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CONTRACT NO.

SGE500-10-C-0012
PROJECT NO. XJ-MC-0001

30 August 2014

EMBASSY OF THE UNITED STATES


KABUL, AFGHANISTAN

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
EXISTING CONDITIONS SURVEY
HVAC SYSTEM REPORT
FINDINGS
AND

RECOMMENDED SOLUTION SETS


30 August 2014

QAVI ENGINEERS (PVT.) LTD


HERAT, AFGHANISTAN.

30 August 2014

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CONTRACT NO. SGE500-10-C-0012


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Table of Contents
Building Mechanical Systems

A. Summary

B. Existing Conditions

C. Equipment Observations

11

D. Equipment Readings, Various Dates (note Delta-T values)

18

E. Other Observations

22

F. Corrective Suggestions

23

G. Suggested Statement of Work

27

H. Request for Proposal

33

I.

Curriculum Vitae Mr. Mohammad Amin

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A. Summary
This HVAC report has been developed by the Qavi Engineering, Ltd (QEL) staff mechanical
engineer Mr. Muhammad Amin after a site visit 19 through 21 August, 2014, to the U.S.
Embassy, Kabul, Afghanistan.
The visit was requested by the Facilities Engineer Office, U.S. Embassy, Kabul. Mr. Amin was
escorted and assisted on site by a Facilities Staff representative, Mr. Scott Biffle.
Request for Assistance Mission Statement:
1. Conduct an existing conditions survey, HVAC systems
2. Focusing on the three HVAC air chiller units.
3. Determine causes for the failure of four (4) compressor units in a short period of time.
Mr. Amins Curriculum Vitae is at Section H. He has more than 25 years experience in the
design, installation, testing, operations, maintenance, overhaul, and repair of Carrier, York,
Trane, Honeywell and similar large scale HVAC and refrigeration plants and their integrated
digital control systems. Proof of certification, training and experience is available on request.
This is an initial report. It is limited to the three days time allocated on site and the directed
Mission Statement. A cursory technical analysis is offered as are various remedies.
Due to the advanced state of disrepair and system imbalance as a result of the questionable
installation of the water sprayer contraption on air-cooled chillers, a greater degree of
remediation efforts will be required. These will include the removal, descaling, and reinstallation of the condenser coils. Lubrication oils and their correct amounts will need to be
checked and re-established per spec. Then the drawing down, vacuuming, and recharging of
the system.
With knowledgeable, timely maintenance, the deterioration of the system in general and the
specific replacement of four (4) York compressor units could all have been avoidable.

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B. Existing Conditions
The following system equipment was identified: Air-cooled chillers, Pumps, Air Handler Units, Building
Monitoring System
Chillers
Three air-cooled chillers have been installed on the roof top of the Utility Service Building.
o York , Model YCAS0953EB
o York , Model YCAS0953EB
o AirStack, Multi-module Chiller, Model ASP-30A (9 Modules)
All chillers feed conditioned water to a common loop header.
Pumps
Primary and Secondary pumps circulate water in all chillers @ 1.3GPM/ton.
Primary Pumps
Armstrong

Baldor Electric Motor, 10 horsepower (HP)


Circulate water in all chillers
Quantity: 3; with 2 in operation, one on standby.
Capacity: 535 gallons per minute (gpm). Pump
details are mentioned below.

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Secondary Water Pumps


Armstrong
Baldor Electric Motor, 75 to 100 HP

Supply conditioned water to all Embassy Office Buildings (EOBs).


Quantity: 3; with 2 in operation, one on standby.
Characteristics: Variable Frequency Drive (VFD)
Capacity: 720gpm.
Action: these pumps pass conditioned water from the chiller loop to the Air Handler Units
(AHUs)
Secondary pumps circulate chilled water to the mechanical room in the existing Embassy Office
Building (EOB).
And to the mechanical rooms in four (4) other buildings.

Air Handler Units (AHUs)

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CONTRACT NO. SGE500-10-C-0012


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Trane, 2-coil, 4-pipe System, with Humidifier, VFD, quantity 12

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York, Model No. DXSH5LASA46/50, quantity 1

The EOB is equipped with a total of


twelve AHUs.
All AHUs consist of two coils in a fourpipe system.
One coil each for cooling and heating.

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All are equipped with a steam humidifier system.

AHU blower motors are VFD.

Building Monitoring System (BMS)


Siemens Building Management System.
Integrates and controls building
environment condition sensors with the HVAC
systems.

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C. Equipment Observations
York Chiller No. 1:
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30 August 2014

Chiller operating parameter out of specified range


Compressor mechanically and electrically damaged

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York Chiller No. 2.


o
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30 August 2014

Compressor mechanically and electrically damaged


Suspected Cause A. The system is forced to operate outside of its design parameters.
It is possible the maintenance staff is unable to read the condition and make necessary
adjustments. This may be a lack of training, certification with the York system.
Suspected Cause B. The summer cooling season presents peak system demands.
Without a full understanding of air conditioning system operation in general and the
York and AirStack system operational requirements in particular, someone concluded
the mounting of a water spray system would aid in performance. It doesnt. All three
chillers are designed for the climate, elevation, loading of Kabul. If properly operated
and maintained (the key), the three units can be made to function right up to the
maximum design parameters, even exceed them periodically. Without this necessary
technical understanding of cooling concepts, a shade tree logic attempt at system
enhancement was attempted: directly spraying water on condenser coils of chiller units
specifically designed to be operated in air. Even when using the cleanest, contaminantfree water, build-up of scale on the condenser coil is inevitable. This build-up interferes
coil design heat transfer, adversely affects the velocity of the refrigerant, causes
insufficient circulation of refrigerant-borne lubricating oil, and results in the underlubrication and eventual, repeated failure of the lube-starved compressors.
A second phenomenon is also present in this condition. It was noted little to no effort
was made to de-scale the coils. When coils become scaled-over, the scaling acts as
waterproofing and insulation. Overly-scaled coils prevent the water from providing the
expected evaporative thermodynamics. And, when in this cocoon condition water is
withheld, a dangerously high head pressure may result. This high head pressure
increases heat in the compressor head called Hi-Super Heat which also may cause
severe mechanical/thermal damage the compressor, leading to failure.
A third phenomenon may be present. Water spraying may at times over-cool or
super-cool the refrigerant stream. This causes the refrigerant to convert from its
normal gaseous state back into a liquid prematurely. This liquid refrigerant may then
flood back into the compressor and damage the compressor mechanically.
The compressors are not equipped with pumps to circulate lubricating oil. The system
refrigerant gas pressure difference is used to particulate lube oil where needed. In
these York chillers the lower tubes in the condenser coil gallery are designed to act as
the oil cooler. However, when streams of water are applied to the condenser coil
galleries, the galleries cool down, the oil in them over-cools. In this more viscous
state, the over-cooled lube oil loses the ability to be carried by the gaseous refrigerant
stream. Hence the lube oil cant be carried with full volume necessary to provide
designed lubrication to the compressor units as required. Under-lubricated, the
compressors face imminent mechanical damage.

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D. Equipment Readings, Various Dates (note low Delta-T values)


Tuesday, 19 August 2014

York Chiller No. 1.


Ambient Temperature
Set Point
RCWT
LCWT

34 C
4.5 C
10.1 C
9.4 C

System No. 1 Status


Oil Pressure
Discharge Pressure
Suction Pressure
Compressor
FLA

Running
15.70 bar
17.0 bar
4.70 bar
96 Amps
54% FLA

System No. 3 Status


Oil Pressure
Discharge Pressure
Suction Pressure
Compressor
FLA

Running
16.20 bar
16.50 bar
4.16 bar
94 Amps
53% FLA

Delta-T = 0.7 C
System No. 2 Status
Off
Compressor electrically and mechanically damaged

York Chiller No. 2.


Ambient Temperature
Set Point
RCWT
LCWT

35.6 C
4.5 C
10.3 C
8.6 C

System No. 1 Status


Oil Pressure
Discharge Pressure
Suction Pressure
Compressor
FLA
System No. 3 Status
Oil Pressure
Discharge Pressure
Suction Pressure
Compressor
FLA

Running
16.0 bar
17.0 bar
3.50 bar
139 Amps
77% FLA
Running
17.60 bar
19.00 bar
3.94 bar
144 Amps
78% FLA

30 August 2014

Delta-T = 1.7 C
System No. 2 Status
Off
Compressor electrically and mechanically damaged
Cooler Freeze-up
Condenser Tube Busted

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Wednesday, 20 August 2014

York Chiller No. 1.


Ambient Temperature
Set Point
RCWT
LCWT

35.7 C
4.5 C
10.6 C
10.1 C

System No. 1 Status


Oil Pressure
Discharge Pressure
Suction Pressure
Compressor
FLA

Running
16.4 bar
17.9 bar
4.83 bar
100 Amps
56% FLA

System No. 3 Status


Oil Pressure
Discharge Pressure
Suction Pressure
Compressor
FLA

Running
16.20 bar
16.70 bar
4.32 bar
98 Amps
55% FLA

Delta-T = 0.5 C
System No. 2 Status
Off
Compressor electrically and mechanically damaged

York Chiller No. 2.


Ambient Temperature
Set Point
RCWT
LCWT

36.4 C
4.5 C
10.7 C
8.9 C

System No. 1 Status


Oil Pressure
Discharge Pressure
Suction Pressure
Compressor
FLA

Running
16.4 bar
17.6 bar
3.61 bar
142 Amps
79% FLA

System No. 3 Status


Oil Pressure
Discharge Pressure
Suction Pressure
Compressor
FLA

Running
18.30 bar
19.20 bar
3.90 bar
155 Amps
85% FLA

30 August 2014

Delta-T = 1.8 C
System No. 2 Status
Off
Compressor electrically and mechanically damaged
Cooler Freeze-up
Condenser Tube Busted

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CONTRACT NO. SGE500-10-C-0012


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Thursday, 21 August 2014

York Chiller No. 1.


Ambient Temperature
Set Point
RCWT
LCWT

30.6 C
4.5 C
8.8 C
8.2 C

System No. 1 Status


Oil Pressure
Discharge Pressure
Suction Pressure
Compressor
FLA
Suction Line Temp
Discharge Line Temp
SST
Suction Super Heat
S. D. T.
Discharge Super Heat
SV Steps
EEV
Suction Super Heat
Cooler Inlet Refrig. Temp.

Running
14.3 bar
15.4 bar
4.36 bar
89 Amps
50% FLA
9.9 C
51.7 C
4.6 C
5.3 C
43.3 C
8.4 C
75
28.2%
4.7 C
3.7 C

System No. 3 Status


Oil Pressure
Discharge Pressure
Suction Pressure
Compressor
FLA
Suction Line Temp
Discharge Line Temp
SST
Suction Super Heat
S. D. T
Discharge Super Heat
S.V. Steps
EEV
Suction Super Heat
Cooler Inlet Refrig. Temp.

Running
14.90 bar
15.30 bar
4.01 bar
89 Amps
50% FLA
7.8 C
49.4 C
2.7 C
5.1 C
42.1 C
7.3 C
75
100%
5.3 C
7.3 C

30 August 2014

Delta-T = 0.6 C
System No. 2 Status
Off
Compressor electrically and mechanically damaged

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Thursday, 21 August 2014

York Chiller No. 2.


Ambient Temperature
Set Point
RCWT
LCWT

31.7 C
4.5 C
9.1 C
7.2 C

System No. 1 Status


Oil Pressure
Discharge Pressure
Suction Pressure
Compressor
FLA
Suction Line Temp
Discharge Line Temp
Oil Temperature
SST
Suction Super Heat
S. D. T.
Discharge Super Heat
SV Steps
EEV
Suction Super Heat
Cooler Inlet Refrig. Temp.

Running
16.6 bar
17.6 bar
3.38 bar
146 Amps
91% FLA
5.4 C
58.7 C
45.5 C
-1.3 C
6.7 C
48.1 C
10.9 C
75
16.4%
6.7 C
5.8 C

System No. 3 Status


Oil Pressure
Discharge Pressure
Suction Pressure
Compressor
FLA
Suction Line Temp
Discharge Line Temp
Oil Temperature
SST
Suction Super Heat
S. D. T
Discharge Super Heat
S.V. Steps
EEV
Suction Super Heat
Cooler Inlet Refrig. Temp.

Running
16.40 bar
18.30 bar
3.34 bar
139 Amps
75% FLA
7.1 C
70.5 C
53.3 C
-0.4 C
6.2 C
49.1 C
24.2 C
40
33.1%
6.5 C
-0.3 C

30 August 2014

Delta-T = 1.9 C
System No. 2 Status
Off
Compressor electrically and mechanically damaged
Cooler Freeze-up
Condenser Tube Busted

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E. Other Observations

Water Make-up
Date

Time

Reading (US Gal.)

20AUG14
21AUG14

1230hrs
1130hrs

0702940
0706470
3,530

Remarks

Make-up
requirement,
23 hours

Within 23 hours of plant operation a total of 3,530 gallons of water was lost somewhere.
This water was conditioned, that is, the plant chilled or attempted to chill this water volume.
Since new water is constantly being introduced, the chiller plant is being placed under additional
loading to achieve set point temperatures. The new water constantly changes the input
temperatures.

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F. Corrective Suggestions

Water Make-up
o It is imperative that a full length investigation of the chilled water loop be conducted.
o Determine the point or points of leakage.
o Reduce the volume of make-up water to that recommended as acceptable in the York
and AirStack system manuals.
o Correction of the leakage issue, reduction of the additional loads placed on the system
in having to condition the infused volume, will enable the system to reach design stasis.
o Thusly balanced, a much better result and more comfortable air temperatures will be
delivered to the recipient office environments.
o How to trace?
Approach A. Introduce a non-toxic, non-corrosive, inert coloring agent into
the chilled water loop. Where that color puddles or stains, there may be found
one of the leaks. Repair or replace failed components.
Approach B. If A fails, a visual pipe trace will be necessary.
Exposed pipe runs should be straightforward.
As-built drawings should assist in the identification of those runs that
may be above false ceilings or behind walls.
For those runs in channels underground, an optical inspection system
can be used between hand holes.
For those runs that may have been buried directly, excavation and
inspection will be required.

York Chillers - General


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30 August 2014

The three-day analysis and interviews with interested parties concluded that the
greatest concern was with past and present breakdowns observed in York chiller
systems.
How to overcome these problems presently and prevent them in the future is the
essence of this report.
Chiller systems designed and manufactured by York have an extremely good reputation
in the professional HVAC community. They are robust and designed to operate
optimally in a variety of different temperatures quite nicely.
The key to the Yorks, as with all chiller systems, is to have them correctly installed and
commissioned. At start-up, baseline values need to be recorded religiously, then
compared to York design parameters.
After installation, it is just as important to listen to what the system is trying to tell you:
record the readings, determine if they are within parameters, understand how the unit
communicates its various components, know what the chiller microprocessors display,
understand the relationships of the components, their readings, and what is suggested
as a symptom when variances from the norms are detected.

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These are moderately large chiller plants. They were designed and built by
professionals. Similarly, professionals, trained and certified, must be employed to
operate, communicate, evaluate, and mediate these systems.
Otherwise the customer is left with Band-Aid fixes put on by amateurs in hopes of any
result anywhere above zero. This unfortunately has been demonstrated in the appalling
present state of the chiller systems at the US Embassy, Kabul.
Correct operation and proper preventive maintenance are the two keys to success.
The systems report or present readings the competent operating technician
can read and understand. Variances from the norm as given in the operating
manuals present clues as to what is happening, what courses of action might be
needed, well before any failure occurs. Failing to be able to read or failing to
understand these clues has led to the present state of the Kabul chiller plant.
The chillers are designed to operate within a specific design parameter. It is the
operators job to keep the plant running within those parameters.
Chiller Design.
In general, these chillers designed optimally to operate in an environmental
temperature of 35C ambient.
They will operate in higher ambient temperatures, just not as efficiently.
External Factors.
Can adversely affect operations.
It is possible the climatological data could record ambient temperatures up to
45C, for short periods.
Chiller physical location can have an impact.
No surprise, adequate air flow is important to air-cooled chillers.
Separation from heat-generating plant equipment is a plus.
Partial shading from direct suns rays is an easy measure and can, if properly
done, increase system efficiency.
Finally, rather than suffer the deleterious effects of spraying water directly on
the condenser coils (as has damaged the system severely thus far), a more
effective approach would be to reduce the temperature of the airflow before it
reaches the condenser coils. This can be done easily and inexpensively by the
installation of a honeycomb boundary wall. This wall is sprayed with water.
Properly shrouded, the chiller fans will pull air through this evaporative cooling
device. When this air actually gets to the condenser coils, it will be several
degrees cooler. Hence the system should operate more efficiently, and, with
the benefit of no condenser coil or fin de-scaling sessions necessary.
This technique is simple, inexpensive, low tech, and a much safer method to
optimize chiller efficiency within its design parameters.

York Chiller No. 1, suggested improvements.


o
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o
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30 August 2014

Remove all spray systems.


Professionals must be engaged to perform proper preventative maintenance
Replace the damaged compressor
Changeout all temperature sensors and transducers, and calibrate properly
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o
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Cooler tubes must be broken down for further investigation, normal procedure for an
open-loop system of this age.
Of concern is the present state of imperfect fluidic balancing (only water added, no
glycol or corrosion inhibitors)
If found to be corroded, replace; if calcified, de-scale.
Flush the system.
Institute proper fluidics balancing (water, glycol, inhibitors, etc.)
Exterior surfaces of the condenser coils exhibit extreme (sprayed) water mineral buildup. Remove and de-scale in accordance with York recommendations. Use the proper
de-scaling agents and procedures. Do not guess.
All unit electrical contact points exhibit arc pitting (material fusing and transfer). Rather
than try to file, it is advised these points be replaced and re-gapped.
Remove and replace all volumes of compressor oil, using only materials meeting
manufacturers specifications. Do not guess.
Remove and replace all filter dryer elements with only specified components. Do not
substitute.
Remove, thoroughly clean, and perform second- and third-level maintenance on all
condensers fan motors.

York Chiller No. 2


o
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o
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30 August 2014

All issues identified in York Chiller No. 1 have been repeated in this unit. Please read
and apply the above. Additional issues follow, below.
System No. 2. The compressor has been damaged electrically and mechanically. For
causality please see Section C. Equipment Observations, above. While this could have
been completely avoided with proper O&M, now, this unit, unfortunately, shall need to
be replaced.
System No. 2. The condenser coils have been damaged with one tube completely burst
due possibly to overly high head pressure. Again, it could have been avoided, but now
shall need extensive repair or replacement.
System No. 2. The cooler tubes appear to have been damaged as a direct result of the
expansion by freezing of apparently unconditioned fluidics. A repair might be possible.
Proper O&M of the fluidics in the future imperative. With attention to lab test results
and a proper balancing of the fluidic chemistry, all this damage could have been
avoided.
Systems No. 1 and No. 3. It was reported both system compressors were recently
replaced on Aug 13, 2014. Neither has been calibrated.
All Systems. Temperature sensors and pressure transducers need testing. If good,
calibration; if failed, replacement and calibration.
System No. 2. Electronic Expansion Valve (EEV). Missing. Acquire one with proper
specifications and install.
Chiller Sub-cooler System. This needs attention: the servicing and the replacement of
the thermostatic expansion valve (TXV) system.

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Condenser Fan Motors (how many?). These units are damaged; repair or replace;
could have been avoided with proper maintenance.
All Systems.
Replace filter-dryer cores.
Change (compressor?) oil with materials meeting specifications.
Electrical contacts points are pitted need to be replaced. Do not try to service
or attempt to calibrate unless trained and certified to do so.
Refrigerant.
Charge the system only with Freon 407C exactly meeting the manufacturers
specifications.
Test the refrigerant for quality before charging.

Airstack Multi-Module Chiller


o
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o
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30 August 2014

This chiller consists of nine (9) modules .


At the time of the field inspection, all were operating nicely, except one.
The unit damaged is Module No. 4, rear side. See photograph. High Pressure (HP)
reading is zero.
This modules compressor has been damaged. Please refer to the operations log to
determine when this unit failed and the assessment why. The unit shall need to be
replaced.
Failed compressor technical description:
Trane
3D Scroll-type
Model No. CSHA150KOEOL / Part No. COM08014
3-phase, 400 Volt, 50Hz
LRA170 14.7 HP.
Change the filter dryers after compressor replacement.
Vacuum down for 36 hours.
Use Freon 407C, verified to meet manufacturers specifications.
Do not guess.

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G. Suggested Statement of Work

York Chiller No. 1


o

30 August 2014

General.
Disconnect Chiller Power Supply (Electrical)
Establish safe working area; post safety caution signs on chiller and caution
table around the chiller work area
Disconnect water supply
Recover refrigerant and oil following EPA protocols using refrigerant type
unique servicing tool set.
Properly store recovered refrigerant and oil
CONDENSER OIL
Dismantle condenser fan motors, cover and guards
Disconnect fan motor electrical connections
Disconnect all welding joints
Disconnect all condenser coils from chillers
Perform all maintenance operations on condenser coils, inside tubes, and
outside the coils
De-scale as necessary by flushing with approved chemicals in accordance with
manufacturers specifications. Dry with nitrogen.
Reassemble the condenser coil package back into the chiller
Re-weld joints; validate weldments
Perform detailed maintenance on all condenser fan motors.
Reinstall all condenser fan motors.
Test.
CHILLER STRUCTURE
Remove scaled from chiller structure
Sand, prime and paint as necessary.
SUB-COOLING HEAT EXCHANGER AND THERMOSTATIC EXPANSION VALVE, EEV
Dismantle sub-cooling heat exchanger
Disconnect all welded joints
Disconnect all valves (TXV and EEV)
Service and maintain in accordance with manufacturers protocols and
specifications.
Test, repair, replace if defective
Reassemble components.
Re-weld joints; validate weldments
COMPRESSOR
Disconnect water joints
Fabricate, connect recommended connections for de-scaling process
Execute descaling using recommended materials and methods.
Flush all cooler tubes with recommended materials and dry with nitrogen from
the refrigerant side
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Should extensive issues be found during these inspection and cleaning


operations, the compressor unit may need to be more fully serviced. This is
called Remanufacturing or Overhauling, common practices. Having the unit
completely replaced, is of course an option. But it is very expensive and may
not be necessary.
Note. These processes are not common maintenance procedures but are at the
next higher level of maintenance, both in terms of complexity and cost.
ELECTRICAL AND CONTROL PANELS
Inspect all electrical components
Service all printed circuit boards
Inspect and service all chiller contactors and cables. If the contactors are found
to be faulty or pitted, it is recommended these be replaced rather than filed
and re-gapped. The adjustment is simply too difficult for the inexperienced.
Inspect all connections, clean with contact spray, tighten to specifications.
Check and validate all microprocessor programming for specified safety limits
and for being within stated system design parameters
At start-up and re-commissioning, check all:
meter and temperature sensor readings
pressure transducers readings
if out of range, re-calibrate
if calibration is not possible, replace
LEAK TESTING, EVACUATION AND DEHYDRATION PROCESS
Completely reinstall all system components.
Recheck condenser coils, cooler, heat exchanger, oil separator, all weldments
Validate all is go for pressure testing
Charge the system with nitrogen in accordance with manufacturer
recommended test pressure limits
Validate the system will hold the recommended pressure for twenty-four hours.
If pressure cannot be held, conduct component and system line checks. Repressurize for an additional twenty-four hours.
If pressure testing is successful, bleed out nitrogen, drain and install new
compressor oil exactly meeting manufacturer specifications. DO NOT DEVIATE.
Evacuate the system to a vacuum of at least 500microns. Test, hold for thirtysix to forty-eight hours.
CHARGING PROCEDURE
Reassemble cooler inlet and outlet connections
Run the water pumps until perfect P is attained.
With the vacuum held, per manufacturer protocol, charge the high side with
liquid refrigerant exactly meeting specifications. DO NOT DEVIATE.
Try to achieve the maximum charge; adjust as necessary.
Operate the compressor; check all parameters; adjust super heat.
Adjust sub-cooling system via the refrigerant charging process.
Check and record inlet and outlet water temperature, Delta-T ( T )
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York Chiller No. 2


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30 August 2014

General.
Disconnect Chiller Power Supply (Electrical)
Establish safe working area; post safety caution signs on chiller and caution
table around the chiller work area
Disconnect water supply
Recover refrigerant and oil following EPA protocols using refrigerant type
unique servicing tool set.
Properly store recovered refrigerant and oil
CONDENSER OIL
Dismantle condenser fan motors, cover and guards
Disconnect fan motor electrical connections
Disconnect all welding joints
Disconnect all condenser coils from chillers
Perform all maintenance operations on condenser coils, inside tubes, and
outside the coils
De-scale as necessary by flushing with approved chemicals in accordance with
manufacturers specifications. Dry with nitrogen.
Reassemble the condenser coil package back into the chiller
Re-weld joints; validate weldments
Perform detailed maintenance on all condenser fan motors.
Reinstall all condenser fan motors.
Test.
CHILLER STRUCTURE
Remove scaled from chiller structure
Sand, prime and paint as necessary.
SUB-COOLING HEAT EXCHANGER AND THERMOSTATIC EXPANSION VALVE, EEV
Dismantle sub-cooling heat exchanger
Disconnect all welded joints
Disconnect all valves (TXV and EEV)
Service and maintain in accordance with manufacturers protocols and
specifications.
Test, repair, replace if defective
Reassemble components.
Re-weld joints; validate weldments
COMPRESSOR
Disconnect water joints
Fabricate, connect recommended connections for de-scaling process
Execute descaling using recommended materials and methods.
Flush all cooler tubes with recommended materials and dry with nitrogen from
the refrigerant side
Should extensive issues be found during these inspection and cleaning
operations, the compressor unit may need to be more fully serviced. This is
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30 August 2014

called Remanufacturing or Overhauling, common practices. Having the unit


completely replaced, is of course an option. But it is very expensive and may
not be necessary.
Note. These processes are not common maintenance procedures but are at the
next higher level of maintenance, both in terms of complexity and cost.
Note. The only difference between York Chiller No.1 and No.2 is that No.2 has
experienced a system freeze-up, possibly due to incorrect fluidics (water, glycol,
inhibitor mix, commonly and incorrectly called water). The No.2 system
compressor is damaged; the condenser coil tube burst and is beyond repair.
Note. The following items need to be replaced:
The compressor assembly entire.
The Electronic Expansion Valve, or EEV
All temperature sensors
All transducers
To determine how much damage has occurred in the cooler, both cooler side
end plates need to be removed. Carefully inspect how many tubes may be
damaged. If the damage is limited to under 3% of total tube numbers, a field
repair may be attempted at site.
If the damage to the cooler is over 3%, thats extensive. The cooler will need to
be removed for further inspection and field remanufacturing may be
attempted, given the availability of quality materials and technicians with
certification at the appropriate level of demonstrated expertise in fabrication
and welding. This is not amateur hour for a group of DIY wannabes. These
extensive repairs are of course far above and beyond a simple maintenance
program and must be priced accordingly.
Note. This system has burst. The damage opened the interior to possible other
corrosion. Careful inspection and flushing protocols will need to be followed.
Note. All the above necessary repair and replacement actions could have been
completely avoided, the expenses spared, had a responsible and responsive
O&M procedure been in place. Now the customer has to pay twice: once for
poor or non-existent O&M, then again for the rework needed to fix these
avoidable errors, deficiencies, and omissions. A recovery of these financial
losses should be considered.
ELECTRICAL AND CONTROL PANELS
Inspect all electrical components
Service all printed circuit boards
Inspect and service all chiller contactors and cables. If the contactors are found
to be faulty or pitted, it is recommended these be replaced rather than filed
and re-gapped. The adjustment is simply too difficult for the inexperienced.
Inspect all connections, clean with contact spray, tighten to specifications.
Check and validate all microprocessor programming for specified safety limits
and for being within stated system design parameters
At start-up and re-commissioning, check all:
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meter and temperature sensor readings


pressure transducers readings
if out of range, re-calibrate
if calibration is not possible, replace
LEAK TESTING, EVACUATION AND DEHYDRATION PROCESS
Completely reinstall all system components.
Recheck condenser coils, cooler, heat exchanger, oil separator, all weldments
Validate all is go for pressure testing
Charge the system with nitrogen in accordance with manufacturer
recommended test pressure limits
Validate the system will hold the recommended pressure for twenty-four hours.
If pressure cannot be held, conduct component and system line checks. Repressurize for an additional twenty-four hours.
If pressure testing is successful, bleed out nitrogen, drain and install new
compressor oil exactly meeting manufacturer specifications. DO NOT DEVIATE.
Evacuate the system to a vacuum of at least 500microns. Test, hold for thirtysix to forty-eight hours.
CHARGING PROCEDURE
Reassemble cooler inlet and outlet connections
Run the water pumps until perfect P is attained.
With the vacuum held, as per manufacturers recommendations, charge the
high side with liquid refrigerant exactly meeting manufacturer specifications.
DO NOT DEVIATE.
Try to achieve the maximum charge; adjust as necessary.
Operate the compressor; check all parameters; adjust super heat.
Adjust sub-cooling system via the refrigerant charging process.
Check and record inlet and outlet water temperature, Delta-T ( T )

Airstack Multi-Module Chiller


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30 August 2014

GENERAL
AirStack chiller needs full maintenance in accordance with the manufacturers
prototcols.
CONDENSER COILS
The ill-advised spraying of water directly on the condenser coils has resulted in
full scale buildup.
COMPRESSORS
At the time of the site visit and inspection, issues were noted with one system:
the No. 4 rear compressor. Again, through a lack of proper maintenance, it
appears to have been damaged beyond repair. It will need to be replaced,
following strict manufacturer protocols.
COOLER HEAT EXCHANGER (HEX)
Further inspection will be required. It appears at first glance that this system,
too, is damaged.
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Unfortunately, this type of heat exchanger is not readily repairable. It must be


replaced.
CONCLUSION
Improper or no maintenance caused all the damage noted.
Items will need to be repaired and possibly replaced.
Once this has been accomplished, only proper, professional plant operation,
knowledgeable systems checks and diagnoses, and experienced maintenance
will keep these units running smoothly.

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CONTRACT NO. SGE500-10-C-0012


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H. Request for Proposal


I would be happy to provide the Facilities Office, US Embassy, Kabul, Afghanistan, with several proposal
packages in response to the possible HVAC system Operations and Maintenance requirements it may
have:

Package 1: Chiller Remediation.


o
o
o
o

Package 2: Chiller and HVAC System Periodic Inspections, Tune-ups.


o
o
o
o
o
o
o

An immediate, more detailed, and much more extensive technical assessment of the
damage done as the result of past poor maintenance.
The extended, detailed Bill of Quantities (Statement of Work Elements) required to
correct same.
The requisite Bill of Materials.
Putting together and providing direct on site supervision of the recovery team. This
team would be composed of credentialed, professionally competent HVAC technicians,
trained and having experience in both York and AirStack equipment.
Guarantee of works for an agreed upon follow on period.

The establishment of a preventive maintenance schedule for local onsite technicians.


The establishment of a hard and soft copy reference library.
The establishment of a Trouble Line for emergencies.
The development of a monthly, quarterly, semi-annual, and annual schedule of site
visits.
The establishment of proper operational logs, maintenance logs, list of operational and
consumable spares, list of on-demand items.
The establishment of warranty documentation, factory representative Points of
Contact.
Identification of city and regional suppliers by parts and general materials types.

Package 3: Chiller and HVAC System Total Operations and Maintenance.


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30 August 2014

Exactly what is says. We will do it all, keep it running, get it done professionally,
correctly, completely.

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CONTRACT NO. SGE500-10-C-0012


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I. Curriculum Vitae
Muhammad Amin
H.# 18, St. # 19, Main Bazar,
Gunj Mughalpura, Lahore, Pakistan.
Phone # +92 42 36880808
Cell # +92 300 8133362
E-Mail:ch.amin@yahoo.com,
ch.amin63@gmail.com

Personal Data:
Name
Son of
Born
Citizen of
Marital status
Personality

Muhammad Amin
Atta Muhammad
September 03, 1964
Pakistan
Married, three children.
Normal height with strong physique and pleasing attitude.

Professional Data:
Profession
Status
Experience

References

HVACR Service Engineer


GM Services
30 years
Carrier, YORK, Marco, Saudi Oger Ltd., Al-Owaidah & Mitchells,
MIA Corporation, Qavi Engineering, Ltd. (QEL), Green Technology
Available on request.

Education:
General: S.S.C (1982) with Science from Multan Board, Punjab, Pakistan.
Technical:
Diploma of Associate Engineering (DAE), HVACR Technology, 1985.
Carrier International Training Programs:
CITC # 01. 9 weeks. Basic HVACR, packaged & split air conditioning
CITC # 02. 5 weeks. Advanced reciprocating air & water-cooled chillers
CITC # 03. 4 weeks. Fundamental service, centrifugal liquid chillers with
SM&MP32 controls
CITC # 04. Various. Composite advanced training, USA, UK & KSA.
Advanced Electrical Control Systems.
Advanced Electronics Control Systems.
Building Monitoring System (B.M.S).
Carrier Comfort Network (C.C.N) Level B&C.

30 August 2014

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CITC # 05: 2 weeks. Advanced training, troubleshooting, 30gb, 30gt, 30gtn,


30gtr, 30gun, 30gur, 130-420. Flowtronic and Flowtronic Plus liquid
chillers, microprocessors

Allen Bradley PLC-500. 1 week. Programming and trouble shooting.


V.V.T Systems. Various. Variable volume temperature systems, programming
and troubleshooting
C.C.Z System. Various. Comfort Zone Systems, trouble shooting
Centrifugal Systems:
Carrier. 2 weeks. Advanced service techniques (19DG, 19FA, 19EA,
19ED)
Carrier 19XL, XR. Various. Chiller, microprocessor servicing, overhauling
Screw Systems:
Carrier 30GXN, 30GXA. Various. Service and troubleshooting, 30gxn &
30 gxa (130-240) screw chillers
YORK International Training Programs:
ISN Micro Processor. Various. Maintenance and troubleshooting
YDAJ-YCAJ-YEAJ Chillers. Various. Advanced air cooled liquid chillers
JS,JG,JZ Compressors. Various. Advanced rebuilding techniques,
reciprocating compressors
YCAS Chillers. Various. Advanced maintenance and troubleshooting

Grasso Screw Compressors Training Program:


Grasso, Germany. Various. Screw compressors, thermo syphon open flush
low temperature systems

Seminars & Workshops:


Carlyle, Carrier (Joint). Seminar and workshop, Carrier core compressor types
O6D, O6E, 5H, 5L, O6T & 3CC (compound cooling)
York. Workshop, YT, YK centrifugal compressors, Cody Pack control systems
Trane. Seminar, E and R series reciprocating compressors
Copland. Workshop, DWM and Scroll compressors
Bitzer. Seminar, compressors and condensing units.
Bally. Workshop, low temperature cold storage and walk-in freezers
Supervisory Management Training:
Carrier XL9000, XL. Various.
Environmental:
Carrier. Various. Environmental Health & Safety. Refrigerant handling

30 August 2014

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Achievements:
Global quality award (WCA). Member of Carrier Saudi service team; won the Wills
Carrier Global Quality Award (WCA); certificate; 1995
Recognition, WCA. Member of Carrier Saudi service team; WCA Recognition Award for
extraordinary services over an extended period; letter of appreciation; 1994
Company Awards:
Best Technician of the Month
Best Technician of the Quarter (service techniques, safety practices
Carrier, Riyadh, KSA.
Special Team Recognition Award. Protecting the environment; Riyadh
Customer Appreciation:
Customer Satisfaction Certificate; multiple awards
Attaullah Villa and Resources
Oberoi Madinah Hotel
Riyadh Cable
Others

Field experience:
Carrier Saudi Service Company, Foreman, Riyadh, Jeddah and Damam.
King Abdul Aziz University Jeddah. Overhauled and commissioned four 10,000-ton
(40,000 ton) Carrier 17FA centrifugal chillers (worlds largest) with PLC controls
King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA. Overhauled and commissioned six 6,000-ton
(36,000 ton) Carrier 17EA centrifugal chillers
King Fahad International Air Port, Damam, KSA. Overhauled and commissioned all
Carrier 17DA centrifugal chillers; installed Allen Bradley PLC controls
Youth Hostel, Damam, KSA. Overhauled two Carrier 19DG centrifugal chillers
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Riyadh, KSA. Overhauled three Carrier 19FA centrifugal
chillers
Saudi Arabian Monitory Agency, Riyadh, KSA. Overhauled four Carrier19FA
centrifugal chillers
Yamama Hospital, Riyadh, KSA. Overhauled two Carrier19DG centrifugal chillers;
commissioned, executed startup of four Carrier 19XL chillers
King Faisal Foundation, Riyadh, KSA. Overhauled two Carrier 19EB centrifugal
chillers
Khazama Center, Riyadh, KSA. Overhauled two Carrier 19EB centrifugal chillers
At the following locations, overhauled and commissioned reciprocating chillers,
Flowtronic, Flowtronic plus, as well as screw chillers, various sites:
o King Abdul Aziz Science City, Riyadh, KSA
o AL-Akaria Shopping Mall, Riyadh, KSA
o Pakistan Embassy, Riyadh, KSA
o Turkish Embassy, Riyadh, KSA
o Australian Embassy, Riyadh, KSA
o Many others

30 August 2014

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CONTRACT NO. SGE500-10-C-0012


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YORK Al-Salem Ltd., Mechanical Engineer, Chiller Specialist.


Haram Makkah Project. Engineer-in-charge, worlds largest project equipped with
YORK reciprocating chillers; total capacity 16,000 tons
Haram Madinah Manawarah Project. Service Engineer, worlds largest project
equipped with York Turbo Master centrifugal chillers; project capacity 48,000 tons
Commissioning, startup, and maintenance, reciprocating chillers, various projects:
o Oberoi Madinah hotel, Madinah Munawarah.
o Tayyaba Buildings, Madinah Munawarah.
o Intercontinental Hotel, Madinah Munawarah and many more.
Al-Owaidah Company, Mechanical Engineering Consultant.
Project: Modern Slaughterhouse at Mina, Makkah, KSA.
Part of Saud consultant engineering team
Worlds largest cold storage project (32 mega watts)
Unit Storage Capacity: 600,000 Sheep Carcasses at -35C
Supervised:
o Construction erection phase
o Installation of HACR Grasso low temperature refrigeration systems
o Installation of PLC control systems
o Overall startup and commissioning
The Grasso low temperature project was designed to utilize the Open Flush
Thermosyphone Refrigeration System
Four (4) independent refrigeration units; each unit with a capacity of 8,000 tons
Each unit R-22 refrigerant capacity ~80,000 KGs or 80 metric tons
The project utilized 50,000 meters of piping, 4,000 welding joints, various sizes
Marco Jafali, Ltd., Systems Service Supervisor.
Marco Jafali Ltd., is the oldest HVACR service company in KSA.
Daily assignment of technical staff to various job requirements: fault finding,
electrical control troubleshooting, customer meetings, site surveys, other varied
service tasks.
Interior Ministry Building, Riyadh, KSA. Overhauling of one York Turbo Master
centrifugal chiller, capacity 3,500 tons.
Al-Kharj Military factory, Riyadh, KSA. Overhauling of three Carrier 19DK centrifugal
chillers.
Ministry of Electricity Building, Riyadh, KSA. Overhauling two York YT centrifugal
Turbo Pack chillers plus annual maintenance services.
King Fahad Security College, Riyadh, KSA. Annual maintenance services contract,
four years, York Turbo Master centrifugal chillers, total capacity 30,000 tons.
Imam Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, KSA. Annual maintenance services contract,
two years, York Turbo Master centrifugal chillers, total 30,000 tons.
Military Directorate Office Building, Riyadh, KSA. Overhaul three Trane Centravac
chillers.
Other annual maintenance services contracts:
30 August 2014

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30 August 2014

Saudi Hotel and Resort Company


Riyadh Cables Industries
Nova Water Purification Plant
Saudi Royal Palaces
Other

Saudi Oger Ltd., KSA, Specialist HVAC Operating Engineer, Centrifugal Chillers.
Saudi Kingdom-wide area of responsibility.
o Palaces of the King
o Other Royal palaces
o Royal Diwans
o Royal offices
o ARAMCO Dehran utilities
o King Abdullah International University of Science and Technology
Equipment attended:
o Carrier centrifugal chillers 19FA
o Carrier centrifugal chillers 19XR and 19XL
o Carrier reciprocating chillers 30GB, 30GT, 30GTN, 30XAA
o Trane Centravac chillers CVAC
o Trane reciprocating chillers ECGA, ECGAB
o York reciprocating chillers YCAJ, YDAJ, YEAJ
o SKM reciprocating chillers
o HVAC building monitoring and air control systems from Honeywell, Sttafa,
Siemens, etc.
Examples of Work Executed:
o Fault finding, various systems
o Electrical troubleshooting
o Unit overhauling
o System commissioning
o Gulf Royal Complex, Damam, KSA. Overhauling and commissioning of seven
Carrier 19FA centrifugal chillers, adding dry coolers; capacity 1,600 tons
each.
o Alpha Royal Diwan, Yamama Palace, Riyadh, KSA. Overhaul three Carrier
19FA centrifugal chillers.
o Royal Hajar Palace Haffou, KSA. Overhaul three Trane CVAC Centravac
chillers; capacity 320 tons each.
o New Guest Palace Riyadh, KSA. Overhaul three Carrier 19EB centrifugal
chillers; capacity 1,500 tons each.
Retrofitting jobs.
o Royal Palaces, KSA. Carrier 19FA and Trane CVAC Centravac chillers;
changeover from R-12 to DuPont R-TC-39 refrigerant.
o ARAMCO Dehran Utilities, North Park, KSA. Three Carrier 19XR centrifugal
chillers, capacity 1,200 tons each, to R-134-a.
o Aramco Dehran Utilities,DOB Building, KSA. Four Carrier 19XR centrifugal
chillers, capacity 1,000 tons each, to R-134-a.
30 August 2014

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o Reciprocating compressors, various. York JS-84, JS-83; Trane Model E&R


compressors; Carrier reciprocating compressors, Models O6E, O6D and
others.
Mitchells Fruit Farms Ltd., Pakistan.
Various air conditioning systems, packaged systems, split systems, low temperature
units.
MIA Corporation, Services Manager.
Various locations, different projects in Pakistan.
Qaid-Azam International Hospital Islamabad.
NUST University Islamabad
COMSAT University Islamabad
FFC Head Office Rawalpindi.
Pakistan Tobacco Company Jehlum
Independent HVAC Electromechanical Consultant.
With Qavi Engineers, Ltd. Creation of US Consulate, Herat, Afghanistan, 2010-12.
As above, bomb damage remediation and upgrade, 2013-14.
Green Technologies, General Manger, Services.
Area coverage: all of Pakistan, multinational organizations.
Various and wide-ranging responsibilities.
Site surveys, technical inspections, report generation, estimates of cost and labor,
daily job scheduling.
Service and maintenance, all types of air conditioning equipment; large centrifugal
compressors, chillers, reciprocating chillers, heavy equipment, water pumps,
unique heat recovery systems, large scale air handling units (AHUs), huge ducting
systems up to eight square meters, chilled beam systems, packaged and split air
conditioning units.
Electrical & electronic control systems, microprocessor controls, BMS, CCN, CCZ,
VVT, ISN, Honeywell, Staffa control systems.
Servicing and maintenance of refrigeration and low temperature systems used in
cold storage, blast freezers, walk-in freezers, walk-in coolers, and similar, with CFC,
HFC, HCFC.
Muhammad Amin Chaudhary.

30 August 2014

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