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Analysing the Impact of Culture and History in China: The Benefits of Locals in Promoting

Tourism

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Culture and History in China

Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION..............................................................................................1
1.1 Introduction......................................................................................................................1
1.2 Contextual Background....................................................................................................2
1.3 Research Aims and Objectives.........................................................................................3
1.3.1 Research Objectives...................................................................................................3
1.4 Research Questions..........................................................................................................4
1.5 Rationale of the Study......................................................................................................4
1.6 Problem Statement............................................................................................................5
1.7 Structure of the Dissertation.............................................................................................6
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW....................................................................................8
2.1 Culture of China and Tourism..........................................................................................8
2.2 History of China and Tourism........................................................................................11
2.3 Tourism Environment of China......................................................................................12
2.3.1 Chinese Environment of Building (In Context of the Current Building Boom).....12
2.3.2 Basic Environmental Challenges for the Hospitality Industry................................13
2.3.2.1 Water Scarcity................................................................................................13
2.3.2.2 Indoor Air Quality Management...................................................................13
2.4 Tourism Industry and benefits for Locals.......................................................................14
2.4.1 Trends in Hospitality and Tourism Market in China...............................................14
2.4.1.1 Trend 1: Development will diversify in multiple business segments............15
2.4.1.2 Trend 2: Consolidation in high and mid-scale divisions...............................15
2.4.1.3 Trend 3: change in the lifestyle.....................................................................15
2.4.1.4 Trend 4: Innovations in models and formats.................................................15
2.4.1.5 Trend 5: Continuous shaping of the market by Government........................16
2.4.2 Local Tourism and Evolving Business Opportunities.............................................16
2.5 Governments Role in Promoting Tourism in China......................................................17
2.5.1 Enabling Tourism Development..............................................................................17
2.5.2 Managing Negative Social and Environmental Influences......................................18
2.5.3 Government Initiatives in Promoting Tourism in China..........................................18
2.6 Tourism and Economic Development in China..............................................................19
2.6.1 Tourisms Contribution to the Economic Development..........................................21
2.6.2 Key Trends in Outbound Tourism of China.............................................................21

Culture and History in China

2.6.3 Key Trends in Inbound Tourism of China...............................................................22


2.7 Community Participation in Tourism Development.......................................................22
2.7.1 Benefits of local Community on Tourism Industry.................................................26
2.8 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework.........................................................................28
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY...........................................................................................29
3.1 Introduction....................................................................................................................29
3.2 Epistemological Considerations.....................................................................................29
3.3 Ontological Considerations............................................................................................30
3.4 Research Approach.........................................................................................................31
3.5 Research Strategy Secondary.........................................................................................32
3.6 Sampling Strategy..........................................................................................................32
3.7 Data Analysis technique: Content Analysis....................................................................34
3.8 Ethical Consideration.....................................................................................................34
3.9 Reliability and Validity...................................................................................................35
3.10 Conclusion....................................................................................................................36
References................................................................................................................................37

Culture and History in China

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction
The tourism industry in outgrown extensively serving many small and sub industries
including hotels, logistics, travelling and therefore create many new business opportunities.
According to Zhong et.al (2011, p. 48), the growth rate of tourism in China has increased
after significant reforms were introduced by the government. After the emergence of rich
middle class incomes and less restrictions on movement by the Government of China, the
travel and tourism industry has witnessed an unprecedented period of growth. Moreover,
China is one those countries that has a large outbound and inbound tourist market. According
to Salazar (2015, p. 835), China is regarded as the third most visited region of the world. The
total number of foreign tourists that came to China in 2010 was around 56 million. This
resulted in the foreign exchange income to rise to $45.9 billion which was also regarded as
the fourth largest foreign exchange income to a specific country. On the other hand, the total
number of local tourist were found out to be 1.6 billion and resulted in a total income of $7.8
billion.
As per the survey conducted by WTO (World Trade Organization), by 2020, China
would become the largest tourist destination in the world. With regards to net outbound travel
spending, the country is assumed to be fastest growing economy of the world and has been
able to maintain the second position in world ranking. It has also been researched that the
growing economy of China has resulted in the increase in overall business travel. With regard
to China, the total percentage of sales based on business travel is more (38%) as compared to
UK (28%) and US (21%). Moreover, as per the report of World Travel and Tourism council
(2013), the tourism revenue of China in 2009 was $185 billion (Lijuan, 2013, p.16).

Culture and History in China

1.2 Contextual Background


During the era of 1949 to 1975, China only allowed selected foreign visitors to visit
China and closed its gate to other foreigners. During 1970, the paramount leader of China,
Deng Xiaoping made a decision to promote and encourage tourism for the purpose of earning
high-value foreign exchange. After this decision, the Chinese government started developing
its tourism industry. A hotel construction program increased the number of guest houses and
hotels in China and more scenic sports and historical places were renovated and were offered
to tourists including professional guides. Due to increase in international and airline traffic
including other tourist transportation facilities assisted travel to be more convenient and less
time consuming. According to Xie (2015, p. 11), at least 250 counties and cities were opened
up for foreigners and local tourists during the year 1980. At that time, travellers were only
required to show their residence permit (for local citizens) and valid visas (for foreigners)
through which they could visit at least 100 nationwide locations in China. During 1985,
approximately 1.5 million foreigners were reported to have arrived in China which resulted in
total earning of $1.3 billion from tourism sector.
According to Wall et.al, (2014, p. 190), development of tourism especially in rural
areas has resulted in enormous challenges for the government, particularly related to the issue
of involvement and recognition of local people and other stakeholders of the society. Heung
and Kucukusta (2013, p. 13) stated that tourism is mainly dependent on two significant
factors i.e. (1) the local community and its population and (2) tourists and their activities.
Moreover, Qin and Min (2012, p. 122), conducted a study in identifying the importance of
ecotourism based on community in Thailand. According to the researcher, the community
people or local people are the actual stakeholders and are regarded as the heart of tourism
management.

Culture and History in China

Tourism researchers have researched and concluded that local community people
usually accept and support tourism activities only if it provides socio-economic and
sociocultural benefits along with protection of the environment. Thus, in developing tourism,
the involvement of community and local members in the decision making process and its
implementation is said to be critical. According to Lijuan (2013, p. 16), rural tourism has
become important in developing national tourism policies and has also been highlighted in
the Chinas Tourism development and management master plan (1980-2000). As the main
focus of the tourist is to have a friendly experience, therefore the locals living around the
locality has a strong impact on the tourist destination. Therefore, the involvement of local and
community people towards tourism development is of utmost important as they act as the
main stakeholders and have a direct impact on the overall quality being delivered by the
tourism industry.

1.3 Research Aims and Objectives


The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of culture and history of China in
relation to the benefits of locals in promoting the tourism industry.

1.3.1 Research Objectives

To understand how Chinese culture and history is impacting the tourism in China.
To analyse the role played by the government and locals in promotion of cultural

tourism and the overall tourism industry


To recommend future initiatives to promote the role of local government in the
promotion of tourism in China

Culture and History in China

1.4 Research Questions

The research questions selected for this research are as follow:


1. What is the relationship between history and culture of China on tourism industry?
2. What is the role played by government and locals in the promotion of Chinese
tourism?
3. What is the impact of culture and history of China for the benefits of locals in
promoting tourism industry?
4. What future initiatives can be taken by the government for promoting local
government for increasing tourism activities in China?
The research questions mentioned above will be used to analyse the research studies.
As the study is based on secondary research, therefore online articles and journals pertaining
to the above research questions will be selected.

1.5 Rationale of the Study


The tourism industry in China is growing at very high pace. The revenue that was
generated in 2009 from the tourism industry of China was $185 billion (Salazar & Zhang,
2013, p.81). The total contribution of the tourism industry in total GDP was 2.6% in 2014,
which also helps in identifying the potential opportunities for local and government with to
tourism promotion. Locals living in many rural areas earn their living by selling local piece of
art, artefacts etc. (Tao, 2012, p. 17). Reforms carried out in 1970 catered to growing tourism
industry of China. Hotel industry provides many opportunities providing jobs and services.
Socioeconomic development is induced with increased tourism as government invests more
on heritage and recreational sites (Su, 2011, p. 1441). This on the whole improves the
infrastructure development of the region. Art and culture has been one of the foremost
reasons that attract tourists in China (Salazar & Zhang, 2013; Walle, 2010; Nyri, 2011).
Therefore, the rich culture and history of China has been one of the important reasons to

Culture and History in China

attract tourists. There is a need investigate the relationship between history and culture of
China and tourism industry and the impact it has made on locals of China. Another important
reason for conducting this research can be analysed from the fact that the local peoples
involvement in tourism activities has a direct and positive impact on the overall tourism
industry. According to Ghimire (2013, p. 31), tourism is now considered as the most effective
strategies to promote economic development in the country. It has been researched that
tourism develops high employment and also results in high income. Moreover Zhong et.al
(2011, p. 45) stated that community based tourism development generates significant
advantages to the local community members of the society.
The current research has not only focused on the benefits of local towards tourism
promotion but also has focused on the benefits which the local would attain through tourism
activities. Therefore, there is not much discussion on the fact that whether local should be a
part of tourism development or not. However, there is much debate on how the community
should be involved. As local involvement is usually considered as an important factor in
achieving success of development projects, it is now being included in various policies
pertaining to government and NGOs

1.6 Problem Statement


According to the authorities of Chinese Government, the numbers of foreign tourists
have been declining since 2007 till 2014. However, there are number of reasons behind such
decline. The first reason is the exchange rate fluctuation as the cost of visiting China
increases due to which many potential visitors are visiting other destinations other than china.
Secondly, the economic recession of Europe and American counties have resulted in less
spending in tourism and travelling industry. Thirdly the old travel route lacks
competitiveness and novelty. Moreover, another big reason for low tourism in China is

Culture and History in China

because of the less investment and focus of Chinese authorities towards the promotion of
tourism.

Figure 1: Inbound Tourist Arrival and Growth Rate


Source: www.travelchinaguide.com
On the whole, Chinese culture and history has a strong influence in the tourism in China for
the purpose of attracting tourists. The changing trends in tourism in China has played a vital
role therefore, locals needs to be involved in promotion of cultural tourism and the overall
tourism industry. For the purpose of channelizing and development of cultural tourism, it is
important for the government to induce effective tourism policies. Therefore, this study
identifies impact of culture and history in china and the benefits of locals in promoting
tourism

1.7 Structure of the Dissertation


The structure of study is based on five chapters. Following is the main structure of the
study.

Culture and History in China

Chapter 1: This section is based on introduction to the research including research


aims and objectives, research questions, rationale and significance of the research,
background of the study together with problem statement and issue of research.
Chapter 2: This chapter of the study will include theoretical underpinning and
literature review based on past studies and researches. It will help in understanding the
researches that has been conducted in the past.
Chapter3: Chapter three of the study identifies the research plan and will be based on
research methodology. Research methodology will include research philosophy, research
design, methods of data collection, research approach and nature of the study. Further, the
study will also incorporate research plan and limitations of research.
Chapter 4: The collected data for the research will be analysed in this chapter and
the extracted findings from the results will be discussed under the objectives. This chapter
will evaluate how successful the research has attained its objectives.
Chapter 5: This section or chapter of the dissertation is based on conclusion and will
also discuss recommendations, future implications and summary of findings.

Culture and History in China

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

Tourism is one of the most important aspects that influence the economy both directly
and indirectly in most countries. Travel and tourism has become a strategic industry in
Chinas development towards the socialist market economy. China is still penetrating new
and better channels through which the tourism industry can strive in local and international
markets successfully (Tourism Market in China, 2014, p. 5). China is facing the new
opportunities and challenges for the growth in the tourism market as compared to the
opportunities and challenges they faced decades before.
China is one of those regions of the world, which is rich in culture and historical
heritage. People around the world take interest in the historical places, like the Forbidden
City, Mount Tai and The great Wall, to visit. The locals are interested in cultural and
historical heritage of the China as well. This rising attention in Chinas cultural diversity is
encouraging an emergent fragment of tourism industry (Walle, 2011, p. 59).

2.1 Culture of China and Tourism


Walle (2011) examined the Marketing Equitable Ethnic Cultural Tourism in China. In
this study, researcher has focused on the ethnic cultural tourism of China and the market
equitability (p. 67). With a modest start in 1970, ethnic cultural tourism in China has become
an influential force and governing bodies and private agencies use it to revive economic
activity. Hence, as an outcome, cultural tourism strategies, planning and encouraging is more
considerable than elsewhere. Historically, ample amount of this activity was led through
micro-marketing sights (Walle, 2011, p. 67). This notion focuses mainly on the benefits that
integrate a company and its consumers, whenever they interrelate with each other. A blind
promotion of this method is that the wants, desires and vulnerabilities of providers of

Culture and History in China

products and services of cultural tourism can be ignored. A substitute of this micro outlook
is offered by the macro-marketing, a perspective that is dedicated to probing the overall
influence of marketing actions and suggesting replacements that are impartial and feasible
(Walle, 2011, p. 67).
Gradually, macro-marketing outlooks are applied when the planning of marketing
strategies are intended. These methods have a significant part to perform whenever cultural
tourism approaches are established and executed. China is a land of an extensive range of
ethnic locals and the tourists have been attracted towards them (Wang & Wall, 2005, p. 9).
Mosou is one of these localities that have established as a sophisticated cultural development
association, which works to assure that the tourism policies and plans are not controlled
merely from top authorities and that they are equal and mirror the needs and desires of the
people. The study appreciated these efforts as a great corporate strategy and an ethical way
that can directly influence stakeholders (Wang & Wall, 2005, p. 9).
Tourism, on a positive note, encourages relations and insights of perspectives between
cultures. On the other hand, on an adverse note, it is simply a bottleneck between cultures.
Unfortunately, it seems like the worst part is common in case of Tibet currently. According to
a report Culture Clash: Tourism in Tibet (2014, p. 24), Tibets mesmerising sites attracted
tourists for centuries. Yet today, the actual tradition of Tibet is commercialized and sold by
the non-inherited occupying Chinese regime. Tibets local are no longer in position of taking
part in controlling or even consulting in any manner in their own towns and cities or the
renovation of their holy pilgrimage places into tourist attractions (Culture Clash: Tourism in
Tibet, 2014, p. 24).
Qingming, Honggang & Wall (2012) stated that numerous Tibetan do not even get
any kind of economic advantage from the local tourism. Qingming, Honggang & Wall (2012)
notified that, most of the jobs generated by tourism growth go to non-resident employees

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10

from China. Furthermore, numerous tourists visiting each year need the expansion and
advancement in infrastructure and services on an extent that generally foreign or local
government Chinese firms can fund or invest (Qingming, Honggang & Wall, 2012, p. 27).
The views seen on the Tibetan blog and social media sites reveal that several tourists favour
Chinese tourist service providers and tour guides.
Wang and Wall (2005) analysed cultural tourism: an assessment of marketing
strategies in Dalian, Nanjing and Hainan, China. The essence of the research is that the
Chinese locals have more chances to travel in big cities arranged by the local travel agencies
and the number of tourists is gradually increasing yearly in China (Wang & Wall, 2005, p. 9).
Cultural tourism theme is evolving the modern tourism in China. The research employed a
modest theoretical outline to cultural tourism based on high culture, popular culture, festivals
and special events. The key aim of the research was to analyse the scope of the different
cultures and the highlighted cultural theme in Dalian, Nanjing and Hainan in perspective of
tourism and to assess the significance of regional culture in tourism marketing (Wang & Wall,
2005, p. 9). A question arose by (Wang & Wall, 2005, p. 9) is How and what features of
culture is being promoted contrarily in Dalian, Nanjing and Hainan? The outcomes of the
study propose that high culture, particularly historical inheritance, is substantial in Nanjing
tourism, popular culture is vigorous in tourism within the Hainan, and festivals and special
events are major features in Dalian tourism (Wang & Wall, 2005, p. 9). Regional culture is
extremely vital in tourism and is highlighted and showed by vibrant images of people, events
and buildings by words and images for tourism marketing. Though, it is tough to reach to a
conclusion that the prime emphasis of the trips is undergoing culture (Wang & Wall, 2005, p.
9).
While analysing A Cultural Perspective on Wildlife Tourism in China Qingming,
Honggang & Wall (2012, p. 34) stated that Chinas residents have a specific opinion

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11

concerning relation of tourists and nature or wildlife. The Chinese are intended to think that
animals will not be influenced much in attracting tourist from around the world. Researchers
debate through scientific studies that tourism has damaging impacts on wildlife, but Chinese
tourism managers and the mass media as well, have a perception that being close to wildlife
shows a pleasant state amongst humans and animals (Qingming, Honggang & Wall, 2012, p.
27).

2.2 History of China and Tourism


Since the Chinese history is very rich and very old and dates as back as 4700 years.
Shefard, Yu and Himin (2011, p. 14) examined Tourism, heritage and sacred space in their
study. They focused on the influence that tourism has had on localities and the kinds of
tourists world heritage prestige appeals. The study pointed out the outcome that UNs
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Association world heritage status can direct to spatial
conflicts among nations, which results in division of cultural sites, business events and local
life. It also does not include the fact that most of the tourists that visit these heritage sites are
actually local tourists with religious intents (Yan & McKercher, 2013, p. 20).
The result of the study reveals that heritage protection is not the main concern for
both local people and authorities. However, it is the tourists that are concerned about the local
heritage of Wutai Shan. Furthermore, monastic establishments, active monks, and local
population are concerned about money because commerce, religious practice, tourists
pilgrims have been part of the local landscape for centuries (Zhong et al. 2011, p. 45).
Furthermore, the Chinese authorities are exerting to restore this place as an open air
museum for the tourists to experience. Though, it is not the mere issue between heritage and
tourism. However, heritage conservancy conflicts with religious activities and views as well.
The question arises that can a current religious site be declared as a heritage site?

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12

Yamamura, Zhang & Fujiki (2006, p. 117) analysed the social and cultural impact of
tourism development on world heritage sites, particularly the Old Town of Lijiang, China.
The study is aimed to clarify the associated social impact on the city caused by being
registered as a World Heritage Location and its conversion as a tourist destination. As a part
of an analysis of the issue regarding the rapid growth of tourism and its pressure on World
Heritage Places, this research tried to elucidate the problems faced by the tourism industry at
the Old Town of Lijiang, Yunnan, China by focusing on local tourism providers (Yamamura,
Zhang & Fujiki, 2006, p. 117). Salazar (2015) revealed that in recent times the usage of
historic buildings has significantly transformed. Now, over the 90% of the shops are touristbased souvenir shops and restaurants. Additionally, more than 50% of traders are temporary
citizens, primarily Han Chinese, and a majority of them rent out accommodations from
indigenous proprietors. These outcomes explain that the society of local minorities and their
culture are quickly changing as tourism increases (Salazar, 2015, p. 835).

2.3 Tourism Environment of China


2.3.1 Chinese Environment of Building (In Context of the Current Building Boom)
In 21st century, China has taken urbanization it to an unparalleled extent in human
history. McKinsey Global Institute report indicates that by 2025, China will have 221, tier 2
and tier 3 cities of over one million residents, 23 of more than 5 million and eight mega cities
of 10 million. Over the next 20 years, China will build a space equivalent of 50,000 new
skyscrapers (Tourism Market in China, 2014, p. 5).
Upper class standards in China caused increase in energy demand such as hot water,
lightening, heating and cooling, increased usage of computers, office electronic equipment
and appliances. This means that with the growth in tourism and hospitality sector, Chinese
government and hospitality industry has to consider these issues for providing better

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13

opportunities to the tourism industry for development with the eco-friendly options
(Environmental Management of Tourist Growth in China 2011, p. 16).

2.3.2 Basic Environmental Challenges for the Hospitality Industry


Chinas hospitality industry can anticipate that energy and resources scarcity will
influence the growth policies in hotels and travel and tourism sector. Hotel industry have a
chance to react proactively to challenges regarding the environment by managing the demand
and supply requirements, ecological building structures, training of employees in green
construction procedures, and technological improvement (Su, 2011, p. 1438). These
sustainable options can take hospitality on the frontline of Chinas current building boom.
Following are the key issues that have concerned the tourism and the hospitality industry of
China:

2.3.2.1 Water Scarcity


China possesses nearly 20% of worlds population, while it has merely 7% of the
worlds water resources. 16% of the Chinese water resources are devoted to the construction
sector. Standard ways for saving the water can be attained by a reformed water distribution
systems, effective observing and monitoring, water metering and visible efforts of spreading
awareness in citizen (Qi, Xuegang & Xiaodong, 2014, p. 55).

2.3.2.2 Indoor Air Quality Management


One of the key distractions for the tourists in China is the poor quality of indoor air
quality. SARS declare China the epicentre or environmental diseases in mid 2000s, a negative
image, which the country tried to manage (Ghimire, 2013, p. 31). A substantial drawback for

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14

the hospitality sector is consequently the poor air purity provision (Environmental
Management of Tourist Growth in China 2011, p. 19).

2.4 Tourism Industry and benefits for Locals


Chi-Lyi, Rong and Qinbin (2003) analysed Chinas International Tourism under
Economic Transition: National Trends and Regional Disparities and analysed the domestic
trends of Chinas international tourism from 1982. It also examines the variations in local
inequalities since 1995. Though, the exploration of trends proposes that International tourism
in China is expected to keep growth with the substantial pace, the study of local disparities
focused on Gini index specifies that the regional discrimination in international visitors and
revenue has exposed a descending trend as of 1995. Outcomes of this research proposed that
economic transformations of China has encouraged the development in global tourism and
the influence of international tourism on the economic and business development.
Local market is also growing with the growth of tourism industry on the international
level. With developments, the opportunities for local residents of China for employment are
getting higher. Similarly, the local business community is getting more chances for the
growth as well as more opportunities are now available to them. The recreational activities
for the localities are promoting by these expansions as well. According to China hotel market
overview (2014), the local sector has made a huge progress amid regional Chinese tourists.
For example, 'Golden Week' is a seven day national holiday attracting many tourists each year
which creates business opportunities or the locals.

2.4.1 Trends in Hospitality and Tourism Market in China


There are five core trends in the hospitality and tourism market in China which create
opportunities for Chinese locals in terms of business opportunities:

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15

2.4.1.1 Development will Diversify in Multiple Business Segments


There are many other sectors that are associated with tourism industry and will
expand up to next decade. The changing trends in this industry reveal that many business
small business opportunities have opened their doors for middle class as well.

2.4.1.2 Consolidation in High and Mid-Scale Divisions


During the past few years, significant amount of investment has occurred in many
sectors of hospitality industry but the past few decades were accompanied by dominance of
higher income group in the business activities but the current trends and business
opportunities have opened doors for middle class in terms of growth (Chinas hospitality
industry-Rooms for growth 2013, p. 2).

2.4.1. Change in the Lifestyle


Developing economy of China has created a huge mid-class which is seeking the
higher quality of lifestyle services. The percentage of tourism carries out for recreation raised
from 30% to 46% from 1999 to 2010 and the trend is predicted to sustain in future (Chinas
hospitality industry-Rooms for growth 2013, p. 4).

2.4.1.4 Innovations in Models and Formats


To catch with the rising demand of recreational travellers, major hospitality business
chains like Starwood and Mariott and boutiques and Club Med and Banyan Tree are
expanding their recreational resorts footsteps all over China. The trend is not restricted to
high-end lodgings, local budgets operatives, but on the other hand touches high-class
accommodation including resorts, luxury facilities, complete tourist packages etc. (Chinas
hospitality industry-Rooms for growth 2013, p. 6).

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16

2.4.1.5 Continuous Shaping of the Market by Government


Five year plan for China identifies the tourism as the core growth area to gain an
advantage for improving economic and social growth. Many provincial government
authorities plan to further promote tourism by encouraging in direct investment in tourism
real estate and tourism industry (Chinas hospitality industry-Rooms for growth 2013, p. 7).

2.4.2 Local Tourism and Evolving Business Opportunities


As defined in the Environmental Management of Tourist Growth in China (2011, p.
7), the advantages for the local tourism business agencies and recreational travellers are as
follows:

Increase in demand of Chinese vehicles and earnings of Chinese locals raise


opportunities for rich logistics and transportation sector in the hotel industry as an

advantage for hotel chains.


Local tourism in China follows many new trends including adventure tourism that
provide opportunities to those living far away from urban region. adventure venues I
China are usually located in the suburbs or rural areas and the tourism, therefore
provides many small businesses and professions like travel guides, accommodation in
form of small motels and hotel, lodging services to the tourists. The average

percentage of profits in budget hotels in China is around 30% to 40% today.


Recreational resorts generally associated with the activities like scuba diving, growing
in southern China in terms of popularity. Hainans five-star hotels, Chinas equivalent

to Hawaii, provide mostly to rich tourists of China.


Technology has opened doors for many online businesses as it promotes online
booking and travel plan for new destinations to be explored. Moreover, technology
has also improved many areas of tourism like construction, interior of the restaurants
and hotels, interaction and modes of interaction with the user and safety & security

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17

for the tourist. All these areas open opportunities for the locals to invest in the tourism
sector.
By the above discussion, it is revealed by the study that the rising opportunities for
locals in the tourism market in China. As the development in tourism and hospitality industry
is progressing, the opportunities lies within multiple sectors and new sectors emerge for the
advancements and growth of locals in terms of business. Moreover, it is also adding to the
facilities for easing and comforting the lives of the societies. Not only for the business
community but the individuals will be benefited by these opportunities as the rising business
in tourism industry will raise the rate of employment opportunities for the residents.

2.5 Governments Role in Promoting Tourism in China


The notion of policy has been reflected in various manners. Global business
corporations bring their competencies and exertions to the Chinas sustainability efforts
towards the promotion of tourism.
The functions of the government for promotion of tourism as described by the
Cameron, Memon, Simmons and Flairweather (2001) explained that at the level of local
government, the role of government officials is to describe the norm of sustainable tourism
promotion into activities. Local bodies (District and City Councils) perform two prime
operations regarding the tourism:

2.5.1 Enabling Tourism Development


1. Assist economic growth initiatives, like financing for local Tourism agencies, carry
out and improve business viability analysis.
2. Support development of local recreational activities and destinations, like as zoos, art
galleries, parks and reserves that contribute to the historical picture of China.

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18

3. Indorse events like traditional or sporting carnivals for attracting more tourist and
branding China as a sustainable option or tourism.
2.5.2 Managing Negative Social and Environmental Influences
1. Control tourism progress; for instance, standardize environment, health and safety
measures.
2. Planning facilities like transportation systems, wastage management, and sewerage or
drainage.
3. Observe tourism growth and trends like feedback surveys from visitors and ecological
look after.
2.5.3 Government Initiatives in Promoting Tourism in China
Government to Government Initiatives: these involve voluntarily promotion, market
centred prospects to energy efficacy in building sectors. US-China ecological construction
sponsored by US-AID and shared venture the URBN hotel groups to develop the green
environment friendly hotel in China are its example (Tourism Market in China, 2014, p. 5).
Scientific Expertise: China energy group at US department of Energys Lawrence
Berkely National lab led an analytical research on Chinese building energy and supports the
Chinese government in developing technical standards for governing building energy use
(Nyri, 2011, p. 65).
Global Alliances Partnerships: the alliance initiated and applied several programs
such as Global Climate and Energy Policy, Clinton Climate Initiative, the Energy Foundation,
China Business Council for Sustainable Development, China Academy of Building Research
(Chen, Lehto & Cai, 2013, p. 284).
Research and Think-Tanks: The world resources institute assists the US-China clean
energy research centre for developing and building energy efficiency improvements. The
China building program and China sustainable energy program widely contributes and

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19

supports for the development of sustainable building sectors (Heung & Kucukusta, 2013, p.
346).
China Green Building Council: CGBC gets assistance from US Green Building
Council, the US Department of Energy and its founders and members. CGBC issues an
annual Green Building Report and has helped in organizing the sixth annual international
building energy efficiency and Green Building Symposium hosted in Beijing (Environmental
Management of Tourist Growth in China 2011, p. 30).

2.6 Tourism and Economic Development in China


China is heading with a long demonstrative economic transformation causing in
record development. During 2000 to 2010, economy of China got triplicated in size,
eventually exiling Japan for being the second biggest economy after the United States of the
world. Regardless of global recession, GDP of China is expected to expand at a yearly rate of
7.9% over the period of next 10 years as compare to 2.8% of U.S and 1.7% of Germany. On
the basis of estimations by both OECD and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), China is
expected to exceed the U.S in a few years by 2017, for being the leading economy in the
world (Review of Chinas Outbound Travel Market 2013, p. 15).
After the implementation of the open-gate policy in 1990s, Chinas international and
national tourism have developed rapidly, causing in its being labelled as one of the countrys
national keystone sectors in 2009. The growth speed and historical background of China,
caused in a somewhat exclusive patterns of tourism growth in China. For instance,
contrasting to other rising countries which depend on international tourism, Chinas local
tourism surpassed international tourism and has had the most substantial influence on
Chinese social, economic and environment aspects within a very short period of time (Xo,
Zhang and Lew 2014, p. 711).

Culture and History in China

20

Pedrana (2013, p. 91) studied local economic development and tourism policies with
respect to sustainability and culture. Like every economic activity, which affects the growth
of an industry, tourism has to be managed in a certain way and in some particular framework.
The primary part that tourism performs in economic development is very significant. Public
organizations have to be aware about the dimensions of the areas and attempt to support its
expansion and growth (Tourism Market in China, 2014, p. 5). However, if it is not managed
effectively the local resources may be damaged by tourist. Regional policies of tourism for
sustainability are crucial for the development and improvement of local areas in future.
Government interference has to proclaim developments for the local economic progress,
particularly with respect to sustainability (Qi, Xuegang & Xiaodong, 2014, p. 55).
Songhong (2002) investigated the economic impact of tourism in China. During the
last few decades, inbound and local tourism have attained sustainable development in China.
Tourism has progressed and its contributions are very considerable towards the economy and
social upgradation. The contributions are based on direct and indirect rise in production,
labour wages, employment, imports and indirect tax etc. Past trends in many researches
revealed that the local tourist spending has a huge influence on economy in terms of overall
GDP of China.

2.6.1 Tourisms Contribution to the Economic Development


According to WTTC Travel & Tourism Economic Impact (2015), the direct
contribution of tourism to economic development (i.e. GDP) shows that internal investment
on tourism (i.e. total spending by the citizens and foreigners on tourism) and the
governments spending money on tourism facilities are directly related to tourist attractions,
like cultural heritage sites, museums or recreational sites like national parks etc. (Salazar,
2015, p. 835)

Culture and History in China

21

In 2014 the travel and tourism industry of China contributed directly to the economy
up to 2.6% of the total GDP and it is anticipated to rise by 6.7% by the end of 2015 and an
increase of 6% annually in direct contribution of tourism industry to GDP from 2015 to 2025
(Salazar, 2015, p. 835). The total contribution of tourism comprises of extensive effects like
the secondary and induced effects on the economy. The indirect contribution includes, travel
and tourism investment and spending in activities like buying planes and building of new
hotels for usage in tourism, government and tourism sectors shared spending on on larger
aspects of the society, like tourism marketing and promotion, aviation, administrations etc.,
and domestic procurements of products and services by the businesses, which are involved in
the tourism sector (Salazar & Zhang, 2013, p. 81). The total contribution of tourism and
travel industry in the GDP of a country in 2014 was 9.4% of total GDP and forecast to
increase by 7.5% in 2015 and 6.2% by 2025 (Salazar, 2015, p. 835).

2.6.2 Key Trends in Outbound Tourism of China


China National Tourism Administration (CNTA) reported that Hong Kong is a
favourite site among Chinese outbound tourists, i.e. 20% of Chinese citizen prefer Hong
Kong for tourism, followed by the Thailand, which is 15% and Macao, which is at 10% (Xie,
2015, p. 11). However, United States and South Africa are also benefited most in terms of
outbound tourism from China in 2012 (Tourism market in China 2014, p. 6).

2.6.3 Key Trends in Inbound Tourism of China


By the end of 2012, vast number of inbound tourists visited China for recreational
purposes; however, business travellers generally dropped by 1%. In terms of regions of
inbound tourism of China, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou received the most tourists from
the world (Tourism Market in China, 2014, p. 5). The popularity of Shenzhen and Guangzhou

Culture and History in China

22

can be seen by their closeness with Hong Kong. Guilin also noted the fastest development in
international arrivals throughout the same duration (Lijuan et al. 2013, p. 16).

2.7 Community Participation in Tourism Development


A recent research conducted by Stone and Stone (2010, p. 97) lay great emphasize on
the significance of local people involvement in developing tourism industry. The author
stated that the success of tourism is highly dependent on the cooperation and goodwill of the
local community people as they constitute as one of the most important part of tourism.
Moreover, the author also argues that if tourism planning and development are not aligned
with local capabilities and aspirations, it can damage the potential of the industry. In the end
the author concluded that there are different methods in which local people of a community
can be indulged in tourism activities. Therefore, it is crucial that whether local should be a
part of tourism development or not. However, there is crucial aspect that relates that the
community gains an immense advantage when involved in development process. As local
involvement is usually considered as an important factor in achieving success of development
projects, it is now being included in various policies pertaining to government and NGOs.
According Sebele (2010, p. 136), majority of the organizations have focused on
attaining local participation in their specific programs which eventually results in the project
being better and effective. However, in reality there is no single form of local participation,
thus the term may often be used inappropriately. Murphy (2013, p. 104) asserted that there is
an uncritical method in which local participation is practiced and conceptualized which
attains increasing attention. Different authors have analysed the various methods through
which local people and communities can be incorporated in tourism activities. For instance
Eshliki and Kaboudi (2012, p. 333), made a clear difference between involvement in the
benefits of tourism and participation in decision making process.

Culture and History in China


Moreover, Pretty (1995) has developed a clearer typology of local participation in
development projects, primarily focusing on the agricultural sector. This typology was
beneficial in many developmental projects. This similar concept was later implemented by
France (1998) to analyse the context of tourism industry development.

Table 1: Overview typologies of participation


The above table gives overview of different typologies of community and local
participation. Both the authors have focused on the passive form of participation through
which the community does not have any opinion in the project planning and are also not
subjected to any benefits. Through different steps such as consultation and other types of
participation, the highest stage of community participation is regarded as self-mobilization.

23

Culture and History in China

24

During this phase, the local communities and local people have fill authority in the decision
making process including its executing and benefits.
Moreover, there are various constraints to community and local participation in
tourism industry. Beaumont and Dredge (2010, p. 7) stated two different opinions regarding
the difficulties in the involvement of local people in tourism development. The first opinion
revolves around the fact that all communities are heterogeneous in nature. A specific
community incorporates various types of people, usually with different aspirations and
unequal positions. This usually results in an unequal opportunity of community people to
involve in tourism activities. It has also been researched that community members possessing
high status have greater chances to participate and involve in tourism development. However,
they would not act in the best interest of other members of the community (Lee, 2013, p. 37).
The major question remains unaddressed as how and who should be involved in the local
community.

On the other hand, second opinion that was identified by the author revolves around
the fact that different communities usually possess low amount of information, power and
resources. This often results in difficulties in reaching out the market. Therefore, community
is largely dependent on other various stakeholders, thus making them vulnerable. Based on
the research of South African tourism industry, Wang et.al (2010, p. 759) highlighted the
same opinions as presented above and in addition of two more constraints of involvement
which can be implemented in multiple settings.
It has also been noted that the local communities do not own the natural resources and
land, thus when these resources are possessed by outsiders, the locals have limited access
provided by the owners. Another major constraint that was identified was that majority of the

Culture and History in China

25

poor communities have issues in attracting resources and capital to develop infrastructure and
facilities which are necessary for tourism development.
A more in-depth analysis regarding the difficulty of community participation was
presented by Sebele (2010, p. 136). The author differentiated between three primary
categories of limitations. The first limitation is categorized under operational level. This
involves the centralization of tourism administration which results in high difficulty for the
local community to get involved including lack of coordination because of the fragmented
tourism industry. The second type of limitation is known as structural limitations in local
participation with regards tourism development. One of the categories of structural
limitations is the attitude of professional individuals who are usually not focused on
developing negotiation with locals. Another structural limitation is there is an absence of a
specific legal system in majority of the developing countries in order to safeguard the rights
of local people and communities. Other types of structural limitations includes; dominance of
the elite class in tourism development and lack of financial and human resources in tourism
development.
Moreover, it has also been researched that community participation is time
consuming process and requires high amount of cost in the form of investments. The other
constraints as highlighted by Beaumont and Dredge (2010, p. 7) includes (1) cultural
limitations, which focuses on less awareness of the local community with respect to social
culture, (2) Political and (3) Economic consequences of tourism development. Due to these
reasons, the benefit of participation is relatively low. According to Murphy (2013, p. 104),
majority of the individuals in Yogyakarta, Indonesia did not considered the involvement in
tourism planning as a significant phenomenon.

Culture and History in China

26

2.7.1 Benefits of local Community on Tourism Industry


However, there are various advantages and benefits of local community on tourism
industry. One of the main focuses of sustainable tourism is that the industry (tourism)
considers the aspirations, views and opinions of the host community. The support of local
community for tourism promotion and development is important and trustworthy community
involvement and participation can improvise the tourists experience. According to Sebele
(2010, p. 136), when a particular community participates in decision making process of
tourism development, it automatically becomes a proactive member and takes special
ownership of the particular tourism development. Moreover, the economic benefits of tourism
industry are constantly being appreciated by local individuals and local communities. There
are many advantages of tourism business in developing a valued and respected partner of
local economy and community:

Positive contributions towards community development assist in improvising


relationship with local communities and simultaneously minimize the risk of future

conflicts and issues.


Constant support to community development can improvise reputation and develops

effective publicity.
Positive contributions to community development can improvise approval from guest

and other individuals who are worried regarding local community welfare.
Offers many benefits to local individual including sources of livelihood.
Improvising economic association with local individuals, communities and businesses
supports the sustainability of tourism industry.

Culture and History in China

27

2.8 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework


The above conceptual framework has categorized the independent and dependent
variable of the research and also highlights the different factors that have an impact on
tourism industry of China. The independent variables are classified under (1) Community
involvement in tourism activities and (2) Relationship quality with the stakeholders. The
community involvement includes different significant factors such as knowledge sharing,
empowerment, participation in decision making and level of knowledge regarding tourism
industry. Moreover, relationship quality with stakeholders includes the factors such as trust,
commitment and satisfaction. On the other hand, the dependent variable of the study is the
tourism industry of China which includes the impact of social, economic, environmental and
cultural impacts on tourism.

Culture and History in China

28

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction
This chapter presents methodological considerations of this study. The chapter begins
with philosophical assumptions undertaken in this study followed by research approach and
research strategy employed. This is followed by inclusion and exclusion criteria used to
gather literature from various electronic databases. This chapter then continues to explain
data analysis technique and sampling for secondary data collection. Finally, the chapter
presents ethical considerations adopted by the researcher of this study and the chapter ends
with discussion of reliability and validity of this study.

3.2 Epistemological Considerations


Research is conducted under the aim to gain knowledge therefore it is essential to
establish principles and assumptions regarding acceptable knowledge. The fundamental
paradox presides in the choice of applying principles and procedures of natural sciences in
social research. Epistemological considerations of a research study deals with these
assumptions. There are two contradicting schools of thought. First known as the positivism
epistemological position assumes and argues that in order for knowledge to be acceptable it
must be validated by natural sciences methods and techniques. Thus positivism posits that
natural sciences methods are applicable in social science research. On the contrary
interpretivism school of thought assumes and argues that there must be a separate research
strategy with different principles and methods for social research. This is because the nature
and subject matter of social phenomena is different as compared to the subject matter of
natural sciences (Bryman, 2012, p.27).

Culture and History in China

29

In this study the social phenomena under consideration are history and culture of
China and tourism industry in China. The aim is to analyse the impact of culture and history
of China in relation to the benefits of locals in promoting the tourism industry. Since the
subject matter of phenomena under consideration, i.e. relationship between both phenomena
to understand impact of the former on later, is qualitative in nature upon which methods and
techniques of natural sciences are not applicable therefore the underlying epistemological
consideration undertaken in this study is interpretivism.

3.3 Ontological Considerations


Ontological considerations of social research deal with the nature of relationship
between the social phenomena under consideration and related social actors. The paradox is
whether social realities are external to social actors or social realities are social constructions
developed by actions and behaviours of social actors. Objectivism is an ontological position
that states that social phenomena are external realities to social actors and they are
independent from the influence of social actors and related meanings. On the other hand and
in contrast to objectivism, constructionism is an ontological position that states that social
phenomena are social constructions that develop and are in a constant state of change due to
the influence of social actors. Social phenomena are no independent from social actors and
their related meanings (Somekh and Lewin, 2011).
The social phenomena under consideration of this study are history and culture of
China and tourism industry of China and related social actors are locals and government
involved in cultural tourism industry which include government agencies and authorities and
the locals that reside in cultural tourism locations in China. The researcher assumes that the
relationship between the social actors and social phenomena is not independent and that
social phenomena under consideration is developed and faces continuous changes in relation

Culture and History in China

30

to the actions and behaviour of social actors and their related meaning. Thus, the chosen
ontological assumption in this research is constructionism because it matches the existing
relationship.

3.4 Research Approach


Research approach refers to the way a researcher approaches social phenomena and
determines the scope of the research. Important aspects of research approach are to
understand and make choices about staring from general observations to make specific
conclusions or starting from specific observations and make general conclusions. There are
two types of research approaches. If the research begins with collection general information
and works his way to make specific observations and conclusions; it is called inductive
approach. This approach is also known as top-down approach. This approach is typically used
to test existing theories. The other research approach is called deductive reasoning or
deductive approach in which the researcher begins with making specific observations and
works his way to draw general conclusions. It is also called bottoms-up approach. This
approach is typically used to develop theories (Pasian, 2015, p.317).
In this research the aim is to explore the impact of culture and history of China on
tourism industry by studying the relationship between the two. The researcher aims to draw
specific observations by analysing existing studies focusing the same and then draw general
conclusions about what existing research literature indicates about this relationship. This
implies that the better research approach for this study between two opposing reasoning is
deductive reasoning or the bottoms-up approach.

Culture and History in China

31

3.5 Research Strategy Secondary


Research strategy refers to the choices made by researcher with respect to nature of
data to be collected for the research and the nature of methods and techniques to be used in
the research. Fundamentally there are two types of research strategies primary and secondary.
In primary research the researcher collects first-hand information by using research
instruments or data collection methods and then applies suitable data analysis techniques to
derive meaningful information. In secondary researcher the researcher analyses existing
research studies and critically analyses their results and findings to draw results and
conclusions for current study. The results of secondary research are derived from results of
already existing studies and thus it is often and justifiably called review of existing literature
(Bryman, 2012, p.312).
In this study in order to explore the impact of history and culture of China on tourism
industry of Chinas in relation to benefits of local people the researcher aims to conduct
secondary research. The researcher chose secondary research because due to limited budget
and time available for this study the researcher cannot afford extensive travelling to China
and collect first information from related social actors. Thus the research approach of this
study is secondary research or review of existing literature.

3.6 Sampling Strategy


The researcher will use electronic databases to retrieve relevant research studies.
These databases are EBSCO, ScienceDirect, Emerald and Proquest. In order to retrieve
research articles keywords and combinations of keywords are searched in the libraries. For
this study the researcher chose following research keywords selected from research aims and
objectives.

Culture and History in China


Databases

Keywords

EBSCO

Culture of China

ScienceDirect

History of China

Emerald

Tourism industry in China

ProQuest

Cultural Tourism benefits

32

Relationship/impact
When researcher searched aforementioned keywords in databases the search queries
retrieved huge number of articles many of which were not relevant to research aim. Due to
budget and time constraints the researcher decided to filter down research articles on the basis
of following criteria:
Inclusion Criteria: are used to ensure that search queries retrieve research articles
while maintaining specificity and sensitivity. Specificity refers to the ability of search query
to retrieve comprehensive results (Emmel, 2013, p.27). This means that search query
retrieves all articles that have important information for review and ensure that this important
information is not missed. Sensitivity refers to the ability of search query to retrieve relevant
articles with respect to the aim of the review. This is done to make sure that irrelevant
information and articles are not reviewed and presented in results of the review. In order to
maintain high level of specificity and sensitivity in search strategy inclusion criteria are used
(Kara, 2015, p.111). Following inclusion criteria were used in this research

Research articles published from year 2000 to current year 2015 are included and

studies published prior to 2000 were rejected


Studies focusing on impact of history and culture of china on tourism industry of

china in the perspective of benefits to the locals are included in the study
Studies in English language are included in this review
Studies that are available free of cost are included in this review

Culture and History in China

33

After applying these criteria the researcher was able to filter down huge search results
into viable number of studies while ensuring specificity and sensitivity in the results and
findings of this review.

3.7 Data Analysis technique: Content Analysis


There are various qualitative data analysis techniques among which most popular are
thematic analysis, content analysis, and grounded theory. Content analysis is a technique that
is used to analyse certain concepts in a text or set of texts. It is used for making valid and
replicable inferences from data into their contexts. It is a method that enables researchers to
evaluate research findings systematically with respect to the symbolic and actual content of
texts (Ritchie, Burns, and Palmer, 2005, p.191). Ritchie, Burns, and Palmer also gave
example for content analysis being used for studying effects of impact on readers perception
by newspaper coverage. Thus content analysis is a useful technique to analyse results and
findings of research articles to derive meaningful results for literature review. Since the aim
of this study is to study the impact of history and culture of china on tourism industry in
China therefore the researcher chose to employ content analysis to evaluate the research
articles retrieved from search in the databases and derive meaningful findings for research.

3.8 Ethical Consideration


Ethics in research field, using data, and interpreting results as well as analytical
methods conducted by researchers have gained increasing significance in qualitative research
discourse. Novel issue emerge and researchers continuously develop new tools to produce
acceptable knowledge with high reliability and validity. This means that researchers are
increasingly becoming responsible for knowledge they produce and how they produce it.
Ethical considerations refer to principles and moral values that researchers undertake

Culture and History in China

34

throughout the research process to show integrity with research community and research
participants (Miller, et.al, 2012, p.54). There has been a rapid increase in the governance and
regulations pertaining to research ethics and consequently it has become highly important for
researchers to explain and discuss all ethical considerations that they undertake during their
research processes.
In this review in order to show integrity with fellow researchers the foremost ethical
consideration undertaken is paying respect and proper credit to the work of other authors
through Harvard referencing system. Using results and findings of other researchers and
presenting as their own is known as plagiarism which is considered to be a serious academic
offense. Since this is a literature review therefore referencing is critical to the reliability and
validity of the results and findings of this study. Since there are no human participants in this
study therefore various other ethical considerations such as no harm principle, confidentiality,
and anonymity are not applicable.

3.9 Reliability and Validity


Reliability and validity of research is critical aspect to be established by researchers.
Reliability and validity of secondary research are as important as they are in primary research
studies therefore researchers must discuss and establish these aspects in their results and
findings so that they can justify their research. Reliability of a qualitative research can be
defined as the extent to which methods and techniques applied in the research can be
replicated by other researchers at another point of time. Validity of the results and findings of
a qualitative research can be defined as the extent to which methods and techniques applied
by the researcher would produce similar results if conducted by other researchers at another
point of time. The definitions show that reliability and validity are highly dependent upon the
methods and techniques i.e. data collection methods and data analysis techniques applied in

Culture and History in China

35

the study. Thus they are also highly dependent upon the ability of the researcher to choose
methods and techniques (Thyer, 2009, p.356).
In this study the reliability of the results and findings can be reflected by the fact that
reviewer has fully defined databases, keywords, and inclusion and exclusion criteria so that
other researchers can use them to conduct similar methods of data collection or in other
words to retrieve research articles for the literature review. Furthermore, the data analysis
technique used in this review is content analysis which is a well-established technique with
explicit procedures that are followed to derive meaningful results. Thus it is assumed that
there reasonably high degree of reliability and validity in the results and findings of this
review. However, if keywords, inclusion criteria, or any other feature is changed then it is
highly likely that validity will be compromised.

3.10 Conclusion
This chapter presented philosophical assumptions and concludes that interpretivism is
best epistemological position for this study; in addition this chapter concluded that
constructionism is more suitable ontological position for this study. The research approach
undertaken by this study is deductive reasoning or top-down approach. The research strategy
chosen for this study is the secondary research based on review of research articles retrieved
form electronic databases. Search queries, keywords, and inclusion criteria have been fully
explained. The chapter also concluded that most suitable data analysis technique for this
review is content analysis. The chapter also presented discussion on ethical considerations
undertaken by the researcher and highlighted that Harvard referencing style has been adopted
to reflect integrity with research community. Finally the chapter presented discussion of
validity and reliability in the results and findings of this review and concluded that there is a
fair degree of reliability and validity.

Culture and History in China

36

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