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Oey: u0.e ESTUARIAL HARBOUR ENGINEERS’ REFERENCE BOOK 2p) BY Gis merch) ed Fey M.B. ABBOTT and W.A. PRICE ead eh Published by E & FN Spon, an imprint of Chapman & Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1SHN, UK Chapman & Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SEI SHIN, UK Blackie Academic de Professional, Wester Cleddens Rised, Bishopbiggs, (Ghavgow G4 2NZ, UK (Chapman & Hall Ine., One Fern Plaza, 4st Floor, New York NYIOUS, USA Chapman de Hall Japan, Thomson Publishing Japan, Hieakawacho Nemoto Building, 6F, 17-11 Hirakawa-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Japan (Chapman de Hall Australi South Melbourne, Victoria 3205, Australia (Chapman te Hall India, R. Seshadri, 32 Second Main Road, CIT East, Madras 600 035, India Thomas Nelson Australia, 102 Dodds Street. First edition 1994 ©1744 FN Spon ‘Typesctin 9/10 Palatino by Best set Typesetter Lid, Hong Kong Printed in Great Britain by The Aden Press, Oxford ISBN 0 419 15430 2 “Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, of criticism or review, as permitted under the UK Copyright Designs and PPatents Act, 1985, this publication may not be reproduced, stored, or fransmited, in any formr by any means, without the prior permission in writing ofthe publishers. rin the eave of eepeogeaphic reproduction only in secordance with the terms. the licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency inthe UK, or in acgordance with the ferme of licences issued by the appropziate Reproduction Rights Organization outside the UK. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to the publishers atthe Londan address printed on this Poe. ‘The publisher makes.no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained inthis book and cannot accept any legalresponsibiity or lability for any errors or ‘omissions that may be made, A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Libary Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data Coastal, estuaral, and harbour engineer reference book / edited by MLB. Abbott and W.A. Price — Ist ed. Pom Indudes index. ISBN 0-419-15430-2 (alk. paper) 1. Coastal engineering. 2. Harbors Design and construction 3.Estuaries. | Abbott Michael BH, Price, W. A. (W. Alan} TCR5,C36. 1983 a7 -deao 93-5588 cr (68 Printed on acid-free text paper, manufactured in accordance with ANSUNISO 229 481992 (Permanence of Paper. THE DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENT Part Gne The Coastal, Estuarial and Harbour Environment Part Two The Scientific Background Part Three Numerical Toots and their Applications Part Four Physical Modelsand their Applications 107 251 THE DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENT: AN INTRODUCTION M.B. Abbott ‘THE STRUCTURES OF INDUSTRY IN THIS FIELD There must be very few current branches of engin- eering that have been subjected to such rapid and drastic changes as coastal and marine engineering. Whereas, only twenty or so years ago, the engineer ‘working in this field could find in one reference book almost all the knowledge required to do his job, he is nowadays dependent upon a veritable industry, ‘composed of consulting companies, technological stitutes, laboratories, survey companies, instrument suppliers and many other kinds of specialized organ- izations, which offer him an immense range and variety of services and products. Correspondingly, a ‘ference book that only twenty or 9 yetrs ago oa provide a “do-it-yourself kit’ of equations, tables and graphs, has now to become, in the first place, an Introduction to the services and products that are currently available, The changes that have occurred in the nature and availability of knowledge have clearly indicated the necessity for preparing a new kind of engineers’ reference book. However, the shear immensity of the field and the speed of its transformation have made such preparation a particularly daunting task. What could be most usefully included? How should it all be arranged? These and many other questions have had to be answered in the preparation of this work. This introduction provides an opportunity to outine the reasoning behind the choices made and introduces the new Kind of knowledge industry that now serves the engineer working, in these fields As in most branches of technology, the changes that have occurred have been driven, in the first place, by the needs of society. Moder society con- tinues to place new and ever more exigent demands upon the engineer, whether for protection from flood- ing, for providing beaches suitable for recreation, for providing acceptable cargo-handling conditions in rbours, or for answering any number of environ- ‘mental concems. In order to satisfy these demands, ‘the engineer working in this area needs knowledge of an ever greater range, depth and level of detail. This is to say, however, that he must now make recourse to such sources of knowledge as are ordered and Onginized in our current knowledge industries. He has then to make recourse to research within his, ‘areas of interest, but he hiss to do this by using certain types of organization that are themselves organized. into the industry that is to be described here. The first impression by an outsider would probably be that of great complexity: there are so many ele ments and so many interactions between them, Whenever we have to react to complex situations, our most natural tendency is to consult with others, and preferably those with an experience of similar situations. Those with whom the coastal. estuarial and harbour engineers consult are of course, in the first line, those consulting engineers who are specialized in the relevant areas. The division of activities be- tween the client (who will usually be represented by his own professional engineer, who usually stands in an immediate and direct relation to one particular problem) and the consulting engineer (whose ex- Pertise extends aver a whole range of problems of this elass) corresponds to a natural division of labor withinknowledge industries generally. Theconsulting engineer draws upon a wide range of experience in 8 particular field and applies this experience to a par ticular problem within this field, in support of the client, as usually represented by his engineer. Of course, by the very practice of his profession, the consulting engineer further strengthens his abilities, In short, the client wishes only to solve a problem, but this may necessitate the construction of works or the introduction of new operating procedures, or whatever, and in order to obtain advice about how to proceed in these maiters, he turns ta the consultant. ‘The consultant thus serves as a sort of ‘midwife’ at the delivery of a new design or procedure or what- ever else is required to solve the problem This position of the consultant, as one who helps his cient to manage complex situations or solve com- plex problems, can be exercised in a number of dif- ferent ways, The first, and most direct way is in the form of an independent private consulting company: that has accumulated a particular kind of experise, and a corresponding reputation. A certain differen 4 The dynamic environment: An introduction tiation thennaturally occursbetween these companies, asa function of their different areas of specialization. However, there is usually such an overlap of ex between these companies that_an element of com petition exists between them. There is accordingly a market far specialized knowledge at this level and in this form. it has been a feature of a world where almost everything becomes more complex and more inter- connected that individual consulting companies have tended to extend themselves aver ever greater areas of expertise and have attempted to integrate these areas together in various ways for the purpose of forming projects. As a consequence, many con Enling companies have become’ very large: many now employ some hundreds of engineers and applied scientists. On the one hand, this has the consequence that these companies are able to concentrate know- hedge resources that far exceed those normally avail able to the individual dient and his engineering staff On the other hand, of course, there can be a com: mercial temptation to use such resources: more pro- digally than is really justified by the job in hand, a tendency that the consulting company is naturally obliged to resist on ethical grounds, In any event there still remain good grounds for employing the services of smaller consulting companies, and even single individuals in many cases. There are. of course, other kinds of consultants than private consulting companies that are active in this field. The nature of these organizations andi their relative importance, however, commonly varies quite widely from one country to another. A country like ‘The Netherlands, the very existence of which depends upon the mobilization of expertise in these fields, has its State Public Works (Rikswaterstaat), which com- bines the functions of consultant and contractor and, in some instances, research organization as well. Similarly. inthe USA, the US Army Carpsof Engineers fulfils many functions that are in other countries situated in the private domain. Other countries have professional associations which provide a range of consulting services. To the extent that these activities are seen as com ponents of one part of a more I knowledge industry, then we must identify other kinds of organ- izations again that support these activities with even more specialized knowledge. The most significant among these are technological-service organizations that were originally called ‘laboratories’. In mast cases these were established to carry out physical-model testing of ps ‘works and operating method ‘ologies. In some cases these originated as extensions of consulting activities, but in most instances they wvore established as state or semirstate organizations. ‘Over recent years, however, they have passed, for the greater part, into the private domain, Moreover, as their main field of activity has passed from phy- sical modelling to numerical modelling. so they have for the most part discarded the name of ‘laboratory’ altogethe: In addition to the technological-service institutes, ‘we may identify other organizations that supply such specialized services as surveying, instrumentation and telemetry, The other main class of organization to which the client and his engineer must usually tum in their search for solutions isthe civilengineering contractor. Whereas the consultant servesat the birth of adesign, it is the contractor who has to bring this newborn design to maturity, as a construction, an online s tem, or whatever other physical entity. From this Point of view, and to mix our metaphors a little, the consulting engineering is only the half-way-house between the desires and aims of the client and. the satisfaction of these desires and the fulfilment of these aims in the material world, In order to earry ‘out his function, the contractor also draws upon knowledge, lle often acliferent kind of knowledge from that of the consultant. Thus, to take closely ly that related examples, the consultant may be interested in those current and wave conditions his new structure will have to resist during the course of its lifetime, while the contractor may be more interested in the wave and current conditions that can be expected at a particular period during his con- struction programme. More generally, the consultant this field will usually be interested more in man- aging natural processes, while for the contractor the process aspect is of a lesser importance as compared ‘with, for example, the construction-organizational aspects. As has been argued elsewhere (Abbott, 1991), whereas the consultant tends to concentrate on, the description of processes, the contractor is more interested in matenal, plant and work flow deserip- tions, which come down to descriptions of data ‘All of this has to do with the ‘supply side’ of the industry. Meanwhile, however, we may identify a considerable number of onganizations that we can ‘better place on the ‘demand side’, in that they pro- mote and canalize political action, which leads to legislation and associated institutional arrangements (ecg, regulating and other agencies). These include any number of environmental pressure groups and associations, THE CENTRAL ROLE OF MODELLING IN THE. ‘TRANSFORMATION OF THE INDUSTRY By a model of any entity or concept we mean a representation of that entity or concept, and so its presentation in another shape or form. Thus, for The central rote of modelling ithe rraesformation of the industry 5 example, a physical model of a harbour is 2 rey duction of a real-world harbour at a much smaller scale, and so with an appropriate: scale distortion similarly, & conceptual medel of & morphological process may bea particular or more definite represen- lation in thought of what is otherwise a rather undif- ferentiated and less structured impression of the process of interaction between fluid and se As our society has become increasingly infor: mation-dependent, so modelling has attained ever seater importance. This modelling is then carried out for much the greater part assing computers, 50 that it constitutes mathematical modelling or, more recisely, numerical modelling. In numerical model- fing. the real-world entity, the prototype, is described by'a set of numbers, while the behaviour of that entity in space and time is described by sets of operations on these numbers. In the fields of interest here, numerical modelling has attained a central role in the design of works, in the elaboration of operating rules and policies, in the optimization of management practices, and indeed in almost all other activities. At the same time, however, this increased emphasis.on numerical modelling, and indeed on the use af computers generally, has had a considerable influence upon the structure of the industry in this area, as indeed it has done in other areas as well From the point of view of its applications, the madel has one basic purpose, namely that of indi- cating to us the consequences of any proposed course of action befare we become committed irreversibly to that course. The purpose of the model is to answer the question of ‘What would happen if... 2” Thus, what would happen if we continue the dumping of a certain chemical at a particular off-shore site? What would happen if we replenished the sand on a par- ticular beach? What would happen if we introduced tertiary treatment on storm-sewer effluents in a par ticular estuary? What would happen if we designed a new container terminal in this way rather than that? ‘And so on indefinitely. Models help us to-see ahead, so that they give us a prevision of the consequences of our proposed actions. To the extent that our futures depend upon our own actions, so the model guides our decisions, shaping our actions towards Our more-desired futures. ‘Now even as models have become the key elements in decision making in almost all parts of society, so the demands placed upon these models have also in creased. Whereas only some twenty years ago a few relatively simple models sufficed lo sugges! the most likely consequences of a restricted number of basic interventions in the courses of nature, today large numbers of models are commonly coupled together to predict the consequences of a complex combination of interventions. A sienilar inerease in the require > ments of accuracy and reliability has occurred. This has had the consequence that, for the most part, modelling has become a complicated and quite highly specialized activity. and, certainly until very recently preferably pursued in a few major centres, where the required level and variety of expertise could be mobilized. These centres, however, developed in dif- ferent parts of the industry, while their lacation and their development varied’ considerably from one national industrial environment to another. Thus, although end-users of models are only now begin ning to do their own modelling, modelling centres have developed in some consulting engineering com panies, in some industry associations, in almost all research and development institutes, in many govern ment agencies and in some other places besides Moreover, and especially in the case of numerical modelling, there appears to be litile corretation be- tween the industrial environments within whic modelling has developed and the quality of the model- ling work itself Although the research and devel opment organizations would appear to be the best suited to this kind of activity. in point of fact some European consulting engineers, in particular, have developed very advanced and capable modelling ‘groups, while some research and development organ izations have dane very lite in this-area. In the USA, a number of government agencies and private, nor: profit foundations have provided extensive numerical modelling facilities, while consulting engineers have tended for the most part only to adapt and apply these modelling facilites to particular problems. ‘Thus although there has been 2 great increase in the amount of modelling activity, so that in the present areas alone it now employs some thousands ‘of engineers and applied scientists, its arganization within the industry structure has Become quite connected, diffused and altogether unclear. It is now- adays often by no means obvious which kind of ‘organization is best suited to a particular task. Most private consulting companies and institutes will claim to have models available for almost every purpose, several university departments, often under the pressure of reduced central-government funding, will offer to provide similar modelling services, but at a much lower price, while, again, government agencies and other organizations will offer to provide the models themselves for next to nothing, And then, beyond this again, there are some contractors who ‘often carry out the whole modelling exercise without any charge at all. The client for modelling services is thus confronted with a plethora of models ‘offered by all manner of kinds of modelling-service ‘organizations. How is he to choose in this situation? ‘The answer to this must always be based upon the total cost that is associated with the modelling work. 6 The dynamic environment: An introduction Alter all, if the cost of a certain inaccuracy is a very expensive failure of works or operating procedures, savings made at the expense of this accuracy at the modelling end of the work will not be justified Similarly, if a modelling study carried out by a con- tractor leads to the use of a methodology that is a speciality of that contractor, the loss in flexibility of approach and competitive pricing will quickly cancel out any savings made at the level of the modelling, The ‘cost of the modelling work’ must always be seen within this kind of frame. Thus, to continue along, these lines, a model may be made available very cheaply, or at no charge at all, but it may be an exceedingly expensive model when seen in the wider perspective. Not only may it give rise to inaccuracies and thus faulty designs, but it may also consume a very great deal of the engineer's time — commonly several years — and even then lack the potential to be developed further. The model may, similarly, itself be made available at a nominal cost, but then necessi- tate the employment of a great deal of expensive consulting time in order to make it operational, and to adapt it for further use, and so on indefinitely. Indeed, there are some individuals and organizations which operate deliberately in just this manner, by making their models ‘freely available’, and then earn- ing on the subsequent made-consuling side. Simply because so much depends upon the quality of the modelling work, however, this is not the place to trade-off quality for what must always be rel small savings in total cost. Of course, if a failure of ‘works, operating policies, or whatever else, occurs Bea resull of inadequate modelling, the costs will ‘usually exceed any possible cost of a sound modelling, investment by a large margin. There is a further dimension in this total-cost ppicture that is particularly relevant to the coastal, fstuarial and harbour engineer. This has to do with ‘the expenses that are imposed upon the end-user of models, “the clients’, by community, national and ‘other legislative and licensing bodies, usually on the ‘basis of model studies. In order to evaluate the true relevance of the measures that are imposed, as means of evaluating and possibly avoiding often punitive expenditures, this client and his engineer need in their tum to call upon professional modelling, ‘counsel, It rarely pays, or is otherwise a mere gamble, to sacrifice model quality for small savings in the modelling studies, The real requirement of the engineer and his client can perhaps be best expressed as one of ‘value for money’. This comes down, for most practical pur poses, to the requirement for an efficient indus structure. As the industry is presently organized, the consulting engineer usually stands in the first’ and ‘most immediate relation to the client and the client's own engineering staff. In some cases the consultant maybe able to perform the required modelling studies in house, but in many if not most cases he will need to employ the services of an institute specializing in modelling. Such institutes, of course, usually ca ‘out both physical and numerical modelling, while they commonly have survey teams, instrumentation departmentsand other surch related services in house, Gver the last few years, these spectalist institutes have begun to sell modelling tools, which the client's engincering staff and the consultant can use in their investigations. Some industrial and professional as- sociations have recently begun to evaluate the qu: of these tools on behalf of their members. The use of the same or similar tools for legislative, licensing and monitoring bodies similarly leads to the introduction of some practical, albeit stil in most cases de facto standards. Some consultants and most technological service institutes in tum sponsor and otherwise pro- mate research in universities, thus ensuring that this research is more relevant ta the needs of practice while alleviating the financial pressure otherwise placed. on university departments to compete with private consultants and technological-service institutes, Of course the flow of models from university depart- ments, government agencies and other organizations can be expected to continue, Some of these may be taken up and adapted by the cients vn engin ecring staff, by consultantsand others, but the averall tendency appears to be in the direction of specialized modelling services and tool ps professional basis roviling juctson a THE OUTLOOK FOR THE 1990 AND BEYOND: ‘The engineer is now becoming a major user of tools, Whereas it may still be possible even today for an engineer to work only with pen and paper, in a few yearsthisengincer will bedependenton a whole range ‘of computer-based design and management aids. At the moment the tools concerned are essentially stand- alone devices, even though the output from one may be formatted so as to serve as input to another. Only a few such tools are mentioned in this volume. These correspond to what are usually called ‘fourth- generation’ modelling systems, In this nomenclature, first generation modelling had to do with simple computerized equation solving and other operations ‘that could be done just as well manually as by using a computer, except that the computer was faster and usually more reliable. In second-generation model- ling, attention shifted to methods that were more ‘specifically suited to digital computation, which was usually synonymous with their being unsuited for manual computation. These methods (finite differ- ences, finite elements, boundary elements, etc. etc.) were ‘computer friendly’, even if human unfriendly’ Second-generation modelling was concemed with building models one at a time with each model de- dicated to particular geographical area. In third- generation modelling, on the other hand, ‘medelling Systems’ were evolved that were generic to a whole class of models and which could be used to generate and run models of any particular geographical region simply by inputting tre descriptor’ of thet region in a standardized form. Third-gencration modelling offered great advantages in reducing, lead times and costs and generally increasing reliability in modelling studies. However, third-generation modelling became an inereasingly esotenc and hermetic activity, practised by only a few consulting engineering companies, technological-service institutes, government agencies and other such organizations. Through second and third-generation modelling, a hydraulics suited to digital computer applications, called computational hydraulics, evolved, but the result was that second- and third-generation modelling could only be pur- sued by computational-hydraulic experts. However, during the 1980s a demand arose from the end-users of modelling studies, the clients, for the modelling systems themselves. At about the same time, the proliferation of personal computers and work stations brought the cost of computing power down to such a level that real-world modelling could be carried out much more economically. The result was an attempt to design modelling systems that could be used by end-users, and this constituted the fourth-generation of modelling. Very briefly, fourth-generation model- ling can be characterized’ as follows (Abbott et al., 199) 1. The modelling system becomes a design and man- agement tool suited to-use by persons who are not computational-hydraulics specialists. 2. In fourth-generation modelling, a differentiation correspondingly occurs between tool makers, who are computational-hydraulies specialists, and too! users, who usually are not. 3. The fourth-generation tool is a product, so that computational hydraulics specialists have to be- come, in part, producers of products, rather than performers of projects. 4. The principal line of development of fourth: generation modelling is in the direction of making computational hydraulics much more useful to a much wider range of end-users. 5. Research in this area thus moves from purely scientific research into research on the application of science. It is thus technological rather than scientificresearch in the usually understood sense The outlook for the 1990 and beyonsl 7 6 When seen from the point of view of computer science, research in fourth-generation modelling concentrated on the cantrol aspects af the code, with the operational aspects developing rather little and the data-base aspects only beginning to become significant Fourth-generation modelling tools are currently ‘operated through standard computer terminals, using, amouse, a keyboard and a reasonably high-resolution screen, As professional design and management tools, they require a very great deal of research and development, over and above that expended upon ‘the third-generation systems that are their natural progenitors. Although the fourth-generation tools are only now coming into widespread use in engineering practice, lith-generation modelling i already being actively researched. In. brief, whereas the fourth-generation modelling system does not incorporate intelligent expert-advice-serving facilities and equivalent intel- ligent interrogation facilities, the fifth generation does, The difference between these generations is in the extent to which they make use of artificial inte igence (Al). Fourth-generation systems make very little use of this; fifth-generation systems come to depend upon it From the side of practical applications, fourth- generation modelling has to do primarily with equip- ping the hydraulic engineer with specific ‘closed’ tools and tool sets: in effect the engineer-user only “parameterizes’ these tools, so as to provide model- ling and other facilities. Filth-generation modelling. ‘on the other hand, has more to do with providing ‘the engineer, chemist, biologist, sedimentologist or whatever other user with a more general, ‘open’ working environment, within which this user is able to assemble his or her own tools and tool sets. Cor- responding to this, fourth-generation systems are written én only one, oF at mast twa languages, whereas fifth-generation environments link together many diverse language-like elements (e.g. various shell- ‘builtexpert systems, structured query-language (SQL) data bases, objectorientated data bases, lists and list processors, windowing systems and graphics facili lies, i.e. elements which may be regarded as con- ig statements written in a considerable variety of different languages). In these systems, the numeri- cal models serve enly as means for ‘encapsulating’ what is known about the physical world. Whereas fourth-generation modelling is restricted prtmarily to the simulation of natural processes for the purposes of making designs and elaborating operating rules, fifth-generation modelling is alsa direeted to diag” nostic systems, planning and scheduling systems, online control systems, alarm and maintenance sys 8 The dynamic environment: An introduction tems, advice-serving, and many other kinds of appli- cation besides More generally still, both fourth-generation and: fifth-generation modelling together constitute just one part of that area of ie for which the name Hydroinformatics has been p and is already quitewidely.a. (Abbott, 1991), Hydroin- Formatice has to do with the whole gamat of infor. mation technology applied in hydraulics and water resources, and in this total picture simulation and encapsulation themselves constitute only relatively limited parts. INTRODUCTION TO SECTION 1: THE DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENT This reference book is directed primarily toa younger ‘generation of coastal, estuarial and harbour engincers, who will have received a different education from. that of their seniors. Although possibly less broadly based. it is considerably more mathematically orien- tated. Whereas the engineer of twenty or thirty years finished his education with only some linear jebra and classical analysis in Cartesian co-ordinate frames, today’s young engineer has usually followed courses in vector and more general tensor analysis, numerical analysis and some aspects of computer science, This is the background that is assumed here, THE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND The volume apens witha contribution by Sandermann which is quile rigorous in this respect. It sets out the” origins of the tides, storm surges and short-period waves that act upon the areas that are of most direct interest in this book in their most general mathe- matical forms. The discussion is, however, restricted to the continuum view of nature, with its mathematics of differential and integral equations. The various modes of motion so introduced are then treated one ata time in the following sections. The first mode is that which is most immediately associated with tidal and storm-surge effects, which is flow that is pre- dominantly along the direction of the earth's surface, so that it is nearly-horizontal. Falconer outlines the in this case, introducing the main concepts andtheir mathematical description, but usinga simpler ‘mathematical apparatus. Once again, the description is given entirely in continuum terms, which is much the most convenient way from our awn point of view, even though the corresponding equations can- not be solved, as they stand, using a digital machine. Thecontinuum equations this serve as the conceptual foundations in the elaboration of models and model- ling systems. Following, the descriptions of those nearly horizontal flows that are most suited to tidal, storm- surge and other such processes, Dalrymple con- tributes Chapter 3 on shorbperiod waves. This bridges the gap between classical wave theory, as Rated daring the last century and as stil acive iy, and those madern computational theories which are more suited to digital computer applica- tions, being incorporated in numerical models, ‘All mation on our planet tends to die away due to resistance of one ar the other form. Tidal waves are damped, short-period waves may break and their ergy tay be otherwise dhspaied; in skncet a cases we observe how these directed motions pass into those less directed and confused motions that ‘we call, generally, ‘turbulence’. It is this turbulence that is the prime agent for carrying sediments, and so forming the sea bed in the shallower areas of interest, for diffusing and dispersing our waste products, and for many other . In Chapter 4, Rodi intro- duces the main ideas that underlie current research, development and tool making in the area of tur- bulence modelling. Both the current further ments of traditional approaches and the elaboration of new and more computational-hydraulicapproaches are considered. ‘Turbulence is the name that we give to confused motion, but science still tres to find some order even in this confusion. It accordingly posits a certain ‘ab- solute state of confusion’, in which there is no sem- blance of order whatsoever in that there is no local causal relation at all between a present state and a Brac one. The coresponding proceas of ‘completely disordered’ motion is called diffusion, and science writes a-very neat and simple differential equation to describe it under the continuum assumption. On the other hand, in the real world, such an absolute state of confusion rarely obtains, In practice, fuid-borne materials will be dispersed by turbulence, and there will commonly be some trends of tendencies which lead to: a certain semblance of order in the . Thus dispersion is by no means identical with dif- fusion, even though itis often described and treated in the same way. It has been one of the achievements of computational hydraulics, and indeed af com- putational fluid dynamics y. that it has been able to demarcate some of the limits between these two concepts and to relate their relative influences to the modelling procedure used, Besiford describes this relation and its modelling quences in a parti- cularly searching and complete chapter (Chapter 5). Nearly-horizontal flows and waves generate tur- bulence, which picks up sediment for net transport by currents and waves. In many proctical situations, however. it is the sediment transport and subsequent morphological changes that are of the greatest interest to the coastal, estuarial and harbour engineer. A very important part in this process is then played by non- cohesive sediments, such as sands and silts. Fredsee deals with these non-cohesive sediments in. Chapter 6. On the one hand he outlines how classical, pre- computational approaches have been adapted to serve in numerical modelling applications, while on the other hand he introduces the notion that more speci fically computational hydraulic methods can be em- played here. Afterall, the hydrodynamic’ platforms’ of models ~ those which deseribe the nearly-horizental and short-period-wave flows — provide distributions in space and time of such eminently sediment: transport-relevant quantities as the turbulent-energy level and the specific rate of turbulentenergy dis- sipation, as introduced earlier by Rodi, and itis only natural to include these as the main driving forces in, sediment-transport computation: The computation of nor-10cm) distances (Figure 38.1). The depth of the minimum and thus the strength, of the attraction between particles has been shown to be principally a function of the size and mineralogy of the particles and the pH and ionic strength of the ‘water (Edzwald et al., 1974). This leads to a tendency for the particles, when brought together, to position themselves at the minima in the interaction curve giv- Cons Estuarial an Harfour Engines Rafeence Book. Kate by’ MB. Abbot and WA. Price, Published in 1993 by Chapenan ke Hall, 2-8 Boundary Row, London SE! SEIN. ISBN 0419 154312 HYDRAULIC BEHAVIOUR OF FINE SEDIMENT 39 A.J, Mehta The physics of the transport of granular materials like sands and gravels is quite complex but not as difficult to handle as the trans, ‘of fine sediments, The main reason for this difference in behaviour is that fine sediments including silts and especially clays are cohesive, andl this means that their transport, settle ment and erodibility are to an extent controlied by electrochemical effects. The geological origin of the sediments is therefore important and whether they ‘exist in fresh or brackish water also affects th hydraulic behaviour. Forexample, they can aggregate as flocs whose properties, especially settlement, are quite different from those of the individual particles. This chapter presents a perspective of the problems and cstablishes 2 physica Tamework to enable an engineer to deal with the properties of fine sediments. ‘The nature of the settling velocity of cohesive sedi- ment flocs or aggregates is discussed together with simple formulations for the rates of deposition and erosion. CONTENTS 38.1 Introduction 38.2 Settling velocity 578 39.3 Deposition under turbulent flow 580 38.4 Erosion 581 References 584 38.1 INTRODUCTION In order to examine the hydraulic behaviour of fine, cohesive sediment it is essential to establish a physi cal framework for a perspective on the problem of dealing with fine sediment properties and their trans port. In this chapter the matter of transport is consid- ered by reviewing the sediment mass fluxes assaciated with fine sediment movement as they gavern the bahaviour of the suspension concentration profile. ‘Const, Estria nd Harbour Engineer's Reference Book. Edited by MB. Abbott and W A, Price, Published 2-6 Boundary Raw, London El SHN. SBN 0414 150002 Mass fluxes that characterize the dynamic response of the concentration profile to forcing by currents and, waves are those that ultimately determine the nature and behaviour of sediment layering in the water column. The horizontal velocity (u) profile and the associated concentration (C) profile shown in Figure 39.1 inherently reflect the strong interaction between the two profiles, particularly near the bed where high concentrations generally prevail. It is convenient to conceive of the mass fluxes in terms of five ver- tical processes that are critical in determining the thicknesses of the mobile suspension layer, the mo= bile fluid mud layer and the stationary mud layer, as well as the level of the cohesive bed. OF these five processes two, i.e. entrainment of the lutocline and Auidization of the bed, may be construed as erosion related processes, while two more, i.e. set ting and bed formation, are deposition related pro- cesses. Consolidation and gelling of the fresh deposit With aging increase the strength of the bed, thereby strongly influencing erosion. In engineering practice it is found to be convenient to treat both deposition- and erosion-related pro- cesses as being Controlled by the hydrodynamic bed shear stress acting at the level of the cohesive bed. In reality, bed fluidization and entrainment of fluidized mud are distinct processes which must be treated as such. Bed formation and settling likewise are erned by distinct physical principles. Further- Eire, the proomoe off a dynanttc Gntl wee Iyer over the bed and below the lutocline complicates the manner in which stress is transmitted from the turbulent water column through the lutocline (Mehta, 1989). In spite of these difficulties, however, simple formulations for deposition and erosion seem to per- form well in many coastal, estuarial and harbour engineering applications of common interest (Mehta et al, 1989). In the following sections we will first consider the naure of the settling velocity of cohesive sediment 1995 by Chapman te Ha CONTAMINANTS IN ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS 40 1.V. Towner Especially since the Industrial Revolution man has used estuaries and the coastal zone to dispose of his waste, This has been the case since man first lived near rivers and estuaries but then pollutants were mainly organic, were in small quantities and hence easily biodegradable. As populations expanded and mainly for geopolitical reasons, people organized themselves into larger and larger groups and the capitals of countries more often than not were sited on rivers and estuaries for many obvious reasons. The pollution foad even 200 years ago was mainly organie but now the quantities were large so that long, stretches of rivers and estuaries became anaerobic and hence foul smelling. This was the case on the ‘Thames estuary even up to the 1950s. The logical con- sequence was disease. With the Industrial Revolution came the advent of obnoxious and dangerous chemi- cals as byproducts and the ‘obvious’ place for these was in rivers and estuaries also. ‘This undesirable practice was only seriously tackled as late as 30-40 years ago but has received increasing attention in the last ten years. Whereas in earlier times the larger groups created problems they ane now co-operating in almost a worldwide clean-up act. Perhaps what is even more significant, and the European Economic Community is a good example, these groups are producing legal standards which specify the decreases in the levels of polfution that have to be achieved by a particular date: This means that hydraulicians will increasingly be called on to predict the consequences of schemes to decrease or even eradicate the problem. They now have the help of mathematical models to do this but still need more knowledge of the chemistry. This chapter will help to achieve this. CONTENTS: 40.1 Introduction 585 49.2 Basicaspects of sediment biogeochemistry 586 40.3. Trace metals in estuarine sediments 588 40.4 Organic micropollutants 592 References Bad 40.1. INTRODUCTION ‘Sediments have a-major influence on the behaviour of chemical constituents in estuaries. The high organic matter content in estuaries and the high biological productivity of sediments results in sediment exerting a demand for dissolved axygen from the avertying waters. The deposition of nutrient rich organic de tritus and its subsequent biological decomposition means that estuarine sediments act as both a sink and source of nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen; sediments act as a reservoir for nutrients. In addition to their role in the nutrient and oxygen balance of estuaries, sediments are of critical impor- tance due to their interactions with contaminants introduced to estuaries by industrial activities. These contaminants may include trace metals and metal- oids such as lead, zine, copper, mercury, arsenic or jenium, and organic micropollutants, such as pesti cides, petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (ECBs) amongst others, With large chemically reac- tive surface areas, sediments adsorb and concentrate many of these pollutants from the water column, and as a result estuarine sediments act as a major sink for pollutants introduced to estuaries (Salomans and Forsiner, 1984). A consequence is that the analysis. of sediments can often provide a useful means of determining the degree of contamination of an es tuary by pollutants (Forstaner and Wittman, 1983). Pollution histories of estuaries and other waters can be reconstructed by examining the vertical varia tion of contaminant concentrations in undisturbed, dated sediment cores (e-g. Goldberg et al., 1977, 1979, Christenson and Lo, 1986). ‘Constal, Estutrial on Harker Eimer’ Reference Book ted by M.B, Abbott and WA. Price, Published in 1985 by Chapman & Hil, $25 Bowdary Row, Landon SEI AHN ISBN 0419 154002. COHESIVE SEDIMENTS IN COASTAL ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 4l A.J. Mehia ‘One normally associates silts with estuaries but there are many cases where they create problems in the coastal environment, Here there is the additional factor of wave action which complicates the under- standing and quantification of settlement and re- erosion. It is not often realized that the problem of dealing with, say. siltation in a coastal harbour froma logistical point of view can be quite different to a similar problem in an estuary. Even programming, maintenance dredging in estuarial situations is often seasonal. For example, rain/all, or lack of it, controls the discharge of rivers which in turn can affect salinity which in turn can change siltation in certain areas at in times of the year, Programmes of maintenance planned to a certain extent in advance but even these can be altered by annual changes in the environmental pattern of weather. What is so differ- ent in the coastal situation, for example in a coastal harbour, is that one might have extended periads of little or no wave action when little or no siltation will take place because re-entrainment of silts does not ‘occur. Then out of the blue comes a storm which can xe-entrain large quantities of silts and sands with the ‘consequence that the amount of siltation in a few days can equal the average annual maintenance over the years. fh general, at many locations wav their seasons too, but it is the unpredicta storms, perhaps out of season, that can create the necessity for panicdredging to, say, re-open an access channel to an important coastal harbour or marina. Ready access to-dredgers is one of the consequences ‘of this situation. What has been said so far is in illustration of the importance of the many factors which ean affect erosion and siltation in the complex coastal enviran- ment which is the main thrust of this chapter CONTENTS 41.1. Introduction 41.2 Problem solution strategy 41.3 Conclusions References Ba88 41,1 INTRODUCTION Cohesive sediment transport studies in coastal en- gineering applications relate to part develapment, dredging of approach channels, coastal turbidity generation, erosion or accretion of mudflats and muddy beaches and contaminant transport asso- Gated with fine sediment movement. They require a knowledge of the basic transport principles and methodologies for measurement and analysis within a prescribed technical framework as noted in previous chapters, 1 AN APPLICATION PERSPECTIVE As engineers and scientists we are usually called ‘upon to investigate a macroscale problem in relation to the microscale processes which ultimately lead to such a problem. In Figure 41. 1a the linkage between macroscale coastal topographic changes and the cor- responding microscale near-bed processes is shown descriptively. The typical causative factor for problem occurrence is anthropogenic, e.g, dredging or shore line modification due to port construction, which influences the topography directly and also affects hydrodynamic forcing. Both, in tum, determine the water column dynamics which are linked to muddy bed dynamics via flow-bottom interaction. Under standing flow-botiom interaction and the manner Cont, Exar and Harbor Engineer's Reference Bock. Edited by MB. Abbott and W.A. Price: Published in 1993.by Chapman de Hl 2-6 Boundary Row, London SEI SHN, ESSN 0419 1543072. ESTUARIAL PROBLEMS MP. Kendrick Estuaries have been developed for many purposes and it is important that proposals for new works should be examined both for their likely effects locally and on the hydraulic system as a whole. This chapter illustrates, often drawing experience from specific examples, how certain problems should be tackled and the studies that should be initiated to arrive at a satisfactory solution. Stated simply, this means identifying the interaction between the effects of the works and the hydraulic environment, A reader new to estuarial problems will find this chapter a useful introduction to the subject (see also Chapters 34, 38, 42 and 44), CONTENTS: 43.1 Introduction 615 43.2. Dredging 616 43.3. Reclamation 622 43.4 Water abstraction 626 43.5 Marine structures 626 43.6 Tide-control structures 633 References 64 43.4 INTRODUCTION This chapter examines civil engineering activity in estuaries, emphasizing the need to identify both the prevailing hydraulic loading on any works proposed Srundertaken, and the impact of those works on existing estuary regime. Stated simply, this means recognizing the interactive effects of works and en- vironment, and thus ensuring a sound basis for the formulation of solutions to practical problems. Estuaries have been variously defined and classi- fied by geomorphologists and engineers. The ideal estuary of earlier hydraulic engineers (Pilsbury, 1956) is one in which moderate tides and river flow mix ina single-channel system whose width varies exponen- tially with length; maximum current velocity and 43 the near-sinusoidal tide curve shape remain virtually unchanged along the tidally-active length; bed and banks are composed of movable sediments and so the dynamically stable system readjusts fairly readily to a non-cyelie change, whether natural in origin as with a storm-surge, or man-made as with land reclamation project. Such ideal conditions are difficult, if not impossible, to find in practice. although the Delaware River of the USA provides a good approximation, with the UK's tidal Thames not far behind In the present context the term estuary is taken to cover a range of tidal inlets in which one or all of the following may differ widely: climate, meteorological conditions, tidal characteristics, river flow, sediment type, marine influence. For example, Figure 43.1 shows some of the differences in tidal type and tidal range experienced round the world: diurnal tides of less than Im range in the Gulf of Mexico; semi-diumal tides of 12m range in the UK's Severn, estuary; mixed, largely diurnal tides in the South, China Sea; mixed, largely semi-diurnal tides in the Gulf of Aden. The influence of differences in sedi- ment type on tidal progress along two English es- justrated by the tide curves in Figures 43.2 ‘The Thames and the Mersey are charac- terized by semi-diumnal tides having a mean range at the entrance exceeding 4m and similar seasonal in river flow, but large differences in the of bed and banks in the two estuaries give rise to ance of the sediments to flow, and hence to tidal levels up-river. The following sections of this chapter describe some of the more common situations that confront civil engineers involved in the management and de- velopment of estuaries fora variety of activities. The topics covered include dredging, reclamation, water abstraction, marine structures associated with ship- ping, trade, industry and leisure, and tide-control structures such as barriers and barrages. Methods are (Cost, Estria and Harbour Enince's Reference Book: Edited by MLB. Abbott and W.A. Price. Published in 1993 by Chapman e Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SE] SHIN. SBN 0414 150002 BARRIERS AND BARRAGES N.P. Reilly This chapter follows naturally from Chapter 43 which dealt with many of the problems that are associated ‘with the development of an estuary. Barriers and bar- rages are built for flood control, to improve amenity, to control saline intrusion and more recently to hamess tidal energy. Of the many works built in rivers and. estuaries they are likely ta have the most fundamental effects on the hydraulic regime. Conse- quently before they are built they require very careful study (see also Chapters 38, 42 and 43) CONTENTS 44.1 Introduction and definitions 7 44.2 Flood protection and waterlevels 638 44.3 Tidal energy 638 44.4 Design of barrages and barriers 639 HS Gates 39 44.6 Examples of existing barriers and barrages a5 44.7. Construction 652 44.8 Geology and foundations 652 44.9 Environmental issues 653 44.1 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A barrage may be defined as a low dam designed to control the flow and level of a river or estuary. Flood discharge is normally catered for by incorporating gated passages in the structure and many barrages consist substantially of gates. When the gates are fully apen for the passage af a large flood, the effect of the barrage on upstream water levels may be minimal. Among the earliest barrages were the large structures constructed in the late nineteenth century on the River Nile in Egypt (Stephens, 1903; Vaughan Lee, 1941). spr ee . In modem times numerous barrages have been constructed, and many more planned, in estuarine or other marine environments for 2 variety of purposes. In areas having a large tidal range there is the poten tial to: hamess this to generate electricity and tidal energy barrages have been constructed in France, Russia, Canada and China. Many more are under investigation. In some places the demands of industry and agri culture for water have so depleted the flow of rivers that saline penetration has advanced up the estuary to affect water intakes. A solution to this problem is to construct a barrage at a suitable location to prevent saline intrusion. A barrage may be constructed purely for amenity Purposes, where a tidal river ows through an urban area, to prevent exposure of unsightly mud banks at low tide or to faciitate leisure activities. In this case a fully gated structure may be adopted or, allerna- tively, a simple half-tide weir may suffice. ‘A barrier is a relatively modem concept and de- scribes a gated structure which is normally open 30 that flow is unobstructed. The sole puxpose of a barrier is to protect an area from being flooded by high downstream levels. Such a need for protection can arise in an estuary when high astronomical tides combine with surges caused by exceptional meteoro- logical conditions. It can also arise when a mairt river floods and causes a significant backwater effect, and therefore flooding, in a tributary. A barrier across the tributary is thus an alternative to a programme of bank raising and is resorted to on grounds of either cast or amenity. Closure of a barrier is an exceptional event and, in an estuarial location, is carried out on the basis of a weather and tide forecast. Closure wauld generally be over a single tide and during the period of closure the fluvial flow is impounded. If there is insufficient storage volume upstream to absorb the fluvial flow during the period of closure, pumps may have to be incorporated to evacuate flow (Consa, Fstuarial and rior Engines Reference Bok. ated by MB, Abbott and W.A. Price. Published in 1955 by Chapa & Hall ‘2-6Boundary Row, Londian SEI SHEN. ISBNID 41915430 2 DREDGING AND DREDGERS 45 A.D. Bates Dredging is a highly specialized subject. The author discusses the various types of dredgers to be used for specific purposes and describes their operation in different materials and situations. This theme is con- tinued in a section on capital dredging where atten- tion is drawn to the problems of working in difficult ground. Maintenance dredging poses its own prob- Jems, especially difficulties in measurement, Various methods of survey are discussed. Disposal of dredged ‘material at sea is subject to increasing environmental pressures especially formaterialscontaining pollutants and altemative methods of disposal and legislation constraints are described. The economic evaluation of a dredging, dumping or land reclamation project is obviously complex and in the final section of the chapter the author points to the many factors that have ta be considered (see also Chapters 42, 43, 47, 48, 49 and 50). CONTENTS: Types of dredger and applications Capital dredging Maintenance dredging Disposal of dredged material Legislative constraints Economics Land reclamation Containment Consolidation and compaction Environmental 45.11 Contracts References SERRRPRRLES 45.1 ‘TYPES OF DREDGER AND APPLICATIONS: 48.1.1 INTRODUCTION ‘There is a great variation in the ability of different types of dredger to operate in different materials and situations. In this section, a brief description is pro- vided of each of the main types of dredger which are available (BSL, 1991) and of the types of material and operation to which each is best suited. 45.1.2 TRAILING SUCTION HOPPER DREDGER ‘The trailing suction hopper dredger (trailer) is a ship (sce Figure 48.1) consisting of lange hopper, a Propulsion unit and a suction dredging installation. This dredger is sea-going under its own power and is the mast commonly used type. Dredging takes place with the dredger moving slowly ahead under its own power ata speed over the ground of between 1 and 5 knots (0.5 to 2.3ms~"), Confined working is rarely practicable. ‘The dredging action is achieved by pumping with one. or two large centrifugal s. Upon a proaching the dredging area, ane or fwo articulated suction pipes are swung outboard on davits and lowered to the sea-bed, or to dredging level. At the suction intake a steel fabricated structure, termed a ‘draghead’, serves to control water flow over the sea- bed. Soft or loose bed material is forced into. sus- pension by a combination of differential pressure and erosion. Stronger materials may be loosened by teeth, water jets, or a combination of both. A few have a mechanical cutter. ‘The maximum depth to which dredging may take place is limited by the vacuum of the centrifugal dredge pump. Generally, if the dredge pump is mounted within the hull the maximum dredging depth of most medium-sized trailer dredgers is about 35 m, butexceptionallyin special izcumstances greater ‘depth is possible. By mounting the dredge pump in the suction pipe, greater depth or improved pro- duction ispossible. A few large trailing suction hopper dredgers are capable, with modification of dredging toa depth of 80 m below water Dredgers which rely on suction methods may have (Const, Estria nat arbour Engince'sRferoo: Rook. ited by M.D. Abbott and W.A. Price. Published in 1998 by Chapman de Hall 2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1 SHN, SBN 0419 18432 DREDGING IN COHESIVE SEDIMENT AREAS H. de Viieger Perhaps an old definition of dredging would be the ‘deepening an area with the aid of a dredger. However, there are a number of complementary ac- tivities which could reduce or even eliminate the need todredge. Among others there are the ability to improve natural depths by some form of training wall or ter, fixed ‘installations such as silt pumping stations or by-pass plants, bed-levellers, ‘water-injection techniques etc. Many things have to be considered in coming to an economic and environ- mentally acceptable solution — in silts is it possible to invoke the idea of navigable as opposed to ‘natural’ depths, and is there seasonality to. siltation, for example, which would control the times to dredge? In other words the best plan involves considering, many factors. ‘CONTENTS 46.1. Introduction 46.2 Maintenance dredging 46.3. Optimization of maintenance dredging References 46.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses methods for maintaining channels, harbours and maritime fairways at the p scribed clepth for safe navigation. Depending on specific local requirements dredging can be achicted 1, Enhancing natural conditions by, for instance bandalls or breakwaters; 2. Fixed dredging installations such as silt pumping stations or by-pass plants; 3. Mobile dredging installations such as bed-levellers, ‘water injection plants and traditional hydraulic and mechanical dredging techniques. ‘Gost, Estria and Harbour Encinee's Reference 26 loundary Row, London SEI SHIN. ISBN 0 419 15430 ‘Optimization of dredging operations is also site- specific but the problem can be approached by: 1. Reducing the amount of mud to be removed by ‘introducing the navigable-depth concept; 2. Establishing the optimal maintenance dredging procedure; 3. Optimization of the maintenance dredging system on board; 4, Optimization of the disposal are: 46.2 MAINTENANCE DREDGING The Permanent Intemational Association of Navi- gation Congresses (PIANC, 1989} definesmaintenance dredging as: ‘The removal, transport and temporary or definitive disposal of all bottam material sedimenting in har- ‘bours, access channels or other navigable or non- navigable waters, abovea minimum level necessary for safe navigation in, or sufficient flow capacity through the said waters.” Thus, maintenance dredging covers all activities in- volved to keep up design requirements for navigation, flood control or coastal protection. Among, such ac- tivities arepermanenthydrographicurveying supply Or removal, transport and temporary or defini di ‘of bottom material approach ofa maintenance dredging projects git site-specific, since the necessity of maintenance iredging mainly depends on the local meteorological, hydrodynamic and. sedimentological conditions. A thorough comprehension of theee phenomena i thus a pre-eminent requirement for the choice available techniques, optimus Although sedimentation is quite site-specific, there are nevertheless some standard techniques used ‘world-wide to salve the problem: Book: Edited by MB. Abbott ann Wc, Price. Published in 1993 by Chapman fe Hall,