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Reach Reduction of Utility Relay

Dao Van Tu and S. Chaitusaney

Akihiko Yokoyama

Chulalongkorn University

Bangkok, Thailand

tudv-htd@mail.hut.edu.vn

The University of Tokyo

Tokyo, Japan

yokoyama@syl.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

supplying structure into multi-source supplying structure with

participations of distributed generations (DGs). These changes

face problems caused by DGs. This paper considers typical

problems such as system operating limits, reach reduction of

utility relay, and fault ride through requirement from

distribution system operators (DSOs) in order to maximize DG

installation. A new fault calculation technique for a system with

inverter-based DGs is revised and employed in an algorithm

proposed for maximizing DGs. The IEEE 34 Node Test Feeder is

then used to illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithm in

determining the maximum allowable DG installed in this system.

Keywords-distributed generation; fault ride through; reach

reduction; maximization algorithm.

I.

INTRODUCTION

generating plants, with the advanced control technology,

impulses their role in power systems. Using a package of an

asynchronous generator along with an inverter to synchronize

the output with the power system is an upward tendency for

generating units in these plants. Such generating unit is known

as an inverter-based distributed generation (IBDG). Besides,

many combined heat and power (CHP) plants using

synchronous generators are still used in power systems and

named synchronous machine-based distributed generation

(SBDG) hereafter. From DGs owner perspectives, the

renewable energy should be exploited; hence, the installation

capacity of the DG is expected to be as large as possible.

However, the installation of DG may violate system operating

limits such as substation and line capacities, voltage limits and

causes other impacts dealing with protection system operations

[1]-[3]. A typical protection impact is relay reach reduction

which always occurs at any size of DG. This problem has been

analyzed in [3]-[4] considering the participation of SBDG in

distribution networks. Maximization of SBDG with

consideration of system operating limits and reach reduction of

relays was discussed in [5]. Nevertheless, there has been less

concern about IBDG. This motivates DG maximization in this

paper to consider not only the system operating limits but also

the relay reach reduction problem caused by the installation of

both SBDG and IBDG.

currents through that relay should be determined. However, the

conventional fault calculation technique is no longer used for

this purpose due to the difference in modeling an IBDG from

an SBDG. Some researches negotiates this problem by

neglecting the fault current from the IBDG with an assumption

that the IBDG current is very small compared with the SBDG

current and the IBDG is isolated very fast after the fault

occurrence [6]-[7].

In fact, response of an IBDG to a fault occurring in the

utility system, which forms the contributed current, is

determined by the inverter control system. Additionally, this

control system is designed to comply with the requirement of

DSOs during fault. Recent grid codes require DGs to remain

connected to the network during fault, usually named fault ride

through (FRT) requirement [8]-[15]. It is therefore reasonable

to discuss FRT for analyzing impacts of DG on relay reach and

a new technique for calculating fault current in a distribution

system with both SBDG and IBDG.

The FRT requirement is introduced firstly in Section II.

Then, impacts of DG on reach reduction of utility relay are

analyzed in Section III with consideration of the FRT

capability. After revising a new fault calculation technique for

a system with IBDG in Section IV, a DG maximization

problem is formulated in Section V. Then, an algorithm to

solve that problem is also proposed. Lastly, a case study with

the IEEE 34 Node Test Feeder is performed in Section VI to

apply the proposed algorithm.

127

II.

support in not only normal operation but also transient states

as an upward tendency. To carry out that mission, generating

plants must be connected in an event of network disturbances

and contribute a dynamic support to the utility system if

possible. The way of passing through the fault or other

disturbances, which cause the voltage drop at the point of

common coupling (PCC), without being disconnected from the

network, is called fault ride through capability.

Most grid codes are issued for transmission networks.

Some of them, e.g. German [8], Denmark [9], and Ireland

IPEC 2012

Because this paper envelops DGs which are connected to such

networks, the FRT and the dynamic network support

requirements are briefly summarized aiming to bring the

research closer to industrial practice.

Voltage, %

100

80

60

types. For instance, German grid code clarifies DG into two

types: type-1 and type-2 generating unit. A type-1 generating

unit is an SBDG which is connected directly to the network.

All others generating plants, e.g. wind turbines, PV systems,

fuel cells, are type-2 generating units. General requirements of

FRT capability in distribution networks are as the following

technical terms.

network faults.

fault by feeding a reactive current into the

network.

after fault clearance more inductive reactive

power than prior to the occurrence of the fault.

40

20

Time, ms

Ireland type A

Ireland type B, C, D, E

and dynamic network support requirement for type-2

generator units.

A. Fault ride through curves

The first term is detailed in the fashion of FRT curves, e.g.,

curves for type-2 generator units from Irish grid code in Figure

1. If voltage at the PCC drops to a value above the borderline,

the DG must remain connected to the network. For instance,

wind farm power station type B, C, D, and E must remain

connected during the first 625 ms even voltage drops at value

of 15%. For the next duration from 625 ms to 1000 ms, if the

voltage recovers linearly from 15% to 40%, the wind farm

must not be disconnected from the network. After this duration,

if the voltage drops at the value less than 80%, the wind farm

can be disconnected.

B. Dynamic network support

The renewable-based generating plants with type-2

generating units are being required to play roles more actively

in power systems to which they are connected. One of them is

about network support so that not only remaining connection

but also injecting reactive current is required during the fault

period. For instance, Irish distribution code requires the wind

farm power station to provide current during voltage dips as

follows.

voltage.

generating unit limits.

least 600 ms or until the distribution system voltage recovers

within the normal operational range of the distribution system.

supported reactive current in corresponding to the voltage drop,

i.e., 2% of the rated current per percent of the voltage drop. If

needed, the DG must support the reactive current of 100% of

rated current as shown in Figure 2.

When the reactive current IR is less than 100% of the rated

current, the active component is generally expected to be as

large as possible so that DG current and generated active power

do not exceed current limit and available active power from the

primary source, respectively. Therefore, the active component

of IBDG current ranges from 0 to the pre-fault value; whereas,

the reactive component ranges from 0 to 1 p.u. (rated current).

As a conclusion of this section, SBDG and IBDG are

required to remain connected to the utility system through a

fault period under predetermined conditions. Additionally, an

IBDG reacts as a current source during the fault. Thus, it is

reasonable to consider the FRT requirement in determining the

maximum allowable generating units, including SBDG and

IBDG, installed in a utility system.

III.

widely discussed [1]-[4], the problem dealing with IBDG has

not received enough concerns. This section firstly updates the

model of IBDG for fault calculation from the previous works

[16]-[17] with consideration of the FRT requirement mentioned

128

reduction are analyzed.

A. Impacts of SBDG on relay reach reduction

The utility breaker and recloser are set to see a certain

distance down the radial feeder. This is sometimes referred to

as the reach of the device [1]. The reach is determined by the

minimum fault current that the device can detect. As an

example, when DG is connected between the recloser and the

fault as shown in Figure 3, fault currents at the relaying points

(both the utility and recloser sides) will decrease in comparison

with the fault currents before adding DG. Therefore, both

relays will react as if the fault occurs further down the feeder,

possibly outside their protection zones, and consequently they

will not operate. This problem is defined as the relay reach

reduction.

voltage source connected in series with an impedance. The

larger the DG is, the smaller this impedance becomes. A large

SBDG can cause a significant reduction in the current from the

substation. Particularly, the smaller the impedance is, the more

the current is reduced. This reduction shortens the protected

area set for the utility relay as detailed in [4].

B. Impacts of IBDG on relay reach reduction

Model of an IBDG depends on how it responds to voltage

drops at the PCC. If the control system of the IBDG responds

to only the positive sequence voltage at the PCC to keep the

power output constant, current from the IBDG will be always

symmetrical because it contains most positive-sequence

component. As a result, its fault model participates in only the

positive-sequence network. Additionally, the IBDG current is

limited by a threshold value to protect power electronic

components. If the dynamic network support requirement is

considered, the model depicted in Figure 4 can be used. Under

fault condition, the IBDG is controlled to inject a constant

current IG into the utility system to satisfy the DSOs

requirement. Consequently, the IBDG is only modeled by the

constant current source in parallel with the filter capacitor Cf

instead of a full model proposed in [16]-[17].

A simple system consisting of one system bus (substation)

and one IBDG bus is used here to evaluate the impact of the

IBDG on the relay reach. When a three-phase fault occurs in

the system, the network representation is illustrated in Figure 5.

Impedances from the substation and the IBDG to the fault point

are Zsf and ZGf, respectively. In order to meet the dynamic

network support requirement, the IBDG contributes a reactive

current IG. Impacts of IBDG on current from the substation IS

are evaluated as follows.

The substation voltage VS after installing the IBDG is

generally the same as before and it is assumed to be 1 p.u. for

fault calculation. If IG = jK (fully reactive current support), Zsf =

jXsf, and Zf = Rf, currents from the substation before and after

installing IBDG are given by (1) and (2), respectively.

The change of the current from the substation before

installing IBDG, IS, and after installing IBDG, IS, is analyzed

as follows. The real part of IS, shown in (2), decreases with

IS

Zsf

VS

ZGf

Fault point

Substation

VG

Vf

Zf

IG

IBDG

(1), but the imaginary part of IS increases with KR2f.

Therefore, the current from the substation after installing

IBDG, IS, may decrease or increase in absolute value

compared with the current before installing IBDG, IS. Although

constant K is so small that IS is not much different from IS,

the IBDG presents a different impact from the SBDG for a

three-phase fault. This change will be illustrated in Section VI.

IS =

I S'

IV.

Rf

R 2f

X sf2

R f KR f X sf

R2f + X sf2

X sf

R 2f

+ X sf2

X sf + KR2f

R2f + X sf2

(1)

(2)

encompass characteristic of IBDG response. There are more

accurate techniques which have been developed and proposed

recently. One of them is based on the load flow technique [16][17], [19].

Fault calculation technique used in this section has an

assumption that at an instant of the transient duration at which

the fault calculation is performed, the total power generated

from all sources is balanced with the total power dissipated by

all impedances. In [16]-[17], a load flow-based fault calculation

was proposed for a system with penetration of both SBDG and

IBDG. It is summarized in Figure 6 with the updated IBDG

model in Subsection III.B as a tool for a maximization

algorithm in the next section.

129

0

0

0

V p( ) = V p( ) p( )

the IBDG; Ithres indicates the threshold current of the control

system of the IBDG as detailed in [16]-[17], VPCC indicates the

positive-sequence voltage at the PCC of the IBDG, and Vlimit

indicates the voltage limit accepted for a normal condition.

p = 1, n, p s

as modeled in Figure 4. In case of a three-phase fault, Zeq is

equal to Zf, and the representation of positive-sequence network

is identical to the representation of real phase network.

k

k

Pp( ) = Ppscheduled Pp( )

k

k

Pp( ) = Ppscheduled Pp( )

k

Q p min Q (p ) Q p max

k

k

Q (p ) = Q pscheduled Q (p )

the known V1k to obtain all sequence components of the fault

current I0k, I1k, and I2k. Because the IBDG does not participate

in zero and negative-sequence networks, the corresponding

sequence current is used to compute all bus sequence voltages

in a similar way to the conventional fault calculation. Besides,

all bus positive-sequence voltages are known, so they are used

to compute line sequence currents. Lastly, these line sequence

currents are superposed to generate line currents during fault.

k

k

k

k

max P ( ) = max Pp( ) , max Q ( ) = max Q (p ) , p = 1, n

V.

k

protective functions as analyzed in Section III. It is also a

reason of overloading or overvoltage problem in normal

operation of utility systems. This section proposes an

algorithm to maximize DG without disturbing the utility relay

reach and the system operating limits as well. The maximum

allowable DG is considered as a total size of all DGs

regardless of DG types.

k

k

k

k

J1( ) , J 2( ) , J 3( ) , J 4( )

P ( k ) J ( k )

p = 1

Q ( k ) J ( k )

p

3

( k +1) = ( k ) + ( k )

p

p

p

( k +1)

k

= V p( )

Vp

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE DG

(k )

k

J 2( ) p

(k ) V (k )

J4

p

(pk +1) = p( k )

( k +1)

k

= V p( )

Vp

( k +1) = ( k ) + ( k )

p

p

p

( k +1)

k

k

= V p( ) + V p( )

V

p

connection, which is circuited from positive, negative, and

zero-sequence networks depending on what the fault type is.

However, the sequence network connection here is different

from the conventional algorithm. The positive-sequence

network is not replaced by an equivalent impedance; whereas,

the circuit consisting of the equivalent zero-sequence

impedance Z0kk, the equivalent negative-sequence impedance

Z2kk, and the fault impedance Zf, is replaced by an equivalent

impedance Zeq.

The admittance matrix Ybus is performed and sequencecomponents of bus voltages and line currents are computed

with an iteration technique.

For simplicity, an IBDG is modeled as a PQ source in the

first iteration. It is changed to a current source with fully

reactive support, IIBDG = j1 p.u. if one of the following

conditions occurs.

|Iinv,ref| |Ithres|

(3)

(4)

A utility system concerned in this paper was designed in a

radial configuration with one main feeder and some lateral

feeders. The main feeder is protected by an overcurrent relay

placed at the feeder starting point (substation busbar). Before

installing DGs, the pick-up value of the overcurrent relay is set

larger than the current through the relay under the maximum

load [20]. When a fault occurs inside the protected zone, fault

current exceeds the pick-up value causing the relay to trip.

Because of the FRT capability enforcement, both SBDG

and IBDG must employ a voltage transformer combined with

a timer to observe the changes of voltage at the PCC.

Consequently, voltage relays can be applied to protect DGs

[21]-[22]. Thus, reach reduction problem is not a concern of

these relays. The following algorithm for determining

maximum allowable DG will consider the reach reduction of

utility overcurrent relay and the operating limits of utility

system.

B. Algorithm for maximizing DGs

Without loss of generality, each group of SBDG and IBDG

is represented by one respective unit. The maximum DG must

retain the reach reduction of utility relay with consideration of

the FRT requirement and the system operating limits. The

maximization problem is formulated as follows.

130

Constraints:

DGs: p.f. = const.

(5)

(6)

PSBDGmin PSBDG PSBDGmax

PIBDGmin PIBDG PIBDGmax

(7)

(8)

Substation transformer: Ssub Ssub max

(9)

Lines: |Iline i| Iline i max

(10)

Buses: Vbus i min Vbus i Vbus i max

(11)

Ifault (utility) > Ipick-up (utility)

where Ipick-up(utility) indicates both phase and ground

overcurrent pick-up values of the utility relay; Ifault(utility)

indicates the maximum phase current (out of three phase

currents) in case of phase overcurrent function and the residual

current (the sum of three phase current vectors) in case of

ground overcurrent function. For a fault inside the protected

zone, at least one of the two functions should operate.

Among various optimization techniques, Tabu search

method is employed here because it prevents the move from

falling back into a previously emerged local optimum and it

shows a visibility in searching process [5], [23]-[24]. With

such searching technique, the next checking point (the

neighborhood of the current point), from which the next

solution will be drawn, is redefined based on the conditions

that classify certain moves as Tabu. After each searching

process, one best neighborhood can be attained. It becomes the

best optimum if the corresponding objective function value is

less than the current best optimum. If the current best optimum

is not updated after a predefined number of iteration, the

algorithm will stop. A flow chart representing the Tabu search

algorithm is illustrated in Figure 7.

The algorithm operates with the settings as follows: the

Tabu list size is 10, the maximum number of iteration which

the current best optimum is not updated is 10, and the

aspiration criterion is set as the maximum value of the

objective function found so far. The current best optimum is

set to the standing point first. Then, neighborhoods are

generated randomly with radius R and filtered by using both

the DG capacity limits (6) (7) and the Tabu list to form a

candidate list in descending order of the objective function

values. If the aspiration criterion is satisfied, a point is added

to the candidate list even it is in the Tabu list. If the highest

point in the candidate list does not satisfy the constraints (8)

(11), the next PDG (the next highest point) will be selected for

checking. This process is repeated until a point satisfies all

constraints and it will be the best neighborhood. That point

now becomes a new initial point and it is added into the Tabu

list. If its objective function value is larger than the current

best optimum, that point will replace the current best

optimum. The above process is repeated until the stopping

criteria are reached.

Running the checking block Satisfy constraints?

comprises two steps: running load flow for the system

operating limits constraints and calculating fault current for

the reach reduction constraint. As analyzed in Section III, if

the FRT requirement is considered, the IBDG will contribute a

constant current during fault period. The fault calculation

technique summarized in Section IV is therefore employed at

this step instead of the conventional one for testing operation

of the utility relay.

VI.

CASE STUDY

maximize DGs installed in the IEEE 34 Node Test Feeder.

Data of this feeder are presented in [25]. Although this feeder

has some unbalanced laterals, unbalanced spot loads, and

unbalanced distributed loads, it can be simplified to be a

balanced three-phase system with 20 loads of 2.05 MVA in

total for applying the proposed algorithm. A lateral feeder

including Buses 21, 22, and the transformer XFM-1 at Bus 20

is not required to be protected by the utility relay placed at Bus

1. The reason is that this feeder is at lower voltage (4.16 kV)

and assumed to be protected by fuses in XFM-1 substation.

A. Simulation settings

An SBDG is assumed to be connected at Bus 15; whereas,

an IBDG is assumed to be connected at Bus 32 as shown in

Figure 8. Both of them are limited in size from 0.1 MW to 2

MW. The SBDG and the IBDG have power factors of 0.9 and

1, respectively. Two transformers in wye-grounded/delta

connection are used to connect DGs to the utility system. In

this paper, all calculations are performed in per unit system

identified by Sbase = 2.5 MVA and Vbase = 24.9 kV.

131

0.1 MW SIBDG 2 MW, p.f. = 1

constraint in maximizing SBDG size.

For phase overcurrent function, the pick-up value is 1.86 p.u.

which is 2.3 times the maximum load current (0.81 p.u.) [4],

[20]. The pick-up value of the ground overcurrent function is

set to 0.65 p.u. which is 0.35 times the phase overcurrent pickup value. The ground overcurrent function operates in

corresponding to the residual current which is a vector sum of

all three phase currents. The reach reduction constraint is

performed by the followings.

max{

I residual

fault

phase A, B ,C

I fault

impact on utility relay reach reduction even that the change is

small. Table I shows the reduction of the fault current through

the utility relay in percent of that fault current before installing

IBDG. The IBDG is assumed to operate at the maximum

active power output and unity power factor before the fault. A

three-phase fault occurs at Bus 29 through the impedance of

20 . It can be seen that the larger the IBDG is, the higher the

reduction becomes in this case. Although the highest reduction

in this fault case is quiet small, it still has an effect on the total

maximum DG which is determined by the reach reduction

constraint.

phase A

I fault

phase

I pick

up

the above inequalities is satisfied.

B. Results and discussions

I residual

fault

ground

I pick

up

reduction

During the transient period, which usually lasts from 0.5 to

2 seconds after the fault instant, an SBDG can be modeled as a

voltage source connected in series with an impedance. This

impedance represents the transient reactance of an SBDG. At a

larger size of the SBDG, the respective transient reactance is

smaller and vice versa. So, fault current from an SBDG is

higher if the SBDG size is larger, causing current flowing

through the utility relay smaller. Installation of a large SBDG

causes significant reduction in the reach of the utility relay as

illustrated in Figure 9. The reductions of both phase and

residual currents from Bus 1 to Bus 2, which are also the fault

currents through the utility relay, increase when the SBDG

increases from 0 (system without SBDG) to 2 MW in size. It

can be seen that when the SBDG exceeds 0.6 MW, the phase

overcurrent function cannot detect the fault but the utility relay

still senses the fault with the ground overcurrent function.

When the SBDG exceeds 1.5 MW, both of the two functions

cannot sense the fault and the feeder is not protected.

The utility relay reach reduction is illustrated clearer when

single line-to-ground fault is assumed to occur consequently

from Bus 1 to Bus 34 as shown in Figure 10. The utility relay

can protect whole feeder before installing the SBDG except

Buses 21 and 22 as explained at the beginning of this section.

After installing 2 MW SBDG, the protection zone is reduced

from Bus 34 to Bus 20 as in Figure 11. At this bus, both phase

and residual currents through the utility relay are below the

respective overcurrent pick-up values, causing the relay to be

blind to the fault. This illustration is evidence for the

132

29

phase A

I fault

I residual

fault

phase

I pick

up

ground

I pick

up

SBDG, MW

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

0.1

0.2

phase A

I fault

I residual

fault

phase

I pick

up

R=3

...

0.3

...

0.4

...

0.5

...

...

...

2

Standing point

ground

I pick

up

...

...

Neighborhood

Figure 11. Utility relay reach reduction after installing SBDG = 2MW

2) Maximum allowable DG

There is a maximum IBDG in corresponding to a specific

SBDG for installing in the tested system in order to satisfy the

system operating limits constraints. Table II lists such 11 pairs

of (SBDG, IBDG). The total maximum size ranges from 1.8

MW to 2.3 MW. If the IBDG is large in power, e.g., 2 MW,

the corresponding maximum SBDG will be small in power,

i.e., 0.3 MW, and vice versa.

The maximization algorithm starts with a random selection

of DG capacity (PSBDG = 0.1 MW, PIBDG = 0.2 MW) as an

initial point. From this point, a neighborhood is created by

varying the discrete capacity of each DG. In this case study,

DG capacity is varied discretely with the step 0.1 MW. So, if

the radius is chosen as R = 3, the furthest neighborhood is

(30.1 = 0.3 MW) far from the standing point. For instance, in

Figure 12, there are 12 neighborhoods generated from the

standing point (PSBDG = 0.1 MW, PIBDG = 0.2 MW). Whenever

a move is selected, the point at the opposite direction (the

previous point) will be added in the Tabu list.

In order to determine the maximum allowable DG, all

types of fault (three-phase, single line-to-ground, double lineto-ground, and line-to-line faults) are sequentially applied to

each bus in the system (from Bus 1 to Bus 34) for each

checking point (PSBDG, PIBDG) as the algorithm illustrated in

Figure 7. The new fault current calculation in Figure 6 is

applied to calculate fault current for checking the operation of

the utility relay. At each iteration, a best neighborhood is

selected from a standing point. Figure 13 illustrates a trace

through 7 best neighborhoods from the standing point (PSBDG =

0.1 MW, PIBDG = 0.2 MW) after 7 first iterations. The

optimum (PSBDG = 0.3 MW, PIBDG = 2 MW) is reached from

the initial point (PSBDG = 0.1 MW, PIBDG = 0.2 MW) after next

10 iterations because there are no more updates. The final

result shows that the maximum allowable DG is 2.3 MW at

which (PSBDGmax = 0.3 MW, PIBDGmax = 2 MW). According to

Table II, although the pair (PSBDG = 0.5 MW, PIBDG = 1.8 MW)

has the sum of 2.3 MW, it is not the maximum allowable DG.

The reason is that the reach reduction constraint is not satisfied

133

Figure 13. A path from the initial point to the optimum point

at this point. That is, the utility relay cannot sense a single

line-to-ground fault at Bus 34 with both phase and ground

overcurrent functions.

It should be noted that the maximum allowable DG is

found as a sum of all DG capacities. However, the proposed

algorithm in this paper can identify exactly the allowable

capacity for each DG.

TABLE I. REDUCTION OF FAULT CURRENT THROUGH THE UTILITY RELAY DUE

TO IBDG INSTALLATION

Items

Without IBDG

IBDG size, MW

0.5

With IBDG

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.29

3.27

3.26

3.25

3.24

Reduction, %

0.61

0.91

1.22

1.52

TABLE II. MAXIMUM DGs INSTALLED IN THE SYSTEM FOR SYSTEM OPERATING

LIMITS CONSTRAINTS

DG

PSBDG

Generation, MW

0.3

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

PIBDG

1.8

1.5

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.7

0.5

0.3

0.2

0.1

Sum

2.3

2.3

2.1

2.1

2.0

2.0

1.9

1.9

1.8

1.8

1.8

VII. CONCLUSION

An algorithm has been proposed to determine the

maximum allowable size of DGs including SBDG and IBDG

for their installations into the utility system.

DG installation presents impacts on the utility system:

SBDG causes the prominent reach reduction for the utility

overcurrent relay, causing a part of the feeder to become

unprotected; whereas, IBDG has remarkable effects on utility

relay reach reduction. The occurrence of IBDG brings about

the necessary of a new fault calculation technique which is

compatible with the IBDG model as a constant current source.

The maximum installation capacity of DG obtained from

the proposed algorithm assures the capability of detecting

faults for the utility relay under the impacts DGs on fault

current considering the fault ride through requirement. The

system operating parameters are set in constraints so that these

parameters must be maintained inside the limited ranges

during the normal operation of the system with the identified

maximum installed DG.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work was supported in part by the Higher Education

Research Promotion and National Research University Project

of Thailand, Office of the Higher Education Commission

(EN262A).

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