRIC ADVOCATE TO
PUBLISH HIS REASONS
K.KEPLER WENT ON TO FORMULATE 3 LAWS OF PLANETARY
MOTION
a.EXPLAINED IN YOUR TEXT
b.MAKING HIM PIONEER OF MODERN PHYSICS
L.BUT TO DAY OF HIS DEATH, KEPLER BELIEVED SUN
IMMOVEABLE, SOURCE OF LIGHT, POWER & ENLIGHTENMENT
WAS GOD THE FATHER
M.SUN'S MOVING FORCE WAS HOLY GHOST
N.KEPLER'S DEVOTION TO ASTRONOMY CONTINUED TO BE A
RELIGIOUS DEVOTION
4.PUBLIC REACTION
A.DURING THESE ABOVE MENTIONED DEVELOPMENTS
B.OCCURRED AS SAME TIME AS INTENSIFICATION OF
PROPAGANDA WAR BETWEEN PROTESTANTS & CATHOLICS
C.AS RELIGION CONTENDERS ATTACKED EACH OTHER
a.BOTH GROUPS BECAME MORE CONSERVATIVE IN THEIR
ATTITUDE TOWARDS NEW KNOWLEDGE
b.BOTH CALVIN & LUTHER CONDEMNED COPERNICUS' WORK
D.IF EARTH NOT CENTER OF THINGS
E.THIS ALSO MEANT THAT MAN WHO HAD BEEN CENTERPIECE OF
GOD'S CREATION PROBABLY NOT AS IMPORTANT EITHER
F.CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY WHETHER CATHOLIC OR PROTESTANT
a.INSISTED MAN MADE IN GOD'S IMAGE
b.SUN LAMP TO EARTH
(1)OVER WHICH MAN SUPPOSED TO HAVE DOMINION
c.QUESTION AROSE THAT IF EARTH TRIVIAL PLANET
CIRCLING SUN
(1)HOW COULD MAN BE CENTER OF CREATION?
G.BRINGING TO NEXT SCIENTIST WITH SIGNIFICANT IMPACT
a.GALILEO GALILEI

1/27/2014

FC121: The Unification of Germany (1848-1871) - The Flow of History

FC121: The Unification of Germany (1848-1871)


"Not by speeches and majority resolutions are the great questions of the day decidedthat was the mistake of 1848 and 1849
but by blood and iron." Otto von Bismarck
Germany had been fragmented into as many as 300 separate states ever since the Investiture Struggle in the Middle Ages had
wrecked the power of the German emperors. In the following centuries, it had suffered repeatedly from foreign wars and
aggression, most recently Napoleon's rule. However, Napoleon had inadvertently done Germany two favors in the process of his
rule. Besides instilling a sense of nationalism in its people, he had also consolidated Germany into 38 states, a giant step toward
unification. Since Napoleon's defeat two states had competed for leadership of Germany: Austria and Prussia. Most people would
have expected Austria, with its longer imperial tradition and larger territory to dominate. But it was Prussia, with its better
organization and more progressive reforms (e.g., its customs union known as the Zollverein), which was destined to unify
Germany.
The man who would lead Prussia in Germany's unification was its chancellor (prime minister), Otto von Bismarck (1815-94). He
was a man of massive size and strength, brilliant mind, and iron will. Childhood stories of Germany's heroes had inspired him with
a sense of German nationalism, while stories of foreign conquerors, especially Napoleon, angered him and instilled in him a desire
for a unified nation. Bismarck's early career was rather undistinguished, although he did see foreign diplomatic service, which gave
him experience in that field. He also witnessed Austrian arrogance toward Prussia in the German Diet (parliament), which set his
mind to earn his country respect both inside Germany and outside of it. In 1862, he got his chance.
In 1858, Wilhelm I had succeeded Frederick William IV. The new king wanted to build up and reform the Prussian army. But one
obstacle stood in the way: the Prussian Reichstag (parliament), formed as a result of the revolutions of 1848, refused to grant
Wilhelm the needed money. In 1862, Wilhelm, on the verge of abdicating, appointed Bismarck as his chancellor.
Bismarck, among other things, was no lover of democracy, including the Prussian Reichstag, which he said bogged itself down in
speeches and resolutions. He believed only clear-sighted decisive policies of "blood and iron" could build a German nation. He
figured that once the nation was successfully built, German liberals, inspired by the reality of the long sought for German nation,
would come around to his way of thinking. Therefore, he simply ruled without parliament and rammed through his own reforms.
Prussia got its army and Bismarck could now turn to unifying Germany. Bismarck was an excellent diplomat who brilliantly
manipulated alliances and played different powers off against one another. He was also a master of limited objectives, using each
diplomatic step to set up the next one. He started with a revolt in Poland.
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FC121: The Unification of Germany (1848-1871) - The Flow of History

diplomatic step to set up the next one. He started with a revolt in Poland.
The Polish revolt against Russia in 1863 gained a great deal of popular support in Europe. But Bismarck was more interested in
power than popular support (unless it was a means to gaining power). He clearly saw that the Czar would put down the revolt, and
therefore helped Russia in crushing the rebels. This secured his eastern flank and gained an ally against Austria who had refused
to help Russia in the Crimean War even after Russia had helped the Hapsburgs suppress their uprisings in 1848.
With his eastern border secure, Bismarck next championed the liberties of Germans in Schleswig and Holstein, whose Danish ruler
was incorporating them more tightly into the Danish state. The resulting Danish War (1864) accomplished three things for
Bismarck. First of all, it won him useful popular support among the Germans since he appeared to be defending German liberties.
Secondly, it gave the reformed Prussian army valuable combat experience. Finally, it dragged Austria into the war on Prussia's
side, since it could not afford to let Prussia be the sole champion of German liberties. This served Bismarck's purpose, since it got
Prussia and Austria hopelessly entangled by their joint occupation of Schleswig and Holstein and helped set up a showdown
between the two powers: the Austro-Prussian War (1866)
Bismarck laid the diplomatic groundwork for this war with typical thoroughness. Russia, already Prussia's friend and still mad at
Austria, was effectively neutral, which suited Bismarck fine. Bismarck kept France out of the war by making vague promises of
Rhineland territories if he won. And Italy, wanting to get Venice into its fold, allied against the common Austrian enemy. Prussia's
military preparations were equally thorough. The Prussian army was better trained, organized and equipped than the Austrian
army. A new breech loading rifle, the "needle gun", gave Prussian soldiers four times the firepower of their Austrian
counterparts. A combination of using Prussia's railroad system for rapid movement of its armies with the telegraph to coordinate
those movements allowed the Prussians to converge at the point of attack with unprecedented precision and overwhelming force.
As a result, the Seven Weeks War, as this was also known, was a rapid and total victory for Prussia, in stark contrast to the drawn
out conflict of the Seven Years War a century earlier
Bismarck's settlement looked forward to the eventual unification of Germany. His treatment of Austria was fairly lenient, taking
only Venice and giving it, as promised, to Italy. But he also excluded Austria from German affairs, thus clearing the way for
Prussian dominance. For Prussia itself, he took Schleswig and Holstein as well as the lands dividing Prussia from its holdings along
the Rhine in the West. Bismarck also unified the north German states into a confederation under Prussian leadership, while
expecting the south German states to follow Prussia's leadership in war. The confederation was organized along democratic lines
to gain popular support, but the real power rested with the Prussian king and chancellor.
Bismarck's next move was to galvanize German support against a common enemy. He found that cause by going to war with
France. Napoleon III of France had his motives for war as well. Sagging popularity at home and concern over Prussia's growing
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FC121: The Unification of Germany (1848-1871) - The Flow of History

France. Napoleon III of France had his motives for war as well. Sagging popularity at home and concern over Prussia's growing
power helped drive him on a collision course with Bismarck that erupted into the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1). Once again,
Bismarck had laid firm diplomatic foundations. Russia was still Prussia's friend. Italy allied with Prussia in order to get Rome out
of French hands. Austria, still licking its wounds from its recent struggle with Prussia, was neutralized. The one big question mark
was: what would Britain do? Bismarck took care of that by taking out a full-page ad in the London Times claiming France wanted
to annex Belgium. Public opinion was outraged and Britain left France to its fate.
Few people then would have given Prussia any chance to beat the French, anyway, since France was still considered the foremost
military power in Europe. The Franco-Prussian War proved that assumption wrong. Prussian training, equipment, leadership,
and organization quickly smashed French armies in rapid succession. Within six weeks the Prussians had surrounded Napoleon
IIIs army at Sedan. After a day of desperate but suicidal assaults against the Prussian positions, Napoleon III was forced to
surrender along with 120,000 men. The French mounted sporadic local resistance, especially in Paris whose besieged inhabitants
survived on elephant meat from the zoo. In the end, it was too little too late and France had to ask for terms.
The Prussian victory had two main results. First of all, Prussia annexed Alsace and Lorraine, a bone of contention between the
two countries since the Treaty of Verdun in 843 A.D. This alone was enough to spark French bitterness. Secondly, Bismarck
officially unified Germany by declaring the Second Reich (German Empire) and crowning Wilhelm as Kaiser (literally Caesar or
emperor). Not only that, he did this at Versailles, for 200 years the symbol of French power and now the symbol of its
humiliation. This newly unified Germany would become an economic superpower by rapidly industrializing. For example,
German steel production doubled every decade between 1870 and 1910, even passing British steel production after 1900. Both
Prussia's treatment of France and its unification and industrialization of Germany would upset the balance of power and trigger a
system of interlocking alliances that kept Europe on a knife-edge of readiness for a war that nearly everyone expected to break
out. That war, World War I, would be the beginning of the end of European supremacy.
Internally, Germany between 1870 and 1914 presented a picture of seemingly incompatible contrasts. While its economy forged
ahead to make it the most advanced nation in Europe, its political structure resisted any liberalizing trends and remained
conservative and autocratic. Likewise, it maintained an increasingly obsolete social structure of rich landowners who had
mechanized their farms at the expense of the peasants and even richer capitalists making profits at the expense of a downtrodden
working class and shrinking class of small shopkeepers and craftsmen. As the social and political systems lagged behind economic
progress, tensions in the form of growing opposition parties (including socialists), protests, and strikes emerged more and more.
Discontent was partially diverted away from the government by being focused against such groups as Catholics, socialists, and
especially Jews. This and World War I only put off resolving these tensions. Unfortunately, the banner of discontent would be
picked up by Adolph Hitler and the Nazis whose terrorist programs would plunge both Germany and the world into a much worse
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FC121: The Unification of Germany (1848-1871) - The Flow of History

picked up by Adolph Hitler and the Nazis whose terrorist programs would plunge both Germany and the world into a much worse
nightmare than even World War I proved to be.

www.flowofhistory.com

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5/1/2014

Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 2.10 Comparing Civil Wars

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Comparing the Spanish and Chinese Civil Wars


Past Questions:
With reference to two civil wars, compare and contrast the importance of ideology in (a) causing
the civil war, and (b) attracting outside involvement. (Nov 2010)
Compare and contrast the causes of two twentieth century civil wars. (May 2009)

To what extent did outside intervention contribute to the outcome of two civil wars,
each chosen from a different region? (Nov 2008)
Compare and contrast the reasons for, and impact of, foreign involvement in two of the following:
Russian Civil War; Spanish Civil War; Chinese Civil War (Nov 2005).
**MARKSCHEME NOTES**
NB. the Russian civil war is no longer a 'named example' in the syllabus, so this will not be referred to
in an exam question on Paper 2 - though you can still use it as an example if the question simply
refers to an unnamed 'civil war'.

A question of definition: what is a 'civil war'?


PLEASE MAKE SURE TO FILL IN YOUR SECTIONS AS CONCISELY AS POSSIBLE - key points
and evidence only, NO WAFFLE! :)

Comparisons - key similarities

Contrasts - key differences

Causes of CCW and SCW


End of Monarchy
Foreign involvement
SCW: The weaknesses of the Spanish monarchy, and
the political instability this promoted, was
fundamental in laying ground war for the Spanish CCW: The failures of US diplomacy lead to the
Civil War including deep division in a vast spread of ultimate outbreak of the Chinese Civil War. The
regionalism. Essentially, the Spanish dictator Primo United States intervened to break the tension
de Rivera (1923-1930) does not succeed in securing between the Nationalists and the Communists. They
political instability. Consequently, the political did so by promoting a coalition government between
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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 2.10 Comparing Civil Wars

division intensifies after his death and ultimately this the two parts. Yet, Chiang Kai-Shek and Mao were not
long term issue leads to the outbreak of civil war willing to appreciate the terms of the agreement, and
between opposing sides fighting for power.
the US was not able to uphold its diplomatic
relations, which ultimately lead to the outbreak of
the civil war as both sides began to battle.
CCW: As with Spain, the collapse of imperial power in
China was crucial in establishing the political
instability that contributed to the civil war. This
includes the collapse of a 300 year dynasty, the 1911 SCW: Dissimilar to the Chinese outbreak of civil war,
Revolution of Double Tenth, and the failure of Yuan the immediate cause to the outbreak of the Spanish
Shikai to deal with long term foreign intervention. Civil War was the victory of the Popular Front, who
Additionally, this political vacuum causes a warlord caused
much
distress
the
Right-Winged.
area from 1916 to 1927, with no central government. Consequently, Franco began to plan a military coup,
The KMT and the CCP emerge as a result of this, hence which was to be funded by Robles. On June 17th
battle for rule begins.
1936, Franco and his crew murder the Christian-right
leader Sotelo. Francos rebellion was successful in
some parts including northern Spain and Andalusia,
yet less successful in major industrial spaces and in
Political instability
SCW: The political instability and the frequent shift in Madrid. Consequently, both sides reached a
central control After Primo de Riveras death, deadlock following the outbreak of the civil war.
Spain was politically polarized. The country was
divided between theleft and the right and throughout
the early 1930s this polarization intensified and
resulted in Franco's military coup that led to war in
1936. CCW: In much the same way as with Spain,
China was deeply between nationalists and
communists seen as both sides wanted as much
territory after the Japanese withdrawal. Despite of US
effort of negotiating peace with the opposing sides in
China, by February in 1946 both sides were fighting
again as they moved troops into Manchuria (northern
China).

Economic+ social causes


In both SCW and CCW, the long-term
economical and social factors contributed o
the outbreak of the war. Spain and China were
both
agricultural economies. In both countries peasants lived
in abject poverty as a result of the feudalistic structure
of the agrigarian society, in which the peasants were
supressed. The plight of the peasants in both countries
contributed to social tension + contributed to
establishment of rivalling political parties that wanted
on the hand improve the conditions of the workers and
peasants (CCP + Popular front parties) and on the other
hand maintain the power of the landlords (KMT +
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CEDA). It were these paties, which later fought each


other in the respective civil wars.
Reasons for foreign intervention in CCW and
SCW
The USSR's support for both Civil Wars was
limited due to fear of other Great Powers
turning against them, however did support to
some extent in both wars!
SCW: Stalin was afraid that Communist victory
would panic Britain and France into an alliance with
Hitler.
CCW: Afraid that USSR support for Communists
would draw the US into the conflict.

In both wars, the foreign support for the


nationalist parties came from a fear of the
spread of Communism:
SCW: Italy and Germany wanted to secure fascist
governments in Spain and eliminate and crush all
Communism.
CCW: Initially, US support in the Civil War was to
stabilize China but came to support the nationalists
in the fear of another Communist state.
Factors determining Mao and Franco's
victories in 1949 and 1939
Strong leadership

Foreign involvement

SCW: Franco was an intelligent leader and SCW: During the course of the Spanish
field commander, who were clever in his
Civil War, the Nationalists were aided with
maneuver and cautious in this tactics. This war supplies and military equipment from
was an asset to the Nationalists, as they Germany (16,000 troops and the Condor
could take advantage of weaknesses of
Legion) and Italy (75,000 men). Hitlers
their opponents and use it against them. In support for Franco enabled the
other words, Francos leadership skills
Nationalists to attain air dominance over
helped to secure Nationalist victory.
the Republicans, i.e. the bombing of
Guernica. Historian Anthony Beevor
CCW: As with Franco, Mao was known for argues that the Condor Legion was the
most efficient and influential
his leadership qualities and his decisive
assistance in Spain.
character that enabled Communist win.
Allegedly, Mao was the greatest military
CCW: Dissimilarly to the successful
strategist in the history of China.
outcome of direct foreign involvement for
Franco, Maos Communists succeeded in
"Lack of unity"
their battle for victory due to the flaws of
SCW: Both Franco and Mao used their opponents indirect foreign intervention. Mao received
limited support from his Russian
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lack of unity to their favor. The Republicans in counterparts in comparison to the amount
Spain suffered from internal divisions including the of financial and military aid the Chinese
question of rule and power. This resulted is a civil Nationalists received from the US.
war within a civil war in Barcelona were the Nevertheless, it was Maos portrayal as
Socialists and the Communists battled in bloody the victim of western imperialism that
street fights with Anarchists and Trotskyists. The enabled him to win support amongst his
lack of Republican unity enabled Franco to unite people consequently leading to his win
the Carlists, the Falange and other groups into a over the Nationalists.
single party, the National Movement, given that the
Nationalists were more compact and precise in
their struggle, which contrasted with the internal
instability the Republican side.

CCW: Just like Franco, Mao recognized the


internal weaknesses of the Chinese Nationalists,
the KMT, who were differed on ideology and way of
rule, very much like the Spanish Republicans.
Despite extreme foreign aid, the Nationalists were
not able to defeat the inadequate Communists,
thus failed to unite the whole of Russia under a
single party state. Whilst the KMTs were occupied
with inner conflicts, the CCPs built up its strength
and emerged as much stronger in the United
Front of 1937, together with the KMT against the
Japanese invasion of China. After 1937, Mao was
strong enough to wage war against the KMT and to
secure victory.

Impact of foreign intervention - did it


determine the outcome of the war?
In both wars the Communist parties
(Republicans and Communists) were given
support, however very limited, for the USSRSCW: Supplies of food and some military
equippment, however most of them out of date and
not modern technology.
CCW: The Communists were given military training
as well as pilot training for the PLA.

In the CCW, not gaining foreign support


actually helped the CCP gain support
whereas in the SCW the limited support for
the Republicans was one of the reasons for
its defeat.

In the CCW, support from foreign powers


actually undermied the nationalist war
effort, in contrast to in the SCW where
German and Italian support ensured victory.
- SCW: Given
- CCW:

*
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In the SCW the foreign support increased


chances of victory for nationalists, whereas
in CCW the foreign support did not do much
to affect the final outcome:
SCW: Nationalists won with the help of large
amounts of military equippment and soldiers from
Germany and Italy.
CCW: Even though the Communist party onmly
recieved limited support from the USSR in contrast
to US support for KMT, it did not affect the final
outcome as CCP emerged as victors.
Failure of League and UN to stop wars!
Results of CCW and SCW (political, social,
economic, international)
Political: Both wars resulted in the meerge
Political: CCW emerge of a left-wing leader
of a single-party state dictatorship where
whilst SCW emerge of a right-wing leader!
individual rights were suppressed:
SCW: Franco launched a terror campaign after the
The policies that were put in place as a
victory in the Civil War, to eliminate opposition that
result of the new governments were
killed approximately a further 40,000-200,000
drastically different between the two
people known as the "White Terror".
countries:
CCW: China remained a single party state in which
SCW: Franco reversed the Republican's land
individual rights and freedoms were suppressed- in
reforms and Spain's agricultural system remained
1989 when young protesters in the Tiananmen
ineffective and inefficient and he wanted to restore
Square (Beijing) were forcibly dispersed with guns
the power of privileged!
and tanks, the battles for the Civil War was used to
CCW: Property was taken frmo wealthy
justify the actions of the state.
landowners and redistributed to the peasants and
Economic: In both countries the economy large efforts were put to modernize the agricultural
had been very badly effected by the fighting system.
of Civil War:
SCW: 10-15% of Spain's wealth was destroyed and
International:Reaction of superpower USA
communication systems, factory machinery
differed greatly after the two wars:
needed to be replaced and rebuilt. The new govt.
SCW: US remained mostly neutral and even
was also facing huge debts.
strengthened its isolationism. US President
CCW: 8 years of fighting and Japanese occupation Eisenhower gave the first American grant to
left the conomy exhausted with falling agriculture Franco's army.
and industrial production and food shortages.
CCW: America refuses recognize CCP- the seat
in the UN was given to the KMT in Taiwan and not
China's seat PRC!

International: Result of the Civil Wars


created deep splits between the supporting
powers:
SCW: Divisions between the USSR and Germany- *
drove Soviet foreign policy to seek alliance with
Western powers to contain Germany.
CCW:US "Cold War" anxiety led to increased
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emphasis on military budget to prevent further


spread of communism- saw USSR as the
"mastermaind" behind Mao's victory.

Resources:

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The Europe of Napoleon and Metternich, 1798 to the 1840s

The Europe of Napoleon and Metternich, 1798 to the 1840s.


Major Themes

Napoleon
The Myth: Napoleon as the son and true heir of the Revolution, a myth
Napoleon himself created during his exile on Saint Helena.
The Egyptian Campaign of 1798-1802 as an example of "regime change"
justifiying a Western Power to liberate an "Oriental" people from tyranny
and the appropriation of the great ancient Egyptian civilization for the
greater glory of Napoleon, France, and Europe.
Napoleon's Empire in Europe marked the zenith of the French dream of
hegemony on the Continent; his defeat at Waterloo marked the end of this
traditional aim of French foreign policy and aspirations that dated to Louis
XIV.

The enduring legacy and influence of the French Revolution in 19th century Europe:
the on-going struggle of liberal, democratic, and national aspirations against countervailing
efforts to restore international and domestic stability, to repress signs of revolt or revolution,
and to restore essentials of the Old Order or the Old Regime.

Conclusion to lecture: A Major Claim.


The Struggle to defeat Napolen and the French dreams of internal hegemony
succeeded on the battlefield of Waterloo and in the meeting rooms of the
Congress of Vienna in 1815. And yet the struggle to defeat the French Revolution
failed. In the 1820s, this failure was evident in the seizure of independence by the
Greeks and by Latin American countries (Chile, Venezuela, Columbia, Peru, and
Mexico), just as it was evident in the winning of independence by Belgians in
1830 and in the successful revolutions in France in 1830 and 1848. These events
showed that the central political thrust of the French Revolution could not be
readily contained: no regime deemed legitimate could long endure that did not
incorporate representative government and some degree of popular
participation.

Liberalisms chief aims were the liberation of the economy from state intervention and
the establishment of representative government, mainly in the form of constitutional
monarch. Liberals were not democrats.
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The Europe of Napoleon and Metternich, 1798 to the 1840s

Democracy had classically been defined as the worst form of government because it
led to the rule of the mob under despots. Rousseau gave democracy the modern,
positive sense that prevails today, meaning government based on the participation of
the people and justified by the principle that sovereignty resides with the people, not
with kings, princes, magistrates, or other elite groups. The radical phase of the French
Revolution provided examples of modern democratic practice through its
establishment of universal male suffrage and support for an enlarged notion of
equality by embracing the principle that the state had an obligation to provide
education for all citizens, financial assistance to those who were in need, and other
means of equal participation in the benefits of democratic republic.
Nationalism (politically based) as it emerged from the French Revolution was based
on popular sovereignty and the equal rights of citizenship that all members of the nation
or political community had by virtue of their membership in that politically constituted
nation. This was a politically based conception of nationalism that was linked to
patriotic loyalty to the nation.
Nationalism (culturally based) emerged in another form that was based on shared
culture of language and history. This took root in the Germanies in response both to the
absence of a common German state in Central Europe and to aggressive nationalism
carried by the French in their military campaigns from 1792-1815 and its occupation or
annexation of states and principalities within the Germanies as well as Italy. Without a
common state, German proponents of nationalism called on their common heritage of
language and culture to foster unity that could then bring into being a true national state
for Germany.
Conservatism was an ideology of change in the sense that legitimate and desirable
change came about through slow, gradual historical evolution, not by violent and
dramatic revolution. One of its founders was Edmund Burke, a British writer and
member of Parliament, who denounced the French Revolution as disastrous and
illegitimate assault on the true nature of French government and society. Joseph de
Maistre, a Francophile writer from the kingdom of Savoy, based his theory of
conservatism on a renewed version of divine right monarchy and the central
importance of the church in any legitimate state. Conservatives worked for change in
the sense of returning a revolutionary society to its old order and to preserving
traditional institutions such as dynastic monarchy, aristocratic privilege, and the church.
Examples of the Conservative turn of mind and state practice
The Peterloo Massacre near Manchester, England in 1819

The Karlsbad decress of the German Confederation in 1819,


outlawing organizations espousing liberal or radical or nationalist
principles.
The Restoration of the Church in France: the example of
Restoration Crosses being erected among Liberty Trees (see
pictures and commentary)
In international relations, the Congress System that worked to keep Europe from any
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The Europe of Napoleon and Metternich, 1798 to the 1840s

general war from 1815 to 1914 and that helped bring an unprecedented degree of stability
during the entire 19th century.
Clemens von Metternich (1773-1859) was from 1809 until 1848 the Foreign Minister
of Hapsburg Austrian and the major architect of the Congress System. Like Napoleon,
he was extremely self-assurred and conceited.
There is, he said of himself, a wide sweep about my mind. I am always
above and beyond the preoccupations of most public men. I can cover a
ground much vaster than they can see. I cannot keep myself from saying
about twenty times a day: How right I am, and how wrong they are.
o Metternich based his policies on 1) the conservative notion of legitimacy, which
equated the good and just with historic tradition and the institutions of dynastic
monarchy, church, and aristocratic privilege and 2) a new vision of balance of power
in international affairs. To restore and protect the legitimate order of Europe meant
to restore and protect legitimate monarchs who would preserve traditional
institutions:
The Bourbons in Spain and France
The Pope and other rulers in Italy
The Netherlands under King William I of Orange
The Polish Kingdom under the Russian Tzar
o The success of the Congress System, 1815-1848.
A moderate territorial settlement after the defeat of France satisfied the
victors (Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia) without humiliating France but
by including France in the new Congress System. (A great contrast to the
Peace of Versailles ending World War I, whose terms were designed to
humiliate defeated Germany.)
The Great Powers kept their agreements to ally against revolutionary
aggression, in large part because of their recognition of the vast costs in
money and men involved in a general European war.
The Congress System worked through a council of the Five Great Powers
(Britain, France, Prussia, Austrian, and Russia) who settled international
disputes through diplomatic meetings of all parties instead of bi-lateral or
multi-lateral negotiations a kin to the alliances during the 18th century.
The Congress reorganized Central Europe, which up to then was a field of
intense rivalries, instability, and war since the 17th century 30 Years War. The
German Confederation under joint Prussian and Austrian leadership saw the
political geography much simplified from the 300 principalities in 1789 to 38
in 1815.
Concerted action to act together, to maintain the status quo, and a balance of
power or equilibrium in Europe generally succeeded.

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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - Suez Crisis, 1956

Suez Crisis of 1956: role of Britain, France and the United


States, the USSR, Israel and the UNO

Timeline of key dates:

1952, July 23rd: Egypt's monarchy was overthrown by the Free Officers.
1954, October: Nasser replaces Mohammed Naguib as President and leader of
Egypt.
1955: Nasser refuses to join the Baghdad Pact and negotiates the Czech arms deal.
1955, February 28: Israel launches the Gaza Raid as a result of an Egyptian
intelligence-gathering squad entering Israel and killing an Israeli cyclist. The raid killed 38
Egyptian soldiers.
1955: Closing of the Straits of Tiran.
1956, 26th July: Nationalization of the Suez Canal.
1956, October 30: Israeli troops reach the canal and Britain and France issues
ultimatum for both to withdraw their forces.

Key causes of the war:


Long Term:
Failure to conclude a peace agreement after the 1948 war: the defeat in the war left
the Arab states instable and domestic challenges to the leadership which made peace
initiatives difficult to realise. Arab states might have lost the war but had not been defeated
to such an extent that they were "forced" to make peace at all costs. Similarly Israel were
not ready to make territorial concessions for peace. Though Israel was initially hopeful about
Nasser's rise to power ("Much of their optimism centered around one man, Gamal Abdel
Nasser.. he had participated in the cease-fire talks with Israel in 1949 and had expressed a
desire to resolve the conflict"- Oren), these hopes for a peaceful solution collapsed amid the
growing suspicion and tension caused by the events outline below.
"Second Round Thinking"- Arab wishes for redeeming the Palestinians and seeking
revenge on Israel. As Benny Morris has stated, "Even before the ink on the armistice
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agreements was dry, there arose in the Arab capitals a clamour for an avenging second
round".Israel too saw a second round as a way to establish a more defensible border as well
as achieve territorial expansion.
Tensions towards a second conflict between Israel and Egypt were increased by
continuous border skirmishes between Palestinian fedayeen raids based in the
Gaza strip and retaliation attacks from the Israeli army - key example: Gaza raid (1955)
launched by Israel and killing 38 Egyptian soldiers in response to the death of an Israeli,
described by Egypt as "an action of unprovoked aggression carried out with deliberate
brutality."

Short Term:
Czech Arms deal 1955 - Israeli hopes for peace as a result of the change of government
gave away to distrust, decreasingly bad relations and finally war. Set in motion Israeli
deliberations on a pre-emptive war as it saw Egypt mobilizing and receiving modern
weapons from the USSR. Egypt turned to the USSR only after the US had refused to supply
Nasser with arms. Changed the regional balance in the eyes of Israel to a much less
favourable one- the deal provided Egypt with 300 tanks, 200 MiG 15 jets etc. Israel pleaded
to France for help and in return recieved 40 tanks, 84 airplanes and 120 light tanks. This
sparked Israeli considerations of a pre-emptive strike: as Ben Gurion stated, "If they really
get MiGs- I will be for bombing them!" Moshe Dayan, a key figure in the Israeli military and
also in favour of a pre-emptive strike, defended Israeli policy afterwards as follows: "if the
Arab states .... had not pursued a policy of increasing enmity towards her, Israel would
not have resorted to arms."
Nationalisation of the Suez Canal, 26th of July, 1956 - Nasser needed the
nationalisation to fund the Aswan Dam project (crucial to his personal pride and legitimacy),
after the US World Bank had withdrawn a huge loan made to Nasser as punishment for the
Czech Arms deal. This made French-Egyptian collision almost inevitable as there had been
previous clashes over the Algerian war (France considered Egypt to be the main support for
Algerian nationalists fighting for independence from France). France however was no longer
alone but joined by Britain and France and resulted in a tripartite alliance. The Suez Canal
was Britain's main trade route for oil etc. and the Czech arms deal was seen as a sign that
Egypt was coming increasingly under Soviet influence. Britain and France refused to
recognize Egypt's sovereignity over the canal.
Sevres protocol, 24th October 1956 - secret meeting held in France between British,
French and Israeli figures, which came up with the plan to get rid of Nasser: Israel would
seize the canal, Britain and France would ask both sides to withdraw, and then when Egypt
fails to do so Britain and France would intervene to protect the canal. The plan has been
described as "ill-conceived both in organisation and purpose" (Fraser).

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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - Suez Crisis, 1956

Outline of course of the war - what happened?

29th October, 1956 - Israeli troops launch this attack; the next day they reached the canal.
30th October - Britain and France issued their ultimatum as planned, Nasser refused this
(as hoped).
31st October - for two days Britain and France bombs Egyptian airfields and destroys
economic targets in Egypt as well as the Egyptian airforce.
Britain and France forced to halt their military operation as a result of US pressure based on
John Foster Dulles' beliefs that a full-scale war would result in Soviet intervention in the
Middle East, their oil interests demanding an 'even-handed' policy towards both Arabs and
Israelis, and Eisenhower's election campaign on a peace platform (he could not afford to be
dragged into a war while claiming to stand for peace! "Tell them goddam it, we are going to
apply sanctions, we are going to the United Nations, we are going to do everything we can
to stop this thing"- President Eisenhower.)
2nd November - the UN General Assembly approved a US-sponsored resolution for an
immediate ceasefire and withdrawal of all forces from Egyptian territory. Israel, under
severe pressure from US was forced to accept and Britain and France agreed shortly after,
with Britain having been forced by severe financial pressure from the US to end the
campaign.

Major consequences of Suez:

Nasser was praised as the only Arab leader able to challenge the West and expel British,
French as well as Israeli troops from Egyptian territory, establishing Egypt's claim to lead
the Arab world.
Nasser was able to hold on the the canal and also nationalize the remaining British and
French holdings, providing funds for the Aswan Dam project and the modernization of Egypt.
He also acquired an international army, UNEF, to protect Egypt from Israeli invasions and
policies.
Israel was granted freedom of shipping in the Gulf of Aqaba, providing Israel with a Red Sea
port.
Israel's military reputation was further enhanced, after the ease and speed with which they
had conquered the Sinai peninsula. As regional superpower, it is possible to argue that this
military performance was so awesome that it contributed to the lack of a further conflict
before 1967, granting Israel time to focus on nation - and state-building.
British and French were considered to be the losers- they failed to depose Nasser, who kept
hold of the Suez canal, and Eden was forced to resign. Furthermore, this defeat symbolised
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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - Suez Crisis, 1956

the loss of their colonial power in Egypt, and US and Soviet Union were able to step into this
vacuum and emerged as the two 'new' dominant foreign powers in the Middle East. Suez
thus brought the Cold War into the Middle Eastern conflict, though there have been debates
about how far the Cold War was imposed from the outside or imported by leaders in the
Middle East for their own ends.

Historiography - different interpretations of this topic?


Czech Arms Deal as instigator or Israel's longer-term security concerns?
Debate amongst historians as to what extent Israeli's policy leading up to Suez was only
reactive? Conventional view sees Israeli policy and the Sinai Campaign as a result of the
influx of Soviet arms and the blockade of the Straits of Tiran - i.e. that Israel was forced into
the war by Nasser. This view has been challanged by historians such as Motti Golani who
claims that "on the contrary, the arms deal temporarily blocked Israel's efforts to launch a
war" - i.e. that hawks in the Israeli administration had long been planning war as part of a
broader interventionist policy based on pre-emptive action as a way of increasing security.
Moshe Dayan, a key figure in the Israeli military and also in favour of a pre-emptive strike,
defended Israeli policy afterwards as follows: "if the Arab states .... had not pursued a policy
of increasing enmity towards her, Israel would not have resorted to arms."

Most historians agree that Suez represented the end of the British Empire ('Suez became the
symbol of the end of imperial destiny" - P. Vial). However, there are different views as to how far
British prime minister Eden's policies regarding Suez were foolishly dangerous or justified given
the circumstances. Those critical of Eden argue that Suez was a reckless policy that could have led
to World War Three if the USA had not intervened. However, a revisionist view has emerged that
judges Eden's policies to have been justified: Nasser was a threat to British interests and Eden was
therefore brave to attempt to remove Nasser with a policy that would have worked had it not
been for the US refusal to support it.
Possible Question 4 formulations
To what extent was Israel's action only reactive?
To what extent is Egypt to blame for the start of the war? (Israel to blame?)
To what extent did Egypt emerge as the winner at the end of the Suez Crisis?
Resources:
Schulze, pp. 22 - 31.
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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - Suez Crisis, 1956

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/5194576.stm

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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 3.20 Mussolini's social and religious policies

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3.20 Mussolini's social and religious policies


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Mussolini's Domestic Policies: Social and Religious, 1922 - 1939


Note:
While this is a 'must-have' Paper 3 topic, it can also be useful for Paper 2 SPS if there is a
question on domestic policy etc. In this case, do please remember that Mussolini is of course
a RIGHT-WING SPS ruler! (I know it seems obvious, but strange things happen in the exam
room!)
Past Questions:
Paper 3
Compare and contrast the domestic policies of Hitler and Mussolini. (May 10)
Evaluate the impact on Italy of Mussolini's domestic and foreign policies between 1922
and 1939. (May 09)
Compare and contrast the social and economic policies of Hitler and Mussolini. (Nov 08)
"Mussolini's greatest skill lay in projecting himself through propaganda as a great
leader." How far do you agree with this assertion? (May 07)
Compare and contrast totalitarian rule in Hitler's Germany and Mussolini's Italy
domestic policies of Hitler and Mussolini, up to 1939. (May 05)

**MARKSCHEME NOTES**
Key general Aims
Social and ideological aims

Secure his position as all-powerful leader


Transform Italian society and the Italian character replace bourgeois mentality with
commitment to fascism and nation
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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 3.20 Mussolini's social and religious policies

Policies towards Women

Aims
Mussolini aimed for women to give birth as a way of showing national vitality and providing soldiers for
his armies
Methods
The Battle for Births in 1927 aimed to increase population by 50% to 60% by 1950. 12 child family the ideal
loans and tax breaks used to encourage child production, while higher taxes and job restrictions used to
punish childless couples. Prizes given to those mothers with the most children doing the nation a service!
Quota system introduced in 1933 to reduce number of women working to 10% of jobs in public sector, and
then many companies also, as a way of trying to boost the battle for births.
Successes of these women policies? From whose perspective?

These policies was of no success to Mussolini as the practical demands of the economy meant
that his ideological aims went unrealized.
Failures of these women policies? From whose perspective?

Birth rate actually declined until 1936, and rose only very slowly after this. By 1950, the
population was only 47.5 million, long short of the target. Even in the workplace, the industrial
workforce was still 33% in 1936, a fall of only 3% from 1921.
Policies on Youth and Education
Aims
Mussolini aimed to create loyal future fascists to secure regime, and aggressive, disciplined future soldiers.
The youth was to be identified with fascism, Mussolini and Italy complete subordination to the national
state.
Methods
In schools, loyalty of teachers was enforced in 1929, oath of loyalty, 1937, compulsory membership in
fascist teachers association. Cult of personality promoted in school picture of Mussolini in the classroom.
Given stress on national greatness, greater focus on history and literature. Books lacking in patriotism were
banned 1936, one official national history textbook in use, stressing the leading role of Italy in world
history (i.e. saved the Allies in WW1!)
The establishment of youth clubs was an attempt to reach people outside of school via ONB (Opera
Nazionale Balilla), 1926. This aimed to transform the Italian nation body and soul, and focused on both
military/ideological training and sport and fitness, Children from the age of 8 up to those at university were
to attend these organizations.
Successes of these policies? From whose perspective?
An apparent success of these policies would be the control of the school curriculum/teachers and the power
of the ONB to reach the youth. By 1937, seven million had joined the ONB.
Failures of these policies? From whose perspective?
It is not clear how many people were actually converted to Mussolinis fascist ideology. Many young people
left school at 11, and in private and Catholic schools the state curriculum and ONB membership were not
enforced so these were outside the programme of indoctrination. Even at universities, some people who
had had a full fascist education were still not committed to Mussolinis ideals. Overall, the Fascists did
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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 3.20 Mussolini's social and religious policies

establish control over the minds of young Italians, but there is plenty of evidence that suggests they failed to
secure complete commitment to Fascism this way.

Religious Policies
Aims
Mussolini aimed to compromise with the Church (he was anti-religious, and in an ideal world would have
liked to replace the influence of Catholicism over the people with Fascism) to win greater public support at
home, and prestige abroad.
Methods
In 1929, the Lateran agreements ended conflict between Italian state and Catholic Church: Pope given
Vatican city, and compensation for historic losses and Mussolini received the recognition of the Catholic
Church (both in terms of the state and his fascist regime); Catholicism as the state religion, and religious
education compulsory in all state schools, but he clergy could not be involved in politics.
Successes of these religious policies? From whose perspective?
This proved to be a great achievement for Mussolini, as it secured the moral of backing of the Church (and
therefore the millions of Italians who looked to the Church for guidance), while guaranteeing that the Church
and its clerics would not become a source of political opposition.
Failures of these religious policies? From whose perspective?
On the other hand, this policy represented that Mussolini had failed to replace Catholicism with Fascism,
and that he was therefore giving up on trying removing the influence of the Church over Italian society. Also,
the relations between the Church and the Fascist state complicated by 1931, disputes over the Catholic
Action youth group which rivaled the ONB and conflicts over access to the minds of the young. After antiSemitic laws in 1938, the alliance between the Church and Fascism was over.
Anti-semitism
"have always behaved well as citizens and fought courageously as soldiers". Prior to 1939, the Fascist
regime accepted Italian Jews and even allowed 3000 German Jews to enter the country as refugees
from Nazi persecution
However by the mid 1930s, Mussolinis foreign policy goals had brought the regime
closer to the Nazi regime in Germany. Mussolini found himself persuaded that there was a Jewish
resistance to Fascism both in Italy and across Europe
The first clear example of the influence of Nazism appeared in July 1938 when the
regime gave official blessing to the claims of Italian anti-Semites by publishing a tract entitled the
Manifesto of Racial Scientists, which declared that the Jews do not belong to the Italian race
The anti-Jewish racial laws introduced in 1938 brought about a grave change to
Italian Jews who lost much of their liberty and their standard of living. Italian Jews and foreign Jews
were excluded from state institutions, and banned from any participation
Up until 1943, the regime did not collaborate with Nazi plans to exterminate all Jews
in Europe. In fact, the implementation of Italys anti-Jewish laws was inconsistent
When the original Fascist regime collapsed in July 1943 and replaced by the Italian
Socialist Republic, Mussolini allowed these racist Fascists their head. A decree of November 1943
ordered the confiscation of Jewish property and the rounding of up of all Jews
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Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision - 3.20 Mussolini's social and religious policies

Over 7500 Italian Jews were sent to Nazi death camps in Eastern Europe. Only 600
survived
In terms of racial ideology, Mussolini did not share Hitlers obsession to create a
master race. Instead, Mussolini believed that Italians had an innate superiority over other peoples but
he never developed a racial ideology to underpin Italian Fascism
The Italian racial laws caused great hardship, but, unlike their German counterparts,
the vast majority of Italian Jews avoided the Nazi death camps
Overall Assessments and Conclusions:
Mussolinis domestic policies brought him considerable public support! Endless propaganda no doubt
helped in this, and even if all Italians were not taken in by all of the claims of Mussolinis greatness they
could still enjoy the claims of national greatness (i.e. winning 1938 football world cup). However, he failed
to transform the Italian national character into a new fascist mould (athletic, aggressive, and obedient).
Most people conformed outwardly to fascism, but managed to retain their traditional habits and attitudes.
Furthermore, Fascism attempted to make further changes to behavior in the later 1930s, popular support for
the regime began to fall.
Overall, Mussolini brought some stability to Italy and remained in power for 21 years (1922 1943), being
personally popular for most of these. However, he did not succeed in realizing his hoped for fascist
revolution.
Resources:
CLASS NOTES AND HANDOUTS!
http://www.funfront.net/hist/total/f-italy.htm#econ-life.se
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/life_in_fascist_italy.htm
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/mussolini_roman_catholic.htm
http://ibhistoryhlwiki.wikispaces.com/Mussolinis+Italy

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Five Motives for Imperialism


Various motives prompt empires to seek to expand their rule over other countries or territories. These include economic,
exploratory, ethnocentric, political, and religious motives.
Economic: Imperial governments, and/or private companies under those governments, sought ways to maximize profits.
Economic expansion demanded cheap labor, access to or control of markets to sell or buy products, and natural resources
such as precious metals and land; governments have met these demands by hook (tribute) or by crook (plunder). After the
advent of the Industrial Revolution, dependent colonies often provided to European factories and markets the raw
materials they needed to manufacture products. Imperial merchants often established trading posts and warehouses,
created transportation infrastructure, and sought control over strategic choke points, such as the Suez Canal in Egypt
(which allows boats to cut thousands of miles of travel time between Asia and Europe). Imperial powers often competed
with each over for the best potential resources, markets, and trade.
Exploratory: Imperial nations or their citizens wanted to explore territory that was, to them, unknown. Sometimes they did
this for the purpose of medical or scientific research. At other times, they did it for the sense of adventure. Invariably,
imperial explorers sought to discover, map, and claim territory before their imperial competition did, partly for national
and personal glory and partly to serve the imperialist goal of expansion.
Ethnocentric: Imperial nations sometimes believed that their cultural values or beliefs were superior to other nations or
groups. Imperial conquest, they believed, would bring successful culture to inferior peopl e. In the late 19th century, for
example, European powers clung to the racist belief that inferior races should be conquered in order to civilize them. The
Europeans acted on their ethnocentrism, the belief that one race or nation is superior to others.
Political: Patriotism and growing imperial power spurred countries to compete with others for supremacy. Its a matter of
national pride, prestige and security. Empires sought strategic territory to ensure access for their navies and armies around
the world. The empire must be defended and, better yet, expanded. Political motives were often triggered as responses to
perceived threats to the security or prestige of the imperial power or its citizens abroad.
Religious: During imperial expansion, religious people sometimes set out to convert new members of their religion and,
thus, their empire. Christian missionaries from Europe, for example, established churches in conquered territories during
the nineteenth century. In doing so, they also spread Western cultural values. Typically, missionaries spread the imperial
nations language through educational and religious interactions, although some missionaries helped to preserve
indigenous languages. British missionaries led the charge to stop the slave trade in the nineteenth century, while others,
such as French missionaries in Vietnam during the same time period, clamored for their country to take over a nation.

WOMEN IN WORLD HISTORY - AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT

I.INTRODUCTION TO THE ENLIGHTENMENT


1.GENERAL REMARKS
A.ENLIGHTENMENT EVENT IN 18TH C. EUROPE
a.WHERE TRADITIONAL SOCIETY & ITS INSTITUTIONS CAME UNDER
SCRUTINY & ATTACK
B.ALSO NB STAGE IN DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN THOUGHT
C.WOMEN WILL BE NB PART IN THIS MOVEMENT
a.HOSTING SALONS WHERE DEBATE TOOK PLACE
D.WHILE 18TH C. FRANCE DID NOT PRODUCED MANY FEMALE
INTELLECTUALS OF FIRST RANK
E.IT DID HAVE IMPRESSIVE NUMBER OF FAMOUS & ACCOMPLISHED
WOMEN
F.WHO LEFT STRONG IMPRINT ON FRENCH CULTURE
G.ELITE WOMEN, INCLUDING ROYAL MISTRESSES INFLUENCED
a.DRESS
b.HOUSE FURNISHINGS
c.DECORATIVE ARTS
H.ONE OF PARADOXES OF ENLIGHTENMENT FOR WOMEN
a.PHILOSOPHES QUESTIONED ALL TRADITIONAL LIMITS ON MEN
b.THEY CHAMPIONED RIGHTS OF
(1)COMMONERS, CITIZENS, SLAVES, JEWS, INDIANS,
CHILDREN,
c.BUT NOT REALLY THOSE OF WOMEN
I.BUT BY CHALLENGING AUTHORITY MALE THINKERS REOPENED DEBATE
ON NUMEROUS SUBJECTS
a.INCLUDING WOMAN'S WORTH
J.WOMEN IN EUROPE BEFORE ADVENT OF SALONS
a.COMPLAINED THEY HAD NO PLACE TO DEVELOP THEIR
INTELLECTUAL OR ARTISTIC INTERESTS
K.BUT ONCE ENLIGHTENMENT & SALONS BEGAN
a.WOMEN STARTED SETTING THEIR OWN AGENDA
b.RAISED WOMEN'S ISSUES OF
(1)POLITICAL POWER
(2)EDUCATION
(3)PROPERTY RIGHTS
(4)MARRIAGE & DIVORCE RIGHTS
2.IMPORTANT PERSONS INVOLVED IN ENLIGHTENMENT
A.ISAAC NEWTON
a.ONCE HE PULLED TOGETHER SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE IN HIS
PRINCIPIA
(1)WHERE NATURE COULD BE FIGURED OUT
b.THEN NEXT LOGICALLY STEP TO INVESTIGATE HOW MANKIND
STRUCTURED & WORKED
B.JOHN LOCKE
a.ENGLISH PHILOSOPHER
b.HAD PROFOUND INFLUENCE ON ENLIGHTENMENT
c.HE SAID BABY WHEN BORN BRAIN IS TABULA RASA
(1)ALL KNOWLEDGE COMES FROM EXPERIENCE
d.ALSO HE SAID EVERY MAN HAS EQUAL RIGHT TO HIS NATURAL

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FREEDOM
(1)WITHOUT BEING SUBJECTED TO WILL OR AUTHORITY OF
ANOTHER MAN
e.BUT HE THOUGHT WOMEN EXCEPT FROM THIS NATURAL
FREEDOM
(1)& SHOULD BE SUBORDINATE TO MEN
C.VOLTAIRE
a.1 MAN ENLIGHTENMENT SHOW
b.POET, PLAYWRIGHT, ESSAYIST, NOVELIST
c.QUESTIONED & DEBATED EVERY ASPECT OF SOCIETY
3.SALONS
A.CENTER OF CULTURAL LIFE OF ENLIGHTENMENT
B.UNIQUE SOCIAL INSTITUTION
a.WHERE WOMEN PLAYED NB ROLE
C.ORIGINAL AIM OF THESE SALONS
a.TO INSTILL MANNERS IN RUDE SOCIETY OF 16TH C.
D.BY EARLY 17TH C. FIRST OF FAMOUS FRENCH SALONS ESTABLISHED
E.BY TIME OF GREAT SALONS OF 18TH C. MORE THAN 100 WOMEN'S
NAMES ASSOCIATED WITH LEADERSHIP OF SALONS
F.IN THEIR DAY SALONS PLAYED ESSENTIALLY SOCIAL FUNCTION OF
PRESS
G.SALON HOSTESSES HAD TO BE EDUCATED TO GUIDE CONVERSATIONS
ON EVERYTHING FROM
a.POLITICS
b.LITERATURE
c.SCIENCE
d.CULTURAL ARTS
e.LATEST PLAY IN PARIS
f.GERMAN PHILOSOPHY
g.ISAAC NEWTON'S IDEALS
h.POLITICAL REFORM
i.FINANCIAL REMEDIES FOR FRANCE
H.FRENCH KINGS' CHOICES OF MINISTERS STRONGLY INFLUENCED BY
BACKING OF POWERFUL SALONIERS
a.AS SALONS ATTRACTED STATESMEN & AMBASSADORS TOO
I.SALONIERS COULD MAKE OR BREAK CAREERS
J.SALON LIFE SEPARATE FROM COURT OF MONARCHY
K.WHILE IN BEGINNING SALONS FREE OF SEXUAL INTRIGUE
a.EVENTUALLY WOMEN & MEN'S SEXUALITY UTILIZED TO ITS
FULLEST
L.SALONIERES NEVER ACHIEVED SAME PRESTIGE & INFLUENCE IN OTHER
EUROPEAN CAPITALS AS IN PARIS
M.BUT LONDON, VIENNA, ROME, COPENHAGEN, BERLIN, ETC. DID HAVE
SALONS
N.IN LONDON SALONIERES TENDED TO BE MIDDLE CLASS
a.ORIGINALLY WOMEN CALLED BLUESTOCKINGS
(1)WHO ATTENDED OR RAN SALONS
b.BUT IN END TERM CAM TO BE DEROGATIVE FOR WOMEN
ASPIRING TO BE EDUCATED
O.IN GERMANIC CAPITALS WOMEN OFTEN JEWISH
P.AFTER FEW DECADES SALONS NOT ONLY FOR UPPER CLASSES BUT

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OPEN TO WOMEN BELOW ARISTOCRACY
Q.SALONS ALLOWED WOMEN TO MEET & MARRY MEN OF SUPERIOR
SOCIAL RANK OR WEALTH
R.MOST HOSTESSES IN SALONS HAS SOME THINGS IN COMMON
a.TENDED TO BE WELL OFF & MANY WEALTHY
b.WOMEN INVARIABLY OF MIDDLE AGE
(1)AT LEAST 40 YEARS OLD & EVEN OLDER
c.WOMEN USUALLY SINGLE, SEPARATED OR WIDOWED RATHER
THAN MARRIED
d.MOST IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS NEEDED FOR
(1)CLEVER, TACTFUL, CHARMING
(2)BEAUTIFUL & WELL EDUCATED NOT NECESSARY
S.WOMEN'S MAIN FUNCTION TO DRAW OUT HER GUESTS & TO MAKE
THEM SPARKLE
T.AS JEAN JACQUE ROUSSEAU SAID
a.WOMEN EXISTED MERELY TO NURTURE AND TO COMFORT MEN
U.POET LE BRUN'S ADVICE TO WOMEN
a.INSPIRE BUT DO NOT WRITE
V.DISTINGUISHED MEN OF PERIOD WANDERED FROM 1 SALON TO
ANOTHER
W.IN END THESE EXCHANGE OF IDEAS PERCOLATED DOWN
THROUGHOUT SOCIETY
X.& FRANCE WILL HAVE ITS REVOLUTION
II.FAMOUS SALONIERS
1.CATHERINE DE VIVONNE RAMBOUILLET - 1588-1665
A.FRENCH NOBLEWOMAN, BORN IN ROME ITALY
B.DAUGHTER OF JEAN DE VIVONNE, MARQUIS DE PISANI
C.AT 12 MARRIED TO SON OF MARQUIS DE RAMBOUILLET
a.HE SUCCEEDED TO TITLE IN 1611
D.FROM BEGINNING SHE DISLIKED COARSENESS OF FRENCH COURT
a.SHE HERSELF CONSIDERED VIRTUOUS & PIOUS
E.FOR 50 YEARS SHE GATHERED TOGETHER TALENTED & WITTY OF
FRANCE
a.IN HER FAMOUS TOWNHOUSE
(1)HOTEL DE RAMBOUILLET
F.HERS A SALON DEVOTED TO LITERATURE & CULTURED CONVERSATION
WHERE NOBLES & MEN OF LETTERS COULD MINGLE ON EQUAL
FOOTING
G.HER SALON SETTING FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FRENCH CLASSICAL
LITERATURE
a.FROM NOBILITY & LITERARY WORLD
H.AFTER BIRTH OF HER 7TH CHILD AT AGE 35
I.SHE DEVELOPED MYSTERIOUS ILLNESS
J.& SHE COULD NOT BEAR DIRECT HEAT FROM FIREPLACE
K.SO SHE DIRECTED CONVERSATION FROM HER BED FOR NEXT 25 YEARS
L.SO CATHERINE LITERALLY CREATED SALON IN BOTH ITS SENSES
a.ROOM ITSELF - DRAWING ROOM
b.& INSTITUTION WHERE CONVERSATION FREELY ENGAGED IN
2.MADAME DE MAINTENON - 1635-1719
A.BORN FRANCOISE D'AUBIGNE
B.CARDINAL RICHELIEU HAD IMPRISONED HER FATHER

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C.SO HER MOTHER, MARTINIQUE FORCED TO RAISE HER DAUGHTER ON
STREETS WHILE LIVING OFF CHARITY FROM HER RELATIVES
D.MARRIED TO MIDDLE-AGED MAN, BUT HE DIED SOON THEREAFTER
E.1 OF LOUIS XIV'S MISTRESS, MADAME DE MONTESPAN, CHOSE MISS
AUBIGNE TO EDUCATE ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN OF KING
F.IN 1670 SHE GAINED TITLE OF GOVERNESS
G.DUE TO HER DEVOTION TO HIS CHILDREN LOUIS BEGAN TO SEEK HER
GUIDANCE & COMFORT
H.IN 1674 LOUIS GAVE HER NEW TITLE MADAME DE MAINTENON
I.IN 1683 6 MONTHS AFTER DEATH OF LOUIS XIV'S WIFE, MARIA THERESA,
LOUIS SECRETLY MARRIED MADAME DE MAINTENON
J.MORGANATIC WIFE OF LOUIS XIV
K.HER INFLUENCE ON KING WAS TO GET HIM TO ACT MORE RELIGIOUS
L.SHE INFLUENCED HIM TO PARTICIPATE IN RELIGIOUS CELEBRATIONS
M.HER GREATEST ACTIVITIES IN EDUCATION OF GIRLS
a.TAUGHT & ORGANIZED SCHOOL FOR POOR CHILDREN
b.HIRED URSULINE NUN TO TEACH MANY OTHERS AT SCHOOL SHE
ESTABLISHED
c.INSTITUTE OF ST. LOUIS (HOUSE OF ST. CYR)
(1)HOME TO EDUCATE 200 YOUNG LADIES
(a)POOR
(b)ABLE TO PROVE 4 DEGREES OF NOBILITY ON THEIR
FATHER'S SIDE
(2)WHEN LEFT HOUSE EACH GOT 3000 CROWN DOWRY
d.HER NAME IDEA TO EDUCATE YOUNG WOMEN NOT GOING INTO
NUNNERIES
(1)TO MAKE THEM GOOD MOTHERS OF FAMILIES
N.CLEAR INDICATION OF HOW LOW CLASS WOMAN COULD RISE TO
INFLUENCE & PRESTIGE
3.SUZANNE CURCHOD NECKER 1739-94
A.SWISS, DAUGHTER OF PASTOR
B.AT FIRST ENGAGED TO ENGLISH HISTORIAN EDWARD GIBBON
a.BUT HIS FATHER BROKE IT OFF
C.1764 MARRIED JACQUES NECKER, BANKER
a.SHE ENCOURAGED HIM IN HIS POLITICAL CAREER
b.BUT FOR SHORT TIME FINANCE MINISTER TO LOUIS XVI
D.SHE HAD BRILLIANT PARISIAN SALON
E.HOSPITAL THAT SHE FOUNDED C. 1776 STILL EXISTS
F.HER WRITINGS ON LITERARY & MORAL SUBJECTS INCLUDE
a.REFLECTIONS ON DIVORCE - 1794
b.ON INHUMANE PRECEPTS - 1790
G.MOTHER OF MADAME DE STAEL
4.MADAME DE SEVIGNE 1626-96
A.LETTERS ARE LITERARY MASTERPIECES AT TIME
5.MARIE-THERESE DE GEOFFRIN 1699-1777
A.DAUGHTER OF VALET
B.WIFE OF ICE-CREAM MANUFACTURER
6.MADAME DE POMPADOUR 1721-64
A.MISTRESS OF LOUIS XV
B.IMPORTANT PATRON OF DENIS DIDEROT & HIS GRAND ENCYCLOPEDIA
7.MADAME DE STAEL 1766-1817

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A.CONSIDERED ONE OF GREATEST LITERARY FIGURES OF 18TH C.
B.LED INTELLECTUAL & POLITICAL OPPOSITION TO NAPOLEON
BONAPARTE FROM HER SALON
C.SEE MORE REMARKS ON HER UNDER FRENCH REVOLUTION
III.DEBATE ON WOMEN DURING ENLIGHTENMENT
1.GENERAL REMARKS
A.WRITERS DEBATED POSITION OF WOMEN IN SOCIETY
B.AS WELL AS EQUALITY OF SEXES
C.LEARNED WOMEN OF SALONS INSISTED WOMEN BY NATURE EQUALS
OF MEN
a.BUT HAD BEEN MADE SUBSERVIENT BY ARTIFICIAL LAWS &
INSTITUTIONS
D.DENIS DIEROT AGREED TO THESE IDEAS PROPOSED BY WOMEN
a.HE DEMANDED REFORMS TO GIVE WOMEN SAME LEGAL RIGHTS
AS MEN
b.HE FAMOUS EDITOR OF MULTI-VOLUME GRAND ENCYCLOPEDIA
c.ARTICLES ON WOMEN, BUT REALLY NO SERIOUS EXAMINING OF
WOMEN'S NATURE & RIGHTS
d.2 WOMEN CONTRIBUTED TO ENCYCLOPEDIA
(1)MADAME DELUSSE
(a)WIFE OR SISTER OF ENGRAVER WHO WORKED ON
PLATES
(2)OTHER ANONYMOUS
E.BROTHERS DE GONCOURT
a.AUTHORS OF THE WOMAN OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY
(1)FIRST PUBLISHED IN FRENCH IN 1862
b.BY ANALYZING REAL WOMEN THEY FOUND THEIR LIVES
SPIRITUALLY EMPTY
c.THEY SAID WOMEN IN POSITIONS OF GREAT POWER BEHIND
NOTABLE MEN
d.WOMEN WERE SEARCHING FOR DEEPER MEANING IN LIFE
e.& PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE
f.BUT THEN HE CONCLUDED THAT ALL THESE ACTIVITIES COVER
UP FOR LACK OF SPIRITUAL FULFILLMENT
g.SO WOMEN NEEDED FULFILLMENT OF MOTHERHOOD
h.ACCORDING TO GONCOURT & ROUSSEAU
i.THIS WOULD ALLOW THEIR TRAITS OF SENSITIVITY, LOVE &
PASSION TO BE UTILIZED
F.EVEN MONTESQUIEU & VOLTAIRE ASSUMED DOMESTIC
SUBORDINATION OF WOMEN
a.ORDAINED BY NATURE IF NOT BY GOD