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Generation on MV Distribution Network

R. Caire, Student Member, IEEE, N. Retire, S. Martino, C. Andrieu and N. Hadjsaid, Member, IEEE

Abstract--Utility Power systems are faced to an increasing

number of small size producers requiring interconnection

particularly to the Low Voltage (LV) network. Since most

distribution systems are not designed to receive large scale

power injections, these small generation units may impact these

networks specifically in terms of quality of the energy delivered,

reliability and safety of the whole distribution system from LV to

Medium Voltage (MV) levels.

In this paper, a methodology, based on a parametric study, is

proposed to investigate Distributed Generation (DG) impacts

when interconnected to distribution networks.

The proposed methodology has been validated for a particular

case of voltage profile (LV/MV). The test system used for this

study is a real urban network containing 11 feeders with 2

transformers of 36 MVA.

Index Terms-- Distributed Generation, Distribution Network,

Parametric study, Load Flow, Voltage profile.

This paper deals with the assessment of technical impacts

related to the interconnection of DG to distribution networks

[4] with the emphasis on the interaction between LV and MV

networks in terms of a voltage profile in the presence of DG.

First, the methodology for the impact study is described.

The test network used for the validation of this methodology is

described in section IV. This network is a typical French urban

distribution network which characterises the specified impacts.

In sections V & VI, the application for the voltage profile

methodology when considering the potential technical impacts

regarding the connection of DG at distribution level is

presented and a list of the most critical distribution network

parameters, characterising the effects of DG on the utility

system, is proposed.

II. METHODOLOGY

I. INTRODUCTION

energy market [1]. Indeed, with deregulation, competition

is particularly fostered in the generation side thus allowing

more and more producers to be interconnected to the grid.

This situation has been observed for both transmission and

distribution networks. For distribution systems, on one hand,

the concerns are small size units but on a large scale basis. On

the other hand, this particular networks have originally been

designed for the supply of the end users and to be

unidirectional (power flow, protection, etc.). This situation

may be conflicting for operating these networks with large

number of generating units even for small size ones. This new

technical and economical environment has to be well

understood and studied in order to be compatible with the

present electrical systems [7] - [2]. Indeed, several technical

questions arise especially about the connection of these small

This work was supported by Inventer la Distribution Electrique de

lAvenir (IDEA), joint research laboratory between EDF (French provider of

Electricity), Schneider Electric S.A. and INPGrenoble.

R. Caire is with IDEA, BP 46, 38402 Saint Martin dHres, France (email: raphael.caire@ieee.org).

N. Hadjsaid and N. Retiere are with IDEA and the Laboratoire

dElectrotechnique de Grenoble, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble,

Saint Martin dHres, 38402 France (e-mail: Nouredine.Hadjsaid Nicolas.Retiere@leg.ensieg.inpg.fr).

S. Martino is with IDEA and Electricit de France, BP 408, 92141

Clamart, France (e-mail: Sylvain.Martino@edf.fr).

C. Andrieu is with IDEA and Schneider Electric SA, 38050 Grenoble

cedex 9, France (e-mail: christophe_andrieu@mail.schneider.fr).

systems, it is necessary to set up a methodology which allows

critical impacts to be determined. In addition, this

methodology should be independent from the network

ensuring the study to be generic. The methodology proposed in

this paper is based on a parametric study. Figure 1 shows

briefly the proposed methodology:

6WXGLHGLPSDFW

FKRLFH

6LPXODWRU

7DUJHW 1HWZRUNV

$QDO\WLFDOWRRO

,QGH[ FKRLFH

3DUDPHWHUVFKRLFH

6LPXODWLRQ H[SORLWDWLRQ

,PSDFW GHWHUPLQDWLRQ

Fig. 1. Illustration of the methodology.

From the studied impact and the target networks, two major

tools are used for quantifying the potential impacts. These

tools are complementary: an analytical tool enables an easy

investigation of the impacts whereas a simulator is used to

study a real network. Then, we have to define, from previous

1423

2

choices, an index that will give us a relative view of the impact

to quantify them. At last, a parametric investigation is

performed in order to determine whether an impact is critical

for the network operation or not.

A. Choice of the studied impact

The methodology is as generic as possible. This means that,

within the proposed framework, as many impacts as possible

should be studied. Section III presents briefly some impacts

that may occur with a LV DG on distribution networks.

B. Choice of the simulated networks

In order to characterise completely a specific impact, three

networks have been used: a MV and LV ones and a simplified

network, used for analysis. The first two are chosen to be as

close as possible from a typical distribution network. The third

one is used for the purpose of checking analytically the results

(see section IV).

C. Choice of the analytical tool

The analytical equations must be, first, as simple as possible

to investigate easily the impacts. If there is any significant

differences between the analytical results and the simulations,

this may lead to refine the equation or the different network

equipment models considered. In section V-A the simplified

expression for the particular case of the voltage study is

presented.

be designed for unidirectional power flow, from transmission

system to end users. Finally, a check up of the possible

impacts on network equipment will be done.

Thus, the different potential impacts that may occur are

divided in three major classes related to the impacts on:

Electric variables,

Operation and planning,

Equipment.

A. Impacts on electric variables

- Active and reactive power flow: a local generator will

change the power flows, in respect to his own power

delivered to the grid. Figure 2 shows a simple distribution

network and the power flow that may take place.

Producer

Custumer

Power Flow

When the network is modelled, a computer tool which fit

the study has to be chosen. This choice is linked to the choice

of the studied impact (see section V-B for our study case).

E. Choice of the index

In order to carry out some relative studies, the impacts of

DG are quantify by an index or rate. Of course, the index will

depend on the nature of the impact. See section V-C for the

study case.

F. Choice of the parameters

Once the analytical equations are established, all their

parametric inputs are defined. These are the ones used for the

parametric investigation. See section V-D for the study case.

G. The simulations

The parametric study is performed with the simulator. Its

results are interpreted with the help of the analytical tool.

H. Impact classification

On the basis of the simulation results and analytical

investigation, it is possible to consider whether or not an

impact is critical for the whole system operations (see section

VI).

III. POTENTIAL IMPACTS

The interconnection of a DG in a distribution network may

affect the power flow. The question that first arises is about the

electrical variables (such as voltages at different nodes, etc).

In addition, the power flow induced by DG may become bi-

1424

network impedance give (as a first approximation) a

voltage drop illustrated at figure 3. Connecting a

Distributed Producer to a LV distribution should raise the

voltages on both the LV voltage and the MV level

depending of the amount of power generated.

HTB / HTA

Producer

Load

Urms

Autmotic Tap changer

+ 5%

Limits

Without DP

With DP

5%

lligne

network can be the proliferation of Power Electronic

inverters that may be associated with the new production

units [6]. Those harmonics can distort significantly the

voltage signal, or can disturb electronics devices and

telecom signals or other network equipment (i.e. sensors).

connection of single phase generation units at LV level;

but this can unbalance the voltages. Indeed, a small

amount of power will change the voltage of one phase

and may unbalance the 3 phase voltages at both LV and

MV levels through the MV/LV transformers.

- Stability: by adding some small rotating alternators to the

grid, oscillations may occur after a disturbance or even

loss of synchronism. The low inertia of those generators

may increase the weakness of the system [8] and [3].

- Short-circuit current: every synchronous motor and

generator of a distribution network will deliver (if any

3

fault occurs in the grid) a short circuit current which

depends on several parameters. This current will then

participate to the global fault current, increasing or

decreasing it. See figure 4 for the contribution of DG in

short-circuit current (Za and Zb are MV line impedance,

Zsi are LV line impedance, m is the ratio of the

transformer and A is the considered short circuit point).

modified.

- Every over-voltage and every over-current due to the DG

slowly destroy the dielectrics of the cables.

IV. DESCRIPTION OF THE NETWORKS

A. MV distribution network

For the parametric study, a real urban network that contain

Z A Z m Z

Z Z

mainly underground cables was simulated. The simulated

feeder gives us a reference as a typical French urban

distribution network. Its total length is 11960 meters and the

Fig. 4. Contribution of DG in short circuit current in A.

WRWDO ORDG LV N: WDQ 7KHUH DUH /9

B. Impacts on the operations and the planning

customers) and 6 MV networks. Figure 7 represent the

- Utility operators If a new DG produces (with unexpected geographic distribution of the loads.

daily variations) power at a specific point of the network,

The short-circuit power of the substation is 712 MVA.

this will change the value of the voltage nodes of the

whole distribution network. For instance, on the figure 5,

N55

the voltages V1 and V2 may be modified daily but can not

be forecast (Zlign are the MV line impedance and Vd is

constant). Then, , the strategy of the existing tap changers

may be inadequate.

a

V1

HV / MV

e1

Z lign

Z lign

MV / LV

V2

e3

e2

N29

Power flow

with a daily

variable input

of generation

S

N1

MV / LV

modifying the circulation of currents at the occurrence of

a fault, a DG could blind a protection device if the fault is

on the same feeder, or inopportunely trip a safe feeder if a

fault occurs on an other feeder by feeding the fault

through the protection of his own feeder (see figure 6).

HTB / HTA

inopportune

HTB / HTA

2

HTA/ BT

blinded

PRAO (EDF) screen caption (S is the HT/MV utility).

B. LV distribution network

A generic LV network with two loads at the two terminals

of the cables was chosen. The figure 8 presents the model of

the network (type 5 is a 4 wires 3 phases cable - 3*150mm

and a neutral of 70mm, type 7 is the 4 wires 3 phases cable 3*95mm and a neutral of 50 mm). The DG can be connected

to the fifth nodes. Transformers between MV and all LV

networks are 630 kVA.

MV / LV

HTA/ BT

N1

PBT , Q BT

type 5

type 7

N2

type 7

try to get the best from the different DG. Indeed the

structure of the network should change to optimise the

operations and the power flow of the different DG.

- In France, there are several signals which use power lines

such as a tariff signal which is added to the voltage (a

frequency of 175Hz or 188Hz or higher). By connecting a

DG at any node, the equivalent impedance of the branch

will be changed. This will modify the level of those

signals and cause some malfunctions of their

transmission.

N4

158 m

PN 3 , Q N 3

type 7

N5

309 m

PN 5 , Q N 5

C. Analysis network

To remain as simple as possible, we build a general radial

network, with n loads, n-1 lines, a short circuit impedance

(R1X1 in series with a perfect voltage source) and a distributed

generator, placed in the feeder.

R1 , X cc

U source

R1 , X cc

source

N1

R2 , X 2

P1,Q1

- When engineers design the network and the different

breakers, the Recovery Transient Voltages (RTV) have to

be taken into account. If the DG is still running when an

automatic reclosure operates, this could modify the RTV.

N3

392 m

33 m

N1

P1,Q1

Ri , X i

N2

P2 ,Q2

R2 , X 2

P2,Q2

Pg , Qg

N2

Ni

Ri , X i

Ni

Pi , Qi

1425

4

V. APPLICATION OF THE METHODOLOGY TO THE MV VOLTAGE

PROFILE

The methodology described previously is going to be

applied to the voltage profile as a validation.

A. Simplified tool

The voltage drop which occurs, when we connect a PQ node

to two bus is presented in figure 10:

U

R, X

P,Q

U = R .P + X . Q

U

U

2

(1)

variation of the voltage level are presented. The ranges of

variation which are usual for different types of networks are

also given in the table I.

VI. RESULTS OF THE VOLTAGE PROFILE STUDY

Simulations are achieved on the real network and the results

of the variation of the index (due to the variation of the

parameters) as a function of feeder nodes are presented below.

The legend of each figure gives the information of the position

of the DG and its nominal power.

A. R,X parameters

be simulated as R and X impedance (such as lines, cables,

breakers,).

C. Voltage index

As we study the voltage profile, the index is built as (2):

U with _ producer ( N j ) U without _ producer ( N j )

r (N j ) =

(2)

U without _ producer ( N j )

The parameters are ranked into three major classes :

parameters which depend:

on impedance (R,X)

on power (P,Q)

on both impedance and power.

TABLE I

R,X parameters

Position of DG (m)

Feeder - extremity

Shortcut power (MVA)

200 712 2000

Length (km)

0.5.lmax 1.lmax 1.5.lmax

with lmax = 11960m

Number of LV networks

0-3

with DG

P,Q parameters

Power of 1 DG (kW)

0 250 KW

Power of loads (kVA)

1/5 Pmax Pmax = 4,458

Power of 2 DG (kW)

Total Power = 100 kW

R,X and P,Q parameters

Massive DG (MW)

Up to 5

0 .2 0

r

N1

0 .1 0

0 .0 0

250kW @ N 1

250kW @ N 29

250kW @ N 55

12000

L e n g th (m )

evolutions (before and after the DG connection point).

For the particular case of radial networks, this index may

be specified by (3). Equation (3) is applied for nodes that

are located between the substation and the injection node.

j

Pg . Rk + Qg . X k

k =1

k =1

r ( Njbefore ) =

(3)

k j

n

n k j

k =1 l =1

k =1 l =1

Rk and Xk are respectively the equivalent resistance and

reactance for the considered distance, Pk and Qk are

respectively the consumed active and reactive powers at

node Nk. Pg and Qg are respectively the produced active

and reactive powers at node Ng. Considering (3), it can be

seen that in the numerator side, only DG power is in

factor with the line impedance up to the point of

connection. Though, the index increases linearly along

with the location of the considered node.

g

Pg . Rk + Qg . X k

k =1

k =1

r ( Njafter ) =

(3 bis )

n k j after

n k j after

2

U source Rl .Pk + X l .Qk

k =1 l =1

k =1 l =1

After the connection point, the numerator is constant

(power of DG in factor of the impedance from the source

to the connection point) and the denominator varies

slightly because Usource is higher than the other terms

(equivalent to Usource 8 VHH bis). Hence, the index

remains constant after the interconnection node.

before

interconnected and produces some power. Uwithout_producer(Nj) is

the voltage at the node Nj when the DG is not interconnected

(see figure 9).

Parameters set

N 29

(%)

B. Software tool

The whole system was simulated with the real time transient

simulator ARENE (developed by the French utility

Electricit De France) in order to be able to deal with fault

conditions in a real time environment. Even if, in the following

chapters, we will only give the results of the steady state

operations for the voltage.

N55

0 .3 0

1426

before

before

before

5

- Variation of the impedance which models the substation

short circuit power.

superposition theory when P-Q nodes are used.

0,30

B. P,Q parameters

(%)

0,20

0.30

0,10

0,00

0.20

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

Length (m )

0.10

2000

(%)

2000MVA @ N55

0.00

difference between the three considered cases. Indeed, by

considering (4):

jbefore

jbefore

Pg . Rk + Qg . X k + Qg . X cc

k =2

k =1

r ( Njbefore ) =

( 4)

n k jbefore

n k jbefore

k =1 l =1

k =1 l =1

%HFDXVHRIWKHFKRLFHWDQ WKHYROWDJHGURSGXHWR

Xcc is small compared to other terms. In this case, there is

no change in the voltage index.

2000

4000

6000

250kW @

100kW @

Length (m)

r ( Njbefore )m.Pg , m.Qg

r ( Njbefore ) Pg ,Qg

jbefore

jbefore

m.Pg . Rk + m.Qg . X k

k =1

k =1

= m (6)

=

jbefore

j before

Pg . Rk + Qg . X k

k =1

k =1

power given in section IV: from 4458 kW to a fifth.

0 .3 0

(%)

0 .2 0

r

length of cables.

0 .3 0

0 .1 0

0 .0 0

0

0 .1 0

h = 1 - 2 5 0 kW

@ N29

10000

r ( N 2) P

r ( N 2) P

15000

L e n g th ( m )

h = 0 ,5 - 2 5 0 k W @ N 2 9

h = 1 ,5 - 2 5 0 k W @ N 2 9

their length. For example, a R(mL) indicates the

resistance for a length between two nodes equal to m

times L whereas R(L) is used for a length L. However,

the ratio of the indexes should be equal to the ratio of the

respective lengths which is not true as shown in figure 13.

This is due to the capacitance effects which have to be

taken into account in figure 13 as follows:

javant k

javant k

k =1 l =1

k =1 l =1

m

javant k

j avant k

.Usource

2

k =1 l =1

k =1 l =1

(5)

8000

10000

12000

L e n g th (m )

50 kW @ N1

50 kW @ N29

50 kW @ N55

3*50kW @ N1

& N29 & N55

0.04

0.00

2000

4000

6000

8000

,Q max

min

,Q min

(7)

Usource term is higher than the other one (equivalent to

Usource 8 $V D UHVXOW WKH YDULDWLRQ RI SRZHU

consumption has no major effect on the index as it is

shown on the figure 16.

- Two simulations have been carried out for the same

amount of DG power but for two different dispersions.

0.12

0.08

0.04

20 00

40 00

N1 & N29 @ 50 kW

N55 @ 100 kW

6000

80 00

10000

12 00 0

Length (m )

indexes are very different. Indeed, by spreading the

interconnection node in the MV network the impact of

DG is reduced.

As a result, the classical ratio (generation/load) used to

quantify the level of dispersed generation is not relevant.

0.12

0.08

1

2

U source (X CC .(Q1 max + Q2 max ) + R.P2 max + X .Q2 max )

2

max

0.00

different positions is given below.

6000

5000

(%)

0 .0 0

(%)

4000

(%)

0 .2 0

2000

P=Pn

P = P m in i

10000 12000

Length (m )

Fig. 14. Index variation for several DG

1427

6

C. P,Q and R,X parameter

For a significant DG introduction (8 LV feeders containing

DG so that the power produced is 1.13 times the power

consumed), the obtained results are the following:

(%)

3.00

July 1997

[6] R.C. Dugan, H. Wayne Beaty, Mark F. McGranaghan, Electrical Power

Systems Quality, New York, Mc Graw-Hill, 1996, ISBN 0-07-0180318, pp 17- 28

[7] N. Jenkins, D. Kirschen, G. Strbac, R. Allan, P. Crossley, Embedded

Generation, London, The Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2000,

ISBN 0-85296-774-8

2.00

1.00

[8] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, New York, Mc GrawHill, 1994, ISBN 0-07-035958-X

0.00

0

5000

10000

Length (m)

Fig. 18. Significant amount of DG

variation of voltage profile is reached. It is to be noted that

the test network used for this study has been oversized by

design. Nevertheless, if this is compared to the extreme

voltage levels allowed by the French law [5] (5% of the

nominal voltage), it appears that DG may be critical for the

voltage profile. However, for weak networks, the impact

may be more significant [2].

Tantin, J. Pernot, D. Chatrefou, Improving site tests efficiency by realtime testing of a new communication link between sensors and a

protection device , , Seventh International Conference on

Developments in Power System Protection, (IEE) ,pp 218-221, 2001

X. BIOGRAPHIES

Raphael Caire received his DEA from INPGrenoble in

2000. He was working in Power Electronic field, in

France at the Laboratoire dElectrotechnique de Grenoble

(LEG) and in USA at the Center of Power Electronic

System (CPES). He is now working toward a PhD

degree. His research is centered on the impacts and

production control of dispersed generation on

distribution system.

VII. CONCLUSION

In this paper, a generic methodology to qualify the impacts

of a DG connected to the LV distribution network was first

described. Then, this methodology was validated on MV

voltage profile.

This study has shown that, even if a LV network DG

introduction has not an important relative impact on MV

voltage profile, it could become critical in some operating

conditions.

Other specific DG impacts have been tested but not

presented in this paper.

In all cases, if a large amount of dispersed generators is

interconnected to the distribution network (either on the MV

or LV sides), new network control strategies have to be

designed in order to ensure power quality and a safe, reliable

operations of the network.

These works are currently in progress.

received the Eng. Degree in 1993 and the Ph.D. in 1997

from The Polytechnic Institute of Grenoble (France). He

is currently serving as an associate professor of Electrical

Engineering at the Institute. His principal research

interests are modeling and analysis of power systems and

electric machines.

the DEA in electrical Engineering from INPG in 1999. In

2000, he joined Electricit de France Research and

Development. Since then, he worked on the impacts of

dispersed generation on distribution system. In 2001, he

has been sent to IDEA (Inventer la Distribution

Electrique de lAvenir), joint research laboratory between

EDF (French provider of Electricity), Schneider Electric

S.A. and INPGrenoble to work as a Researcher and as a Project Manager on

Dispersed Generation considerations.

VIII. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

We sincerely acknowledge R. Belhomme (EDF R&D) and

F. Dumas (Schneider Electric SA) for their great support and

all the data they provide to us.

IX. REFERENCES

[1] C.E.T. Foote, G.W. Hault, G.M. Burt, J.R. McDonald, Enhancing

Flexibility and Transparency in the Connection of Dispersed

Generation, CIRED 2001, June 2001

[2] N. Hadjsaid, J.F. Canard, F. Dumas, Dispersed Generation Impact on

Distribution Network, IEEE Computer Application in Power, pp 22-28,

April 1999

[3] M.K. Donnelly, J.E. Dagle, D.J. Trudnowski, G.J. Rogers Impacts of

the Distributed Utility on Transmission System Stability, IEEE Trans.

on Power Systems, pp 741-746, May 1996

[4] P. Lemerle, D. Cortinas, S. Vittet, J.L. Meyer, J.L. Fraisse, Connection

of Embedded Generation to LV Network, CIRED 99, June 1999

and the DEA in electrical Engineering from INPG in

1991, and Doctorat de lINPG degrees from the Institut

National Polytechnique de Grenoble (INPG) in 1995. He

joined the Research and Development Center of

Schneider Electric SA in 1995. He works on electrical

power system analysis and becomes involved in

microgeneration connection. He works with IDEA as a

Researcher and as a Project Manager on Dispersed Generation considerations.

Nouredine Hadjsaid received his Diplme dEtudes

Approfondies (DEA) and Doctorat de lINPG degrees

from the Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble

(INPG) in 1988 and 1992. From 1988 to 1993, he served

as a research and teaching assistant at the Ecole

Nationale Suprieure dIngnieurs Electriciens de

Grenoble (ENSIEG)

and

at

the

Laboratory

dElectrotechnique de Grenoble (LEG). He is an associate

professor at INPG-ENSIEG-LEG. His research interests are power system

operation and security.

raccordement au rseau public des installations de production autonomes

1428

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