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Barbara Miller

Cultural Anthropology in a Globalizing World, Third Edition


Table of Contents
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TB

Teaching Tips

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Chapter 1: Anthropology and the Study of Culture

136

Chapter 2: Researching Culture

143

Chapter 3: Economic Systems

16

150

Chapter 4: Reproduction and Human Development

26

157

Chapter 5: Disease, Illness, and Healing

35

164

Chapter 6: Kinship and Domestic Life

44

171

Chapter 7: Social Groups and Social Stratification

51

178

Chapter 8: Political and Legal Systems

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185

Chapter 9: Communication

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192

Chapter 10: Religion

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199

Chapter 11: Expressive Culture

81

206

Chapter 12: People on the Move

90

213

Chapter 13: People Defining Development

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220

Appendix: Readers Guide for Selected Books

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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Teaching Tips
This section of the Instructors Manual offers some general teaching tips that will help you better
use Cultural Anthropology in a Globalizing World 3e in your classes and more specifically about
how to promote participatory learning and student engagement. Please also review the Preface of
Cultural Anthropology in a Globalizing World 3e for information on the books organization and
highlights about the Culturamas and the boxes in terms of their pedagogical relevance. Each
chapter contains additional prompts for discussion in the Thinking Outside the Box feature and
in the thought questions provided with many of the photographs. The annotated list of
Suggested Readings at the end of each chapter offers ideas for book reports.
The Instructor's Manual offers chapter-by-chapter Learning Objectives that will help guide you
and your students to focusing on specific areas of knowledge and understanding beyond the three
Big Questions that form the structure of each chapter.
Various types of questions in the Test Bank allow instructors to choose how to assess their
students' learning, including more "fact-based" learning expressed through the multiple choice
and short-answer questions as well as critical thinking and ability to handle concepts in a
thoughtful way in the essay questions.
Creating a Syllabus
A detailed and clearly presented syllabus is essential for guiding students through the class. It
should be realistic in terms of material to be covered. It should allow students to have a sense of
what the course covers and expectations of them in terms of assignments and evaluations.
Sections that the syllabus should contain include:
Brief summary of the course content.
List of assigned books (with edition and ISBN) and other materials.
List of learning objectives and expected outcomes.
List of expectations including attendance, assignments, tests, class participation, special
projects, etc.
Information about support services for help with writing or for students with
disabilities.
Class-by-class or week-by-week description of topics to be covered in class, or films, or
guest lectures, tagged to expected readings for the class or week.
Clearly marked deadlines for tests, written assignments, or other assignments.
Detailed guidelines for written assignments such as tips on writing and proper citation
of references consulted.
Admonitions about the importance of taking exams and submitting assignments on
time, and penalties for failure to do so, and policies about what constitutes a legitimate
excuse for missing an exam or submitting an assignment late.
Attendance policy.
Organizing the Course

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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Many approaches exist for organizing material in an introductory cultural anthropology course. If
you decide to follow the framework that I use for the chapters in Cultural Anthropology in a
Globalizing World, you might organize the lectures/readings into three major sections:
1) Introducing cultural anthropology: introductory material about anthropology, cultural
anthropology, and culture (Chapter 1); research methods (Chapter 2); economic systems (Chapter
3); reproduction and human development (Chapter 4).
2) Cultural foundations: health (Chapter 5); kinship and domestic life (Chapter 6); social
organization and social stratification (Chapter 7); (Chapter 8).
3) Symbolic systems and cultural change: communication (Chapter 9); religion (Chapter
10); expressive culture (Chapter 11); migration (Chapter 12); and international development
(chapter 13).
Other plans will work as well, but instructors who assign chapters in a different order
should be sure to explain to the students the terms and concepts that may not have yet been
introduced.
Tests: After each of the three sections, I give a test on the material covered in that section,
and I do not give a cumulative exam at the end. My students seem to appreciate this sectional
testing pattern. Being able to take their first exam earlier than the mid-term point of the course
gives them a sense of how they are doing sooner and a chance to change their study patterns. In
my large class, I use multiple choice questions which are a cause for some stress; thus an earlierthan-midpoint exam helps to allay worries. No matter what kind of questions you use, the threeexam plan allows students to gain familiarity with their style and pitch while they still have two
more exams ahead of them on which they can improve their performance. Note: the student
version of MyAnthroLab available for Miller Cultural Anthropology: In a Globalizing World 3e
also helps students in understanding the kinds of questions you might ask and gives them a
chance to practice answering them, and to review areas where they are unsure. The tripartite
testing plan also helps break up the material into more manageable chunks, which students
appreciate, given the degree of detail in the material.
Writing assignments: I also assign a research/writing project of about five double-spaced
pages. Topics include a kinship study of a classmate based on an interview or a critical
book/movie review. The textbook provides ideas about research projects in the Thinking Outside
the Box features. This Manual offers, for each chapter, several ideas for Internet research that can
be done individually or as group projects. These Internet research projects are also available on
MyAnthroLab.
Other Ideas to Improve Teaching
Additional ideas about teaching cultural anthropology are available in MyAnthroLab for
Anthropology: In a Globalizing World 3e, and in the booklet published by Pearson, Strategies in
Teaching Anthropology (ISBN 0136034667).
Degree of Difficulty of the Text
My goal is to provide a textbook that is rich in issues, examples, and concepts, and one that is
effective at different levels. At its most challenging level, Cultural Anthropology: In a
Globalizing World 3e can be used just as it appears with the expectation that students will read,
absorb, and think critically about all the material presented and become familiar with all the
glossary terms. Many instructors, however, will want to be selective about the material in some
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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

or even all chapters, for example, suggesting to students that they skim or even skip a particular
section and telling students which Key Concepts they do not have to know.
Another strategy for adjusting the degree of difficulty involves choices about what
supplementary readings to assign and what films or other media to present. In my course, I
assign a full-length book in each of the three sections (see Appendix for the Reader's Guides that
I have prepared for several books) and readings from the special edition of Spradley and
McCurdys edited collection, Conformity and Conflict (Pearson, 2006, ISBN 0205625460)
that includes 16 chapters chosen to work well with my textbook. Key questions involve whether
and how to introduce material on additional cultures and how such readings and media might be
complementary and reinforcing versus extending and exploratory. In terms of the former, if
Thomas Gregors ethnography, Anxious Pleasures, is assigned, then one might also show his
video, The Mehinacu. Likewise, as complementary and reinforcing to references to the Trobriand
Islands in the text (Malinowski and Weiner on fieldwork, kula trade), one might show the video
Trobriand Cricket when teaching about expressive culture or culture change. The use of
reinforcing material can be helpful for all course levels, but is especially useful when students
might feel overwhelmed by so much material about so many different cultures.
The list of learning objectives, included in this Manual, for each chapter provides the
major pedagogical highlights of the chapters. The learning objectives are also available on
MyAnthroLab.
Teaching Critical Thinking
Cultural Anthropology in a Globalizing World 3e promotes a critical thinking approach to the
information provided. This approach prompts readers to question what they are reading and what
they think they already know about a particular issue. Instead of simply accepting what we read
or hear and holding on to our current understandings, a critical thinking approach prompts
students to ask questions. It establishes a dynamic relationship between the material and the
reader rather than merely allowing a passive form of information transfer. While many of your
students may already be familiar with this approach, others will not. All students can benefit
from being exposed to the following basic questions that a critical thinker poses to
himself/herself when confronting new material or information. I remind my students that they
should memorize these questions. The questions are:
What is being said? In other words, what is the argument being put forward? The student
should be able to summarize it in a few words.
Who is conveying this message in terms of their cultural context and theoretical position,
if knowable?
When was it written? Does the fact that this message is from a particular historic era
compared to contemporary times affect its content?
Why is the message being conveyed? Why would someone choose to convey a particular
message? What might be the interests behind the message?
What is the evidence? What kinds of data are used and are they adequate?

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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Is the argument sound? On the basis of addressing these questions, the student will be in a
better position to accept or reject a claim or argument.
What is missing? What questions go unasked, and what gaps exist for future research and
thinking?
Teaching the Arguments
Complementary to teaching with a critical thinking approach is the attention given in Cultural
Anthropology in a Globalizing World 3e to teaching about the major arguments within cultural
anthropology. In this area, instead of learning a right answer about a particular topic, students
will sometimes be expected to understand and remember different arguments that have been
brought to bear on it. This kind of learning will be new to many students, and it takes some
coaching to help them understand its merits versus a standard approach to learning facts.
Organizing an Ethnographic Databank
Having students build and maintain an ethnographic databank provides for them a relatively
solid piece of ground in the somewhat unsettling sea created by the critical thinking approach.
Using the framework of the modes of livelihood presented in Chapter 3, I ask students to
consider where particular cultures we are learning about might be placed on the figure. Students
should devote a notebook or a computer file for their ethnographic database, adding information
on new cultures as they are met during the course. While critical thinking is a tool that students
might use in other courses they take, the organization of an ethnographic databank is distinct to
cultural anthropology and thus gives students a sense of what is special about this course.
Attention to Place
Each chapter contains several maps related to the material being discussed, either highlighting a
local groups area, such as the Yanomami region, or a larger region such as the Sahel. Frequent
cross-references in the text to maps in other chapters will prompt students to review and to make
connections across the chapters.
Students should use the Internet regularly to find more detailed geographic information
on cultures mentioned in the course. This kind of participatory learning has more impact than
simply gazing at a map provided in the textbook and then turning the page. In addition, it will be
useful as a pedagogical device when considering diaspora cultures whose members are located in
many different parts of the world, helping to dispel the view of spatially bounded cultures.
Connections with Contemporary Events and Issues
Students are pleasantly surprised that the material and issues they learn about in Cultural
Anthropology in a Globalizing World actually relate to the real world. Your lectures and/or
discussion sections can draw upon and highlight such connections with reference to news events
or happenings on campus. Students can share findings from newspapers, reputable blogs and
other media sources to demonstrate the "relevance of cultural anthropology and connections to
their lives. Several anthropology blogs exist -- including mine, anthropologyworks.com, which
also provides a list of and links to the prominent blogs in the discipline.
Using Videos/Films

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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

This Manual provides information on many films, classic and contemporary, that fit with each
chapter of Cultural Anthropology in a Globalizing World 3e.
The use of visual material greatly enhances students ability to develop their ethnographic
databank. I remind students that carefully watching a full-length video (of, say, 50 minutes) is
almost like carefully reading an ethnography in terms of what can be learned. I show both classic
and new videos. I ask students to view visual material in a critical thinking way, just as they
would undertake a reading assignment. I provide a one page Viewer's Guide as a handout for
each full-length film with questions/tips about what students should be paying attention to as
they watch a film.
Major sources of film/video rentals or purchases are:
Berkeley Media LLC
2600 Tenth Street, Suite 626
Berkeley, CA 94710
phone: 510-486-9900
fax: 510-486-9944
Website: www.berkeleymedia.com

First Run/Icarus Films


32 Court Street, 21st Floor
Brooklyn, NY 11201
phone: 718-488-8900
800-876-1710
fax: 718-488-8642
Website: www.frif.com

Bullfrog Films
372 Dautrich Road
Reading PA 19606
phone: 610-779-8226
fax: 610-370-1978
Website: www.bullfrogfilms.com

Insight Media
2162 Broadway
New York, NY 10024-0621
fax: 212-799-5309
E-mail: cs@insight-media.com
Website: www.insight-media.com

Filmakers Library
124 East 40th Street
New York, NY 10016
phone: 212-808-4980
fax: 212-808-4983
Website: www.filmakers.com

New Day Film Library


22 D Hollywood Avenue
Hohokus, NJ 07423
phone: 1-888-367-9154
fax: 201-652-1973
e-mail: orders@newday.com
Website: www.newday.com

Films for the Humanities & Sciences


PO Box 2053
Princeton, NJ 08543-2053
phone: 800-257-5126
fax: 609-275-3767
Website: www.films.com

Women Make Movies, Inc.


462 Broadway, Suite 500 Q
New York, NY 10013
phone: 212-925-0606
fax: 212-925-2052
E-mail: orders@wmm.com
Website: www.wmm.com

Student Engagement
I confess to being biased, but I find it difficult to imagine a course that offers more possibilities
for engaging students interests than cultural anthropology. As teachers, we face the challenge of

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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

choosing from the vast array of materials and examples to share with our students. We cannot
cover it all but can hope to provide a taste that our students will long remember.
I hope you find that Cultural Anthropology in a Globalizing World 3e fulfills your expectations
and that it challenges, informs, and excites your students. I welcome your feedback.
Barbara Miller
Professor of Anthropology & International Affairs
George Washington University
barbar@gwu.edu

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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Chapter 1
Anthropology and the Study of Culture
Chapter Outline
Introducing Anthropology
Biological or Physical Anthropology
Anthropology Works: Orangutan Research Leads to Orangutan Advocacy
Archaeology
Linguistic Anthropology
Cultural Anthropology
Applied Anthropology: Separate Field or Cross-Cutting Focus?
Introducing Cultural Anthropology
A Brief History of Cultural Anthropology
The Concept of Culture
Definitions of Culture
Characteristics of Culture
Everyday Anthropology: Latina Power in the Kitchen
Multiple Cultural Worlds
Class
Race, Ethnicity, and Indigenous Peoples
CULTURAMA: San Peoples of Southern Africa
Gender
Age
Institutions
Distinctive Features of Cultural Anthropology
Cultural Relativism
Valuing and Sustaining Diversity
Three Theoretical Debates in Cultural Anthropology
Biological Determinism versus Cultural Constructionism
Interpretive Anthropology versus Cultural Materialism
Individual Agency versus Structurism
Cultural Anthropology and Careers
Majoring in Anthropology
Graduate Study in Anthropology
Living an Anthropological Life
Maps
Map 1.1 Orangutan Regions of Borneo
Map 1.2 Sumba
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Map 1.3 Papua New Guinea


The Big Questions
What is anthropology?
Anthropology is an academic discipline, like history or economics.It comprises four
interrelated fields in its attempt toexplore all facets of humanity from its origins through the
present. Biological or physical anthropology is the study ofhumans as biological organisms,
including their evolution andcontemporary variation. Archaeology is the study of pasthuman
cultures through their material remains. Linguisticanthropology is the study of human
communication, includingits origins, history, and contemporary variation andchange. Cultural
anthropology is the study of living peoplesand their cultures, including variation and change.
Cultureis peoples learned and shared behaviors and beliefs.
Each field makes both theoretical and applied contributions.The perspective of this
book is that applied anthropology,just like theoretical anthropology, should be anintegrated
and important part of all four fields, rather than aseparate, fifth field. Examples of applied
anthropology in thefour fields include forensic anthropology, nonhuman primateconservation,
literacy programs for refugees, and social marketing.
What is cultural anthropology?
Cultural anthropology is the field within general anthropologythat focuses on the study of
contemporary humans and their cultures. It has several distinctive features that set it apartfrom
the other fields of general anthropology and from otheracademic disciplines. Cultural
relativism, attributed to Franz Boas, is aguiding principle that other disciplines have widely
adopted.Cultural anthropology values and works to sustain culturaldiversity.
Culture is the key concept of cultural anthropology.Many anthropologists define culture
as learned and shared behaviorand ideas, whereas others equate culture with ideasalone and
exclude behavior as a part of culture. It is easier tounderstand culture by considering its
characteristics: cultureis related to nature but is not the same as nature; it is based onsymbols
and it is learned; cultures are integrated within themselves;and cultures interact with other
cultures and change.Four models of cultural interaction involve varying degrees ofconflict,
blending, and resistance. People participate in culturesof different levels, including local
microcultures shapedby such factors as class, race, ethnicity, indigeneity, gender,age, and
institutions.
Cultural anthropology has a rich history of theoreticalapproaches and changing topical
focuses. Three importanttheoretical debates are biological determinism versus cultural
constructionism, interpretive anthropology versus culturalmaterialism, and individual agency
versus structurism. Each,in its own way, attempts to understand and explain why people
behave and think the way they do and to account for differencesand similarities across cultures.
How is cultural anthropologyrelevant to a career?
Coursework in cultural anthropology expands one's awareness of the diversity of the worlds
cultures and the importance of cross-cultural understanding. Employers in many fieldssuch as
public health, humanitarian aid, law enforcement, business, and educationincreasingly value a
degree in cultural anthropology. In todays diverse and connected world, being culturally
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informed and culturally sensitive is essential.


Graduate degrees in cultural anthropology, either at the M.A. or Ph.D. level, are even
more likely to lead to professional positions that directly use your anthropological education and
skills. Combining graduate coursework in anthropology with a professional degree, such as a
masters degree in public health or public administration, or a law degree, is a successful route to
a meaningful career outside academia. Cultural anthropology, beyond its career relevance, will
enrich your everyday life with its insights.
Critical Thinking Questions
1. What are the differences between anthropology and other disciplines that you have studied
such as history, economics, psychology or sociology?
2. Women have an unusually high representation and visibility in primatology, especially as
primatologists who study nonhuman primates in the wild. Generate some hypotheses about
why this is the case.
3. Within the microculture of your college or university campus, what are the smaller
microcultures within it? What are the relationships among these smaller microcultures?
4. What is the relationship between anthropologys concept of cultural relativism and the
concept of universal human rights? What might be a universal human right that would be
accepted by all cultures?
Internet Exploration
1. Visit the website of the American Anthropological Association or AAA
(http://www.aaanet.org) and of the Canadian Anthropological Society/La Socit Canadienne
d/Anthropologie or CASCA (http://casca.anthropologica.ca/) and compare their mission
statements and activities. Are there similarities? Differences?
2. Explore the website of the World Council of Anthropological Associations, or WCAA
(http://wcaanet.org). What can you learn about anthropology as a global and local discipline
from this website?
3. Visit the website Anthronet (http://www.anthro.net) and scan its headings. Does this website
provide separate coverage for applied anthropology or is applied anthropology incorporated
within each of the four fields? If a separate section for applied anthropology is provided, does
it cover application in all four fields?
Learning Objectives: After reading this chapter, students should be able to:
Define general anthropology and its four fields and their goals and approaches.
Explain what is distinctive about cultural anthropology compared to the other three fields of
anthropology and in comparison to some other disciplines.
Define the concept of cultural relativism and assess its strengths and limitations.
List the three key debates in cultural anthropology and be able to analyze an issue from each
side of the debates.
Discuss approaches to defining the concept of culture.
Define what microcultures are and on what bases they are formed; provide examples.
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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Discuss the relevance of cultural anthropology for the contemporary world.


Recognize the links between cultural anthropology and careers.
Discuss the culture of the San people of southern Africa and contemporary challenges they
are facing.
Recognize and locate the places that appear in the maps in this chapter and know something
about their social characteristics.
Key Concepts
agency: the ability of humans to make choices and exercise free will even within dominating
structures.
anthropology: the study of humanity, including prehistoric origins and contemporary human
diversity.
applied anthropology or practicing anthropology or practical anthropology: the use of
anthropological knowledge to prevent or solve problems or to shape and achieve policy goals.
archaeology or prehistory: the study of past human cultures through their material remains.
biological anthropology or physical anthropology: the study of humans as biological
organisms, including evolution and contemporary variation.
biological determinism: a theory that explains human behavior and ideas mainly as shaped by
biological features such as genes and hormones.
class: a way of categorizing people on the basis of their economic position in society, usually
measured in terms of income or wealth and exhibited in terms of lifestyle.
cultural anthropology or social anthropology: the study of living peoples and their cultures,
including variation and change.
cultural constructionism: a theory that explains human behavior and ideas mainly as shaped by
learning.
cultural materialism: a theoretical position that takes material features of life, such as the
environment, natural resources, and mode of livelihood, as the bases for explaining social
organization and ideology.
cultural relativism: the perspective that each culture must be understood in terms of the values
and ideas of that culture and not judged by the standards of another culture.
culture: peoples learned and shared behavior and beliefs.
ethnicity: a shared sense of identity among a group based on a heritage, language, or culture.
ethnocentrism: judging other cultures by the standards of ones own culture rather than by the
standards of that particular culture.
functionalism: the theory that a culture is similar to a biological organism, in which parts work
to support the operation and maintenance of the whole.
gender: culturally constructed and learned behaviors and ideas attributed to males, females, or
blended genders.
globalization: increased and intensified international ties related to the spread of Western,
especially United States, capitalism that affects all world cultures.

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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

holism: the perspective in anthropology that cultures are complex systems that cannot be fully
understood without paying attention to their different components, including economics, social
organization, and ideology.
indigenous people: groups who have a long-standing connection with their home territory that
predates colonial or outside societies.
interpretive anthropology or interpretivism: the view that cultures are best understood by
studying what people think about, their ideas, and the meanings that are important to them.
linguistic anthropology: the study of human communication, including its origins, history, and
contemporary variation and change.
localization: the transformation of global culture by local cultures into something new.
microculture: a distinct pattern of learned and shared behavior and thinking found within a
larger culture.
race: a classification of people into groups on the basis of supposedly homogeneous and
largely superficial biological traits such as skin color or hair characteristics.
rainforest: an environment found at mid-latitudes, of tall, broad-leaf evergreen trees with annual
rainfall of 400 centimeters (or 60 inches) and no dry season.
structurism: a theoretical position concerning human behavior and ideas that says large forces
such as the economy, social and political organization, and the media shape what people do and
think.
symbol: an object, word, or action with culturally defined meaning that stands for something
else; most symbols are arbitrary.
Video Suggestions
Notes:
You may find it useful, as I do, to show a full-length video following the first lecture that
illustrates what culture is. After seeing these films, especially those that are classics or less
current, it is likely that your students may ask: what is the situation with Culture X or Project Y
now? If you know the answer, thats great. If not, you might want to suggest a class project in
which students try to find out through an Internet search.
The Amish: Not to be Modern (Filmakers Library, 1986, 57 minutes). Photographed over four
seasons, this film captures the day-to-day life of a people who have preserved their distinct
culture. Voices of the Amish people are used rather than a narrator. Jack Glazier of Oberlin
College has said that This film offers each of us an opportunity to examine critically our
own social experience and to recognize the costs and benefits each society offers.
Bushmen of the Kalahari: A Bushman Story (A Discovery Channel Production, 51 minutes,
1995). This program examines the culture of the Ju/hoansi of Namibia, who trace their
ancestry back 30,000 years and are believed to have descended form the worlds earliest
modern humans.
The Cow Jumped Over the Moon (First Run/Icarus Films, 1999, 52 minutes). This film
documents the interaction between the tradition-based knowledge of West African nomads
and the technology based knowledge of the United States. It poses important questions about
localization versus globalization, autonomy versus conformity, and what different kinds of
knowledge mean for the future of the environment.
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Devil on the Roof (Filmakers Library, 2001, 52 minutes). An Iranian photographer and his
anthropologist wife (Ziba Arshi) provide an in-depth look at the Turkmans of Iran who live in
small villages near the Afghanistan border. The film shows many aspects of their culture
including shamanic treatment of illness, weaving, child care, and rice growing. Four years
after the initial filming, the team returns to find dramatic changes due to the introduction of
television and other aspects of the outside world.
First Contact (Filmakers Library, 1983, 54 minutes). A classic film of cultural confrontation,
First Contact documents encounters between white Australian gold prospectors and
previously uncontacted peoples of highland New Guinea. Interspersed with the historic
footage are clips of contemporary highlanders recalling their reactions to the white men.
The Fort St. Joseph Project: Service and Learning in the Community (Films for the Humanities
and Sciences, 2007, 27 minutes). Every year, Western Michigan University conducts an
archaeological field school at the site of Fort St. Joseph in Niles, Michigan. Students learn
field techniques and participate in community service learning. They researching the social,
economic, and political atmosphere of the colonial-era fur trade and disseminate their
findings to the local community. This film documents the third season of the summer field
school. On-site interviews with students, and with WMU professor Dr. Michael Nassaney,
highlight the challenges of the project.
Garifuna Journey (New Day Film Library, 1998, 46 minutes). Filmed in Belize, this
documentary reveals the continuity of Garifuna culture in the face of overwhelming odds.
Topics covered are Garifuna history, language, food preparation, religion, music and dance.
Produced and directed by Andrea E. Leland and Kathy L. Berger. Mark Moberg wrote, in the
American Anthropologist, that ...the input of cultural activists and scholars has yielded a
sensitive, balanced portrait of Garifuna ritual life and identity.
Gateway to Yemen (Filmakers Library, 1994, 40 minutes). This documentary captures traditional
life in rural Yemen and Yemeni culture as it faces outside forces of change. Yemeni life is
dominated by men who are concerned with the land, irrigation of their crops, and their
enemies who attempt to steal crops and possessions. Men discuss these matters while
chewing qat, a narcotic leaf. Marriages are arranged and women are secluded. With the
discovery of oil, Yemen joined the global economy. Cars are no longer rare. Yemeni women
are being educated in basic hygiene by videotape.
Moving Mountains: The Story of Yiu Mien (Filmakers Library, 1991, 58 minutes). This film
documents changes in the culture of the Yiu Mien, refugees from highland Laos who have
settled in the United States. In their hill villages in Laos, the Mien practiced horticulture and
had no electricity, cars, or other modern technology. Their involvement with the CIA during
the Vietnam-American War forced the Mien to leave home. In the United States, they are
finding jobs, shopping malls, going to discos, educating their children, and also trying to
retain certain features of Mien culture. The video contains archival footage in their homeland
and interviews with young and old Mien in the United States.
Strange Beliefs: Sir Edward Evans-Pritchard (Humanities and Sciences, Inc., 1990, 52 minutes).
This video documents the life and work of an important, early British anthropologist who
taught that Western ideas share many features with those of other cultures and can be just as
strange and wonderful
Trekking on Tradition (Documentary Educational Resources, 1993, 45 minutes). This video
explores the effects of mountain tourism (known as trekking) on villagers in Nepal. It
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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

examines the views of the trekkers (Europeans and Americans) and the Nepalese, and their
conflicting desires and frustrations. The film illuminates, often humorously, the controversies
and ironies of cross-cultural encounters related to tourism in developing countries. It also
documents the effects of tourism on local cultural practices and the environment. Professor
Ernestine McHugh of Pitzer College says that This film engages students, provokes
discussion, and provides a vivid illustration of the problems and possibilities generated by
contemporary tourism. It is exceptionally valuable in that it sensitively portrays the human
consequences of cross-cultural encounters...
The Trobriand Islanders of Papua New Guinea (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990, 52
minutes). This video examines the society of the Trobriand Islanders, showing the complex
balance between male authority and female wealth. It also explores the magic and sorcery
beliefs and practices that pervade everyday life. Anthropologist: Annette Weiner.
Yesterday, Today: The Netsilik Eskimo (Education Development Center, 1973, 57 minutes ). This
film shows traditional Netsilik activities such as life in the igloo and seal hunting and
traces the process of adaptation from a migratory lifestyle to life within the context of a
Canadian government settlement.
A World Without Strangers (Berkeley Media LLC, 2008, 29 minutes). Produced by Kelly Briley,
Hamid Khani. This documentary explores the common misperceptions and stereotypes of
young people in the Middle East and the United States. It connects five college-age women
from the United States with five from the Middle East in a media-based dialogue. In the first
round of interviews, the ten participants are asked about their stereotypes: What do the
American women think of the Middle East and what do the Middle Eastern women think of
the United States? Then, cameras are given to the women so they can each photograph a day
in their lives, collecting photos of family, friends, pets, and favorite activities. These photos
are edited into video diaries, which the participants view in a second round of interviews. The
women begin to reject their stereotyped view of difference and recognize commonalities.
One of the American women exclaims, "They're just like us!"
Suggested Readings
Thomas J. Barfield, ed. The Dictionary of Anthropology. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing,
1997. This reference work contains hundreds of brief essays on concepts in anthropology,
such as evolution, myth, functionalism, and applied anthropology, and on important
anthropologists.
Stanley R. Barrett. Anthropology: A Students Guide to Theory and Method. Toronto: University
of Toronto Press, 2000. This book organizes the theoretical history of cultural anthropology
into three phases and summarizes trends in each. The author discusses how to do research in
cultural anthropology.
Mario Blaser, Harvey A. Feit, and Glenn McRae, eds. In the Way of Development: Indigenous
Peoples, Life Projects and Globalization. New York: Zed Books, in association with the
International Development Research Centre, 2004. Twenty chapters contributed by
indigenous leaders, social activists, and cultural anthropologists address indigenous peoples
responses to capitalism and indigenous ideas about future change that is positive for them
and for the environment.
Ira E. Harrison and Faye V. Harrison, eds. African-American Pioneers in Anthropology. Chicago:
University of Illinois Press, 1999. This collection of intellectual biographies highlights the
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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

contributions of 13 African American anthropologists to the development of cultural


anthropology in the United States.
Takami Kuwayama, ed. Native Anthropology: The Japanese Challenge to Western Academic
Hegemony. Melbourne: Trans Pacific Press, 2004. The chapters in this book discuss various
topics in Japanese anthropology, including native anthropology, the marginalization of
Asian anthropologists, folklore studies, and how U.S. anthropology textbooks present Japan.
James H. McDonald, ed. The Applied Anthropology Reader. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2002.
This collection of over 50 brief essays explores topics in applied cultural anthropology,
including ethics, methods, urban settings, health, international development, the
environment, education, and business.
R. Bruce Morrison and C. Roderick Wilson, eds. Native Peoples: The Canadian Experience, 3rd
ed. Toronto, Ontario: Oxford University Press, 2004. This sourcebook on Northern Peoples
contains 26 chapters with sections divided by region. Chapters about various cultural groups
provide historical context and updates on the current situation.
Thomas C. Patterson. A Social History of Anthropology in the United States. New York: Berg,
2001. This history of anthropology in the United States emphasizes the social and political
context of the discipline and how that context shaped theories and methods.
Richard J. Perry. Five Key Concepts in Anthropological Thinking. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Prentice-Hall, 2003. The five key concepts are evolution, culture, structure, function, and
relativism. The author raises thought-provoking questions about anthropology as being
Eurocentric.
Pat Shipman. The Evolution of Racism: Human Differences and the Use and Abuse of Science.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994. This book offers a history of the race
concept in Western thought from Darwin to contemporary DNA studies. The author
addresses thorny issues such as racism in the United States and Nazi Germanys use of
Darwinism.
For further information about topics covered in this chapter, go to MyAnthroLab at
www.myanthrolab.com and access the following readings in MyAnthroLibrary:
Judah Gaby, Robert Aunger, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Susan Michie, Stewart Granger, and Val Curtis.
2009. Experimental Pretesting of Hand-Washing Interventions in a Natural Setting.
American Journal of Public Health 99(S2): 405411. Val Curtis, medical anthropologist and
public health expert, teamed up with five other researchers to measure fecal bacteria on the
hands of over 400 people in five cities in the United Kingdom.
Neringa Klumbyte. 2010. The Soviet Sausage Renaissance. American Anthropologist 112(1):22
37. Lithuania was the first country to secede from the Soviet Union, and the word Soviet is
used to refer to the vanished Soviet empire. In the past decade, however, there has been a
Soviet sausage renaissance in Lithuania. Eating Soviet sausages in Lithuania is more
complicated than you might think.
Pat Caplan. 2010. Child Sacrifice in Uganda? Anthropology Today 26(2):47. Insights from
cultural anthropology suggest that the BBC inappropriately uses the terms child sacrifice
and witch doctor in its Newsnight programs about Uganda, thus creating an inaccurate
view.

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Chapter 2
Researching Culture
Chapter Outline
Changing Research Methods
From the Armchair to the Field
Participant Observation
Doing Fieldwork in Cultural Anthropology
Beginning the Fieldwork Process
Project Selection
Anthropology Works: What's for Breakfast in California?
Preparing for the Field
CULTURAMA: The Trobriand Islanders of Papua New Guinea
Working in the Field
Site Selection
Gaining Rapport
Gift Giving and Exchange
Microcultures and Fieldwork
Culture Shock
Fieldwork Techniques
Deductive and Inductive Research and Data
Participant Observation
Talking with People
Combining Observation and Talking
Specialized Methods
Eye on the Environment: Researching Inuit Place Names and Landscape Knowledge
Recording Culture
Field Notes
Tape Recordings, Photographs, and Videos
Data Analysis
Analyzing Qualitative Data
Analyzing Quantitative Data
Representing Culture
Urgent Issues in Cultural Anthropology Research
Ethics and Collaborative Research
Collaborative Research
Safety in the Field

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Maps
Map 2.1 Trobriand Islands of Papua New Guinea
Map 2.2 Syria
Map 2.3 Baffin Island in Northeast Canada
Map 2.4 Spain
The Big Questions
How do cultural anthropologists conduct research on culture?
Cultural anthropologists conduct research by doing fieldwork and using participant observation.
In the nineteenth century, early cultural anthropologists conducted armchair anthropology,
meaning that they learned about other cultures by reading reports written by explorers and other
untrained observers. The next stage was verandah anthropology, in which an anthropologist went
to the field but did not live with the people. Instead, the anthropologist would interview a few
members of the study population where he (there were no women cultural anthropologists at this
time) lived, typically on his verandah.
Fieldwork and participant observation became the cornerstones of cultural anthropology
research only after Malinowskis innovations in the Trobriand Islands during World War I. His
approach emphasized the value of living for an extended period in the field, participating in the
daily activities of the people, and learning the local language. These features are the hallmarks of
research in cultural anthropology today.
New techniques continue to develop in response to changing times. They include
multisited research, in which the anthropologist studies a topic at more than one location, and
consumer research which relies on rapid research techniques to deliver information for product
design and development that responds to users needs and preferences.
What does fieldwork involve?
Research in cultural anthropology involves several stages. The first is to choose a research topic.
A good topic is timely, important, and feasible. Ideas for topics can come from literature review,
restudies, current events and pressing issues, and sheer luck. Once in the field, the first steps
include site selection, gaining rapport, and dealing with culture shock. Microcultures affect how
anthropologists gain rapport and shape their access to particular cultural domains. Participating
appropriately in the culture involves learning local forms of gift giving and other exchanges to
express gratitude for peoples hospitality, time, and trust.
Research techniques vary between being more deductive or more inductive and
accordingly will emphasize gathering quantitative or qualitative data. Cultural materialists tend
to focus on quantitative data, whereas interpretivists gather qualitative data. When in the field,
anthropologists take daily notes, often by hand but now also using computers. Several other
methods of documenting culture include photography, audio recording, and video recording.
Anthropologists theoretical orientation, research goals and types of data collected affect their
approach to data analysis and presentation. Quantitative data may involve statistical analysis and
presentation in graphs or tables. The presentation of qualitative data is more likely to be
descriptive.

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What are some urgent issues in cultural anthropology research today?


Questions of ethics have been paramount to anthropologists since the 1950s. In 1971, U.S.
anthropologists adopted a set of ethical guidelines for research to address their concern about
what role, if any, anthropologists should play in research that might harm the people being
studied. The AAA code of ethics states that an anthropologists primary responsibility is to avoid
doing harm to the people involved. Further, cultural anthropologists should never engage in
covert research and should always explain their purpose to the people in the study and preserve
the anonymity of the location and of individuals.
Collaborative research is a recent development that responds to ethical concerns by
pursuing research that involves the participants as partners rather than as subjects.
Safety during fieldwork is another important issue. Danger to anthropologists can come
from physical sources such as infectious diseases and from social sources such as political
violence. A survey of anthropologists in the 1980s produced recommendations about increasing
safety during fieldwork.
Critical Thinking Questions
1. Choose one other discipline that you have studied and describe its research goals and
methods. How do they differ from or resemble those of cultural anthropology?
2. How honest should an anthropologist be when establishing rapport in the early stages of
fieldwork?
3. Does it seem more effective for a cultural anthropologist to decide to do research among
people who they are like or people that they are very different from? Why?
4. Why is it important to have a code of ethics in anthropology compared to more purely
scientific disciplines such as chemistry or physics?
Internet Exploration
1. Some anthropologists have their own websites describing their research, for example,
Professor Karla Poewe (http://www.ucalgary.ca/~kpoewe/). Take a look at what this website
has to say about fieldwork. Find another cultural anthropologists website and see what
material is provided, for comparison.
2. Explore the MA degree in Research Methods in Anthropology offered by the University of
Durham, England, in terms of its objectives and course offerings:
(http://www.dur.ac.uk/anthropology/postgraduate/pg_degrees/ma_rm).
3. Go to the website of the American Anthropological Association (http://www.aaanet.org) and
locate the Code of Ethics. How does it differ from research ethics in another social science
discipline such as sociology, political science, or economics?
Learning Objectives: After reading this chapter, students should be able to:
Describe three stages in the history of research in cultural anthropology.
Conceptualize the several stages involved in designing and carrying out a research project in
cultural anthropology.
Explain how the research goals of cultural anthropology influence the selection of methods
for data gathering and analysis.
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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Recognize the difference between etics and emics.


Define participant observation, what it involves, and why it is the central research method in
cultural anthropology.
Explain how microcultural differences affect research in cultural anthropology.
Name several special types of data gathered by cultural anthropologists and provide an
example of what they reveal.
Describe key differences between qualitative and quantitative data, how the two types of data
are analyzed, and what they reveal about culture.
Discuss ethical issues in cultural anthropology research and how anthropologists face them.
List major safety issues in cultural anthropology research and know how they can be better
addressed.
Discuss the culture of the Trobriand Islanders of Papua New Guinea and contemporary
challenges they are facing.
Recognize and locate the places that appear in the maps in this chapter and know something
about their social characteristics.
Key Concepts
collaborative research: an approach to learning about culture that involves anthropologists
working with members of the study population as partners and participants rather than as
subjects.
culture shock: persistent feelings of uneasiness, loneliness, and anxiety that often occur when a
person has shifted from one culture to a different one.
deductive approach (to research): a research method that involves posing a research question
or hypothesis, gathering data related to the question, and then assessing the findings in relation to
the original hypothesis.
emic: insiders perceptions and categories, and their explanations for why they do what they do.
ethnography: a firsthand, detailed description of a living culture, based on personal observation.
etic: an analytical framework used by outside analysts in studying culture.
fieldwork: research in the field, which is any place where people and culture are found.
indigenous knowledge (IK): local understanding of the environment, climate, plants, animals,
and making a living
inductive approach (to research): a research approach that avoids hypothesis formation in
advance of the research and instead takes its lead from the culture being studied.
informed consent: an aspect of fieldwork ethics requiring that the researcher inform the
research participants of the intent, scope, and possible effects of the study and seek their consent
to be in the study.
interview: a research technique that involves gathering verbal data through questions or guided
conversation between at least two people.
kula: a trading network, linking many of the Trobriand Islands, in which men have long-standing
partnerships for the exchange of everyday goods, such as food, as well as highly valued
necklaces and armlets.
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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

multisited research: fieldwork conducted in more than one location in order to understand the
culture of dispersed members of the culture or the relationships among different levels of culture.
participant observation: basic fieldwork method in cultural anthropology that involves living in
a culture for a long time while gathering data.
qualitative data: non-numeric information.
quantitative data: numeric information.
questionnaire: a formal research instrument containing a pre-set series of questions that the
anthropologist asks in a face-to-face setting, by mail, or by email.
rapport: a trusting relationship between the researcher and the study population.
toponymy: the naming of places.
Video Suggestions
A Man Called Bee: Studying the Yanomamo (Pennsylvania State University AV Services, 1975,
40 minutes). This film follows Napoleon Chagnon during his experiences doing fieldwork
among the Yanomami of the Venezuelan Amazon. Attention is given to different kinds of data
collection (land use, kinship, narrative-telling). It raises questions about the nature of
fieldwork.
Anthropology on Trial (Time-Life Video, 1984, 57 minutes). The examination and critique of
methods in cultural anthropology are pursued in this film through focus on Margaret Meads
fieldwork on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea. The people of Manus comment on Meads
research.
Bronislaw Malinowski: Off the Veranda (Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1985, 52
minutes). This documentary is about the major founding figure of modern field methods in
cultural anthropology. Malinowski lived among the Trobriand people, learned their language
and was able to provide unique insights.
Fieldwork (Films for the Humanities, 1990, 52 minutes). Sir Walter Baldwin Spencer, along with
Frank Gillen, studied Australian Aborigines, who up until then had been regarded as a step in
the evolutionary ladder between Neolithic people and the civilized Victorians. This video
shows how the approach that the two men used to study the Aborigines strongly influenced
the way other cultures have been studied.
Margaret Mead: Coming of Age (Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1985, 52 minutes). This
film looks at the career of Margaret Mead with attention to her fieldwork in the United
States, Bali, and New Guinea. It documents her findings on child development, gender and
personality and her position of cultural relativism.
Shackles of Tradition: Franz Boas (Berkeley Media LLC, rental only, 1991, 52 minutes). The life
and work of Boas are the subject of this video, with a focus on his studies of Inuit and
Northwest Coast Native American cultures. The video highlights his role in challenging
mainstream American stereotypes about race.
Suggested Readings
Michael V. Angrosino. Projects in Ethnographic Research. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press,
2005. This brief manual provides students with ideas about what conducting research in
anthropology is like. It discusses the fundamental stages of three projects, with insights about
how students can conduct their own research.
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H. Russell Bernard. Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative


Approaches, 3rd ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 2002. This is a sourcebook of
anthropological research methods providing information about how to design a research
project, methods of data collection, and data analysis and presentation.
Kathleen M. DeWalt and Billie R. DeWalt. Participant Observation: A Guide for Fieldworkers.
New York: AltaMira Press, 2002. This book is a comprehensive guide to doing participant
observation.
Alexander Ervin. Applied Anthropology: Tools and Perspectives for Contemporary Practice.
Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2005. Chapters discuss links between anthropology and policy, the
history of applied anthropology, ethics, and specialized methods.
Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban. Ethics and the Profession of Anthropology: A Dialogue for Ethically
Conscious Practice, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003. The
chapters address topics such as covert research, indigenous peoples cultural rights, informed
consent, and ethics in researching culture in cyberspace.
Peggy Golde, ed. Women in the Field: Anthropological Experiences, 2nd ed. Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1986. Chapters in this classic collection discuss Margaret
Meads fieldwork in the Pacific, Laura Naders fieldwork in Mexico and Lebanon, Ernestine
Friedls fieldwork in Greece, and Jean Briggss fieldwork among the Inuit of the Canadian
Arctic.
Joy Hendry. An Anthropologist in Japan: Glimpses of Life in the Field. London: Routledge,
1999. This book describes the authors original research design, how her focus changed, and
how she reached unanticipated conclusions.
Choong Soon Kim. One Anthropologist, Two Worlds: Three Decades of Reflexive Fieldwork in
North America and Asia. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2002. The author reflects
on his fieldwork, conducted over 30 years, on Japanese industry in the American South and
on Korean families displaced by the Korean War and partition.
Luke Eric Lassiter. The Chicago Guide to Collaborative Ethnography. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 2005. This handbook for doing collaborative anthropology includes historical
and theoretical perspectives on collaborative anthropology, exposing its roots in feminist,
humanist, and critical anthropology.
Carolyn Nordstrom and Antonius C. G. M. Robben, eds. Fieldwork under Fire: Contemporary
Studies of Violence and Survival. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995. The
chapters discuss fieldwork experiences in Palestine, China, Sri Lanka, the United States,
Croatia, Guatemala, and Ireland.
Tom Ric with Mette Louise Berg, eds. Future Fields, special issue of the online journal
Anthropology Matters, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2004. This issue includes 11 articles that address a range
of methodological issues cultural anthropologists face today, including emotional, financial,
and ethical challenges as well as how to cope in situations of physical danger. The journal is
open access at http://www.anthropologymatters.com.
For further information about topics covered in this chapter, go to MyAnthroLab at
www.myanthrolab.com and access the following readings in MyAnthroLibrary:
Anna Kata. 2010. A Postmodern Pandoras Box: Anti-Vaccination Information on the Internet.
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Vaccine 28:17091716. A graduate student in cultural anthropology mines the Internet for
data.
Ann E. Kingsolver. 2010. Like Frogs in a Well: Young Peoples Views of the Future Expressed
in Two Collaborative Research Projects in Sri Lanka. Human Organization 69:19. This
article discusses collaborative research conducted with youth in Sri Lanka about their
perceived needs and views of the future.
Susan Squires. 2002. Doing the Work: Customer Research in the Product Development and
Design Industry. In Susan Squires and Bryan Byrne, eds. Creating Breakthrough Ideas: The
Collaboration of Anthropologists and Designers in the Product Development Industry. Pp.
102124. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey. A leading consumer anthropologist describes the
fieldwork she did that led to a new breakfast food product for suburban American families.

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Chapter 3
Economic Systems
Chapter Outline
Modes of Livelihood
Foraging
Everyday Anthropology: The Importance of Dogs
Division of Labor
Property Relations
Foraging as a Sustainable System
Horticulture
Division of Labor
Property Relations
Horticulture as a Sustainable System
Pastoralism
Division of Labor
Property Relations
Pastoralism as a Sustainable System
Agriculture
Family Farming
Industrial Agriculture
The Sustainability of Agriculture
Industrialism and the Information Age
The Formal Sector: Factory Studies
The Informal Sector: Street Vendors, Drugs, and Sex Work
Modes of Consumption and Exchange
Modes of Consumption
Minimalism
Consumerism
Consumption Microcultures
Modes of Exchange
Balanced Exchange
Unbalanced Exchange
Other Forms of Unbalanced Exchange
Anthropology Works: Evaluating Indian Gaming
Globalization and Changing Economies
Sugar, Salt, and Steel Tools in the Amazon
Alternative Food Movements in Europe and North America
Communities and Resistance: The Enduring Potlatch
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CULTURAMA: The Kwakwaka' wakw of Canada


Maps
Map 3.1 Hare Region near Colville Lake in Northwest Canada
Map 3.2 Precolonial Iroquois Region
Map 3.3 Yanomami Region in Brazil and Venezuela
Map 3.4 Location of the Kuru Epidemic in Papua New Guinea
Map 3.5 Lese and Efe Region in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Map 3.6 The Kwakwaka' wakw Region in Canada
The Big Questions
What are the five modes of livelihood and their characteristics?
Foraging relies on collecting food that is available in nature. In foraging societies, the division of
labor is based on gender and age, with temperate foragers having more gender overlap in tasks
than circumpolar foragers. All group members have equal rights to resources. Foraging has longterm sustainability when not affected by outside pressure.
Horticulture and pastoralism are extensive strategies that depend on domesticated plants
(horticulture) and animals (pastoralism). Horticulture requires fallowing, and pastoralism
requires the constant movement of animals to fresh pastures. The division of labor varies,
including situations in which men do more productive work, those where women do more work,
and those in which workloads are shared between men and women. Use rights are the prominent
form of property relations. Both have long-term sustainability when not affected by
encroachments.
Family farming systems produce crops for their own use and for sale in the market. Most
family farming systems involve more male labor in the fields and more female labor in the
domestic domain. Agricultures sustainability is limited by the need to replenish the land.
In industrialism/informatics, the division of labor is highly differentiated by class, gender,
and age. Widespread unemployment is found in many industrial economies. In capitalist
societies, private property is the dominant pattern. Industrialism/informatics lacks sustainability,
given its high demand for non-renewable energy.
How are modes of livelihood related to consumption and exchange?
Anthropologists contrast modes of consumption in nonmarket and market-based systems of production. In the former, minimalism is the dominant mode of consumption, with finite needs. In
the latter, consumerism is the dominant mode of consumption, with infinite needs. Foraging societies typify the minimalist mode of consumption. Industrial capitalist/informatics societies
typify the consumerist mode. The modes of livelihood between foraging and industrialism/informatics exhibit varying degrees of minimalism and consumerism.
In nonmarket economies most consumers produce the goods they use themselves or they
know who produced them. In market economies, consumption is depersonalized through
globalized mass production.
Modes of exchange also correspond to the modes of livelihood and consumption. In
foraging societies, the mode of exchange is balanced exchange, with the goal of keeping the
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value of the items exchanged roughly equal over time. Balanced exchange involves people who
have a social relationship with each other, and the relationship is reinforced through continued
exchange.
Market exchange is a transaction in which the seller's goal is to make a profit. Compared
to balanced exchange, the people involved in market exchanges are less likely to know each
other or to have an enduring social relationship.

How are livelihood, consumption, and exchange changing in contemporary times?


Economic globalization is changing livelihood, consumption, and exchange around the world.
Western goods, such as steel axes, are in high demand by people in non-Western, nonindustrialized contexts. Such goods must be purchased, a fact that impels people to work for cash so that
they can buy things.
In spite of the powerful effects of globalization on local economic patterns, many groups
seek to restore traditional patterns of livelihood, consumption, and exchange. The rise of new
food movements that promote small farm and local food production is an example of an attempt
to localize and personalize food production and exchange. The revival of potlatching in the
Pacific Northwest is an example of the revitalization of traditional consumption and exchange
practices.
Critical Thinking Questions
1. Is foraging practiced, as a part-time contribution to livelihood, by anyone in the
contemporary United States or Canada?
2. Given what you know about the five modes of livelihood, how would you define
efficiency? Given your definition, how would one measure the efficiency of a particular
mode of livelihood? How, for example, does foraging compare to agriculture?
3. Is there such a thing as a pure gift? What might be some examples of a pure gift?
4. Consider some examples of recent changes in consumption, for example in Brazil. How has
the western influence shaped these changes? Would you consider these changes to have a
positive or negative effect on consumption and exchange worldwide?
Internet Exploration
1. Use a search engine to find sites about the Yanomami people. What issues are being
discussed and among whom (the Yanomami? anthropologists? who else?)?
2. Locate the website for the North American organization called the Society for Economic
Anthropology. What does it reveal about the research interests of economic anthropologists?
3. If you wanted to earn a PhD (doctorate) in anthropology, specializing in economic
anthropology, to what universities would you apply that would offer such a focus?
4. Search for the word potlatch on the Web and see what sites are available and what they
include.
5. Go to the website World Food Habits Bibliography (http://lilt.ilstu.edu/rtdirks/) and scan the
headings. Choose one or two topics to examine in more depth to see what kinds of
bibliographic references are provided and that might intrigue you for a research project.

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Learning Objectives: After reading this chapter, students should be able to:
Explain how cultural anthropology approaches the subject matter of economics, especially
how people make a living.
Describe the five modes of livelihood and their differing labor roles, property relations, and
degrees of sustainability.
Recognize that the modes of livelihoods are types, that they overlap, that some cultures
have mixed modes of livelihood, and that modes of livelihoods change.
Explain what cultural anthropologists say are some of the costs of agriculture and
industrialism/informatics.
Place several cultures in terms of their mode of livelihood and explain the reasons behind the
placement and any complications with particular placements.
Describe how cultural anthropologists define and study consumption and provide examples
of how consumption varies in minimalist and consumerist societies.
Provide examples of consumption microcultures and how they reflect social inequality.
Differentiate between categories of exchange and how they vary in non-market and market
societies.
Provide examples of things that people exchange cross-culturally.
Be aware of changing patterns of consumption and exchange and what the causes of these
changes might be.
Discuss the culture of the Kwakwakawakw of Canada and contemporary challenges they are
facing.
Recognize and locate the places that appear in the maps in this chapter and know something
about their social characteristics.
Key Concepts
agriculture: a mode of livelihood that involves growing crops with the use of plowing,
irrigation, and fertilizer.
balanced exchange: a system of transfers in which the goal is either immediate or eventual
equality in value.
consumerism: a mode of consumption in which peoples demands are many and infinite and the
means of satisfying them are insufficient and become depleted in the effort to satisfy these
demands.
expected reciprocity: an exchange of approximately equally valued goods or services, usually
between people roughly equal in social status.
extensive strategy: a form of livelihood involving temporary use of large areas of land and a
high degree of spatial mobility.
family farming: a form of agriculture in which farmers produce mainly to support themselves
and also produce goods for sale in the market system.
foraging: obtaining food available in nature through gathering, hunting, or scavenging.
generalized reciprocity: exchange involving the least conscious sense of interest in material
gain or thought of what might be received in return.
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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

horticulture: a mode of livelihood based on growing domesticated crops in gardens, using


simple hand tools.
industrialism/informatics: a mode of livelihood in which goods are produced through mass
employment in business and commercial operations and through the creation and movement of
information through electronic media.
intensive strategy: a form of livelihood that involves continuous use of the same land and
resources.
market exchange: the buying and selling of commodities under competitive conditions in which
the forces of supply and demand determine value; a form of unbalanced exchange.
minimalism: a mode of consumption that emphasizes simplicity, is characterized by few and
finite consumer demands, and involves an adequate and sustainable means to achieve them.
mode of consumption: the dominant pattern, in a culture, of using things up or spending
resources in order to satisfy demands.
mode of exchange: the dominant pattern, in a culture, of transferring goods, services, and other
items between and among people and groups.
mode of livelihood: the dominant way of making a living in a culture.
pastoralism: a mode of livelihood based on keeping domesticated animals and using their
products, such as meat and milk, for most of the diet.
potlatch: a grand feast of Pacific Northwest cultures in which guests are invited to eat and to
receive gifts from the hosts.
pure gift: something given with no expectation or thought of a return.
redistribution: a form of exchange that involves one person collecting goods or money from
many members of a group who then, at a later time and at a public event, returns the pooled
goods to everyone who contributed.
trade: the formalized exchange of one thing for another according to set standards of value.
unbalanced exchange: a system of transfers in which one party seeks to make a profit.
use rights: a system of property relations in which a person or group has socially recognized
priority in access to particular resources such as gathering, hunting, and fishing areas and water
holes.
Video Suggestions
Across the Tracks: Vlach Gypsies in Hungary (Pennsylvania State University, 1988, 52 minutes).
This film highlights the lives of two Gypsy families who live in a village in Hungary as they
struggle to maintain their traditions. It contains substantial material on the importance to the
Gypsies of owning and trading horses and scenes of men making deals at a horse fair.
Anthropologist: Michael Stewart.
Before We Knew Nothing (1989, 62 minutes). This film portrays life of the Ashaninka of the
Peruvian Amazon rain forest. It provides reflections on living among and filming the
Ashaninka and their attempts to resist change from the outside. The film pays attention to the
gender division of labor, providing a sensitive exploration of women roles and feelings.
Professor Steven Kellman of the University of Texas at San Antonio says that this film is an
absorbing achievement in ethnography.
Cashing in on Culture: Indigenous Communities and Tourism (Berkeley Media LLC, 2002, 28
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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

minutes). Produced by Regina Harrison. This documentary, filmed in the tropical forest
community of Capirona, Ecuador, provides a case study of the issues surrounding ecotourism
as managed by an indigenous group. The film interweaves footage of the Capirona Indians,
Ecuadorian tour operators, anthropologists and other academics, and college-age American
tourists to examine the benefits and costs of such tourism. The cash flow from tourism that is
managed directly by the Indians bypasses the by travel agencies and tour operators and may
be able to sustain the community and its culture if revenues are distributed equitably. The
film raises the question of how indigenous communities can run successful tourist operations
that benefit their culture and do not ruin the environment.
The Chinampas (1990, 31 minutes). This video examines an ecologically sustainable system of
cultivation that has flourished in Mexico for 2000 years. Surviving now only on the edge of
Mexico City, the chinampa zone is an area of canals and islands, trees, flowers, and crops.
Chinampa farmers explain how the system works. Professor John Adair comments that this is
A powerful visual document of great value to students of the environment and culture
change...
Desert People (CRM McGraw Hill Films, 1987, 51 minutes). This classic black and white film
depicts an average day in the lives of two families of the Western Desert in Australia as they
search for food, cook it, and eat together.
Goldwidows (First Run/Icarus Films, 1991, 52 minutes). Focusing on four Basotho women of
Lesotho whose husbands have left to mine in South Africa, this video shows how the women
cope, on their own, in the context of an oppressive economic system.
Kula: Argonauts of the Western Pacific (Nippon Television Network, rental only, 1971, 90
minutes). This film records a kula voyage by the men of Sinaketa in the Trobriand Islands.
Japanese production in English.
Kypseli: Women and Men ApartA Divided Reality (Berkeley Media LLC, 1976, 40 minutes).
This film provides insights into male and female roles in a small Greek island village
showing the gender division of labor and gender segregation in several aspects of life
including leisure activities. The film links the Mediterranean mode of agricultural production
with the complex system of kinship and marriage patterns.
Maharajah Burger (Filmakers Library, 2000, 50 minutes). This film looks at the cultural
confrontation between East and West as reflected in attitudes toward cows and beef
consumption. It shows a hospice for aged cows in India, reactions of Hindus to the mass
slaughter of cows in Europe because of mad cow disease, and the opening in New Delhi of
McDonalds with its special feature, the Maharajah Burger.
Mama Benz: An African Market Woman (Filmakers Library, 2003, 48 minutes). African markets
are often dominated by older women who control prices and, due to their business skills,
often become wealthy. The film focuses on one woman who presides over the cloth market in
Lome, Togo. Mama Benz is well-dressed, has a fully staffed mansion, and a Mercedes Benz.
Nomads of the Rainforest (NOVA series, 1983, 59 minutes). Hailed as one of the great
ethnographic films of the 1980s, this documentary records a multidisciplinary expedition to
research the Waoroni, an isolated tribe of the Amazon rainforest. It examines the daily life
and ritual of this egalitarian group and provides a spectacular scene of blowgun hunters.
Ongkas Big Moka: The Kawelka: (Pennsylvania State University, 52 minutes). This video
documents the way that men gain status and become leaders through gift-giving in moka
ceremonies among the Kawelka of highland Papua New Guinea.
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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Pig Tusks and Paper Money (Filmakers Library, 2000, 50 minutes). The major currencies in
Papua New Guinea are Western-style cash and traditional items such as shell money, banana
leaves, and pig tusks. A problem arises, however, because exchange between the two
categories is not possible. This film shows Henry Tokabaks attempt to create a bank where
people can exchange shell money for cash and the obstacles he faced.
A Poor Man Shames Us All (Biniman Productions Ltd., 1992, 60 minutes). This PBS video
explores the views of wealth of people living in non-industrial, non-capitalist tribal
societies. Anthropologist David Maybury-Lewis traces the development of market capitalism
and how it contrasts with non-capitalist systems.
The Rendille (Pennsylvania State University, 1977, 53 minutes). This film shows the
relationships between the Rendille herders and their most precious resource, the camel. It
indicates how drought has decreased the camel population, forcing the herders to move to
Nairobi. Anthropologist: Anders Grum.
Runa: Guardians of the Forest (1990, 28 minutes). This film documents the profound ecological
knowledge of the Runa of Amazonian Ecuador with implications for the preservation of the
rain forest. It explores, with commentary by the Runa, their adaptation to life in the rain
forest and their reactions to outside forces that are increasingly impinging on their
environment and way of life. In the UC catalogue, Professor Luis Kemnitzer of San
Francisco State University says that this film is One of the few films about swidden
agriculture that shows it in process, with native peoples themselves describing their resource
management practices...
Seed and Earth (Filmakers Library, 1997, 36 minutes). Everyday life in a village in West Bengal,
India, is the subject of this film, produced by Lina Fruzetti and Akos Ostor, both
filmmakers/anthropologists. Rice cultivation is the basis of the village economy. Eating,
washing, gossiping, and visiting are captured without intrusive narration.
The Story of Nanook (Canadian Broadcasting Company, 2002, 50 minutes). In 1920, explorer
Robert Flaherty arrived on the eastern shore of Hudson Bay to film a year in the life of an
Inuit hunter. This film presents the story of the making of the worlds first ethnographic
documentary, Nanook of the North, and of the Inuit people who were filmed in it.
Taigana: The Last Reindeer People in Mongolia (Filmakers Library, 2003, 17 minutes). This
film depicts the Taigana, a tribe of nomadic reindeer herders living in the mountainous
Hovsgol region of Mongolia, near the Siberian border. It addresses the consequences of the
Mongolian governments restriction of the Taiganas movements: reindeer waste increased,
many reindeer sickened and died, and forty per cent of the tribe contracted
gastroenterological illness and diseases of the joints.
Voices of the Sierra Tarahumara (Berkeley Media LLC, 2001, 51 minutes). This documentary,
produced by Robert Brewster and Felix Gehm, examines the plight of the indigenous
Tarahumara people of northern Mexico. The Tarahumara are poor farmers who live in
isolated villages in an area known as the Copper Canyon, about 300 miles south of the Texas
border. In the 1990s a World Bank forestry project began building logging roads into some of
the last old-growth forests in the region. Seizing this opportunity, drug lords began a
campaign of terror and murder against the Tarahumara, stealing their lands to sell to loggers
and forcing the Tarahumara to grow marijuana and opium for them. Tarahumara people who
resist or speak out against the "narcotrafficantes" are threatened with death or murdered.
Edwin Bustillos, an outside human rights organizer, and a group of indigenous leaders vow to
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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

fight back. Jerome M. Levi, Associate Professor of Anthropology at Carleton College


comments, This extraordinary and courageous documentary opens up for students a rare
window onto one of the largest and most remote indigenous groups in Mexico. Most
importantly, it allows students to visualize at an intimate level the conflicts and the prospects
for the land and people of this embattled territory
A Way to Move On: Womens Savings Associations in Dakar (Filmakers Library, 2002, 23
minutes). After Senegal went through an economic crisis in the 1980s, women began forming
savings associations as a way to empower themselves financially. This video shows how
these associations work and their effects on the women who join them.
Women of the Sahel (First Run/Icarus Films, 1995, 52 minutes). In Niger only 50,000 of the
nearly nine million people are salaried workers. Instead, most people work in the informal
sector which accounts for more than half of Nigers economy. In the informal sector, incomes
are meager but essential to the survival of thousands of Nigerian families. The women of the
Sahel region are the pillars of the informal economy. While the men are often away in search
of seasonal work in neighboring countries, the women support their families. This video
shows women as they make peanut oil, extract salt from the earth, and make plaster from
gypsum. It introduces women who make pottery, straw mats, and leather work, and shows
some of the cooperative organizations the women have organized to provide loans or sell
products to wholesalers and exporters.
A World of Food: Tastes and Taboos in Different Cultures (2000, 34 minutes). This video
explores the variety of food preferences and aversions around the world, featuring testimony
from people about their food experiences and food confrontations. It also covers food
prohibitions, reasons for food rules and what happens when food rules are violated.
Suggested Readings
Anne Allison. Nightwork: Sexuality, Pleasure and Corporate Masculinity in a Tokyo Hostess
Club. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994. Based on the authors participant
observation, this book explores what it is like to work as a hostess in a club that caters to
corporate male employees and discusses mens corporate work culture.
Theodore C. Bestor. Tsukiji: The Fish Market at the Center of the World. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 2004. This ethnography of Tsukiji, the huge fish market in Tokyo, describes
how it is a workplace for thousands of people, a central node in the Japanese fishing industry,
and part of the global economy.
Michael Blim. Equality and Economy: The Global Challenge. New York: AltaMira Press, 2005.
The author examines the relationships between global capitalism and social inequality at
three levels: households, states, and international.
Denise Brennan. Whats Love Got to Do With It? Transnational Desires and Sex Tourism in the
Dominican Republic. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004. This account of global sex
tourism is located in the town of Sosa, Dominican Republic, where Afro-Dominican and
Afro-Haitian women sell sex to foreign, White tourists.
Jans Dahl. Saqqaq: An Inuit Hunting Community in the Modern World. Toronto: University of
Toronto Press, 2000. This ethnography of the Saqqaq, people of eastern Greenland, is based
on fieldwork carried out at several times since 1980 in order to provide a diachronic
perspective.
Daniel Dohan. The Price of Poverty: Money, Work, and Culture in the Mexican American
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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Barrio. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. This ethnography explores poverty
among Mexican Americans in two neighborhoods in California: undocumented immigrants
in San Jose who work mainly in the Silicon Valley and urban Chicanos of Los Angeles.
J. A. English-Lueck. Cultures@SiliconValley. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2002. A team
of professors and anthropology students at San Jose State University have been conducting
research for over a decade in Silicon Valley, and this book is the result of that work. The
focus is on describing what life is like for people in a technology-saturated environment,
from working to shopping to family life.
Elliot Fratkin. Ariaal Pastoralists of Kenya: Surviving Drought and Development in Africas
Arid Lands. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998. Several phases of ethnographic research among
the Ariaal people of northern Kenya, beginning in the 1970s, provide insights about
pastoralism and changes it is undergoing in the area. The book also discusses social
organization and family life.
Carla Freeman. High Tech and High Heels in the Global Economy: Women, Work, and PinkCollar Identities in the Caribbean. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2000. This study
examines the effects of globalization in the context of informatics, or information-based
work, in Barbados. The women workers express agency in terms of their self-definition as
professionals.
Dwight B. Heath. Drinking Occasions: Comparative Perspectives on Alcohol and Culture. New
York: Taylor & Francis, 2000. This book provides an ethnological review of alcohol consumption and looks at questions such as when people drink alcohol, where people drink, who
drinks and who does not, what people drink, and why people drink.
Ann Kingsolver. NAFTA Stories: Fears and Hopes in Mexico and the United States. Boulder,
CO: Lynne Reiner Publishers, 2001. The author collected stories about NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) during the early 1990s as told by everyday people in Mexico
City and two cities in Morelos, Mexico. She worked collaboratively with a Mexican
anthropologist.
Bill Maurer. Mutual Life, Limited: Islamic Banking, Alternative Currencies, Lateral Reason.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005. This comparison of Islamic bankers who
seek to avoid interest with local currency and proponents who seek to provide an alternative
to capitalist financial mechanisms shows how both resist and sometimes replicate Western
capitalism.
Linda J. Seligmann, ed. Women Traders in Cross-Cultural Perspective: Mediating Identities,
Marketing Wares. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. The chapters include attention to historic patterns of womens participation in Mexicos markets, and case studies of
contemporary women marketeers in Java, South India, Ghana, the Philippines, Morocco, and
Hungary.
Michael K. Steinberg, Joseph J. Hobbs, and Kent Mathewson, eds. Dangerous Harvest: Drug
Plants and the Transformation of Indigenous Landscapes. New York: Oxford University
Press, 2004. The chapters in this book address opium and the people of Laos, opium
production in Afghanistan and Pakistan, struggles over coca in Bolivia, marijuana growing
by the Maya, use of kava in the Pacific, and policy questions
For further information about topics covered in this chapter, go to MyAnthroLab at
www.myanthrolab.com and access the following readings in MyAnthroLibrary:
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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Olga F. Linares, From Past to Future Agricultural Expertise in Africa: Jola Women of Senegal
Expand Market-Gardening. 2009. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
106(50):2107421079. Forty years of fieldwork show how Senegalese women are adapting
to economic change and using their traditional farming knowledge to feed their families.
Ana Eliza Port Laurenco, Ricardo Ventura Santos, Jesem D. Y. Orellana, and Carlos E. A.
Coimbra. 2008. Nutrition Transition in Amazonia: Obesity and Socioeconomic Change in the
Suru Indians form Brazil. American Journal of Human Biology 20(50):564-571. The authors
document dietary changes among an Amazonian group and show how they relate to the
emergence of obesity in the population.
Tristam Riley-Smith, The Temple of Trade: On Consumerism, 2010. Chapter 2 in The Cracked
Bell: America and the Afflictions of Liberty. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. Pp. 45-76.
Riley-Smith is a British anthropologist who spent several years in the United States while
working for the British Embassy. In this chapter he offers a cultural view of American
consumerism.

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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Chapter 4
Reproduction and Human Development
Chapter Outline
Modes of Reproduction
The Foraging Mode of Reproduction
The Agricultural Mode of Reproduction
The Industrial/Informatics Mode of Reproduction
CULTURAMA: The Old Order Amish of the United States and Canada
Culture and Fertility
Sexual Intercourse
When to Begin Having Intercourse?
Anthropology Works: Studying Sexual Behavior among MSM in New York City
Intercourse Frequency and Fertility
Fertility Decision Making
At the Family Level
At the State Level
At the Global Level
Fertility Control
Indigenous Methods
Induced Abortion
The New Reproductive Technologies
Infanticide
Personality and the Life Cycle
Birth, Infancy, and Childhood
The Birth Context
Bonding
Gender in Infancy
Socialization during Childhood
Adolescence and Identity
Is Adolescence a Universal Life-Cycle Stage?
Coming Of Age and Gender Identity
Critical Thinking: Cultural Relativism and Female Genital Cutting
Sexual Identity and Gender Pluralism
Adulthood
Becoming a Parent
Middle Age
The Senior Years
The Final Passage: Death and Dying
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Maps
Map 4.1 Old Order Amish Population of North America
Map 4.2 Morocco
Map 4.3 Mexico
Map 4.4 Maasai Region of Kenya and Tanzania
Map 4.5 Sierra Leone
Map 4.6 Region of the Central African Republic and the Democratic Republic of Congo
The Big Questions
How are modes of reproduction related to modes of livelihood?
Cultural anthropologists define three modes of reproduction that are related to foraging,
agriculture, and industrialism/ informatics. They differ in terms of desired and actual fertility.
For thousands of years, foragers maintained a balanced level of population through direct
and indirect means of fertility regulation. A classic study of the Ju/hoansi shows how foragers
lifestyles, including low fat diet and womens physical activity, suppress fertility.
As sedentary lifestyles increased and food surpluses became more available and storable
with agriculture, population growth increased. The highest rates of population growth in human
prehistory and history are found among settled agriculturalists. Contemporary examples of highfertility agriculturalists are the Amish and Mennonite people of North America.
How does culture shape fertility in different contexts?
Cross-culturally, many techniques exist for increasing fertility, reducing it, and regulating its
timing. From culture to culture, values differ about the right age for people to start having sexual
relations and how often they do so. In terms of cultural practices that directly affect fertility,
hundreds of different traditional methods exist, including the use of herbs and other natural
substances for either preventing or promoting fertilization and for inducing abortion if an
undesired pregnancy occurs.
In nonindustrialized societies, the knowledge about and practice of fertility regulation is
largely unspecialized and available to all women. In the industrial/informatics mode of
reproduction, scientific and medical specialization increases, and most knowledge and expertise
are in the hands of professionals rather than of women. Class-stratified access to fertilityregulating methods now exists both globally and within nations.
Population growth is also shaped through the practice of infanticide, which, though of
ancient origin, still exists today. It is sometimes performed in response to limited family
resources, perceptions of inadequate fitness of the child, or preferences regarding the gender of
offspring.
How does culture shape personality over the life cycle?
Cultural anthropologists emphasize the effects of infant care practices on personality formation,
including gender identity. Other cross-cultural studies show that childrens family and work roles
correspond to varying personality patterns. Adolescence, a culturally defined time beginning
around puberty and running until adulthood, varies cross-culturally from being nonexistent to
involving detailed training and elaborate ceremonies.
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In contrast to the sharp distinction between male and female in Euro-American


culture, many cultures have traditions of third or blurred gender identities. Gender pluralism is
found in many cultures, especially in some American Indian and Asian cultures. Asexuality,
when a person has no attraction, is a newly recognized category of personal identity.
Cross-culturally, adult roles usually involve parenthood. In nonindustrial societies,
learning about motherhood is embedded in other aspects of life and knowledge about birthing
and child care is shared among women. In industrialized/informatics cultures, science and
medicine play a large part in defining the maternal role.
The senior years are generally shorter in nonindustrialized societies than in
industrialized/informatics societies, where life spans tend to be longer. Elder men and women in
nonindustrial cultures are treated with respect, are assumed to know the most, and retain a strong
sense of their place in the culture. Increasingly in industrialized/informatics societies, elderly
people live apart from their families and spend many years in age-segregated institutions or
alone.
Critical Thinking Questions
1.
How would a cultural anthropologist explore the concept of "recreational sex" crossculturally? Would this be a useful research project?
2.
How do the theories of human agency versus structurism apply to the cases of parents
who kill a child they consider "deformed" or weak?
3.
Why might industrialized/informatics cultures socialize their members into being more
"self-centered" than non-industrialized cultures?
4.
Why is "female genital cutting," in the eyes of much the world, a more controversial
practice than male circumcision?
Internet Exploration
1.
Learn about what the current state policy in China is regarding how many children a
family may have.
2.
Locate websites searching the terms berdache, amazon, and hjira. What information is
available?
Learning Objectives: After reading this chapter, students should be able to:
Explain the differences among the three modes of reproduction.
Describe the different cultural patterns of sexual intercourse frequency and how they relate to
fertility.
Discuss why cultural anthropologists think that "family planning" is as old as humanity.
Review examples of cross-cultural techniques of fertility control.
Recognize how different cultures shape personality and a sense of identity during childhood
and how these differences relate to the mode of livelihood.
Describe how homosexuality is variably defined cross-culturally and often accepted without
stigma.
Discuss the concept of gender pluralism and identify some contexts where it exists.
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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Explain how parent roles differ and resemble each other cross-culturally.
Describe how elders are treated in various cultures and how attitudes toward death vary
cross-culturally.
Discuss the culture of the Old Order Amish of the United States and Canada and
contemporary challenges they are facing.
Recognize and locate the places that appear in the maps in this chapter and know something
about their social characteristics.
Key Concepts
adolescence: a culturally defined period of maturation from the time of puberty until adulthood
that is recognized in some, but not all cultures.
amazon: a person who is biologically female but takes on a male gender role.
asexuality: lack of sexual attraction or interest in sexual activity.
berdache: a blurred gender category, usually referring to a person who is biologically male but
who takes on a female gender role.
couvade: customs applying to the behavior of fathers during and shortly after the birth of their
children.
demographic transition: the change from the agricultural pattern of high fertility and high
mortality to the industrial pattern of low fertility and low mortality.
female genital cutting (FGC): a range of practices involving partial or total removal of the
clitoris and labia.
fertility: the rate of births in a population or the rate of population increase in general.
gender pluralism: the existence within a culture of multiple categories of femininity,
masculinity, and blurred genders that are tolerated and legitimate.
hijra: in India, a blurred gender role in which a person, usually biologically male, takes on
female dress and behavior.
infanticide: the killing of an infant or child.
matrescence: motherhood, or the cultural process of becoming a mother.
menarche: the onset of menstruation.
menopause: the cessation of menstruation
mode of reproduction: the predominant pattern, in a culture, of population change through the
combined effect of fertility (birth rate) and mortality (death rate).
patrescence: fatherhood, or the cultural process of becoming a father.
personality: an individuals patterned and characteristic way of behaving, thinking, and feeling.
pronatalism: an ideology promoting many children.
puberty: a time in the human life cycle that occurs universally and involves a set of biological
markers and sexual maturation.
Video Suggestions

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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Balinese Family (Pennsylvania State University, 1951, 17 minutes). This classic film by
Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson shows how a Balinese mother and father treat their
three youngest children: the lap baby, the knee baby, and the child nurse.
Becoming a Woman in Okrika (Filmakers Library, 1991, 27 minutes). This documentary records
a coming-of-age ritual for young women of a village in Nigeria which includes methodically
fattening them, body painting, and public scrutiny by the older women. After an elaborate
celebration, the young women run a race in which they are pursued by young men.
Afterwards, the young women are ready for childbearing and adulthood.
Birth and Belief in the Andes of Ecuador (1995, 28 minutes). This portrait of Andean women
documents their beliefs and practices surrounding child birth and infant care. Without
modern medical care, Andean women manage their reproductive practices by relying on preColumbian beliefs about conception, the construction of the female body, the need for
seclusion of a new mother, and the differing natures of male and female infants. The video
emphasizes the physical and emotional benefits of this system. Produced by anthropologist
Lauris McKee. Professor Carol MacCormack comments that, "Anyone who thinks human
birth is just runaway biology should see this film. It is an excellent tool for bridging culture
and biology..."
Blood of the Condor (Pennsylvania State University, 1969, 71 minutes). This film presents the
re-enactment of an actual incident involving the forced sterilization of a Quechua Indian
woman as part of a U.S.-imposed birth control program. It depicts the different class levels of
Bolivian society of the time (1969) from the impoverished Indian communities to workingclass mestizo populations and the privileged whites of La Paz.
A Family in France: A Story about the Passing of Time (Filmakers Library, 1993, 40 minutes).
This film provides a portrait of a country family living in Cassaniouze, a small village in
Auvergne province. Their story shows how rural traditions are eroding in the face of
industrialism. The village of 700 people is not reproducing itself, and most of the inhabitants
are aging and retired.
Fire Eyes: Female Circumcision (Filmakers Library, 1995, 60 minutes). Somali film maker
Soraya Mire knows firsthand about the practice of female genital mutilation because, at the
age of thirteen years, she was subjected to it and then spent the next twenty years recovering.
This video explores the socio-economic, psychological and medical consequences of this
custom which affects more than 80 million women worldwide. Viewers meet several women
who have gone through the rite of passage. Some say they would like to spare their
daughters, others express fear that avoiding it will make their daughters unmarriageable.
Testimony from doctors is included.
Gay Youth (Filmakers Library, 1992, 40 minutes). This is the first video to explore the emotional
strain on gay youth in the United States as a result of social stigma and isolation. While
adolescence in the United States is typically a time of conformity when one needs to feel
secure in a peer group, lesbian and gay youth are acutely aware of being different and of
having few people to turn to for support. Isolation frequently turns them to alcohol abuse,
homelessness and even suicide. Statistics from the early 1990s show that, in the United
States, one-third of youth suicides occurred among gays and lesbians. This video documents
the life and suicide death of a young man with that of an "out" young woman activist who is
involved in organizing for support of gay youth.

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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Gift of a Girl: Female Infanticide (Filmakers Library, 1998, 24 minutes). This film explores the
complexity of female infanticide in southern India and shows steps that were being taken to
eradicate the practice as of the late 1990s.
Guardians of the Flutes: The Secrets of Male Initiation (Filmakers Library, 1996, 55 minutes).
The horticultural Sambia live in the interior mountain region of Papua New Guinea. In
Sambia society, male and female worlds are sharply differentiated. Men and women live
separately. Women must crouch in the presence of their husbands. Women's menstrual blood
is considered polluting to men, damaging to their vigor. Initiation rituals for males are aimed
at making boys into warriors. The boys are thrashed, deprived of food and sleep, and have
ginger rubbed into their wounds. The most secret part of the initiation involves sexual rites
which several initiates describe.
Jareena: Portrait of a Hidja (Third World Newsreel, 1990, 25 minutes). This video offers a
profile of a transsexual and her community in the Indian city of Bangalore. It provides insight
into the lifestyles of the Hidjas, a society of eunuchs numbering in the tens of thousands who
have lived in India for centuries. Many of the Hidjas work as male prostitutes. They are a
close-knit social community. Jareena, who assumes the role of a man when she visits her
family, explains this duality and how the Hidjas helped her form her identity and assert her
true self.
Juchitan Queer Paradise (Filmakers Library, 2004, 64 minutes). This video is a portrait of
Juchitan, a small Mexican city near the Guatemalan border where homosexuality is fully
accepted. Gays are simply a third gender. The film profiles three gay people: a teacher, a
hairdresser and a shop owner.
Kinaalda: Navajo Rite of Passage (Women Make Movies, 2000, 56 minutes). The Kinaalda
ceremony is a complex four-day event performed to guide a young girls ascent to
womanhood. In this unique documentary, Navajo filmmaker Lena Carr journeys back to her
own childhood by chronicling her 13-year old nieces initiation.
Maasai: A Warriors Rite of Passage. (Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 2008, 40 minutes).
This program examines the three-day initiation ceremony of Maasai warriors in Kenyas
Shampole region. Viewers learn about the ceremonial duties of various tribal members
including the leader of the initiates and a prominent Maasai woman, both of whom describe
the rewards of participation. The film shows warriors suffocating a sacrificial bull, drinking
its blood from a neck incision, butchering it, and cooking and eating the meat. Traditional
dances, singing, and foraging are also depicted.
Making Maasai Men: Growing Courage Toward Circumcision. (Berkeley Media LLC, 2006, 32
minutes). Produced by Barbara G. Hoffman. This documentary explores the complex
meanings of masculinity and Maasai ethnicity, and the place of circumcision and its attendant
rituals in their cultural construction. Commentary is provided by David Kampatae ole
Oinyeyie, an unmarried junior elder, who discusses the experiences of Maasai boys that grow
their courage until they are ready for the ultimate test of the knife. The principal events that
surround and take place in a Maasai circumcision are shown in detail, including an actual
surgery. David also discusses how Maasai life is changing as Western life influences tastes,
desires, and practices.
Masai Manhood (Granada Television, 1975, 53 minutes). A view of the lives of Masai men,
especially of the moran (warriors) and the dramatic eunoto ceremony which marks their

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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

transition from warriorhood to the responsibilities of elderhood. The film provides insight
into rituals and ceremonies that are no longer practiced.
Masai Women (Granada Television International, 1974, 53 minutes). The Masai are cattle herders
living in the East African Rift Valley. Men have exclusive control over rights to cattle and
women are dependent throughout their lives on father, husband or son for rights to access to
property. This film uses extensive interviews to detail key moments in the womens lives,
especially their initiation and marriage, and the initiation of their sons.
N!ai: The Story of a !Kung Woman (Documentary Educational Resources, 1980, 59 minutes).
This film covers 27 years in the life of a Ju/hoansi [!Kung] woman of Namibia's Kalahari
desert, told through N!ai's words and songs.
Paradise Bent (Filmakers Library, 2000, 50 minutes). This film is an exploration of the Samoan
fa'afafines, boys who are raised as girls, fulfilling a traditional role in Samoan culture. The
film shows how in large Samoan families there may be one or two fa'afafines that are
accepted and appreciated. Several anthropologists, including Derek Freeman and Tom
Pollard, comment on the phenomenon. .
Pashke and Sofia (Women Make Movies, 2003, 28 minutes). This film shows the age-old custom
that allows Albanian women to change their gender by taking the oath of a sworn virgin.
Pashke is one of the women who promised not to marry, bear children and to remain celibate
in return for the status and respect deemed worthy of a male.
Rights of Passage (Filmakers Library, 1996, 30 minutes). Through the stories of four adolescent
girls who are coming-of-age in different parts of the world, this film presents their various
views of this transition in their own words. Locations are: Nicaragua, India, Jamaica, and
Burkina Faso.
Senegal--The Power to Change: Combating Female Genital Mutilation (Filmakers Library,
2000, 29 minutes). This film documents a protest movement that began in at the village level
in Senegal in 1997 against the practice of what was referred to as Female Genital Mutilation.
It led to a state ban against the practice in 1999.
Spirit Possession of Alejandro Mamani (Documentary Educational Resources, 1975, 27
minutes). This film provides a portrait of an aged Bolivian farmer as he confronts old age and
death. He believes that he is possessed by evil spirits. His story connects life-cycle issues
with cross-cultural mental health.
Stolen Generations: Genocide and the Aborigines (Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 2000,
53 minutes). Starting in the 1930s, thousands of children across Australia were forcibly taken
from their families simply because they were Aboriginal. In this award-winning program, the
tragic story is told of a state-sanctioned attempt to assimilate and, thereby, eradicate a race by
segregating its full-blooded members and marrying its half-castes into the white population
for biological absorption. Fueled by eugenics theories, the Australian government
transported half-caste children to far-flung missions for eventual adoption, leaving those
behind to die out. Personal accounts, along with news-reel footage, provide a history of one
of the 20th centurys most shameful legacies.
Three Island Women (Documentary Educational Resources, 1975, 17 minutes). This film
observes the roles of three womenone young, one middle-aged, and one oldwho live on
the Soko Islands of Hong Kong Territory.
Womanhood and Circumcision: Three Maasai Women Have Their Say. (Berkeley Media LLC,
2002, 30 minutes). Produced by Barbara G. Hoffman. This documentary sensitively explores
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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

the cultural context of female genital-cutting practices among the Maasai. A mother and her
two daughters discuss their feelings about female circumcision and its meaning in their lives.
The film follows one of the daughters through all aspects of the process except the surgery
itself. She is shaven in preparation for the surgery; neighborhood girls crowd around the
window of the room where the operation is going on; immediately after the surgery, she
stands and walks to the bed where she smiles proudly as she lies down to rest while the elders
sing in her honor. The women compare the pain of circumcision and that of childbirth.
Dorothy L. Hodgson, Professor of Anthropology, Rutgers University comments: "An
excellent film for teaching and talking about the controversial subject of female
circumcision. Short, engaging, and directwe hear and watch Maasai women discuss their
own feelings and experiences, without layers of scholarly interpretation and judgment. The
multi-generational perspectives, and the comparisons some women make between the pain of
childbirth and circumcision, contribute to the debate in insightful ways.
Women of the Yellow Earth (Filmakers Library, 1996, 50 minutes). This film is about two women
of rural China. Bai has just delivered her third child and is in trouble with local family
planning officials. Ma Ning is about to be married through arrangements of a matchmaker.
Bai is about to give her third child up for adoption but her husband resists thiseven though
the child is a girl. Bai knows that soon she will be forced to undergo sterilization. The camera
follows her to a hospital. In contrast, Ma Ning's life as a mother is just beginning. The bride
is escorted to her husband's village; all her possessions accompany her in a wheelbarrow. The
groom's side provides the furnishing for the new couple which includes a much coveted 18inch television.
Suggested Readings
Robbie E. Davis-Floyd. Birth as an American Rite of Passage, 2nd ed.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. This book provides a
cultural critique of the dominant U.S. model of birth as technocratic and
patriarchal.
Jessica L. Gregg. Virtually Virgins: Sexual Strategies and Cervical Cancer in
Recife, Brazil. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003. Research
with women residents of a poor urban area in northeast Brazil and with
women cancer victims in a neighborhood maternity clinic shows how the
women attempt to deal with racism, sexism, poverty, and violence.
Ellen Gruenbaum. The Female Circumcision Controversy: An Anthropological
Perspective. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001. The
author draws on her more than five years of fieldwork in Sudan and
discusses how change is occurring through economic development, the
role of Islamic activists, health educators, and educated African women.
Shahram Khosravi. Young and Defiant in Tehran. Philadelphia: University of
Pennsylvania Press, 2008. This ethnographic study documents how youth
in the Iranian capital contest official culture and parental domination.
Robert A. LeVine and Rebecca S. New, ed. Anthropology and Child
Development: A Cross-Cultural Reader. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing,
2008. Twenty-four chapters discuss childhood around the world. The
collection includes classic essays by Boas, Mead, and Malinowski as well
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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

as recent studies. Some chapters present case studies and some are
comparative. Topics range from child care in the Kalahari Desert to
childrens play in Italy.
Michael Moffatt. Coming of Age in New Jersey: College and American Culture.
New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1991. Based on a years
participant observation in a college dormitory in a university in the
eastern United States, this study discusses sexuality, race relations, and
individualism.
Leith Mullings and Alaka Wali. Stress and Resilience: The Social Context of
Reproduction in Central Harlem. New York: Kluwer Academic, 2001.
Documenting the daily efforts of African Americans to contend with
oppressive conditions, this ethnography focuses on the experiences of
women during pregnancy.
Frances Norwood. The Maintenance of Life: Preventing Social Death through
Euthanasia Talk and End-of-Life Care, Lessons from the Netherlands.
Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2009. Norwood conducted
participant observation on end-of-life discourse, home death, and
euthanasia in the Netherlands.
Michael G. Peletz. Gender Pluralism: Southeast Asia since Early Modern
Times. New York: Routledge, 2008. This book provides an understanding
of the historical cultural traditions of crossdressing and the current
political climate toward transvestites and homosexuals in Southeast Asia.
Sarah Pinto. Where There Is No Midwife: Birth and Loss in Rural India. New
York: Bergahn Books, 2008. Pinto examines womens experiences with
childbirth and infant death in a poor region in rural northern India with
high rates of infant mortality.
Nancy Scheper-Hughes. Death without Weeping: The Violence of Everyday
Life in Brazil. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. This book is a
landmark ethnography of death, based on fieldwork in a shantytown in
northeastern Brazil. The author argues that extreme social inequality in
Brazil creates a stratified demography.
John W. Traphagan. Taming Oblivion: Aging Bodies and the Fear of Senility in
Japan. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2000. The author
conducted fieldwork in a small town north of Tokyo to investigate peoples
attitudes and practices related to old age, especially as aging people
attempt to prevent the onset of the boke condition, or what Westerners
call senility.
Andrea S. Wiley. An Ecology of High-Altitude Infancy: A Biocultural
Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Ladakh is a
district in Indias far north, high in the Himalayas. Wiley focuses on the
links between biology and culture in birth, in infant health and survival,
and in womens reproductive health.

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For further information about topics covered in this chapter, go to


MyAnthroLab at www.myanthrolab.com and access the following readings
in MyAnthroLibrary:
Ahmadu, Fuambai. 2009. Disputing the Myth of the Sexual Dysfunction of
Circumcised Women: An Interview with Fuambai Ahmadu. Anthropology
Today 25:1417. Richard Shweder, a strong cultural relativist, interviews a
woman of Sierra Leone descent who grew up in the United States and
chose to return to Sierra Leone for initiation into her lineage.
Sabine, Gabrysch et al. 2009. Cultural Adaptation of Birthing Services in Rural Ayacucho Peru.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization 87:724-729. A team of public health researchers
learns from the local women what a birthing clinic should provide so that the services are
compatible with their culture.
Uehara, Ray T. 2009. Development the Agta Database: A Computer Scientists Adventure into
the World of Anthropology. Practicing Anthropology 31:3842. Cultural anthropologist
Thomas Headland requested help from Uehara in developing a database for all his population
data on the Agta, foragers of the Philippines. This article chronicles the project and the
challenges of working across disciplines

35
Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Chapter 5
Disease, Illness, and Healing
Chapter Outline
Ethnomedicine
Defining and Classifying Health Problems
Ethno-Etiologies
Healing Ways
Community Healing
Humoral Healing
Healers
Healing Substances
Eye On The Environment: Local Botanical Knowledge and Child Health in the Bolivian
Amazon
Three Theoretical Approaches
The Ecological/Epidemiological Approach
The Interpretivist Approach
Critical Medical Anthropology
Social Inequality and Poverty
Cultural Critique of Western Biomedical Training
Globalization and Change
New Infectious Diseases
Diseases of Development
Medical Pluralism
Selective Pluralism: The Case of the Sherpa
CULTURAMA: The Sherpa of Nepal
Conflicting Explanatory Models
Anthropology Works: Delivering Health Care in Rural Haiti
Applied Medical Anthropology
Reducing Lead Poisoning among Mexican American Children
Public Health Communication
Promoting Vaccination Programs in Developing Countries
Working Together: Western Biomedicine and Nonbiomedical Systems
Maps
Map 5.1 The Philippines
Map 5.2 The Republic of Bolivia
Map 5.3 Precolonial Distribution of Indian Tribes in the 48 United States
Map 5.4 Designated Reservations in the 48 United States
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Map 5.5 Nepal


Map 5.6 Samoa and American Samoa
The Big Questions
What is ethnomedicine?
Ethnomedicine is the study of health systems of specific cultures. Health systems include
categories and perceptions of illness and approaches to prevention and healing. Research in
ethnomedicine shows how perceptions of the body differ cross-culturally and reveals both
differences and similarities across health systems in perceptions of illness and symptoms.
Culture-specific syndromes are found in all cultures, not just non-Western societies, and many
are now becoming global.
Ethnomedical studies of healing, healing substances, and healers reveal a wide range of
approaches. Community healing is more characteristic of small-scale nonindustrial societies.
Community healing emphasizes group interaction and treating the individual within the social
context. Humoral healing seeks to maintain balance in bodily fluids and substances through diet,
activity, and behavior. In industrial/informatics societies, biomedicine emphasizes the body as a
discrete unit, and treatment addresses the individual body or mind and frames out the wider
social context. Biomedicine is increasingly reliant on technology and is increasingly specialized.
What are three major theoretical approaches in medical anthropology?
Ecological/epidemiological medical anthropology emphasizes links between the environment
and health. It reveals how certain categories of people are at risk of contracting particular
diseases within various contexts in historical times and the present.
The interpretivist approach focuses on studying illness and healing as a set of symbols and
meanings. Cross-culturally, definitions of health problems and healing systems for these
problems are embedded in meaning.
Critical medical anthropologists focus on health problems and healing within a structurist
framework. They ask what power relations are involved and who benefits from particular forms
of healing. They analyze the role of inequality and poverty in health problems. Some critical
medical anthropologists have critiqued Western biomedicine as being a system of social control.
How are health, illness, and healing changing during globalization?
Health systems everywhere are facing accelerated change in the face of globalization, which
includes the spread of Western capitalism as well as new diseases and new medical technologies.
The new infectious diseases are a challenge to health-care systems in terms of prevention and
treatment. Diseases of development are health problems caused by development projects that
change the physical and social environments, such as dams and mines, and by the changing diets
and activity patterns of people who live in developed settings which can lead to chronic
conditions such as diabetes and obesity.
The spread of Western biomedicine to many non-Western contexts is a major direction of
change. As a consequence, medical pluralism exists in all countries. The availability of Western
patent medicines has had substantial positive effects, but widespread overuse and self-medication

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can result in negative health consequences for individuals and the emergence of drug-resistant
disease strains.
Applied medical anthropologists play several roles in improving health systems. They may
inform medical care providers of more appropriate forms of treatment, guide local people about
their increasingly complex medical choices, help prevent health problems through changing
detrimental practices, or improve public health communication by making it more
culturally informed and effective.
Critical Thinking Questions
1.
Consider a major disease, such as HIV/AIDS or lung cancer. What would the three major
theoretical approaches contribute to understanding the disease?
2.
In the West, many beliefs about how to change ones diet to make it healthier are said to
be based on scientific evidence. Yet diet is an area where remarkable variation occurs in
belief about what is a healthy diet. What are your views on a healthy diet and how do they
relate to your microculture?
3.
Given the anthropological critique of Western biomedical training and practice, should
changes in it be made, and, if so, what changes?
4.
Should medical pluralism be promoted more widely around the world? What medical
systems should be involved in such pluralism? Should anthropologists be involved in such an
effort? If so, how? If not, why not?
Internet Exploration
1. Examine website sources about a particular disease, for example fetal alcohol syndrome,
hookworm, or sickle cell anemia. What cultural information can you find about the disease?
2. Go to the website of the World Health Organization (http://www.who.int/), and scan its
general contents. What are the major concerns of this organization?
3. Look for resources on culture-specific syndromes. Can you find some that are not mentioned
in the text? What are some of the explanations given for the causes of these illnesses?
4. Locate 4 or 5 recent articles from the journals Medical Anthropology Quarterly, Culture,
Medicine or Psychiatry, and Social Science and Medicine, and report on the topics being
discussed.
Learning Objectives: After reading this chapter, students should be able to:
Compare the three major theoretical approaches within medical anthropology and explain
how they each contribute to understanding health and illness cross-culturally.
Explain how culture interacts with ecology to shape disease patterns.
Explain how ethnomedical systems variously define the body, perceive of the relationship
between the body and disease, and define symptoms.
Provide examples of ethnomedical variation in preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease.
Discuss the role of poverty, gender inequality, and other forms of structural violence in the
distribution of disease/illness.

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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Describe what critical medical anthropology research reveals about Western biomedical
training.
List examples of how cultural anthropology can contribute to improved health care delivery.
Discuss the complexities involved in cultural change in the area of health care, especially
medical pluralism and health communication in multicultural contexts.
Discuss the culture of the Sherpa of Nepal and contemporary challenges they are facing.
Recognize and locate the places that appear in the maps in this chapter and know something
about their social characteristics.
Key Concepts
applied medical anthropology: the application of anthropological knowledge to furthering the
goals of health care providers.
community healing: healing that emphasizes the social context as a key component and which
is carried out within the public domain.
critical medical anthropology: approach within medical anthropology involving the analysis of
how economic and political structures shape peoples health status, their access to health care,
and the prevailing medical systems that exist in relation to them.
cultural broker: someone who is familiar with two cultures and can promote communication
and understanding across them.
culture-specific syndrome: a collection of signs and symptoms that is restricted to a particular
culture or a limited number of cultures.
disease: in the disease-illness dichotomy, a biological health problem that is objective and
universal.
disease of development: a health problem caused or increased by economic development
activities that have detrimental effects on the environment and peoples relationship with it.
ecological/epidemiological approach: an approach within medical anthropology that considers
how aspects of the natural environment and social environment interact to cause illness.
ethno-etiology: a culturally specific causal explanation for health problems and suffering.
ethnomedicine: the study of cross-cultural health systems.
historical trauma: the intergenerational transfer of the detrimental effects of colonialism from
parents to children.
humoral healing: healing that emphasizes balance among natural elements within the body.
illness: in the disease-illness dichotomy, culturally shaped perceptions and experiences of a
health problem.
medicalization: labeling a particular issue or problem as medical and requiring medical
treatment when, in fact, that issue or problem is economic or political.
medical pluralism: the existence of more than one health system in a culture; also, a
government policy to promote the integration of local healing systems into biomedical practice.
phytotherapy: healing through the use of plants.
placebo effect: a positive result from a healing method due to a symbolic or otherwise
nonmaterial factor.
shaman/shamanka: a male and female healer, respectively.
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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

somatization: the process through which the body absorbs social stress and manifests symptoms
of suffering.
structural suffering: human health problems caused by such economic and political factors as
war, famine, terrorism, forced migration, and poverty.
susto: fright/shock disease, a culture-specific syndrome found in Spain and Portugal and among
Latino people wherever they live; symptoms include back pain, fatigue, weakness, and lack of
appetite.
Western biomedicine (WBM): a healing approach based on modern Western science that
emphasizes technology for diagnosing and treating health problems related to the human body.
Video Suggestions
Between Two Worlds: The Hmong Shaman in America (Filmakers Library, 1996, 30 minutes).
This film documents the Hmong refugees who have been transplanted from their agrarian
mountain villages in northern Laos to cities in the US. It shows Hmong in rural Illinois
sacrificing a cow to save a sick baby and the attempts of a Christian missionary to convert
members of a Hmong family. It explores the phenomenon of SUNDS, in which many young
Hmong immigrants to the United States have died in their sleep for no apparent biological
cause.
Breaking Leaves (Filmakers Library, 1998, 30 minutes). In the Haitian countryside, people use
leaves, herbs, and massage to cure simple ailments. This video follows several men and
women as they gather healing leaves and then explain their preparation.
The Deadly Deception: The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male. (Films for
the Humanities and Sciences, 58 minutes). This film investigates the Tuskegee Study of
Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male in which test subjects were lured into the experiment
with promise of free treatment while the study was actually about the course of untreated
syphilis. It includes testimony from doctors who took part in the study and from survivors.
Donka: X-Ray of an African Hospital (First Run/Icarus Films, 1996, 59 minutes). This film
depicts daily life in the largest public hospital in Guinea. It follows patients, their families,
doctors, and nurses. Built in 1959 on a European model, the hospital staff organization shows
little awareness of the realities of life in the area.
Eduardo the Healer (Pennsylvania State University, 1978, 54 minutes). This classic black and
white film offers a portrait of Eduardo CalderonPeruvian fisherman, sculptor and shaman.
He is shown using incantations, group psychology, divination based on cutting open live
guinea pigs to view their organs, and hallucinogenic drugs as he attempts to heal various
ailments of Peruvian villagers.
Guinea Worm: End of the Road (First Run/Icarus Films, 1992, 28 minutes). Once prevalent
throughout Asia, Africa and the Americas, guinea worm is a water-borne parasite now
affecting around 100,000 people as opposed to millions in earlier years. This film is a case
study, from WHO planning to local government implementation and popular participation, of
a public health initiative.
Healers of Ghana (Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1993, 58 minutes). This film explores
the traditional medical practices of the Bono people of central Ghana and how their healers
are accommodating between Western biomedicine and their religiously-based medical
system. Traditional healers undergo painful spiritual possession during which deities reveal
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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

to them the causes of illnesses, which plants to use for treatment, who is perpetrating
witchcraft, and which villagers are endangering the group by improper behavior.
Himalayan Shaman of Northern Nepal (Pennsylvania State University, 1991, 15 minutes). This
film shows how a shaman in Nepal goes into a trance in which he is possessed by a deity.
The shaman is thereby able to assist his client by controlling the supernatural elements
afflicting him, divining, and curing by sucking out intrusive objects.
Macumba, Trance and Spirit Healing (Filmakers Library, 1985, 43 minutes). Millions of people
turn to spiritism for help with various afflictions. Shot mainly in Rio de Janeiro, this film
illuminates the roots and beliefs of Afro-Brazilian spirit religions as practiced by the
privileged rich and the illiterate poor. Categorized as voodoo or macumba, these sects
have been the targets of police raids. Now some of the techniques of trance healing are being
used by members of the medical profession to help people attain personal and social
equilibrium. The film shows treatment of schizophrenics, epileptics, and drug addicts with
spiritist techniques.
Magical Death (Documentary Educational Resources, 1973, 28 minutes). Yanomami shamans in
the Venezuelan Amazon take a drug to induce trances they need to do battle with shamans of
enemy villages. This classic black and white film includes scenes of curing by means of
sucking, massaging, chanting, and invoking supernatural demons to capture the souls of
enemy children.
NyamakutaThe One Who Receives: An African Midwife (Filmakers Library, 1989, 32 minutes).
Mai Mafuta is a nyamakuta, a traditional midwife, in Zimbabwe. Women like her, without
the help of modern medicine, attend half of all births in the developing world. Recently,
many countries have begun training traditional midwives in modern medical methods. Mai
Mafuta enrolled in one such program. She tries to reconcile what she has learned at the clinic
with traditional birth practices.
Orphans of Mathare (Berkeley Media LLC, 2003, 60 minutes). Produced by Randy Bell and
Pacho Velez. The HIV/AIDS epidemic is creating a generation of children without parents or
homes, growing up to be drug addicts and thugs, alienated from their traditional family
structure, their culture, and their history. This documentary examines the lives of former
street children now living at the Good Samaritan Children's Home, an orphanage and school
in the Mathare slum of Nairobi, Kenya. These children, many orphaned by HIV/AIDS,
slipped through the fraying net of Kenyan family structures and social services and ended up
on the streets of Nairobi. They sniffed glue, scoured trash bins for food, and slept under cars
until they were brought to the Home. The film shows how a medical epidemic is related to an
entire culture in crisis.
Searching for Hawas Secret (First Run/Icarus Films, 1999, 52 minutes). The search for a
preventive treatment for HIV/AIDS propels this documentary about a Canadian
microbiologists research and clinical practice in Kenya and his discovery of a group of
Nairobi women sex workers who appear to be immune to the infection.
Seven Nights and Seven Days (Filmakers Library, 1992, 58 minutes). This film documents an
unusual healing ceremony in Senegal. It shows how a community comes together to treat and
heal one of its members who is suffering from postpartum depression. After giving birth, the
young woman refuses to care for her child. The ceremony, led by shaman Fat Seck, honors
the ancestral spirits and asks them to allow a cure to take place. Performed over seven days

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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

and seven nights, the ceremony follows a complex set of rules. Afterwards, the woman is
restored to normal behavior.
Shamanism: An Ancient Tradition (1998, 39 minutes). Shamanism, which long predates Western
biomedicine, is practiced with much homogeneity in many parts of the world. Shamanic
healers search for the causes and cures for illnesses by contacting spirits through a trance-like
state of consciousness. This film provides a cross-cultural view of shamanic healing
including footage of shamans and ritualistic dancers, and interpretations by an
anthropologist, psychologist, and doctor.
Sorcerers of Zaire (Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1993, 58 minutes). Set in the context
of the rural Chokwe tribe whose way of life involves much hardship and starvation, this film
explores the use of sorcerers who are hired to resurrect ancestral spirits to haunt those who
hoard goods, causing them illness and death. The film follows four patients and two healers
through treatment.
Spirit Doctors (Filmakers Library, 1997, 30 minutes). Folk healing still flourishes in much of
Mexico and among Mexican Americans. This video follows three healers of the lower Rio
Grande Valley.
Spite: An African Prophet-Healer (Filmakers Library, 1985, 54 minutes). People from all over
the Ivory Coast seek out prophet-healers for treatment of physical and emotional afflictions.
Some of these ailments are caused by the stress of rapid cultural change. Often, Western
medical treatment is ineffective. This film focuses on Sebim Odjo who draws on Muslim,
Christian, and traditional African beliefs in his healing ceremonies. He moderates disputes,
tracks down the source of illness, and uses his powers to heal. A patient who is ill with spite
is treated with a water cure.
Vimbuza-Chilopa (Pennsylvania State University, 1991, 55 minutes). This film depicts a spirit
possession cult among the Tumbuka of Malawi. Tumbuka women sometimes suffer from an
illness which can be linked to conflicts stemming from restricted opportunities, lack of
education, low socioeconomic status, and polygyny.
Suggested Readings
Eric J. Bailey. Medical Anthropology and African American Health. New York: Greenwood
Publishing Group, 2000. This book explores the relationship between cultural anthropology
and African American health-care issues. One chapter discusses how to do applied research
in medical anthropology.
Bernhard M. Bierlich. The Problem of Money: African Agency and Western Biomedicine in
Northern Ghana. New York: Bergahn Books, 2008. Fieldwork among the Dagomba people
provides the basis for this description of ambivalent attitudes toward Western biomedicine
and other aspects of modernity.
Nancy N. Chen. Breathing Spaces: Qigong, Psychiatry, and Healing in China. New York:
Columbia University Press, 2003. This ethnography explores qigong (chee-gung), a
charismatic form of healing popular in China that involves meditative breathing exercises.
Paul Farmer. Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005. Farmer blends interpretive medical
anthropology with critical medical anthropology in his study of how poverty kills through
diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS.
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Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Bonnie Glass-Coffin. The Gift of Life: Female Spirituality and Healing in Northern Peru.
Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1998. The author examines women
traditional healers in northern Peru. She provides a descriptive account of their practices and
an account of how two healers worked to cure her of a spiritual illness.
Richard Katz, Megan Biesele, and Verna St. Davis. Healing Makes Our Hearts Happy:
Spirituality and Cultural Transformation among the Kalahari Ju/hoansi. Rochester, VT:
Inner Traditions, 1997. This book presents the story of how traditional healing dances help
the Ju/hoansi cope with recent and contemporary social upheaval.
Carol Shepherd McClain, ed. Women as Healers: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. New Brunswick,
NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989. Case studies discuss women healers in Ecuador, Sri
Lanka, Mexico, Jamaica, the United States, Serbia, Korea, Southern Africa, and Benin.
David McKnight. From Hunting to Drinking: The Devastating Effects of Alcohol on an
Australian Aboriginal Community. New York: Routledge, 2002. McKnight documents the
history of drinking in Australia, causes of excessive alcohol consumption, and vested
interests of authorities in the sale of alcohol to Aboriginal people.
Ethan Nebelkopf and Mary Phillips, eds. Healing and Mental Health for Native Americans:
Speaking in Red. New York: AltaMira Press, 2004. Chapters address mental health and
substance abuse among Native North Americans and provide cases of healing that involve
Native American culture.
Merrill Singer. Something Dangerous: Emergent and Changing Illicit Drug Use and Community
Health. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, 2005. This ethnography combines theory with
research and applied anthropology about drug use and public health responses in the United
States.
Paul Stoller. Stranger in the Village of the Sick: A Memoir of Cancer, Sorcery, and Healing.
Boston: Beacon Press, 2004. After being diagnosed with lymphoma, the author enters the
village of the sick as he goes through diagnostic testing, chemotherapy, and eventual
remission. He describes being a cancer patient in the United States and how he found
strength through his earlier association with a West African healer.
Johan Wedel. Santera Healing. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2004. This book
discusses Santera healing in Cuba. The author conducted interviews with priests and others
knowledgeable about Santera and observed many Santera consultations.
For further information about topics covered in this chapter, go to MyAnthroLab at
www.myanthrolab.com and access the following readings in MyAnthroLibrary:
Linda M. Hunt and Isabel Montemayor. 2010. Health Care Needs in Crisis: An Exploratory
Study of Latinos in the Midwest. Practicing Anthropology 32:914. The authors draw on
what they learned from focus groups and interviews carried out in a midsized city in the
midwestern region of the United States. They offer recommendations to help Latinos and
other marginalized groups gain access to health services.
Vinay Ramnath Kamat and Daniel J. Nyato. 2010. Soft Targets or Partners in Health? Retail
Pharmacies and their Role in Tanzanias Malaria Control Program. Social Science and
Medicine 71: 626633. What happens when a new treatment for malaria is supposed to be

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adopted in a developing country? Research with owners and managers of retail pharmacies
and informal drug shops in Dar es Salaam provides an answer.
Brian McKenna. 2010. Take Back Medical Education: The Primary Care Shuffle. Medical
Anthropology 29:614. This editorial reports on an ethnographic study of a $6 million dollar
project at Michigan State University and three surrounding communities to make medical
education more community-oriented. Did it work?

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Chapter 6
Kinship and Domestic Life
Chapter Outline
How Cultures Create Kinship
Studying Kinship: From Formal Analysis to Kinship in Action
Descent
Unilineal Descent
Bilineal Descent
Everyday Anthropology: Whats In a Name?
Sharing
Kinship Through Food Sharing
Adoption and Fostering
CULTURAMA: The Minangkabau of Indonesia
Ritually Established Kinship
Marriage
Toward a Definition
Selecting a Spouse
Marriage Gifts
Forms of Marriage
Households and Domestic Life
The Household: Variations on a Theme
Intrahousehold Dynamics
Spouse-Partner Relationships
Sibling Relationships
Domestic Violence Between Partners
Households without a Home
Anthropology Works: Preventing Wife Abuse in Rural Kentucky
Changing Kinship and Household Dynamics
Change in Descent
Change in Marriage
Changing Households
Maps
Map 6.1 Ireland
Map 6.2 Hong Kong
Map 6.3 Minangkabau Region in Indonesia
Map 6.4 Ghana
Map 6.5 Kentucky, United States
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The Big Questions


How do cultures create kinship?
Key differences exist between unilineal and bilineal descent systems. Within unilineal systems,
further important variations exist between patrilineal and matrilineal systems in terms of property
inheritance, residence rules for married couples, and the relative status of males and females.
Worldwide, unilineal systems are more common than bilineal systems. Within unilineal kinship
systems, patrilineal kinship is more common than matrilineal kinship.
A second important basis for kinship is sharing. Sharing ones child with someone else
through either informal or formal processes is probably a cultural universal. Sharing-based
kinship is created through food transfers, including breastfeeding (in some cultures, children
breastfed by the same woman are considered kin and cannot marry). Ritualized sharing creates
kinship, as in the case of godparenthood.
The third basis for kinship is marriage, another universal factor, even though definitions of
marriage may differ substantially. All cultures have rules of exclusion and preference rules for
spouses. These rules affect factors such as kinship relationships of potential spouses, region,
class, wealth, education, perceptions of looks, and more.
What are cross-cultural patterns of households and domestic life?
A household may consist of a single person living alone or may be a group comprising more than
one person who may or may not be related by kinship; these individuals share a living space and,
often, financial responsibilities for the household.
Nuclear households consist of a mother and father and their children, but they also can be
just a husband and wife without children. Nuclear households are found in all cultures but are
most common in foraging and industrial/informatic societies. Extended households include more
than one nuclear household. They are most commonly found in cultures with a unilineal kinship
system.
Household headship can be shared between two partners or can be borne by a single
person, as in a woman-headed household. Study of intrahousehold dynamics between parents
and children and among siblings reveals complex power relationships as well as sharing and,
sometimes, violence.
How are kinship and households changing?
Recent forces of change, starting with European colonialism and now globalization, have had,
and continue to have, marked effects on kinship formation and household patterns and dynamics.
Matrilineal systems have been declining in distribution since European colonialist expansion
began in the 1500s. Many aspects of marriage are changing, including a trend toward later age at
marriage in many developing countries. Although marriage continues to be an important basis for
the formation of nuclear and extended households, other options (such as cohabitation) are
increasing in importance in many contexts, including urban areas in developed countries.
Contemporary changes in kinship and in household formation raise several serious questions
for the future, perhaps most importantly about the care of dependent members such as children,
the aged, and disable people. As fertility rates decline and average household size shrinks,
kinship-based entitlements to basic needs and emotional support disappear.
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Critical Thinking Questions


1.
Do you know what inheritance pattern your family follows? If there is more than one
child in the family, how is inheritance decided?
2.
If you were to get married and have a wedding, how would you and your (potential)
spouse work out paying for the various events involved in the wedding? Why would you
work out the arrangements in such a way?
3.
Consider your current living situation. How would an anthropologist describe your
household? How would the anthropologist deal with the possibility that you may be living at
college for eight or nine months each year?
Internet Exploration
1.
Go to http://www.anthronet.com and scan the section on Kinship. See if you find any of
their links useful.
2. Search for a website that discusses matrilineality. Is it possible to find similar information on
patrilineality?
3. Find current ethnographic information on one of the cultural groups discussed in this chapter,
especially information on kinship.
4. Locate and go through the tutorial on kinship on the following website:
http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/anthropology/kintitle.html. Does the approach to
kinship in the tutorial correspond with the one in the textbook?
5. Go to the website of the International Food Policy Research Institute (www.ifpri.org) and
examine their material on intrahousehold dynamics. Are you able to detect any
anthropological influence in their work? What seems to be the main disciplinary
contribution?
Learning Objectives: After reading this chapter, students should be able to:
Define kinship and its three bases: descent, marriage, and sharing.
Explain how unilineal and bilineal descent correspond with different modes of production
and some factors of production involved.
Describe how patrilineality and matrilineality work, and name the implications for male and
female status in society.
Define family and household.
Discuss problems in finding a universal definition of marriage.
Distinguish cross-cultural variations of spouse selection.
Describe types of exchanges made at marriages and how they are related to the cultural
context.
Discuss examples of intrahousehold relationships cross-culturally and explain why this topic
is important.
Discuss how domestic life is changing in various contexts.
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Discuss the culture of the Minangkabau of Indonesia and contemporary challenges they are
facing.
Recognize and locate the places that appear in the maps in this chapter and know something
about their social characteristics.
Key Concepts
bilineal descent: the tracing of descent through both parents.
brideprice: the transfer of cash and goods from the groom's family to the bride's family and to
the bride.
brideservice: a form of marriage exchange in which the groom works for his father-in-law for a
certain period of time before returning home with the bride.
cross-cousin: offspring of either ones fathers sister or ones mothers brother.
descent: the tracing of kinship relationships through parentage.
dowry: the transfer of cash and goods from the bride's family to the newly married couple.
endogamy: marriage within a particular group or locality.
exogamy: marriage outside a particular group or locality.
extended household: a coresidential group that comprises more than one parent-child unit.
family: a group of people who consider themselves related through a form of kinship, such as
descent, marriage, or sharing.
household: either one person living alone or a group of people who may or may not be related
by kinship and who share living space.
incest taboo: a strongly held prohibition against marrying or having sex with particular kin.
kinship system: the predominant form of kin relationships in a culture and the kinds of behavior
involved.
marriage: a union, usually between two people who are likely to be, but are not necessarily,
coresident, sexually involved with each other, and procreative.
matrilineal descent: a kinship system that highlights the importance of women by tracing
descent through the female line, favoring marital residence with or near the brides family, and
providing for property to be inherited through the female line.
nuclear household: a domestic unit containing one adult couple (married or partners) with or
without children.
parallel cousin: offspring of either ones fathers brother or ones mothers sister.
patrilineal descent: a descent system that highlights the importance of men in tracing descent,
determining marital residence with or near the grooms family, and providing for inheritance of
property through the male line.
polyandry: marriage of one wife with more than one husband.
polygamy: marriage involving multiple spouses.
polygyny: marriage of one husband with more than one wife.
unilineal descent: the tracing of descent through only one parent.
Video Suggestions
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All Dressed in White (1994, 18 minutes). This documentary explores the relationships among
religion, ethnicity, and gender through investigating the brides wedding dress. The film
introduces four women in a Catholic family from Goa, India, and traces their journeys over
three generations as their ancestors migrated from Goa to Singapore and then California in
the 1960s and 1990s. Each woman married in a different era and place, and each wedding
presented different dilemmas for the women in choosing a wedding dress and in defining
their cultural identity in relation to Europeans, Americans, and other Indians. Professor Jack
Potter of the University of California at Berkeley has said that this is a marvelous video that
is an excellent teaching tool...
An Argument about a Marriage (1966, 21 minutes). This classic black and white film, directed
by John Marshall, documents the conflict between two groups of Ju/hoansi in the Kalahari
Desert of southern Africa over the legitimacy of a marriage.
A Changing Heart (Filmakers Library, 2004, 50 minutes). In Japan during the mid 20th century,
parents and matchmakers arranged most marriages. This film looks at how the Japanese
people have recently adopted love as a rationale for marriage. By examining the changing
roles of women, the shape of families, the impact of World War II, as well as industrialization
and the decline of tradition, the film illustrates how and why many young Japanese people
have new attitudes toward dating, romantic love, and marriage.
The Ladies of the Lake: A Matriarchal Society (Filmakers Library, 1999, 20 minutes). This film
depicts a rare example of a woman-centered community in southwest China. Among the
Mosuo, power is handed from the matriarch to her most intelligent daughter. Property is
passed down from mother to daughter. Women in the family live together; a wife sees her
husband only at the end of the day. Mosuo culture is being threatened with extinction by
Chinese state policies and absorption into mainstream Han culture.
Love Songs of the Miao of China (Filmakers Library, 1993, 45 minutes). This film captures the
lifestyle of the Miao who live in the mountains of southern China where they preserve much
of their traditional culture. It documents Miao courtship rituals, the importance of love songs,
and the annual ritual in which young people go in search of marriage partners from other
villages. The film focuses on a seventeen year-old girl who attends the festival and depicts
her familys everyday life.
Marriages in Heaven (Berkeley Media LLC, 2001, 26 minutes). Produced by Annada D. Rathi.
This documentary explores the ways in which globalization and modernization are affecting
young people and changing the traditions of marriage among Indians living in India and in
America. It examines marriages among groups from a variety of regions of India and
includes interviews with parents, matchmakers, astrologers, and of course young brides and
grooms.
Tobelo Marriage (1990, 106 minutes). This documentary chronicles a marriage ritual on a
Moluccan island of eastern Indonesia. The ritual includes a large-scale exchange of valuables
that requires diplomatic negotiations and many ceremonies. Unexpected complications arise
from the elopement of bride and groom.
Two Girls Go Hunting (Filmakers Library, 52 minutes). Part of BBCs Under the Sun trilogy
on the Hamar people of Ethiopia, this video tells the story of Duka and her friend Gardi as
they marry men they have never met. For Hamar girls, marriage means sacrifice, longing,
sadness, and excitement. The film follows the build-up to the two marriages, from the allnight vigil spent with their girlfriends to the farewell as they go to their husbands family in
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his village. The new mother-in-law shaves the brides head, butters her body, and prepares
her for life in her new home.
A Wife among Wives (Berkeley Media LLC, 1982, 72 minutes). This film investigates how the
Turkana of Kenya, especially Turkana women, view marriage. It takes the viewer into the
plans for a marriage. It shows why a wife would want her husband to take a second or third
wife and how polygyny provides solidarity among women.
Suggested Readings
Irwin Altman and Joseph Ginat, eds. Polygynous Families in Contemporary
Society. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. This book provides a
detailed account of polygyny as practiced in two fundamentalist Mormon
communities of Utah.
Amy Borovoy. The Too-Good Wife: Alcohol, Codependency, and the Politics of
Nurturance in Postwar Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press,
2005. This book explores the experiences of middle-class women in Tokyo
who participated in a weekly support meeting for families of substance
abusers. The women attempt to cope with their husbands alcoholism
while facing the dilemma that being a good wife may be part of the
problem.
Deborah R. Connolly. Homeless Mothers: Face to Face with Women and
Poverty. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000. Poor, White
women on the margin of mainstream society in Portland, Oregon, describe
how they attempt to be good mothers with no money, no home, and no
help.
Dorothy Ayers Counts, Judith K. Brown, and Jacquelyn C. Campbell, eds. To
Have and to Hit: Cultural Perspectives on Wife Beating. ChampaignUrbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999. Chapters include an introductory
overview and cases from Australia, southern Africa, Papua New Guinea,
India, Central America, the Middle East, and the Pacific.
Charles N. Durran, James M. Freeman, and J.A. English-Lueck. Busier Than
Ever! Why American Families Cant Slow Down. Stanford, CA: Stanford
University Press, 2007. The authors followed the daily activities of 14
American families in California. Their findings show how people try to
balance the demands of work and family in a cultural context in which
busyness, or always being busy, is an indication of success and the
good life.
Helen Bradley Foster and Donald Clay Johnson, eds. Wedding Dress across
Cultures. New York: Berg, 2003. Chapters examine the evolution and ritual
functions of wedding attire in cultures such as those of urban Japan,
Alaskan Indians, Swaziland, Morocco, Greece, and the Andes.
Jennifer Hirsch. A Courtship after Marriage: Sexuality and Love in Mexican
Transnational Marriages. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.
This study uses an innovative method of pairing 13 migrant women living

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in Atlanta, Georgia, with 13 nonmigrant counterparts in two rural towns in


Mexico to learn about marriage and married life.
Suad Joseph, ed. Intimate Selving in Arab Families: Gender, Self, and Identity.
Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1999. Chapters discuss family
life and relationships in Arab culture with attention to connectivity, gender
inequality, and the self. Case studies are from Lebanon and Egypt.
Laurel Kendall. Getting Married in Korea: Of Gender, Morality, and Modernity.
Berkeley: University of California, 1996. This book examines preferences
about desirable spouses, matchmaking, marriage ceremonies and their
financing, and the effect of Korean womens changing work roles on their
marital aspirations.
Kanchana Ruwanpura. Matrilineal Communities, Patriarchal Realities: A
Feminist Nirvana Uncovered. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press,
2007. This book describes Muslim, Sinhala, and Tamil households headed
by women in Sri Lanka.
Toby Alice Volkman, ed. Cultures of Transnational Adoption. Durham, NC:
Duke University Press, 2005. Chapters discuss Korean adoptees as a
global family, transnational adoption in North America, shared parenthood
among low-income people in Brazil, and representations of waiting
children.
For further information about topics covered in this chapter, go to
MyAnthroLab at www.myanthrolab.com and access the following readings
in MyAnthroLibrary:
Amster, Matthew H. 2000. It Takes a Village to Dismantle a Longhouse.
Thresholds 20:6571. The authors fieldwork among the Kelabit people
informs this discussion of the decline of longhouse living in favor of
nuclear households.
Marcus, Anthony. 2005. Whose Tangle Is It Anyway? The African- American
Family, Poverty and United States Kinship. The Australian Journal of
Anthropology 16:4761. The author carried out participant observation
among homeless African-American and Latino men and their families in
New York City. His findings show that all families in the United States
share the same values about marriage and reproduction, poor African
Americans face more stress in achieving these values.
Chassidy Puchala, Sarah Paul, Carla Kennedy, Lewis Mehi-Madrona. Using Traditional
Spirituality to Reduce Domestic Violence within Aboriginal Communities. Journal of
Alternative and Complementary Medicine 16:8996. Canadian aboriginal victims of domestic
abuse who were referred to a Traditional Healing Elder were helped, perhaps through hearing
stories of non-violent relationships.

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Chapter 7
Social Groups and Social Stratification
Chapter Outline
Social Groups
Friendship
Social Characteristics of Friendship
Everyday Anthropology: Making Friends
Friendship among the Urban Poor
Clubs and Fraternities/Sororities
Countercultural Groups
Youth Gangs
Body Modification Groups
Cooperatives
Social Stratification
Achieved Status: Class
Ascribed Status: Race, Ethnicity, and Caste
Race
Ethnicity
CULTURAMA: The Roma of Eastern Europe
Gender and Sexism
Caste and Casteism
Civil Society
Civil Society for the State: The Chinese Womens Movement
Activist Groups: CO-MADRES
Anthropology Works: Forensic Anthropology for the Maya of Guatemala
New Social Movements and the New Social Media
Maps
Map 7.1 Bangladesh
Map 7.2 Caribbean Countries of South America
Map 7.3 The Solomon Islands
Map 7.4 Kuna Region in Panama
Map 7.5 South Africa
Map 7.6 Roma Population in Eastern Europe
The Big Questions
What are social groups and how do they vary cross-culturally?
Social groups can be classified in terms of whether all members have face-to-face interaction
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with one another, whether membership is based on ascription or achievement, and how formal
the groups organization and leadership structure are. They extend from the most informal, faceto-face groups, such as those based on friendship, to groups that have formal membership
requirements and whose members are widely dispersed and never meet each other. All groups
have criteria for membership, often based on a perceived notion of similarity in terms of gender
or class identity, work roles, opposition to mainstream culture, economic goals, or selfimprovement.
Many groups require a formal ritual of initiation of new members. In some cases, initiation
into the group involves dangerous or frightening activities that serve to bond members to one
another through a shared experience of helplessness.
What is social stratification?
Social stratification consists of hierarchical relationships between and among different groups,
usually on the basis of some culturally defined concept of status. The degree of social inequality
among different status groups is highly marked in agricultural and industrial/informatics
societies. Marked status inequalities are not characteristic of most foraging societies. Status
inequalities are variable in pastoralist and horticultural societies, with leveling mechanisms
typically at play to prevent the formation of severe inequalities.
Depending on the context, categories such as class, "race," ethnicity, gender, and rank may
determine group and individual status. Indias caste-based system is an important example of a
rigid structure of severe social inequality based on a persons birth group. According to ancient
Hindu scriptures, the population is divided into mutually exclusive groups with different rights
and privileges. Discrimination on the basis of caste is banned by the Indian constitution, yet it
still exists, as does racism in other contexts even though formally illegal.
What is civil society?
Civil society consists of the diverse interest groups that function outside the government to
organize economic, political, and other aspects of life. It encompasses voluntary social groups
and institutions.
Civil society groups can be divided into those that support government policies and
initiatives, and thus further the interests of government, and those that oppose government
policies and actions.The Chinese Womens Movement is an example of the former, and COMADRES in El Salvador is an example of the latter.
Starting at the end of the twentieth century, many new social movements have emerged
around the world. Their activity is enhanced through cyberpower: the availability of new forms
of information and communication technology. E-mail, the Internet, and cell phones help civil
society groups gain visibility and stay in touch with their supporters.
Critical Thinking Questions
1.
What are the exchange relationships involved in two different groups that you know or
belong to; in other words, what are members responsibilities to each other and the group as a
whole, and what do they get from other members and from the group as a whole?
2.
What are some symbolic expressions of groups that you belong to, for example, certain
ways of dressing?
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3.

How much of your own (or your family/households) status and class positions are
explained by ascription or achievement?

Internet Exploration
1.
Find information on two different formal associations and compare their guidelines for
membership, group goals, and other issues.
2.
Gather evidence from the Internet concerning the question of whether people can or
cannot form friendships through the Internet, even though they have never met. What is the
definition of friendship that you are using in this exercise?
3.
Explore some of the categories on the website, Native American Sites
(http://www.nativeculturelinks.com/indians.html), especially sections on Native
Organizations and Urban Indian Centers, The Mascot Issue, and Native Businesses.
Learning Objectives: After reading this chapter, students should be able to:

Discuss examples of social groupings beyond the household and how they differ
according to several organizational principles.

Describe the bases of solidarity and exchange in friendship.

Explain the dynamics of groups in which membership solidarity is reinforced


through a strong sense of exclusiveness from others, such as youth gangs and fraternities.

Discuss how rituals of initiation can create a sense of identity in social groups.

Provide examples of cooperatives and countercultural groups whose members are


united by particular goals.
Compare major systems of social stratification cross-culturally such as the caste
system.
Explain the concept of civil society and how it works in at least one context.
Discuss the culture of the Roma of Eastern Europe and contemporary challenges they are
facing.
Recognize and locate the places that appear in the maps in this chapter and know something
about their social characteristics.

Key Concepts
achieved position: a persons standing in society based on qualities that the person has gained
through action.
age set: a group of people close in age who go through certain rituals, such as circumcision, at
the same time.
ascribed position: a persons standing in society based on qualities that the person has gained
through birth.
caste system: a form of social stratification linked with Hinduism and based on a persons birth
into a particular group.
civil society: the collection of interest groups that function outside the government to organize
economic and other aspects of life.
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dalit: the preferred name for the socially defined lowest groups in the Indian caste system,
meaning oppressed or ground down.
diaspora population: a dispersed group of people living outside their original homeland.
matriarchy: the dominance of women in economic, political, social, and ideological domains.
mestizaje: literally, racial mixture; in Central and South America, indigenous people who are cut
off from their Indian roots, or literate and successful indigenous people who retain some
traditional cultural practices.
patriarchy: the dominance of men in economic, political, social, and ideological domains.
primary group: a social group in which members meet on a face-to-face basis.
secondary group: people who identify with each other on some basis but may never meet with
one another personally.
social group: a cluster of people beyond the domestic unit who are usually related on grounds
other than kinship.
social stratification: a set of hierarchical relationships among different groups as though they
were arranged in layers, or strata.
status: a persons position, or standing, in society.
youth gang: a group of young people, found mainly in urban areas, who are often considered a
social problem by adults and law enforcement officials.
Video Suggestions
American Gypsy: A Stranger in Everybodys Land (Little Dust Productions, 2000, 79 minutes).
This film explores the history of the Roma with scenes from around the world. Interwoven is
the story of Jimmy Marks, a Roma community leader who is simultaneously fiercely proud
of his heritage but willing to break one of its strongest rules of not revealing aspects of that
heritage to outsiders.
Caste and Class (Pennsylvania State University, 1980, 24 minutes). This video demonstrates
how the caste system of India is changing to a system based on social class. It argues that
change in the system is a result of modern capitalism and its effects on social relations.
Children of Rio (Filmakers Library, 1997, 48 minutes). This film gives voice to the street
children of Rio de Janeirogang members who were abandoned as kidswhose dire
circumstances force them to beg, steal, and deal drugs. Their loyalty to one another has
helped them to survive.
Daughters of Ixchel: Maya Thread of Change (Berkeley Media LLC, 1993, 29 minutes).
Guatemalan womens weaving is linked with their ethnic identity as Maya. This documentary
portrays their ancient weaving practices and examines the economic and political forces that
are affecting the women and their weaving. Professor John Leavitt of the University of
Montreal says that this film Deals seriously with tradition and the way tradition is
changing...I highly recommend the video for introductory cultural and social anthropology...
My Husband Doesnt Mind If I Disco (1995, 28 minutes). This film exposes how most Tibetans,
during 40 years under Chinese socialism, have learned to negotiate an existence that draws
on both traditional Tibetan values and the newer ideologies of the state. Focusing on the
effects of change on womens lives, this film examines change and continuity in gender
relations.
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Nazareth in August (Third World Newsreel, 1986, 58 minutes). Surrounded by Jewish


settlements, the 55,000 Arab residents of Nazareth face a daily struggle. This documentary
shows Palestinian Arabs living as Israeli citizens and their efforts to gain equal rights. It
presents many of the issues that led to the Intifada in 1988 as Arab and Jewish officials,
activists, and workers analyze the conflicts between Palestinian and Israeli sovereignty.
Salamanders: A Night at the Phi Delt House (Pennsylvania State University, rental only, 1982,
13 minutes). For more than 20 years, fraternity members and their female guests at a large
state university celebrated the end of the school year by capturing and swallowing live
salamanders, washing them down with large swallows of beer. This classic video captures
this annual event of celebration and group solidarity.
Stories of Honor and Shame (First Run/Icarus Films, 1996, 58 minutes). The Gaza Strip endured
27 years of Israeli occupation and a prolonged Palestinian uprising. It is now partially
administered by the Palestinian National Authority. This film reveals for the first time the
lives of women there. Fifteen women provide personal accounts of their roles in a patriarchal
Islamic culture in which men dictate most aspects of life. The film shows the resilience and
courage of the women who all speak with dignity and grace.
Suggested Readings
Mark Anderson. Black and Indigenous: Garifuna Activism and Consumer Culture in Honduras.
2010. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Based on fieldwork, this book charts
contemporary change among the Garifuna people, who are descended from a mix of African,
Carib, European, and other populations. They are now organizing to achieve their goals.
Sandra Bell and Simon Coleman, eds. The Anthropology of Friendship. New York: Berg, 1999.
Following an introductory chapter by the editors on the anthropology of friendship, case
studies discuss friendship in contemporary Melanesia, friendship as portrayed in Icelandic
sagas, friendship in the context of a game of dominoes in a London pub, how friendship
creates support networks in northern Europe, and the globalization of friendship ties in East
Africa.
Rosabelle Boswell. Le Malaise Crole: Ethnic Identity in Mauritius. New York: Bergahn Books,
2007. This book examines the marginalization of the Creole population in Mauritius. Most
Creoles are descendants of slaves brought to the island from mainland Africa between the
seventeenth and nineteenth centuries.
Stanley Brandes. Staying Sober in Mexico City. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2002. This
ethnography of Alcoholics Anonymous groups in Mexico City focuses on how these groups
help low-income men remain sober through social support. Although emphasizing the role of
humans, the author argues that the high rate of alcoholism among poor Mexican men must be
viewed in the context of structural conditions.
Kia Lilly Caldwell. Negras in Brazil: Re-Envisioning Black Women, Citizenship, and the Politics
of Identity. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. Fieldwork over more than a
decade in several cities of Brazil informs this study of how Afro-Brazilian women see
themselves as women, as Black, and as Brazilian. Narratives of 35 women show the
connections between race, gender, and social activism.
Thomas A. Gregor and Donald Tuzin, eds. Gender in Amazonia and Melanesia: An Exploration
of the Comparative Method. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001. Two
anthropologists, one a specialist on indigenous peoples of Amazonia and the other on Papua
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New Guinea, edited this volume, which includes a theoretical overview chapter and several
chapters addressing similarities and differences between the two regions.
Steven Gregory and Roger Sanjek, eds. Race. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1994.
Following an introductory chapter by each editor, chapters discuss topics including racism in
the United States and the Caribbean, how race articulates with other inequalities, and
racism in higher education and anthropology.
Jake Kosek. Understories: The Political Life of Forests in Northern New Mexico. Durham: Duke
University Press, 2007. This book is based on fieldwork in New Mexico and archival
research. It exposes the racial, class, and other factors that shape the political disputes over
forest resources in the Espaola Valley.
Anupama Rao. The Caste Question: Dalits and the Politics of Modern India. Berkeley:
University of California Press, 2009. Combining anthropology and history, this book shows
how Dalits work to overcome stigmatization and gain recognition.
Cris Shore and Stephen Nugent, eds. Elite Cultures: Anthropological Perspectives. New York:
Routledge, 2002. This volume contains two introductory chapters and a concluding chapter
framing 12 ethnographic cases from around the world addressing how elites maintain their
positions, how elites represent themselves to others, and how anthropologists study elites.
Karin Tice. Kuna Crafts, Gender and the Global Economy. Austin: University of Texas Press,
1995. This ethnography looks at how the tourist market has affected womens production of
molas in Panama and how women have organized into cooperatives to improve their
situation.
Kevin A. Yelvington. Producing Power: Ethnicity, Gender, and Class in a Caribbean Workplace.
Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1995. This ethnography examines class, race,
and gender inequalities as linked processes of social stratification within the context of a
factory in Trinidad and in the wider social sites of households, neighborhoods, and global
interconnections.
For further information about topics covered in this chapter, go to MyAnthroLab at
www.myanthrolab.com and access the following readings in MyAnthroLibrary:
Isar P. Godreau and Hilda Llrens. 2010. Pulling Up Myths by the Root: Designing and
Implementing an Anti-Racist Curriculum about the African Heritage for Third Graders in
Puerto Rico. Practicing Anthropology 32:2631. In Puerto Rico, African heritage and
blackness are at the bottom of the social hierarchy. Research with third-graders, teachers, and
parents yields ideas about an anti-racist intervention.
Craig Jeffery, Roger Jeffery and Patricia Jeffery. 2004. Degrees without Freedom: The Impact of
Formal Education on Dalit Young Men in North India. Development and Change 35:963
986. How can formal education undermine longstanding social hierarchies? Young dalit men
with education find it difficult to convert education into secure employment.
Laura R. Murray, Sheri A. Lippman, Angela A. Donini, and Deanna Kerrigan. 2010. Shes a
Professional Like Anyone Else: Social Identity among Brazilian Sex Workers. Culture,
Health, and Sexuality 12:293306. In some instances, female sex workers who join
organizations are able to reduce their vulnerability and risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. Race,
class, and gender inequalities, however, often prevent organizing, which is the situation in an
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area of southern Brazil near the Bolivian border.

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Chapter 8
Political and Legal Systems
Chapter Outline
Politics Political Organization and Leadership
Bands
Tribes
Big-Man and Big-Woman Leadership
Chiefdoms
States
State Powers and Roles
Symbols of State Power
Gender and Leadership in States
Social Order and Social Conflict
Norms and Laws
Systems of Social Control
Social Control in Small-Scale Societies
Social Control in States
Social Inequality and the Law
Critical Thinking: Yanomami: The "Fierce People"?
Social Conflict and Violence
Ethnic Conflict
WarGlobal-Local Conflict
Anthropology Works: Anthropology and Community Activism in Papua New Guinea
Change in Political and Legal Systems
Emerging Nations and Transnational Nations
Democratization
CULTURAMA: The Kurds of the Middle East
The United Nations and International Peacekeeping
Maps
Map 8.1 Melanesia.
Map 8.2 Central Asian States
Map 8.3 Kurdish Region in the Middle East
Map 8.4 Puerto Rico
The Big Questions
How do politics vary cross-culturally?
Political anthropology is the study of power relationships in the public domain and how they
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vary and change cross-culturally. Political anthropologists study the concept of power itself and
related concepts such as authority and influence. They have discovered differences and
similarities between politics and political organization in small-scale and large-scale societies in
leadership roles and responsibilities and in the distribution of power.
Foragers have a minimal form of political organization in the band. Band membership is
flexible. If a band member has a serious disagreement with another person or spouse, one option
is to leave that band and join another. Leadership in bands is informal. The tribe is a more formal
type of political organization than the band. A tribe comprises several bands or lineage groups
with a headman or headwoman as leader. Big-man and big-woman political systems are an
expanded form of the tribe, and leaders have influence over people in several different villages.
Chiefdoms may include several thousand people. Rank is inherited, and social divisions exist
between members of the chiefly lineage and commoners.
The state is a centralized political unit encompassing many communities and possessing
coercive power. States evolved in several locations with the emergence of intensive agriculture.
Most states are hierarchical and patriarchal.
How do cultures maintain social order and deal with conflict?
Legal anthropology encompasses the study of cultural variation in social order and social
conflict. The more recent approach of critical legal anthropology points out how legal institutions
often support and maintain social inequalities and injustice. Legal anthropologists also study the
difference between norms and laws. Systems of social order and social control vary crossculturally and over time.
Social control in small-scale societies seeks to restore order more than to punish offenders.
The presence of a wide variety of legal specialists is more associated with the state than with
small-scale societies, in which social shaming and shunning are common methods of
punishment. In states, imprisonment and capital punishment may exist, reflecting the greater
power of the state. Cross-cultural data on levels and forms of conflict and violence indicate that
high levels of lethal violence are more often associated with the state than with earlier forms of
political organization. Social conflict ranges from face-to-face conflicts, such as those among
neighbors or domestic partners, to larger group conflicts between ethnic groups and states.
Cultural anthropologists are turning their attention to studying global conflict and peacekeeping solutions. Key issues involve the role of cultural knowledge in dispute resolution and
how international or local organizations can help achieve or maintain peace.
How are political and legal systems changing?
The anthropological study of change in leadership and political organization has documented
several trends, many of which are related to the influences of European colonialism or
contemporary capitalist globalization. Postcolonial nations struggle with internal ethnic divisions
and pressures to democratize.
Ethnic politics has emerged within and across states as groups seek to compete for increased
rights within the state or for separation from it. The Kurds are an example of an ethnic group
fighting for political autonomy.
Cultural anthropologists are increasingly doing research on international topics, including the
internal dynamics of international organizations such as the United Nations. Their work
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demonstrates the relevance of cultural anthropology in global peacekeeping and conflict


resolution.
Critical Thinking Questions
1.
Do foraging societies have politics?
2.
Was the invention of the state a terrible mistake?
3.
Why are women less prominent in country-level politics than men? What make the
Scandinavian states different in terms of their having relatively higher level of female
political participationis it a cultural thing?
Internet Exploration
1. Locate Web sources on the Kurds and to learn about their current political status and cultural
rights in various countries where they live.
2. Go to the Cultural Symbols Project (http://www.marshall.edu/akanart) and find the section on
political beliefs. How do the Akan use art and symbols to express political leadership?
3. Find a Web site that provides up to date information on women and minorities in political
roles at state levels.
Learning Objectives: After reading this chapter, students should be able to:
Describe what cultural anthropologists study about political organization such as the bases of
leadership and power.
Explain the major forms of political organizations that have existed throughout human
evolution.
Discuss examples of anthropological studies of local politics.
List the criteria of a least stable state and name examples of such states.
Analyze the differences in gender roles in political leadership in various contexts.
Name the features of leadership in new social movements.
Recognize how globalization is affecting politics and political organization around the world.
Discuss the culture of the Kurds of the Middle East and contemporary challenges they are
facing.
Recognize and locate the places that appear in the maps in this chapter and know something
about their social characteristics.
Key Concepts
authority: the ability to take action based on a persons achieved or ascribed status or moral
reputation.
band: the political organization of foraging groups, with minimal leadership and flexible
membership.
big-man or big-woman system: a form of political organization midway between tribe and
chiefdom involving reliance on the leadership of key individuals who develop a political
following through personal ties and redistributive feasts.
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chiefdom: a form of political organization in which permanently allied tribes and villages have
one recognized leader who holds an office.
corporate social responsibility (CSR): business ethics that seek to generate profits for the
corporation while avoiding harm to people and the environment.
critical legal anthropology: an approach within the crosscultural study of legal systems that
examines the role of law and judicial processes in maintaining the dominance of powerful groups
through discriminatory practices rather than protecting less powerful people.
influence: the ability to achieve a desired end by exerting social or moral pressure on someone
or some group.
law: a binding rule created through enactment or custom that defines right and reasonable
behavior and is enforceable by the threat of punishment.
moka: a strategy for developing political leadership in highland Papua New Guinea that involves
exchanging gifts and favors with individuals and sponsoring large feasts where further gift giving
occurs.
nation: a group of people who share a language, culture, territorial base, political organization,
and history.
norm: a generally agreed-upon standard for how people should behave, usually unwritten and
learned unconsciously.
policing: the exercise of social control through processes of surveillance and the threat of
punishment related to maintaining social order.
political organization: groups within a culture that are responsible for public decision making
and leadership, maintaining social cohesion and order, protecting group rights, and ensuring
safety from external threats.
power: the capacity to take action in the face of resistance, through force if necessary.
sectarian conflict: conflict based on perceived differences between divisions or sects within a
religion.
social control: processes that, through both informal and formal mechanisms, maintain orderly
social life.
social justice: a concept of fairness based on social equality that seeks to ensure entitlements and
opportunities for disadvantaged members of society.
state: a form of political organization in which a centralized political unit encompasses many
communities, a bureaucratic structure, and leaders who possess coercive power.
trial by ordeal: a way of determining innocence or guilt in which the accused person is put to a
test that may be painful, stressful, or fatal.
tribe: a political group that comprises several bands or lineage groups, each with similar
language and lifestyle and occupying a distinct territory.
war: organized and purposeful group action directed against another group and involving lethal
force.
Video Suggestions
The Ashanti Kingdom (Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1992, 44 minutes). The Ashanti
are the best-known tribe of Ghana, comprising about one-sixth of the population. This film
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depicts the hierarchical organization of Ashanti villages and protocol surrounding the
paramount chief along with depictions of village life and festivals.
Gacaca, Living Together Again in Rwanda? (First Run/Icarus Films, 2002, 55 minutes). In 1994,
more than 800,000 people were killed in the Rwandan genocide, and the country was left in a
state of devastation. The Gacaca Tribunals represent a remarkable democratization of justice
for a people accustomed to dictatorial authority; however, the system is fraught with potential
pitfalls. This film tells the intertwining stories of survivors and prisoners, and their visions of
the future.

Human Terrain: War Becomes Academic. (Bullfrog Films, 2010, 84 minutes or 57 minutes
--both versions available on same DVD). This documentary examines and questions the US
military's counterinsurgency initiative through which social scientists, including
anthropologists, are embedded with combat troops. Human Terrain is two stories in one. The
first exposes the Pentagons effort to enlist the best and the brightest in a struggle for hearts
and minds which soon drew criticism from many cultural anthropologists as a misguided and
unethical effort to gather intelligence and target enemies. The other story is about a brilliant
young scholar who leaves the university to join a Human Terrain team. After working as a
humanitarian activist in the Western Sahara, Balkans, East Timor and elsewhere, and winning
a Marshall Scholarship to study at Oxford, Michael Bhatia returns to Brown University to
take up a visiting fellowship. In the course of conducting research on military cultural
awareness, he is recruited by the Human Terrain program and eventually embeds with the
82nd Airborne in eastern Afghanistan. On the way to mediate an intertribal dispute, Bhatia is
killed when his humvee hits a roadside bomb. War becomes academic, academics go to war,
and the personal tragically merges with the political, raising new questions about the ethics,
effectiveness, and high costs of counterinsurgency.
The Kawelka: Ongkas Big Moka (Pennsylvania State University, 1976, 52 minutes). This classic
film documents the way that men gain status and become leaders through gift-giving in moka
ceremonies among the Kawellka of highland Papua New Guinea. The film focuses on the
political activities of one leader, Ongka, and follows him through a period of attempting to
sponsor a big moka.
Restrepo: One Platoon, One Valley, One War. (National Geographic, 2010, 94 minutes). This
feature-length documentary chronicles the deployment of a platoon of US soldiers in
Afghanistan's Korengal Valley. The movie focuses on a remote 15-man outpost, Restrepo,
named after a platoon medic who was killed in action, considered one of the most dangerous
postings in the US military. This is an experiential film that makes viewers feel as if they
have been there. The film is directed by noted author Sebastian Junger, who earned a BA in
cultural anthropology, and by journalist Tim Hetherington.
The Sakuddei of Indonesia (Filmakers Library, 1987, 52 minutes). Among the Sakuddei, there
are no leaders, men and women are equal, and peace is a cherished goal of everyone. The
film shows how this way of life is being encroached upon and changed by outside forces.
The Sultans Burden (Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1994, 50 minutes). Sultan Issa
Maigari is the ruler of a northern Cameroon province the size of England. In 1992 he allowed
this film to be made about him. It shows the many problems he faces, from the threat of
armed rebellion among the farmers to his impossible task of justifying support for a Christian
government among his Muslim subjects. The film shows court intrigue and captures political
and ethnic rivalries characteristics of many post-colonial African nations.
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Suggested Readings
Kimberley Coles. Democratic Designs: International Intervention and Electoral Practices in
Postwar Bosnia-Herzegovina. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2008. This book
provides an ethnographic analysis of the interaction between international humanitarian aid
workers and the postwar political process.
Elizabeth F. Drexler. Aceh, Indonesia: Securing the Insecure State. Philadelphia: University of
Pennsylvania Press, 2008. The author examines corruption, political violence, and the failure
of international humanitarian interventions in the Indonesian province of Aceh.
Mona Etienne and Eleanor Leacock, eds. Women and Colonization: Anthropological
Perspectives. New York: Praeger, 1980. This classic collection examines the impact of
Western colonialism and missionary intervention on women of several indigenous groups of
North America and South America, Africa, and the Pacific.
Magnus Fiskesj. The Thanksgiving Turkey Pardon, The Death of Teddys Bear, and the
Sovereign Exception of Guantno. Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press, 2003. This
interpretation of the U.S. presidential ritual of pardoning a turkey every Thanksgiving
sheds light on notions of the presidency and its power in the United States.
Thomas Gregor, ed. A Natural History of Peace. Nashville: University of Tennessee Press, 1996.
This book contains essays on what is peace? reconciliation among nonhuman primates, the
psychological bases of violent and nonviolent societies, case studies of Amazonia and
American Indians, and international relations.
Susan F. Hirsch. In the Moment of Greatest Calamity: Terrorism, Grief, and a Victims Quest for
Justice. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006. The authors husband was killed in the
1998 bombing of the U.S. embassy in Kenya. In this book, Hirsch describes her experiences
in Kenya in the aftermath of the bombing, her grief, and her witnessing of the bombing trials
in Manhattan in 2001.
Beatriz Manz. Paradise in Ashes: A Guatemalan Journey of Courage, Terror, and Hope.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. Manz traces the lives and deaths of some
Guatemalan Maya villagers who left their impoverished homeland in the mountains to build
a new life in the lowlands. In their new location, they became victims of state-sponsored
violence. Many were murdered, and others were forced to flee into the jungle. The survivors
have returned to rebuild their homes and lives.
Bruce Miller. The Problem of Justice: Tradition and Law in the Coast Salish World. Lincoln:
University of Nebraska Press, 2001. The author compares several legal systems operating in
the Northwest Coast region from Washington State to British Columbia. The effects of
colonialism differ from group to group. Some groups are strong and independent, whereas
others are disintegrating.
Carolyn Nordstrom. Shadows of War: Violence, Power, and International Profiteering in the
Twenty-First Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. Nordstrom did
fieldwork in Sri Lanka and Mozambique to reveal the shadow economy that surrounds and
supports war. She focuses on informal trading networks that involve goods ranging from
guns to food and the people who profit from this economy.
Jennifer Schirmer. The Guatemalan Military Project: A Violence Called Democracy.
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998. This book is an ethnography of the
Guatemalan military, documenting its role in human rights violations through extensive
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interviews with military officers and trained torturers.


David Sneath. The Headless State: Aristocratic Orders, Kinship Society, and Misrepresentations
of Inner Asia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008. The author describes how
anthropologists, since the nineteenth century, have misrepresented Inner Asian nomadic
political culture. His analysis continues through to the Soviet and post-Soviet periods and
then offers a less essentialized interpretation.
For further information about topics covered in this chapter, go to MyAnthroLab at
www.myanthrolab.com and access the following readings in MyAnthroLibrary:
Roberto J. Gonzlez. 2009. Anthropologists or Technicians of Power? Examining the Human
Terrain System. Practicing Anthropology 31:3437. Is participation by cultural
anthropologists in the United States Human Terrain System ethical? Do the ends outweigh
the means?
Thomas Lyons. 2010. Recovery Capital, Drug Policy and the Cycle of Incarceration. Practicing
Anthropology 32:4144. Estimates are that over half of prison inmates in the United States
have a drug or alcohol problem. Interventions overlook the users families, communities, and
poverty and instead focus on the individual and his/her moral failure or brain disease.
Alisa Perkins. 2010. Negotiating Alliances: Muslims, Gay Rights, and the Christian Right in a
Polish-American City. Anthropology Today 26(2):1924. Ethnographic research shows how
complicated political matters are when they involve religion, sexual identity, immigrants, and
public misperceptions of all of these factors.

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Chapter 9
Communication
Chapter Outline
The Varieties of Human Communication
Language and Verbal Communication
Two Features of Human Language
Formal Properties of Verbal Language
Anthropology Works: Narrating Troubles
Nonverbal Communication and Embodied Communication
Sign Language
Silence
Body Language
Communicating With Media and Information Technology
The Politics of Journalism
Advertising for Latinos in the United States
Language, Diversity, and Inequality
Language and Culture: Two Theories
Critical Discourse Analysis: Gender and Race
Gender in Euro-American Conversations
Gender and Politeness in Japanese, and Those Naughty Teenage Girls
Gay Language and Belonging in Indonesia
African American English: Prejudice and Pride
Language Change
The Origins and History of Language
Historical Linguistics
Writing Systems
Colonialism, Nationalism, and Globalization
European Colonialism and Contact Languages
Nationalism and Linguistic Assimilation
Global Languages
Endangered Languages and Language Revitalization
CULTURAMA: The Saami of Lapland, or Sapmi
Critical Thinking: Should Dying Languages Be Revived?
Maps
Map 9.1 Pirah Reservation in Brazil
Map 9.2 Bosnia and Herzegovina
Map 9.3 Western Apache Reservation in Arizona
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Map 9.4 Two Sites of Proto-Indo-European Origins


Map 9.5 The Bantu Migrations in Africa
Map 9.6 Saami Region in Lapland, or Sapmi
The Big Questions
How do humans communicate?
Human communication is the sending of meaningful messages through language. Language is a
systematic set of symbols and signs with learned and shared meanings. It may be spoken, handsigned, written, or conveyed through body movements, marking, or accessories.
Human language has two characteristics that distinguish it from communicative systems of
other living beings: It has productivity, or the ability to create an infinite number of novel and
understandable messages; and displacement, the ability to communicate about the past, the
future, and imaginary things.
Language consists of basic sounds, vocabulary, and syntax. Cross-culturally, languages vary
substantially in the details of all three features.
Humans use many forms of nonverbal language to communicate with each other. Sign
language is a form of communication that uses mainly hand movements to communicate. Silence
is a form of nonverbal communication with its own cultural values and meaning. Body language
includes body movements and placement in relation to other people, body modifications such as
tattoos and piercing, dress, hairstyles, and odors.
Media anthropology sheds light on how culture shapes media messages and on the social
dynamics that play out in media institutions. Critical media anthropology examines the power
relations involved in the media.
How does communication relate to cultural diversity and inequality?
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis emphasizes how language shapes culture. A competing model,
called sociolinguistics, emphasizes how ones culture and ones position in it shape language.
Each position has merit, and many anthropologists draw on both models.
Critical discourse analysis studies how communication through language can serve the
interests of the powerful, maintaining or even increasing social inequality. Although language
can reinforce and expand social exclusion, it can also empower oppressed people, depending on
the context. In mainstream North America, womens speech is generally more polite and
accommodating than that of men. In Japan, gender codes emphasize politeness in womens
speech, but some young Japanese women, the kogals, are creating a new linguistic style of
resistance. Gay language in Indonesia is entering the mainstream as an expression of freedom
from official control. African American English (AAE), in the view of many experts, has evolved
into a standard language with local variants.
How does language change?
The exact origins of human verbal language are not known. Historical linguistics and its
discovery of language families provide insights about early human history and settlement
patterns. The emergence of writing can be traced to around 6000 years ago, with the emergence
of the state in Mesopotamia. Scripts have spread widely throughout the world, with the Aramaic
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system the basis of scripts in South and Southeast Asia. The functions of writing vary from
context to context. In some situations official recordkeeping predominates, whereas in others,
writing is important for courtship.
The recent history of language change has been influenced by the colonialism of past
centuries and by Western globalization of the current era. Nationalist policies of cultural
integration often involve the repression of minority languages and promotion of a standard
language. Colonial contact created the context for the emergence of pidgin languages, many of
which evolved into creoles. Western globalization supports the spread of English and the
development of localized variants.
In the past 500 years, colonialism and globalization have resulted in the extinction of many
indigenous and minority languages. Many others are in danger of dying. Applied linguistic
anthropologists seek to preserve the worlds linguistic diversity. They document languages and
participate in designing programs for teaching dead and dying languages. A key element in
language revitalization and survival is having communities use the language.
Critical Thinking Questions
1.
In the English language, a focal vocabulary may exist around the concept of money,
parallel to the Saami focal vocabulary for snow. How many terms for money can you think
of, and what are their different meanings? What other possible focal vocabularies exist in
English or in other languages you know?
2.
Listen to, and observe, mens and womens conversations in some context, such as a
cafeteria or shopping place, or in television shows and movies. Is womens speech more
polite than mens speech? Are there non-verbal markers of politeness? Do they differ by
gender?
3.
Analyze an advertisement for a product that you might want to buy--are tropes (themes
based on a generalization of a culture or microculture) used? How effective do you think they
might be with you or your peers?
Internet Exploration
1.
Look at the section on linguistic anthropology on the website Virtual Library:
Anthropology (http://vlib.anthrotech.com). How do its contents fit with what the coverage of
linguistic anthropology in the textbook?
2.
What information can you find on the Internet about media anthropology?
3.
Review the material provided in the Languages section of the website Native American
Sites (http://www.nativeculturelinks.com/indians.html), and give a brief report to the class.
4.
Consult Anthronet (http://www.anthronet.com) for bibliographic sources and links related
to linguistic anthropology.
Learning Objectives: After reading this chapter, students should be able to:
Describe the history, goals, and current interests of linguistic anthropology.
Explain the concepts of displacement and productivity as being distinct to human
communication and language.
Recognize the importance of formal linguistic features such as phonemes and grammar.
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Report on what anthropologists have contributed to studying the origins of language.


Distinguish between the two different models that seek to illuminate the relationship between
language, thought, and society.
List examples of how discourse relates to identity and power in everyday life and in formal
situations such as medical interviews and courtrooms.
Explain nonverbal communication; discuss examples such as silence, body language, and
dress and looks as channels of communication.
Discuss that the mass media is a culturally shaped aspect of communication.
Demonstratehow languages change and how economics and politics shape language change
and language policy of governments.
Describe the culture of the Saami of Lapland, or Sapmi and contemporary challenges they
are facing.
Recognize and locate the places that appear in the maps in this chapter and know something
about their social characteristics.
Key Concepts
call system: a form of oral communication among nonhuman primates with a set repertoire of
meaningful sounds generated in response to environmental factors.
communication: the process of sending and receiving meaningful messages.
creole: a language directly descended from a pidgin but possessing its own native speakers and
involving linguistic expansion and elaboration.
critical discourse analysis: an approach within linguistic anthropology that examines how
power and social inequality are reflected and reproduced in communication.
critical media anthropology: an approach within the cross-cultural study of media that
examines how power interests shape peoples access to media and the contents of its messages.
discourse: culturally patterned verbal language including varieties of speech, participation, and
meaning.
displacement: a feature of human language whereby people are able to talk about events in the
past and future.
ethnosemantics: the study of the meaning of words, phrases, and sentences in particular cultural
contexts.
global language: a language spoken widely throughout the world and in diverse cultural
contexts, often replacing indigenous languages.
historical linguistics: the study of language change using formal methods that compare shifts
over time and across space in aspects of language such as phonetics, syntax, and semantics.
khipu: cords of knotted strings used during the Inca Empire for keeping accounts and recording
events.
language: a form of communication that is based on a systematic set of symbols and signs
shared among a group and passed on from generation to generation.
language family: a group of languages descended from a parent language.

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logograph: a symbol that conveys meaning through a form or picture resembling that to which it
refers.
phoneme: a sound that makes a difference for meaning in a language.
pidgin: a contact language that blends elements of at least two languages and that emerges when
people with different languages need to communicate.
productivity: a feature of human language whereby are able to communicate a potentially
infinite number of messages efficiently.
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: a perspective in linguistic anthropology which says that language
determines thought.
sign language: a form of communication that uses mainly hand movements to convey messages.
sociolinguistics: a perspective in linguistic anthropology which says that culture, society, and a
persons social position determine language.
tag question: a question placed at the end of a sentence seeking affirmation.
Textese: an emerging variant of written English and other languages associated with cell phone
communication and involving abbreviations and creative slang.
Video Suggestions
Al Jazeera: Voice of Arabia (First Run/Icarus Films, 2003, 52 minutes). Founded in 1996, Al
Jazeera was the first 24-hour news channel in the Arab world. Shot on location in Doha,
Qatar, this film takes us behind the scenes of the Arab worlds independent satellite TV
channel. It explores the paradoxes that emerge between the apparent orthodoxy of Arab
societies, and the journalistic freedom displayed by Al Jazeera.
American Tongues (New Day Films, 1987, 56 minutes). This video illustrates several dialects of
the English language within the United States and various attitudes about regional, social,
and ethnic differences in American speech.
Ao Dai (The Tunic Dress) (First Run/Icarus Films, 1991, 13 minutes). This film considers the
visibility of ao dai, the traditional Vietnamese womens tunic dress. Focusing on Trinh, a
student at a large high school in Ho Chi Minh City, the films explores how short dresses were
more functional during the war years and necessitated by the rationing of cloth. Since the
war, prosperity has returned along with traditional ceremonies and religious rituals. The
Vietnamese cultural rebirth is most demonstrated by the return of traditional dress, especially
the ao dai.
Before the Alphabet (Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1989, 26 minutes). This video
traces the development of writing from the earliest Sumerian cuneiform examples and the
almost parallel development of hieroglyphics in Egypt, through the evolution of different
concepts and shapes to the development of a workable alphabet. It explains how the
mysteries of cuneiform writing and hieroglyphics were solved and provides examples of
these early forms of writing.
Ethnic Cleansing: The Media and World Opinion (Filmakers Library, 2002, 52 minutes). This
documentary follows the persuasive media offensive waged by a powerful public relations
firm for their client in the Balkan War in 1992. It shows how the key phrase ethnic
cleansing was used in a media campaign by the firm Ruder Finn. There, James W. Harff
orchestrated the campaign that implied ethnic cleansing was a human rights violation
harking back to the Nazi era. This key phrase was planted in the media around the world with
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the certainty that this euphemism for genocide would jolt the Wests collective memory of
past atrocities to lead world opinion against Serbia.
The Human Face: Emotions, Identities and Masks (Berkeley Media LLC, 1995, 31 minutes). The
face is one of our most important and expressive means of communications. Called the
organ of emotion, the face provides vital clues to our feelings and to those of others. The
face is also an important source of identity and perhaps the most powerful channel of
nonverbal communication. The video explores the expressive power of the human face.
Twelve facial properties are examined and a cross-cultural perspective is provided
throughout.
The Human Voice: Exploring Vocal Paralanguage (Berkeley Media LLC, 1993, 30 minutes).
This video explores the power and importance of vocal paralanguagethe thousands of
ways in which words can be said. The video examines twelve types of clues about a speaker
that the voice provides including age, gender, geographic background, level of education,
ethnicity, emotional state, truthfulness, and the relationship between the speaker and the
person spoken to. It includes an instructors guide.
Nu Shu: A Hidden Language of Women in China (Women Make Movies, 1999, 59 minutes). This
video explores the use of Nu Shu, a writing system used exclusively by women in Jiang Yong
County in the Hunan province of China. Nu Shu helped to strengthen female bonds and
served as a coping strategy for women dealing with the dominating nature of a patriarchal
society.
Primetime War (Filmakers Library, 2000, 52 minutes). Two cameramen, one Israeli and one a
Palestinian, cover the Arab/Israeli conflict and find that their presence affects the events they
cover. Battles and rhetoric heat up when the camera rolls. Though, working from opposite
sides, the men have become friends and recognize their moral dilemma in reporting the news.
Satellite Dreaming (Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1993, 48 minutes). When Australian
Aboriginal people watched Australian national television, they found programs aimed at a
predominantly white Western audience that either ignored the Aborigines or presented a false
image of their culture. In response, Aboriginal people began producing their own
programming. This video moves between the polish of the contemporary urban show and the
raw energy of a desert imam to reveal how Aboriginal people use television to preserve and
promote their culture.
Sound and Fury (Filmakers Library, 2001, 60 minutes). This film is the story of two brothers
who anguish over whether to allow their deaf children to have cochlear implants. One brother
welcomes the chance for his child to be part of the hearing world. The other brother, who is
deaf, does not want his offspring to leave the deaf culture and its sense of community.
A World of Gestures (Berkeley Media LLC, 1991, 28 minutes). This film explores gestures crossculturally, showing people from dozens of countries making gestures that are by turns
powerful, provocative, poignant, and sometimes outrageous. Many types of gestures are
illustrated including those for beauty, sexual behavior, suicide, aggression, and love. The
video examines the meaning and function of gestures and studies their origins and emotional
significance. The video comes with an instructors guide.
You Must Have Been a Bilingual Baby (Filmakers Library, 1992, 46 minutes). The film
investigates how babies become bilingual, how school children fare in language immersion
classes, and how adults cope with learning foreign languages.

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Suggested Readings
Keith H. Basso. Wisdom Sits in Places: Landscape and Language among the Western Apache.
Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996. Fieldwork on the Fort Apache Indian
Reservation, Arizona, reveals the importance of natural places in peoples everyday life,
thought, and language.
Niko Besnier. Gossip and the Everyday Production of Politics. Honolulu: University of Hawaii
Press, 2009. Besnier examines the political life of gossip on one of the Pacific atolls of
Tuvalu.
Thomas F. Carter. The Quality of Home Runs: The Passion, Politics, and Language of Cuban
Baseball. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2009. This ethnography shows how mens
talk about baseball in Cuba communicates masculinity, class, and national identity.
David Crystal. English as a Global Language, 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press,
2003. This book discusses the history, current status, and future of English as a world
language. It covers the role of English in international relations, the media, international
travel, education, and New Englishes.
Joshua A. Fishman, ed. Can Threatened Languages Be Saved? Buffalo, NY: Multilingual
Matters Ltd., 2001. Seventeen case studies examine language shift, language loss, and the
attempts to reverse such changes.
Niloofar Haeri. Sacred Language, Ordinary People: Dilemmas of Culture and Politics in Egypt.
New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Classical Arabic is the official language of all Arab
states and the language of the Quran, but no Arabs speak it as their mother tongue. This
book uses research in Cairo to show how the state maintains its identity in peoples everyday
lives through classical Arabic.
Lanita Jacobs-Huey. From the Kitchen to the Parlor: Language and Becoming in AfricanAmerican Womens Hair Care. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Jacobs-Huey
combines childhood experiences as the daughter of a cosmetologist with multisided
fieldwork in the United States and England.
William L. Leap. Words Out: Gay Mens English. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press,
1996. Fieldwork among gay men in the Washington, DC, area produced this ethnography. It
addresses gay mens speech as a cooperative mode of discourse, examines bathroom graffiti,
and looks at discourse about HIV/AIDS.
Julie Lindquist. A Place to Stand: Politics and Persuasion in a Working-Class Bar. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2002. The author did participant observation while working as a
bartender in a White, working-class bar in the U.S. Midwest. The book is an ethnography of
speaking in which the bar is a site of cultural performance related to White, working-class
identity.
Karen Nakamura. Deaf in Japan: Signing and the Politics of Identity. Ithaca, NY: Cornell
University Press. 2007. This book combines archival and ethnographic data to help
understand ideas about modernity and Westernization.
Lisa Philips Valentine. Making It Their Own: Ojibwe Communicative Practices. Toronto:
University of Toronto Press, 1995. This ethnography examines speech events in a small
Ojibwe community in northern Ontario, Canada. It considers speech variations among
speakers and examines code switching, multilingualism, and church music.

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For further information about topics covered in this chapter, go to MyAnthroLab at


www.myanthrolab.com and access the following readings in MyAnthroLibrary:
Hillary Haldane. 2010. What Lula Lacks: Grappling with the Discourse of Autism at Home and
in the Field. Anthropology Today 26:24-26. An anthropologist who is the parent of an autistic
child describes how the label autistic negatively framed her life as a parent and how the
absence of the label in Morocco helped reframe it for the better.
Magnus Marsden. 2009. Talking the Talk: Debating Debate in Afghanistan. Anthropology Today
25:20-24. The author describes practices of debate in Chitral, northern Afghanistan. He
suggests that outsiders need to pay attention to how Muslims in various contexts debate
issues and engage in critical reflection.
Luahwa Nmhoe and Kaimana Barcarse. 2007. Aha Pnana Leo. Cultural Survival Quarterly
31(2):44, ff. The Hawaiian language program, Aha Pnana Leo began in 1983 to recognize
the importance of the Hawaiian language in the lives of indigenous Hawaiians. Now,
several universities offer degrees in Hawaiian language and culture.

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Chapter 10
Religion
Chapter Outline
Religion in Comparative Perspective
What is Religion?
Magic versus Religion
Varieties of Religious Beliefs
How Beliefs Are Expressed
Eye On The Environment: Eagle Protection, National Parks, and the Preservation of Hopi
Culture
Ritual Practices
Life-Cycle Rituals
Anthropology Works: Aboriginal Womens Culture and Sacred Site Protection
Pilgrimage
Rituals of Inversion
Sacrifice
Religious Specialists
Shamans and Priests
Other Specialists
World Religions and Local Variations
Hinduism
A Nayar Fertility Ritual
Hindu Women and Karma in Northern England
Buddhism
Local Spirits and Buddhism in Southeast Asia
Judaism
Who's Who at the Kotel
Passover in Kerala
Christianity
Protestantism among White Appalachians
The Last Supper in Fiji
Islam
CULTURAMA: Hui Muslims of Xian, China
African Religions
Features of African Religions
Ras Tafari
Directions of Religious Change
Revitalization Movements
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Contested Sacred Sites


Religious Freedom as a Human Right
Maps
Map 10.1 Klamath and Modoc Indian Region in Oregon and Washington
Map 10.2 Hopi Indian Reservation in Arizona Map
Map 10.3 England
Map 10.4 Hindmarsh Island in Southeast Australia
Map 10.5 Mainland Southeast Asia
Map 10.6 Sacred Sites in the Old City of Jerusalem, Israel
Map 10.7 The City of Xian in China
The Big Questions
What is religion and what are the basic features of religions?
Early cultural anthropologists defined religion in contrast to magic and suggested that religion
was a more evolved form of thinking about the supernatural realm. They collected information
on religions of non-Western cultures and constructed theories about the origin and functions of
religion. Since then, ethnographers have described many religious systems and documented a
rich variety of beliefs, forms of ritual behavior, and types of religious specialists. Beliefs are
expressed in either myth or doctrine and often are concerned with defining the roles and
characteristics of supernatural beings and how humans should relate to them.
Religious beliefs are enacted in rituals that are periodic or nonperiodic. Some common rituals
worldwide are lifecycle rites, pilgrimage, rituals of inversion, and sacrifice. Rituals are
transformative for the participants.
Many rituals require the involvement of a trained religious specialist such as a
shaman/shamanka or priest/priestess. Compared to the situation in states, religious specialist
roles in nonstate contexts are fewer, less than full-time, less formalized and carry less secular
power. In states, religious specialists are often organized into hierarchies, and many specialists
gain substantial secular power.
How do world religions illustrate globalization and localization?
The five so-called world religions are based on texts and generally agreed-on teachings and
beliefs shared by many people around the world. In order of historic age, the five longstanding
world religions are Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Christianity has the
largest number of adherents, with Islam second and Hinduism third. Due to accelerated global
population migration in the past few centuries, many formerly local religions now have a
worldwide membership.Because of Western colonialism and slavery, African religions are
prominent in the Western Hemisphere, with a variety of syncretistic religions attracting many
adherents.
As members of the world religions have moved around the globe, religious beliefs and
practices have become contextualized into localized variants. When a new religion moves into a
culture, it may be blended with local systems (syncretism), may coexist with indigenous
religions in a pluralistic fashion, or may take over and obliterate the original beliefs.
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What are some important aspects of religious change in contemporary times?


Religious movements of the past two centuries have often been prompted by colonialism and
other forms of social contact. In some instances, indigenous religious leaders and cults have
arisen in the attempt to resist unwanted outside forces of change. In other cases, they evolve as
ways of incorporating selected outside elements. Revitalization movements, such as the Ghost
Dance movement in the United States Plains region, look to the past and attempt to recover lost
and suppressed religious beliefs and practices.
Issues of contemporary importance include the increasing amount of conflict surrounding
sacred sites, hostilities related to the effects of secular power interests on religious institutions
and spaces, and religious freedom as a human right.
Critical Thinking Questions
1.
Think of life-cycle ceremonies that you have attended, such as weddings or baptisms or
funerals, and apply Victor Turners three stages to them. How well do his three stages work?
2.
Provide some examples of how different modes of livelihood shape religious beliefs and
practices and consider others where a fit between livelihood and religion does not exist.
3.
What are some examples of links between religion and politics that have appeared
recently in the news? How do the media present the issue?
Internet Exploration
1.
Look at the section on Anthropology of Religion on the website Anthronet
(http://www.anthronet.com ) and check out some of the sites mentioned. How useful are they
in terms of adding to what you learned in this chapter?
2. Locate Internet sites for information on a particular religious ritual or practice, such as
firewalking, the Feast of the Sacrifice, or Diwali, for example.
3. Investigate the issues being debated on websites having to do with particular religions. Do
they seem to be informed by an anthropological perspective? If not, how might the debates
be advanced with an anthropological perspective?
Learning Objectives: After reading this chapter, students should be able to:
Explain how cultural anthropologists define and study religion.
Describe some major theories about religion in and beyond cultural anthropology that have
influenced how cultural anthropologists interpret religious beliefs and practices.
Explain how religious beliefs are expressed.
Be aware of the variety of rituals and how they are enacted in various cultures.
Compare types of religious specialists and the relationship between increased specialization
and the modes of livelihood.
Discuss how the text-based world religions are adapted locally in response to particular
contexts.
Know some examples of African religions as world religions.
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Define religious syncretism and religious pluralism and provide examples.


List examples of religious change and discuss the causes and consequences of these changes.
Describe the culture of the Hui of Xian in China and contemporary challenges they are
facing.
Recognize and locate the places that appear in the maps in this chapter and know something
about their social characteristics.
Key Concepts
animatism: a belief system in which the supernatural is conceived of as an impersonal power.
cargo cult: a form of revitalization movement that emerged in Melanesia in response to Western
and Japanese influences.
doctrine: direct and formalized statements about religious beliefs.
life-cycle ritual: a ritual that marks a change in status from one life stage to another; also called
rite of passage.
magic: the attempt to compel supernatural forces and beings to act in certain ways.
myth: a narrative with a plot that involves the supernaturals.
pilgrimage: round-trip travel to a sacred place or places for purposes of religious devotion or
ritual.
priest/priestess: male or female full-time religious specialist whose position is based mainly on
abilities gained through formal training.
religion: beliefs and behavior related to supernatural beings and forces.
religious pluralism: the condition in which one or more religions coexist either as
complementary to each other or as competing systems.
religious syncretism: the blending of features of two or more religions.
revitalization movement: a socioreligious movement, usually organized by a prophetic leader,
that seeks to construct a more satisfying situation by reviving all or parts of a religion that has
been threatened by outside forces or by adopting new practices and beliefs.
ritual: patterned behavior that has to do with the supernatural realm.
ritual of inversion: a ritual in which normal social roles and order are temporarily reversed.
sacrifice: a ritual in which something is offered to the supernaturals.
world religion: a term coined in the nineteenth century to refer to a religion that is based on
written sources, has many followers, is regionally widespread, and is concerned with salvation.
Video Suggestions
Altar of Fire (Documentary Educational Resources, 1976, 45 minutes). This film provides a
detailed record of the worlds oldest surviving ritual, the Agnicaya, a Vedic sacrifice to Agni,
the god of fire that dates back some 3,000 years. Thought to be extinct and never before
witnessed by outsiders, the 12-day ritual was performed in 1975and perhaps for the last
timein a village in southwestern India.
Ball of Fire: The Angry Goddess (1999, 58 minutes). This video explores issues of gender and
religion in the context of a South Indian ritual dance form in which men become possessed
by a fierce form of the goddess Bhadrakali. Women are banned from the ritual. The film uses
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an unconventional narrative structure to lead viewers into the experience of ethnographic


fieldwork.
Between Two Worlds: A Japanese Pilgrimage (Berkeley Media LLC, 1994, 30 minutes). For
centuries, pilgrims have come to the Japanese island of Shikoku to trace the 1,000-mile route
known as the Pilgrimage to the 88 Sacred Places of Shikoku, a journey believed to have
been first taken by Kobo Daishi, founder of Buddhisms Shingon sect in the ninth century.
This film combines images of traditional and modern Japan, excerpts from Kobo Daishis
writings, and commentary from pilgrims, everyday people, and the film makers in order to
explore the meaning of pilgrimage in contemporary Japan.
Buddha Realms (Filmakers Library, 2003, 55 minutes). Buddhism, a religion that started in India,
has shown a remarkable ability to adapt across cultural barriers. What became the dominant
spiritual tradition of the East has now taken root and is flourishing in the West. The film
suggests that Buddhisms universal appeal lies in the plurality of philosophies and practices
that have evolved from its ancient traditions.
Carnival in Switzerland: A World Upside Down (2000, 54 minutes). This documentary explores
different Carnival traditions in four towns. It includes scenes from the preparations through
the festivities and interviews with participants about the importance of the Carnival tradition
in their lives.
The Drum and the Mask (2000, 30 minutes). This film explores a complex ceremony of initiation
into a secret and sacred male society among the Tolai people of Papua New Guinea. The
filmmakers, who were given unprecedented access to the ceremony and its associated use of
masks, include attention to the wider context of Tolai life, both rural and urban.
The Eleven Powers (Bali) (Filmakers Library, 1980, 48 minutes). This film records the most
spectacular sacred ceremony of the Balinese people. In Bali, religion is a complex synthesis
of Buddhism, animism, and Hinduism. The Eka Dasa Rudra, or Festival of the 11 Powers,
was held by order of the high priests to restore the balance between good and evil in the
universe. The entire Balinese population of two million participated.
The Feast in Dream Village (1989, 27 minutes). This film documents a ritual feast in a village on
Sumba, the last Indonesian island where most people still practice their indigenous religion.
The feasts purpose is to revive the fertility of the fields and protect the peoples health. The
film shows the preparations for the feast, invocation of the spirits, and performances of many
rituals, but focuses on the conflict that develops between the head priest and the sponsor over
control of the ceremonies.
The Forbidden Land (National Film Board of Canada, 1994, 58 minutes). This film examines the
growing conflict within the Catholic Church in Brazil between the conservative hierarchy
and Liberation Theology. At the heart of the dispute are millions of poor and dispossessed
Brazilians who clamor for land reform and the wealthy, powerful landowners who oppose
them. The film raises wider questions about the role of the Church throughout Central and
South America.
The Great Gathering (Berkeley Media LLC, 2003, 53 minutes). This documentary provides
insights into the history, meaning, and diverse participants of the Maha Kumbha Mela, a
Hindu sacred festival held every twelve years on the banks of the Ganges in India and the
largest festive gathering of humanity on earth. The film focuses on the Kumbha Mela of 2001
and includes commentary by a diverse array of participants, scenes of the bathing
ceremonies, and many details of related spiritual activities. Among the highlights are scenes
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of the Naga Babas, a sect of naked holy men.


Huichol Sacred Pilgrimage to Wirikuta (Folk Art and Craft Exchange, 1991, 29 minutes). This
documentary follows the annual pilgrimage and peyote hunt of the Huichol Indians of
western Mexico. It focuses on the sites, traditional ceremonies and rituals, and teachings of
Huichol shamans and elders. It includes Huichol songs that accompany the journey and
shows that people now come from around the world to participate.
In the Name of God (First Run/Icarus Films, 1992, 90 minutes). This film focuses on the efforts
of militant, fundamentalist Hindus to destroy a Muslim mosque in northern India which the
Hindus claim was built on the birth site of a Hindu god. This issue, among others, has fired
religious violence throughout India in recent years. Made before the destruction of the
mosque, the film explores the motivations of the Hindu militants and efforts of secular
Indians to combat religious hatred.
An Initiation Kut for a Korean Shaman (University of Hawaii Press, 1991, 37 minutes). A
South Korean woman tells of the events which led her to decide to become a shaman. The
video includes scenes from her two-day initiation ceremony. Anthropologist: Laurel Kendall.
The King Does Not Lie: The Initiation of a Shango Priest (Filmakers Library, 1993, 50 minutes).
This film shows the Afro-Cuban religion, Santera, whose practitioners have often been
harassed by authorities. This documentary depicts a Puerto Rican community of santeros
who gather for the initiation of a priest of Shango, the Thundergod of traditional Yoruba
religion of West Africa.
John Frum and Big Death: World War II and the Pacific Islanders (Films for the Humanities and
Sciences, 1995, 28 minutes). During the war, supplies for American troops were regularly
unloaded on Tanna in Vanuatu by a pilot who introduced himself simply as John from the
USA. The islanders came to believe that John Frum was a god who would bring riches
from the sky. Later, when an American Red Cross medical officer visited the area, the
Tannese associated his airplane with John Frum and took the insignia of the cross as his
symbol.
Mundo Milagroso (Miraculous World) (Filmakers Library, 1996, 27 minutes). This film explores
the mixture of Spanish Catholicism and Indian mysticism found in Texan communities along
the Rio Grande River, where various saints and religious figures have made appearances to a
receptive public in their daily surroundings.
Nollywood Babylon. (Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley, 2008, 74 minutes). This film
chronicles the wild world of "Nollywood," a term coined in the early 1990s to describe the
world's fastest-growing national cinema, the Nigerian film industry. The film explores
Nigeria's explosive homegrown movie industry, producing 2500 films a year, most for under
$10,000. Peppered with interviews with producers, directors and actors, film clips and
buoyed by a rousing score fusing Afropop and traditional sounds, Nollywood Babylon
celebrates the distinctive power of Nigerian cinema now bursting beyond the borders of
Africa. Featuring: Lancelot Imasuen, Odia Ofeimun, Onookome Okome, Eddie Ugbomah,
Kingsley Ogoro, Helen Ukpabio, Isang Ubong-Awah, Omotola Ekeinde, Bob-Manuel
Udokwu, Kenneth Okonkwo. Directed by Ben Addelman and Samir Mallal.
Popol Vuh: Creation Myth of the Maya (Berkeley Media LLC, 1992, 60 minutes). This animated
film employs imagery from ancient ceramics to depict Popol Vuh, the ancient Maya creation
myth. It introduces the Maya and then relates the entire tale, beginning with the creation of
the world and concluding with the victory of the Hero Twin over the evil lords of the
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Underworld. Comes with an instructors guide. Professor Peter Allen of Rhode Island
College calls the film An artistic and intellectual triumph.
Sacred Games (1989, 59 minutes). Every year, in a village in the highlands of Chiapas in
southern Mexico, thousands of Maya Indians gather to celebrate Carnival. Their Carnival,
also called the festival of games, is the most elaborate and costly ritual of the year. The
pageant combines ancient Maya rites with Catholicism. The film documents the week-long
activities, focusing on one mans experience as a ritual leader. Professor Caroline Brettell of
Southern Methodist University says that it is a masterful and beautiful film.
Sand Painting: Sacred Art of Tibet (Berkeley Media LLC, 2002, 30 minutes). Produced by Sheri
Brenner. The ancient art of Tibetan sand painting has been preserved in the monasteries of
India and Tibet for 2,500 years. Traditionally practiced in seclusion, this unique art form has
only been practiced publicly in the last decades. In this documentary, Tibetan monks from the
Dalai Lama's personal monastery, Namgyal, create the mandala of Kalachakra, the most
sacred of all Buddhist sand paintings. The film explores the meaning of the symbols and
rituals within the mandala as they have existed through the centuries. Narrator Lobsang
Samten provides insights into the meaning of the ancient designs and also tells his own story
of survival in exile and his commitment to preserve Tibet's sacred arts and practices before
they are lost to humanity.
Spirit of Tibet (1999, 45 minutes). Narrated by Richard Gere. This film is about Tibetan
Buddhism with footage on rituals and sacred performances. It focuses on the life and
teachings of one master, Rinpoche, and the attempt to keep Tibetan Buddhism alive outside
Tibet.
Trance and Dance in Bali (Pennsylvania State University, 1952, 22 minutes). This classic black
and white film, made by Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson, portrays the kris dance in
which dancers go into violent seizures as they perform a ceremonial dance drama depicting
the eternal struggle between life and death.
Valley of the Gods: Worship in Katmandu (Filmakers Library, 1996, 48 minutes). High in the
Himalayas, a Nepalese television crew made this documentary of local religious practices
and festivals that combine elements from Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam.
Voodoo and the Church in Haiti (New Day Films, 1989, 40 minutes). Despite centuries of
vigilant opposition from the Catholic Church, Voodoo continues to flourish in Haiti. This
documentary dispels the sensationalist stereotypes that surround Voodoo by showing how it
is a complex system of beliefs that has developed over time from its West African origins.
Suggested Readings
Paulo Apolito. The Internet and the Madonna: Religious Visionary Experience on the Web.
Antony Shugaar, trans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003. This book traces the
Christian cult of Mary as it has developed and grown through the medium of the World Wide
Web.
Janet Bennion. Desert Patriarchy: Mormon and Mennonite Communities in the Chihuahua
Valley. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2004. The ethnographer, raised in a Mormon
family, reports on her fieldwork among Mormons in a desert region in Mexico.
John Bowen. Can Islam Be French? Pluralism and Pragmatism in a Secular State. Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 2009. Bowen provides an ethnographic perspective on the French
approach to Islam among French Muslims.
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Karen McCarthy Brown. Mama Lola: A Vodou Priestess in Brooklyn. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1991. This life story of Mama Lola, a voodoo practitioner, is set within an
ethnographic study of a Haitian community in New York City.
Timothy Daniels. Islamic Spectrum in Java. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company,
2010. Fieldwork in Yogyakarta, the capital city of Java, Indonesia, reveals the wide variety of
Islamic practices and movements there.
Sondra L. Hausner. Wandering with Sadhus: Ascetics in the Hindu Himalayas. Bloomington:
Indiana University Press, 2008. This ethnographic study explores the interactions of Hindu
ascetics in northern India with ordinary households and considers how these believers are
part of the public community.
Klara Bonsack Kelley and Harris Francis. Navajo Sacred Places. Bloomington: Indiana
University Press, 1994. The authors report on the results of a research project undertaken to
learn about Navajo cultural resources, especially sacred sites, and the stories associated with
them in order to help protect these places.
Melvin Konner. Unsettled: An Anthropology of the Jews. New York: Penguin Compass, 2003. A
biological anthropologist is the author of this cultural history of the Jewish people and their
religion. It extends from the origins of Judaism among pastoralists in the Middle East
through enslavement in the Roman Empire, to the Holocaust and the creation of Israel.
J. David Lewis-Williams and D. G. Pearce. San Spirituality: Roots, Expression, and Social
Consequences. New York: AltaMira Press, 2004. This book examines the interplay of
cosmology, myth, ritual, and art among the San people of southern Africa.
Charlene Makley. The Violence of Liberation: Gender and Tibetan Buddhist Revival in Post-Mao
China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007. Makley combines archival research
with fieldwork in Buddhist monastery in Tibet. She describes the incorporation of the region
of Labrang into China.
Todd Sanders. Beyond Bodies: Rainmaking and Sense Making in Tanzania. Toronto: University
of Toronto Press, 2008. This study of rainmaking rituals among the Inhanzu of central
Tanzania reveals ideas about gender roles and relations.
Maureen Trudelle Schwarz. Blood and Voice: Navajo Women Ceremonial Practitioners. Tucson:
University of Arizona Press, 2003. Contemporary Navajo women are increasingly taking on
the ritual role of ceremonial Singer, formerly the domain of men. This book describes how
women gain sacred knowledge.
Stephen Selka. Religion and the Politics of Ethnic Identity in Bahia, Brazil. Gainesville:
University Press of Florida, 2008. This study shows how Catholicism, evangelical
Protestantism, and the traditional Brazilian religion of Candombl shape the discourse of race
and identity in northeastern Brazil.
Katharine L. Wiegele. Investing in Miracles: El Shaddai and the Transformation of Popular
Catholicism in the Philippines. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2005. This book
examines the widespread popularity in the Philippines of a charismatic businessman who
became a preacher, Brother Mike. He appears at huge outdoor rallies and uses mass media to
spread his message of economic prosperity within a Catholic framework.
For further information about topics covered in this chapter, go to MyAnthroLab at
www.myanthrolab.com and access the following readings in MyAnthroLibrary:
81
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Julie Adkins. 2010. Helping the Homeless in Dallas: Lessons and Challenges from a Faith-Based
Nonprofit. Practicing Anthropology 32:1116. This article considers the role of a
Presbyterian church in advocating for the homeless poor.
David Geary. 2008. Destination Enlightenment: Branding Buddhism and Spiritual Tourism in
Bodhgaya, India. Anthropology Today 24(3):1114. In 2002, the Mahabodhi Temple in
northern India, where Buddha attained enlightenment, was declared a World Heritage Site.
Since then, commercialization has brought new complexities in terms of managing and
conserving a living place of worship in the face of increasing numbers of tourists.
Holly Wissler. 2009. Grief-Singing and the Camera: The Challenges and Ethics of Documentary
Production in an Indigenous Andean Community. Ethnomusicology Forum 18(1):3753. This
article discusses the ethical challenges of making a documentary about Quechua musical
rituals.
Soutar, Louise. 2010. British Female Converts to Islam: Choosing Islam as a Rejection of
Individualism. Language and Intercultural Communication 10:316. The author, though not
a cultural anthropologist, uses three in-depth interviews to reveal motivations of White
British women who convert to Islam.

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Chapter 11
Expressive Culture
Chapter Outline
Art and Culture
What is Art?
Critical Thinking: Probing the Categories of Art
Studying Art in Society
Focus on the Artist
Microcultures, Art, and Power
Performance Arts
Music and Gender among the Temiar of Malaysia
Country Music and Globalization in Brazil
Theater and Myth in South India
Architecture and Decorative Arts
Architecture and Interior Design
Gardens and Flowers
Play, Leisure, and Culture
Games and Sports as a Cultural Microcosm
Sports and Spirituality: Male Wrestling in India
Play, Pleasure, and Pain
Leisure Travel
CULTURAMA: The Gullah of South Carolina
Change in Expressive Culture
Colonialism and Syncretism
Tourism's Complex Effects
Anthropology Works: A Strategy on Cultural Heritage for the World Bank
Maps
Map 11.1 Costa Rica
Map 11.2 The Gullah Region of South Carolina
Map 11.3 Turkey
The Big Questions
How is culture expressed through art?
Cultural anthropologists choose a broad definition of art that takes into account cross-cultural
variations. In the anthropological perspective, all cultures have some form of art and a concept of
what is good art.

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Ethnographers document the ways in which art is related to many aspects of culture:
economics, politics, human development and psychology, healing, social control, and
entertainment. Art may serve to reinforce social patterns, and it may also be a vehicle of protest
and resistance.
Anthropologists who study art examine it within its cultural context. To do this,
anthropologists often become apprentices, learning how to make pots or play drums and, in that
way, gaining both artistic skills and valuable insights into the culture of art, artists, the meanings
of art, the role of the artist in society, and how art changes. A current trend is to examine how art
and other forms of expressive culture are related to power issues and social inequality.
Various categories of art exist cross-culturally, and different cultures emphasize different
forms. These categories include performance arts, architecture and decorative arts, graphic arts,
and more.
What do play and leisure activities reveal about culture?
Anthropological studies of play and leisure examine these activities within their cultural
contexts. Cultural anthropologists view games as cultural microcosms, both reflecting and
reinforcing dominant social values. Sports and leisure activities, although engaged in for
nonutilitarian purposes, are often tied to economic and political interests. In some contexts,
sports are related to religion and spirituality.
Tourism is a rapidly growing part of the world economy with vast implications for culture.
Anthropologists who study tourism examine the impact of tourism on local cultures and
questions of authenticity in the touristic experience. Tourism companies often market other
cultures to appeal to the consumers, a phenomenon that perpetuates stereotypes and denigrates
the host culture. Cultural anthropologists work with the tourism industry and local people to
find better ways of representing culture that are more accurate, less stigmatizing to the host
culture, and more informative for tourists. Local groups are actively seeking ways to share in the
benefits of large-scale tourism and conservation projects and contribute to cultural and
environmental sustainability.
How is expressive culture changing in contemporary times?
Major forces of change in expressive culture include Western colonialism, contemporary
tourism, and globalization in general. As with other kinds of cultural change through contact,
expressive culture may reject, adopt, or adapt new elements. Cultural resistance and syncretism
are increasingly frequent, as exemplified in the Trobriand Islanders co-optation and re-creation
of cricket.
In some cases, outside forces have led to the extinction of local forms of expressive culture.
In others, outside forces have promoted continuity or the recovery of practices that had been lost.
The rising popularity of belly dancing among the middle and upper class of Istanbul is partly
inspired by the demand for its performance by international tourists. Resistance to colonialism
and neocolonialism has often inspired cultural revitalization, as in the Hawaiian Renaissance
and community-designed projects in Australia.
UNESCOs policies about the preservation of material cultural heritage and intangible
cultural heritage are increasing worldwide attention to, and protection of, many sites and cultural
practices. At the same time, tourism may have detrimental effects on the sustainability of a site
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and the vitality of a cultural practice. In contrast to international policies, many local indigenous
groups are taking cultural rights into their own hands and trying to preserve and protect their
heritage for themselves and their descendants, rather than for tourists.
Critical Thinking Questions
1. Is Western culture the only one that distinguishes between fine art and non-fine art? If you do
not have an answer, how could you find out more about this issue?
2. What is the status of artists in North America or Europe? Are there gender differences? Does
the question need to be broken down into categories of art to allow for meaningful answers?
3. Compare and contrast blood sports and religious sacrifice.
Internet Exploration
1. Explore the website Ethnomusicology, Folk Music, and World Music
(http://www.lib.washington.edu/Music/world.html). From the perspective of cultural
anthropology, what topics are included and what is not covered?
2. Look at sections on Powwows and Festivals, Native Music and Arts Organizations, and
Individuals on Native American Sites (http://www.nativeculturelinks.com/indians.html). How
does this information compare to what you found in the website you searched for in the first
Internet exploration above?
3. Locate websites of Australian painters. What do they tell you about the artists and their art?
4. Visit the Kennedy Center Millennium Stage website (http://www.kennedycenter.org/programs/millennium/archive.html) and listen to several different styles of
international music such as Tuvan throat singers, gamelan music, and Bulgarian choral
singing.
Learning Objectives: After reading this chapter, students should be able to:
Discuss how cultural anthropology contributes to the understanding of art from a crosscultural perspective.
Be aware of the major categories of art cross-culturally.
Explain what cultural anthropologists emphasize in the study of art.
Perceive the major structural factors involved in art such as political and ethnic interests in
promotion of identity.
Describe some examples of how cross-cultural differences in various categories of art such as
music, theater, and architecture might relate to their social contexts.
Discuss play and leisure, and provide examples of how they are shaped by culture and
contribute to shaping peoples cultural worlds.
Explain how larger cultural structures are involved in how and why art and leisure activities
change over time.
Describe the culture of the Gullah of South Carolina and contemporary challenges they are
facing.
Recognize and locate the places that appear in the maps in this chapter and know something
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about their social characteristics.


Key Concepts
art: the application of imagination, skill, and style to matter, movement, and sound that goes
beyond what is purely practical.
blood sport: a form of competition that explicitly seeks to bring about a flow of blood from, or
even the death of, humanhuman contestants, humananimal contestants, or animalanimal
contestants.
ethno-esthetics: culturally specific definitions of what art is.
ethnomusicology: the cross-cultural study of music.
expressive culture: behavior and beliefs related to art, leisure, and play.
heterotopia: something formed from elements drawn from multiple and diverse contexts.
intangible cultural heritage: UNESCOs view of culture as manifested in oral traditions,
languages, performing arts, rituals and festive events, knowledge and practices about nature and
the universe, and craftmaking.
material cultural heritage: sites, monuments, buildings, and movable objects considered to
have outstanding value to humanity.
theater: a form of enactment, related to other forms such as dance, music, parades, competitive
games and sports, and verbal art, that seeks to entertain through acting, movement, and sound.
wa: Japanese word meaning discipline and self-sacrifice for the good of the group.
Video Suggestions
Bali Beyond the Postcard (Filmakers Library, 1991, 60 minutes). Art and everyday life come
together in this video in an intimate story about a Balinese family whose gamelan music and
Legong dance traditions span four generations. It follows an important event in the familys
historythe passing down of the Legong dance legacy to the youngest child of the family
who is nine years old. From the first rehearsal taught by the mother to the final debut
presided over by the familys ninety year-old patriarch and gamelan master, the film makers
capture the intensity of music in Bali.
Bob Moore: Native-American Craftsman (Pennsylvania State University, 1991, 20 minutes). This
video documents the work of Bob Moore, a Cherokee Indian craftsman who lives in
Boalsburg, Pennsylvania. He practices several traditional styles of leatherwork. Because he is
painstakingly faithful to whatever style in which he is working, he is able to sell his work to
Native Americans who collect articles reflecting their own culture.
The Carvers Art of the Indians of Northwestern California (Berkeley Media LLC, 1996, 16
minutes). This film begins with an historical introduction and then includes footage of artists
at work. Famous carvers discuss their artistry. The video shows how craft has become art
with its attention to museum exhibitions of Indian carvings. It provides lessons about
methods in cultural anthropology as the academic interacts with various artists.
Circles-Cycles Kathak Dance (1989, 28 minutes). The tradition of kathak, the classical dance
form of northern India, can be traced back more than 1,000 years. It is the only Indian dance
form that combines influences from Hindu and Islamic cultures. This documentary illustrates

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many aspects of the kathak repertoire as demonstrated by some of its greatest living
performers.
The Cockfight (1996, 13 minutes). Shot in Bali, this film shows the sport of cockfighting
including the matching of cocks for the fight, the betting, and the fight itself which may have
three different outcomes: death, surrender, or tie breaker. Professor Karl Heider of the
University of South Carolina says that this video is clear, accurate, vivid, and admirably
straightforward...
Daughters of Ixchel: Maya Thread of Change (Berkeley Media LLC, 1993, 29 minutes).
Guatemalan women are highly skilled weavers, and their textiles are known worldwide for
their excellent quality and design. Mothers pass their skills down to their daughters. The
traditional colors and designs carry the history and identity of the Maya people. This film
explores the lives of Maya women today, portrays weaving processes, and examines the
political, economic, and social forces that are affecting the women and their weaving.
Professor John Leavitt of the University of Montreal says that the video deals seriously with
tradition and the way tradition is changing in order to survive. I highly recommend the
video...
Festive Land: Carnaval in Bahia (Berkeley Media LLC, 2001, 48 minutes). Produced by
Carolina Moraes-Liu. Carnaval is the most expressive showcase of the unique cultural
richness of Bahia, where African culture has survived, prospered, and evolved, mixing with
Brazilian influences to create unique cultural forms. Carnaval also reflects the racial and
social tensions of Brazil. The film presents the points of view of four people of different
social classes and backgrounds. Commentary is also provided by noted Brazilian artists,
leaders, and scholars. Grammy winner Gilberto Gil gives a personal account of his
participation in the quasi-religious group, Filhos de Gandhi. Daniela Mercury, one of the
biggest pop stars in Brazil, discusses the influences shaping contemporary Bahian Carnaval
music. Antonio Carlos dos Santos, founder of the group Ile Aiye, explains the significance of
afro-centric Carnaval groups called "blocos afros," and describes how racism is reflected in
the social dynamics of the celebration. James Matory, Professor of Anthropology and AfroAmerican Studies at Harvard University says: "Refreshingly, this film explodes the longrunning myth that Carnaval subverts the racial and class hierarchies that trouble Bahia and
Brazil during the rest of the year.
From the Roots: California Indian Basketweavers (California Indian Basketweavers Association,
1996, 28 minutes). The destruction of Native American life during post-contact years nearly
led to the demise of basketweaving traditions. But today new generations of weavers are
working to preserve and continue the ancient knowledge and skills involved in their art. In
this documentary, California Indian basketweavers speak of their traditions, techniques, and
the challenges they face including restricted access to plant gathering sites and the use of
hazardous pesticides in areas where plants are gathered.
Gnaouas (First Run/Icarus Films, 1990, 26 minutes). This video depicts the link between music
and ritual among the Gnaouas, residents of Morocco who were originally brought there from
elsewhere in Africa as slaves. Their rituals and music draw on both Black African culture and
Islamic culture derived from the Middle East.
Griottes of the Sahel (Pennsylvania State University, 1991, 12 minutes). This film documents the
musical tradition of women who appear at installations of chiefs, weddings, and naming

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ceremonies to chant the praises of the participants, reminding their audiences of societys ties
to the past and offering people guidance for the future.
Gypsies Sing Long Ballads (Berkeley Media LLC, 1982, 30 minutes). Scotlands Gypsies have
lived outside mainstream society for more than 500 years. Although some of the Traveling
People still live by the sides of the roads, most live today in houses and are under pressure
to abandon their culture. This film documents their traditional music, especially the long and
unaccompanied ballads that date back hundreds of years and have been handed down over
the generations.
Joe David: Spirit of the Mask (Pennsylvania State University, 1982, 24 minutes). Working within
the Native American tradition of the Canadian Northwest, Joe David has become one of the
strong contemporary links in the preservation and reinvention of the art of his culture. The
video follows his creative process, from carving and finishing a wolf headdress out of a block
of cedar to its ultimate use as a ceremonial mask, worn by the artist in a dance that concludes
the film.
Kantiki Maishi: Songs of Sorghum (1992, 58 minutes). This documentary explores the harvest
celebrations of Bonaire and Curacao, two islands of the Netherlands Antilles. It shows how
industrialization and tourism have profoundly changed these African-derived festivals and
their traditional celebrations that involve food, song, and dance.
Kathputli: The Art of Rajasthani Puppeteers (Pennsylvania State University, 1988, 30 minutes).
Itinerant puppeteers from Rajasthan, northern India, demonstrate the construction and
manipulation of the wood-and-string creations used in this ancient art form. The film
includes a performance of a condensed version of the legend of the Rajput chief, Amar Singh
Rathor.
Listen to the Silence: Rhythm in African Music (Filmakers Library, 2003, 52 minutes). This
documentary explores the nature of African polyrhythms. It shows the complexity of
drumming by master drummer Akakpoli Afade, who also points out the wide variety of
instruments used. This film adds a new dimension to the appreciation of African music,
focusing on the space between sounds.
The Musical Steps of Mongolia (Filmakers Library, 1995, 51 minutes). Set against vistas of the
Mongolian terrain, this video focuses on music within the context of daily life including
caring for the herds, food preparation, hospitality, and games. Mongolias tradition of
diaphonic music combines a base drone with a melodic upper register. Footage shows a
flutist performing inside his yert, producing diaphonic music while his daughter serves salted
tea and yak yogurt. The film also includes part of an epic song which takes the singer seven
days to perform and is done from memory.
Paj Ntaub: Textile Techniques of the Hmong (1996, 39 minutes). This film overviews the culture,
history and traditional weaving techniques of the Hmong. Following the Vietnam-American
War, most Hmong were forced to flee from Laos, and many migrated to the United States. It
profiles four women artists who demonstrate several techniques. Professor Peter Allen of
Rhode Island College, says that this video is a very useful and much needed addition to the
existing body of films on Southeast Asians in the U.S.
Rap, Race and Equality (Filmakers Library, 1995, 58 minutes). This film captures the essence of
the cultural phenomenon of US rap music during its formative years in the early 1990s when
it exploded onto the world stage. The film is an important historical document featuring raps

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most influential and controversial artists such as Ice Cube, Ice T, and Queen Latifah who
have become international media stars.
Salsa in Japan: A Japanese and Latino Mix (Berkeley Media LLC, 2003, 25 minutes). Produced
by Elizabeth Chamberlin. This film documents the culture of salsa dancing in Japan where
salsa dancing and salsa clubs serve as a source of cultural mingling between native Japanese
and Latino immigrants to Japan. The video examines two types of salsa clubs in Japan: one
draws more Japanese and the other draws more Latinos. It recounts the history of salsa and
presents interviews with people involved in the salsa world in Japan. Paul H. Gelles,
Associate Professor of Anthropology at the University of California, Riverside, comments
that "the video will be of use in undergraduate courses in popular culture, multiculturalism,
cultural anthropology, and numerous other disciplines."
The Serpent and the Cross (Ronin Films, 1994, 55 minutes). In several outback Australian
communities, Aboriginal artists are consciously seeking a new form of artistic expression that
builds bridges between traditional Aboriginal spiritualitythe Dreamingand Christianity.
This documentary explores the work of these artists and examines the controversies that
surround their work.
Skull Art in Papua New Guinea (Berkeley Media LLC, 2000, 28 minutes). In Papua New
Guinea, historically skull art was associated with tribal warfare and headhunting, both of
which were banned in the 1920s by the colonial administration. This documentary shows one
artist at work painting a skull and explores the current context of this now-rare art form.
A Sound Education: The Young Violinists of South Central (Filmakers Library, 2002, 26
minutes). This documentary introduces Dr. Chen Ho, a gifted violinist and teacher, who
works with YECCA (Youth Empowerment Center for Creative Achievement) in South
Central Los Angeles, formed to provide low cost after-school music education for ghetto
children. The fact that Chen Ho is Korean and his pupils are African-American and Hispanic
is important to YECCA, as this community is extremely sensitive to racial prejudice.
Trekking on Tradition (Documentary Educational Resources, 1993, 45 minutes). This video
explores the effects of mountain tourism (known as trekking) on villagers in Nepal. It
examines the views of the trekkers (Europeans and Americans) and the Nepalese, and their
conflicting desires and frustrations. The film illuminates, often humorously, the controversies
and ironies of cross-cultural encounters related to tourism in developing countries. It also
documents the effects of tourism on local cultural practices and the environment. Professor
Ernestine McHugh of Pitzer College says that This film engages students, provokes
discussion, and provides a vivid illustration of the problems and possibilities generated by
contemporary tourism. It is exceptionally valuable in that it sensitively portrays the human
consequences of cross-cultural encounters...
Trobriand Cricket: An Ingenious Response to Colonialism (Berkeley Media LLC, 1976, 54
minutes). One of the best-known ethnographic films, this classic documentary depicts the
modifications Trobriand Islanders of Papua New Guinea made to the British game of cricket
which the British introduced to replace inter-group warfare and to serve their own interests.
The film contains material on the British presence, contemporary Trobriand dances and
magical practices introduced into cricket, and an afternoon game in one village.
Suggested Readings

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Adams, Kathleen M. Art as Politics: Re-Crafting Identities, Tourism, and Power in Tana Toraja,
Indonesia, 2006. Adams explores the intersection of art, Christian-Muslim politics, and
tourism in Sulawesi, Indonesia using her ethnographic research that began in the 1980s.
Eduardo Archetti. Football, Polo and the Tango in Argentina. New York: Berg, 1999. An
Argentinean anthropologist examines expressive culture in Buenos Aires and how it is related
to elite tastes, gender, and international competitiveness.
Edna G. Bay, ed. Asen, Ancestors, and Vodun: Tracing Change in African Art. ChampaignUrbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008. This book documents the rise and decline in
Benin, West Africa, of the production of asen, metal art objects created to honor the spirits of
ancestors and vodun deities.
Jennifer Loureide Biddle. Breasts, Bodies, Canvas: Central Desert Art as Experience. Seattle:
University of Washington Press, 2008. This study of artists in Australias Central Desert
draws on fieldwork among the Walpiri people.
Kevin K. Birth. Bacchanalian Sentiments: Musical Experiences and Political Counterpoints in
Trinidad. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008. The author explores links among
several Trinidadian musical styles and political consciousness on the island.
Tara Browner. Heartbeat of the People: Music and Dance of the Northern Pow-Wow. Urbana:
University of Illinois Press, 2002. An ethnomusicologist of Choctaw heritage uses archival
research on the pow-wow and participant observation to show how elements of the pow-wow
in North America have changed.
Shirley F. Campbell. The Art of Kula. New York: Berg, 2002. The author focuses on designs
painted on kula canoes and finds that kula art and its associated male ideology linked to the
sea competes with female ideology and symbolism linked to the earth.
Michael Chibnik. Carving Tradition: The Making and Marketing of Oaxacan Wood Carvings.
Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003. Chibnik examines the production of, and
international trade in, Oaxacan wood carvings, an art form developed for tourists.
Alaina Lemon. Between Two Fires: Gypsy Performance and Romani Memory from Pushkin to
Post-Socialism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2000. This book examines how theater
in Moscow both liberates Roma in Russia and reinforces their status as stigmatized outsiders.
Beverly B. Mack. Muslim Women Sing: Hausa Popular Song. CD included. Bloomington:
Indiana University Press, 2004. This ethnography provides an intimate portrait of the life and
art of Hausa women singers in northern Nigeria. It shows how Hausa women exercise agency
and creativity through music and dance.
Roger Magazine. Golden and Blue Like My Heart: Masculinity, Youth, and Power among Soccer
Fans in Mexico City. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2007. This book is an
ethnography of fan clubs devoted to the Pumas, one of the most popular soccer teams in
Mexico City.
Laura Miller. Beauty Up: Selling and Consuming Body Aesthetics in Japan. Berkeley: University
of California Press, 2006. The author, a linguistic anthropologist, examines the diversity of
Japanese personal beauty practices of both males and females. She links eyelid surgery, body
hair removal, and beauty products to a wider context of body esthetics.
Ntarangwi, Mwenda. East African Hip-Hop: Youth Culture and Globalization. ChampaignUrbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009. Cross-cultural exchange of hip-hop music among
Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania is creating a rich blend of music shaped by youth culture.
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For further information about topics covered in this chapter, go to MyAnthroLab at


www.myanthrolab.com and access the following readings in MyAnthroLibrary:
Allan Abramson and Robert Fletcher. 2007. Recreating the Vertical: Rock-Climbing as Epic and
Deep Eco-Play. Anthropology Today 23(6):37. The authors explore why vertical rockclimbing is so compelling to those who do it and how risky rock-climbing practices interact
with pleasure.
David Hume. 2008. The Development of Tourist Art and SouvenirsThe Arc of the Boomerang:
From Hunting, Fighting and Ceremony to Tourist Souvenir. International Journal of Tourism
Research 11(1):5570. How does the boomerang, a functional tool, become a highly soughtafter tourist item? The author examines this and other questions about how everyday things
become souvenirs.
Carolyn Jones, Felicity Baker, and Toni Day. 2004. From Healing Rituals to Music Therapy:
Bridging the Cultural Divide between Sudanese Refugees. The Arts in Psychotherapy
31(2):89100. This article examines how a school in the United States encourages nonEnglish speaking immigrant students to explore and express their feelings through music and
talking about song lyrics.

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Chapter 12
People on the Move
Chapter Outline
Categories of Migration
Categories Based on Spatial Boundaries
Internal Migration
International Migration
Transnational Migration
Critical Thinking: Haitian Cane Cutters in the Dominican Republic: A Case of Structure or
Human Agency?
Categories Based on Reason for Moving
Labor Migrants
Displaced Persons
Institutional Migrants
CULTURAMA: The Maya of Guatemala
The New Immigrants to the United States and Canada
The New Immigrants from Latin America and the Caribbean
Mexican Immigrants: Neither Here Nor There
Chain Migration of Dominicans
Salvadorans: Escaping War to Struggle with Poverty
The New Immigrants from Asia
Changing Patterns of Consumption among Hong Kong Chinese
Three Patterns of Adaptation among Vietnamese-Americans
Hindus of New York City Maintain Their Culture
The New Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union
Soviet Jews Flee Persecution
Migration Policies and Programs in a Globalizing World
Protecting Migrants Health
Inclusion and Exclusion
Anthropology Mapping African Pastoralists Movements for Risk Assessment and Service
Delivery
Migration and Human Rights
Maps
Map 12.1 Tonga
Map 12.2 Site of Three Gorges Dam in China
Map 12.3 Guatemala
Map 12.4 El Salvador
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Map 12.5 Sahel Region


The Big Questions
What are the major categories of migration?
Migrants are classified as internal, international, or transnational. Another category is based on
the migrants reason for moving. On this dimension, migrants are classified as labor migrants,
institutional migrants, or displaced persons. Peoples adjustment to their new situations depends
on the degree of voluntarism involved in the move, the degree of cultural and environmental
difference between the place of origin and the destination, and how closely expectations about
the new location are met, especially in terms of making a living and establishing social ties.
Displaced persons are one of the fastest-growing categories of migrants. Refugees fleeing
from political persecution or warfare face serious adjustment challenges because they often leave
their home countries with few material resources and frequently have experienced much
psychological suffering. The number of internally displaced persons is growing even faster than
the number of refugees. Mega-dams and other large-scale development projects result in
thousands of people becoming IDPs, and these individuals do not fall under the purview of
international organizations such as the United Nations.
What are examples of the new immigrants in the United States and Canada?
Worldwide, the new immigrants are contributing to growing transnational connections and to
the formation of increasingly multicultural populations within states. In the United States, the
new immigrants from Latin America, especially Mexico, are the largest and fastest-growing
category.
In the United States, members of most refugee immigrant groups tend to have jobs at the
lower end of the economic scale. Jewish refugees from the Soviet Union experience a major gap
in what their employment was like in Russia versus their limited options in the United States.
Immigrants from East and South Asia, who are more likely than others to have immigrated to the
United States voluntarily, have achieved greater levels of economic success than most other new
immigrant groups.
Immigrant groups throughout the world may face discrimination in their new destinations,
although the degree to which it occurs among those already residing in those locales varies with
the level of perceived competition for resources. Gender can affect immigrant experiences.
How do anthropologists contribute to migration policies and programs?
Anthropologists have studied national and international migration policies and practices in terms
of social inclusion and exclusion. Fieldwork in particular contexts reveals a range of patterns
between local residents and immigrants. Working-class resentment among local people against
immigrants is not universal and varies with the overall amount and type of employment
available.
Anthropologists examine possible infringements of the human rights of migrants, especially
as regards the degree of voluntarism in their move and the conditions they face in the destination
area. Another human rights issue related to migration is the right of return. The UN proclaimed
the right of return for internationally displaced populations. Most countries, however, have no
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such policy. Internally displaced persons, including the evacuees from the 2005 hurricanes in the
Gulf Region of the United States, have no guarantee that they can return to their home area.
Cultural anthropologists find many roles in applied work related to migration. Gathering data
on migratory movements of traditionally mobile people, such as pastoralists, can help make
humanitarian aid programs more timely and effective.
Critical Thinking Questions
1. Have you ever moved or known someone who did? (A move to attend college counts.) Assess
the degree of voluntarism in the move in terms of the motivation to move and choice of
destination. Did this affect the migrants adaptation to the new situation?
2. Think of a movie you have seen or a novel you have read that involves characters who have
migrated. What kinds of information are presented, and how are the migrants portrayedin a
positive or negative lightand what is your interpretation of the presentation?
3. Should international oversight exist for the growing numbers of internally displaced persons? If
yes, why; if no, why not?
Internet Exploration
1. Browse recent articles in Migrant News (http://migration.ucdavis.edu/mn/index/php). What
are some current issues and concerns surrounding migration? Do you notice any differences
between the concerns of the United States and those of other regions?
2. Go to the website for the United Nations Refugee Agency (http://www.unhcr.ch) and click on
News. What are some current issues surrounding refugees? What is UNHCR doing in these
situations?
3. Go to the website for the IDP Project (http://www.idpproject.org) and review their countryspecific information on internally-displaced persons.
Learning Objectives: After reading this chapter, students should be able to:
Discuss how and to what purpose cultural anthropologists study the topic of migration.
Distinguish between the categories of migration and their implications for the people involved.
Discuss the theoretical debate between structurists and those who favor individual agency in
explaining different examples of migration.
Describe examples of the new immigrants to the US and Canada and some of the challenges
they face and how they are dealing with the challenges.
Compare the major new immigrant groups in the United States and Canada, their reasons for
migrating, and some characteristics of their adaptation.
Define transnationalism, explain why it is increasing as a way of life, and describe its effects on
the people who constitute this deterritorialized population.
Describe the political and economic factors that lie behind state policies about immigration and
different peoples attitudes toward immigrants in the receiving countries.
Evaluate how the many topics within cultural anthropology covered so far are related to
migration.
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Discuss the culture of the Maya of Guatemala and contemporary challenges they are facing.
Recognize and locate the places that appear in the maps in this chapter and know something
about their social characteristics.
Key Concepts:
bracero: an agricultural laborer in Latin America and the Caribbean who is permitted entry to a
country to work for a limited time.
chain migration: a form of population movement in which a first wave of migrants comes and
then attracts relatives and friends to join them in the destination.
circular migration: repeated movement between two or more places, either within or between
countries.
development-induced displacement (DID): the forced migration of a population due to
development.
displaced person: someone who is forced to leave his or her home, community, or country.
institutional migrant: someone who moves into a social institution either voluntarily or
involuntarily.
internal migration: movement within country boundaries.
internally displaced person (IDP): someone who is forced to leave his or her home or
community but who remains in the same country.
international migration: movement across country boundaries.
lifeboat mentality: a view that seeks to limit growth of a particular group because of perceived
resource constraints.
migration: movement from one place to another.
new immigrant: an international migrant who has moved since the 1960s.
push-pull theory: an explanation for rural-to-urban migration that emphasizes peoples
incentives to move because of a lack of opportunity in rural areas (the push) compared with
urban areas (the pull).
refugee: someone who is forced to leave his or her home, community, or country.
remittance: transfer of money or goods by a migrant to his or her family in the country of origin.
right of return: the United Nations' guaranteed right of a refugee to return to his or her home
country to live.
transnational migration: regular movement of a person between two or more countries resulting
in a new cultural identity.
Video Suggestions
Adio Kerida (Goodbye Dear Love) (Women Make Movies, 2002, 82 minutes). Anthropologist
Ruth Behar returns to her native Cuba to profile the islands remaining Sephardic Jews and
chronicle her familys journey to the U.S. as Cuban-Jewish exiles.
Blue Collar and Buddha (Filmakers Library, 1989, 57 minutes). This documentary explores the
lives of Laotian refugees as they seek to preserve their cultural identity and adapt to their new
situation in Rockford, Illinois. Their working class neighbors resent the economic gains of the
Laotians. Rockfords blue collar workers, many of whom are unemployed, voice their hatred of
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the newcomers who they confuse with their former enemies in Vietnam. When the Laotians
built a Buddhist temple, the monks suffered from terrorist attacks. Town officials and clergy
responded to the crisis, some with indifference, some with concern. The Laotians have no option
other than to stay in Rockford and work hard to make a better life for their children.
A Chief in Two Worlds (1993, 52 minutes). This video focuses on a Samoan resident of Los Angeles
and follows him and his family on a journey to Western Samoa where he undergoes a formal
bestowal ceremony and is invested with chieftainship. The video examines his new role in the
Samoan community of Los Angeles. It also provides an introduction to Samoan culture and the
role of culture in transnationalism.
City of Dreams: The Disappearing Women of Juarez (Filmakers Library, 2003, 44 minutes).
Hundreds of thousands of young women have been drawn to Juarez, Mexico, from the most
impoverished regions of the country. Since 1993 over two hundred young women who
worked in the maquiladoras in Juarez have been murdered. Many of the victims were
assembly-line workers in over four hundred mostly US-owned factories. The film provides
insights into the womens lives and tells how Mexican human rights activists consider the
women to be casualties in a deeper gender conflict caused by rapid changes in male/female
roles.
Europlex (Women Make Movies, 2003, 20 minutes). This video tracks the daily, often illegal,
border crossings between Morocco and Spain. Paying officials to look the other way, workers
smuggle contraband across the border, sometimes crossing up to eleven times a day. In a now
common scenario of global economics, Moroccan women work in North Africa to produce
goods destined for the European market.
A Great Wonder: Lost Children of Sudan (Bullfrog Films, 2004, 61 minutes). This video traces
the journey of three young Sudanese orphans, a tiny sample of the 17,000 so-called Lost
Boys of Sudan, who have spent most of their lives either in flight from war or in refugee
camps in Ethiopia and Northern Kenya. Their stories, from Sudanese warfare and
deprivation, to resettlement in Seattle, Washington, illustrate especially difficult migratory
circumstances.
Invisible Indians: Mixtec Farmworkers in California (University of California, 1993, 43 minutes).
This video explores the history and current social and economic conditions of the Mixtec
Indians of Oaxaca, Mexico. It examines the reasons why increasing numbers of Mixtecs become
migrants, living part of each year in Oaxaca and part in California where they constitute
between five and ten percent of all farmworkers.
Moving Mountains: The Story of Yiu Mien (Filmakers Library, 1991, 58 minutes). This film
documents changes in the culture of the Yiu Mien, refugees from highland Laos who have
settled in the United States. In their hill villages in Laos, the Mien practiced horticulture and had
no electricity, cars, or other modern technology. Their involvement with the CIA during the
Vietnam-American War forced the Mien to leave home. In the United States, they are finding
jobs, shopping malls, going to discos, educating their children, and also trying to retain certain
features of Mien culture. The video contains archival footage in their homeland and interviews
with young and old Mien in the United States.
Oaxacalifornia (Faction Films, 1995, 57 minutes). This documentary explores the transnational
lives of the Meija family as they experience the contradictions and changing realities of living in
both the U.S. and Mexico. The parents hold fast to their Mexican citizenship and their green
cards, but their children consider themselves Americans. The films how transnationalism is an
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economic necessity for people like the Meijas as well as offering complex cultural interchanges
that alter both societies as individuals live both in and between two cultural worlds. Professor
Michael Kearney of the University of California at Riverside, says What might be seen as a
split existence is instead revealed as coherent...A most successful film.
The Refugee Show: The Plight of the Padaung Long-Necked People. (Films for the Humanities
and Sciences, 2007, 29 minutes). Thousands of ethnic Padaung have fled Burma (Myanmar)
and now live in Thailand. This program examines their economic dependence on western
tourists who come to see the neck ornamentation of Padaung women. Highlighting an
ongoing struggle to preserve their heritage, several Padaung interviewees describe life
without dignity, privacy, land, higher education, and the freedom to travel outside their host
villages. Viewers will gain a glimpse into the fragile Padaung culture and its current
environment, which, in the words of one tribal member, resembles a human zoo.
The Split Horn: Life of a Hmong Shaman in America (Filmakers Library, 2002, 55 minutes). This
film chronicles the seventeen-year journey of a Hmong shaman and his family transplanted
from the mountains of Laos to Appleton, Wisconsin. As a shaman, Paja Thao ministers to the
physical and spiritual needs of friends and family with elaborate rituals that bridge the natural
and spirit worlds. When his children begin to turn away from Hmong ways, Paja spirals into
depression and is unable to heal himself or to perform rituals for others for a year. The crisis
sets off a family and community response that helps restore the shamans strength and
reunites his family.
Transnational Fiesta: 1992 (Berkeley Media LLC, 1993, 61 minutes). Indigenous peoples
throughout the Americas are asserting their presence and identity with renewed vigor. This
video explores cultural revitalization through examination of the experiences of a family of
Peruvian Andean immigrants in Washington, D.C. It documents their lives, following them as
they return to their home town in Peru to sponsor the annual fiesta of the patron saint. The video
reveals how the migrants influence the perpetuation and re-invention of village life and also
how their participation in the village fiesta contributes to their own ethnic identity in the United
States.
Wandering Warrior (Filmakers Library, 1998, 56 minutes). This video tells the story of a young
Maasai man from Kenya who leaves home to attend school in Massachusetts. He becomes a
self-styled ambassador of tourism in Kenya, a sought-after lecturer, and a guest on talk
shows. In this film, he shares his insights about America and his attachment to his tribe and
its traditions.
Suggested Readings
Rogaia Mustafa Abusharaf. Wanderings: Sudanese Migrants and Exiles in
North America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002. Abusharaf
provides historical background on the first wave of Sudanese migration to
the United States and Canada, information on various Sudanese groups
that have migrated, and an interpretation of Sudanese identity in North
America.
Beth Baker-Cristales. Salvadoran Migration to Southern California: Redefining
El Hermano Lejano. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2004. This
book provides a history of Salvadoran migration to the United States and
a detailed description of the lives of Salvadoran migrants in Los Angeles.
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Jeffrey H. Cohen. The Culture of Migration in Southern Mexico. Austin:


University of Texas Press, 2004. Migration is a way of life for many
individuals and entire families in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. Cohen
discusses outmigration in 12 communities and its effects on the people
who remain.
Kesha Fikes. Managing African Portugal: The Citizen-Migrant Distinction.
Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010. Portugals entry into the
European Union affected perceptions of the suitability of domestic
employment for working-class Portuguese women compared to immigrant
Black women from Cape Verde.
Alyshia Glvez. Guadalup in New York: Devotion and the Struggle for
Citizenship Rights among Mexican Immigrants. New York: New York
University Press, 2010. This ethnography shows the importance of
devotion to the Virgin of Guadalupe in the lives of undocumented Mexican
immigrants in New York City.
Julianne Hammer. Palestinians Born in Exile: Diaspora and the Search for a
Homeland. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2004. In the decade following
the 1993 Oslo Peace Accords, 100,000 diasporic Palestinians moved to the
West Bank and Gaza. This ethnography documents the experiences of
young adults and their adjustment to the move.
Josiah McC. Heyman. Finding a Moral Heart for U.S. Immigration Policy: An
Anthropological Perspective. Washington, DC: American Ethnological
Society, Monograph Series, Number 7, 1998. This critique finds that
current U.S. immigration policy is basically anti-immigrationist. The author
suggests steps toward a more inclusive policy.
Helen Morton Lee. Tongans Overseas: Between Two Shores. Honolulu:
University of Hawaii Press, 2003. This book about Tongan migrants in
Melbourne uses participant observation and analysis of messages on a
Tongan Internet forum called Kava Bowl.
Ann Aurelia Lpez. The Farmworkers Journey. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 2007. Interviews conducted over a 10-year period
document the lives of farm workers who migrate from west-central Mexico
to central California.
Martin F. Manalansan IV. Global Divas: Filipino Gay Men in the Diaspora.
Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004. This book is based on the life
narratives of 50 Filipino gay men in New York City and participant
observation in homes, bars, hospitals, restaurants, and the Gay Pride
Parade.
Karen Richman. Migration and Vodou. Gainesville: University of Florida Press,
2005. This book and its accompanying CD reveal the innovative ways that
Haitian migrants in South Florida maintain their religious traditions and
familial connections.
Archana B. Verma. The Making of Little Punjab in Canada: Patterns of
Immigration. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2002. Verma
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describes the historical connections between Hindu migrants from a


village in Indias northern state of Punjab, to Vancouver Island, British
Columbia.
For further information about topics covered in this chapter, go to
MyAnthroLab at www.myanthrolab.com and access the following readings
in MyAnthroLibrary:
Mary Beth Chrostowsky. 2010. The Role of Asylum Location on Refugee
Adjustment Strategies: The Case of Sudanese in San Diego, California.
Practicing Anthropology 32(1):3842. Sudanese refugees in the United
States experience a large gap between their home culture and their
destination, a fact that puts them at risk for greater stress. In addition,
most refugees had already spent several years in refugee camps in Egypt
of Kenya, further adding to their adjustment challenges.
Judith Friedenberg and Gail Thakur. 2009. Immigrant Life Histories as a
Heritage Resource for Civic Engagement. Practicing Anthropology
31(3):3035. This article considers factors that play into either immigrants
having historical amnesia or valuing their past and memorializing it.
Deborah James and Evan Killick. 2010. Ethical Dilemmas? UK Immigration,
Legal Aid Funding Reform and Caseworkers. Anthropology Today 26(1):13
15. A study of caseworkers and clients in South London sheds light on the
legal process of asylum-seeking in the United Kingdom and the role of
cultural anthropologists as expert witnesses.

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Chapter 13

People Defining Development


Chapter Outline
Defining Development and Approaches to It
Two Processes of Cultural Change
Invention
Diffusion
Theories and Models of Development
Anthropology Works: The Saami, Snowmobiles, and Social Impact Analysis
Modernization
Growth-Oriented Development
Distributional Development
Human Development
Sustainable Development
Institutional Approaches to Development
Large-Scale Development Institutions
Grassroots Approaches
The Development Project
CULTURAMA: The Peyizan Yo of Haiti
The Development Project Cycle
Cultural Fit
The Anthropological Critique of Development Projects
Development, Indigenous People, and Women
Indigenous People and Development
Indigenous People as Victims of Colonialism and Development
Indigenous People and Territorial Entitlements
Latin America
Canada
Asia
Africa
Australia and New Zealand
Organizing for Change
Women and Development
The Male Bias in Development
Womens Organizations for Change
Urgent Issues in Development
Eye On The Environment: Oil, Environmental Degradation, and Human Rights in the
Niger Delta
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Life Projects and Human Rights


Cultural Heritage and Development: Linking the Past and Present to the Future
Cultural Anthropology and the Future
Maps
Map 13.1 Walpole Island Reservation in Southern Ontario, Canada
Map 13.2 Kerala, South India
Map 13.3 Haiti
Map 13.4 Senegal
Map 13.5 Nunavut Province, Canada
Map 13.6 Sudan
Map 13.7 Nigeria and the Niger Delta
The Big Questions
What is development, and what are the approaches to achieving it?
Several theories or models of development exist, including modernization, growth-oriented
development, distributional development, human development, and sustainable development.
They differ in terms of how they define development and how to achieve it.
Institutional approaches to development, whether pursued by large-scale or grassroots
organizations, tend to rely on the development project as a vehicle of local change. Cultural
anthropologists have been hired as consultants on development projects, typically at the end of
the project cycle to provide evaluations. Anthropologists have pushed for involvement earlier in
the project so that their cultural knowledge can be used in project planning to avoid common
errors. A one-size-fits-all project design often results in failed projects.
In traditional development anthropology, anthropological knowledge contributes to
development projects by adding insights that will make a project work. In critical development
anthropology, anthropological knowledge may suggest that the most socially beneficial path is
either to stop the project or to redesign it.
How has development affected indigenous people and women, and how are they
redefining development?
Indigenous people and women have been affected by international development in various ways,
often negatively. They are taking an increasingly active role in redefining development to better
suit their vision of the future.
Colonialism, neocolonialism, and globalization have eroded the entitlements of indigenous
peoples and women worldwide. Often, such losses are tied to environmental degradation and
violence. Indigenous peoples throughout the world suffer because they lack a secure claim to
their ancestral territories. They seek social recognition of territorial claims from state
governments and protection from encroachment. Some governments are responding to their
claims; others are not. Establishing activist organizations has been a major source of strength for
promoting indigenous peoples rights.

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Western development planning and projects have long suffered from a male bias in project
design. Excluding women from projects serves to domesticate women and often results in failed
projects. Women are stating their needs and visions for the future, thus redefining development in
ways that are helpful to them. They have added the issue of violence against women and girls to
the policy agenda of development institutions worldwide, including the large multilateral
organizations.
What are urgent issues in development?
Three urgent issues, as informed by cultural anthropology and the views and voices of people
themselves, are the redefinition of development projects as life projects, or people-centered
projects; the relationship between human rights and development; and the role of cultural
heritage in development.
Indigenous people, women, and others adversely affected by certain forms of
development are promoting these new kinds of development in order to enhance their prospects
for the future.
The concept of the life project is a human right and a right to live in ones cultural world
without encroachment, threat, or discrimination. Cultural anthropologists contribute insights
from different cultures about perceptions of basic human and cultural rights, and this knowledge,
linked to advocacy, may be able to help prevent human/cultural rights abuses in the future.
Peoples cultural heritage can be a path toward improved welfare, but it is a double-edged
sword. Promoting cultural tourism can protect culture but can also lead to damage and
destruction. An emerging area is the legalization of cultural heritage through intellectual property
rights law, another double-edged sword.
Culture is a central issue of our time, and local people are working with cultural
anthropologists to address the challenges of an increasingly globalized, insecure, but exciting
world.
Critical Thinking Questions
1.
Which approach to development do you favor? Explain your definition of
development, the approach to achieving it, and its benefits versus costs to local communities
worldwide.
2.
Should anthropologists be involved in applying their knowledge and skills to the goals of
international development? If not, why not? If so, how can they be most effective?
3.
What are some of the similarities and differences in the problems that indigenous peoples
and women face in terms of the impact of large-scale development projects?
4.
Do you think the concept of life projects can help change the direction of development
from top-down to locally designed and driven?
Internet Exploration
1.
Look at some of the major reports in the Key Outputs section of the World Bank website
(http://econ.worldbank.org). Is there evidence of anthropological input in these reports?
2.
Learn about indigenous peoples development from the website Native American Sites
(http://www.nativeculturelinks.com/indians.html).
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3.

Search the websites for the multilateral United Nations Development Program and the
bilateral US Agency for International Development. How do the goals, interests, and focus of
the two organizations differ?
4.
Look at the website of The Amazon Alliance for Indigenous and Traditional Peoples of
the Amazon Basin (www.amazonalliance.org). What is the mission of this organization and
some of its current activities?
5.
Visit the section in Anthro.Net (http://www.anthronet.com) on the Anthropology of
Gender. Does this lead you to information on women and development? If not, where on the
Internet can you find such information?
Learning Objectives: After reading this chapter, students should be able to:
Provide examples of the two basic processes of cultural change: invention and diffusion.
Describe and differentiate several models of development with attention to their implications
for local communities.
Discuss different institutional approaches to development.
Discuss the basic stages of the development project cycle.
Explain what the anthropological critique of the development project involves and why
anthropologists are more likely to be in the position of critic than, say, economists.
Review examples of how various kinds of development have affected indigenous peoples and
what indigenous peoples are doing today to improve their situation.
Review the impact of large-scale, exogenous development on womens status and how
women are trying to improve their situation.
Understand the connections between people first cultural heritage preservation and
development.
Describe the culture of the Peyizan Yo of Haiti and contemporary challenges they are facing.
Recognize and locate the places that appear in the maps in this chapter and know something
about their social characteristics.
Key Concepts
acculturation: a form of cultural change in which a minority culture becomes more like the
dominant culture.
assimilation: a form of culture change in which a culture is thoroughly acculturated, or
decultured, and is no longer distinguishable as having a separate identity.
critical development anthropology: an approach to international development in which the
anthropologist takes on a critical-thinking role and asks why and to whose benefit particular
development policies and programs are pursued.
cultural fit: a characteristic of informed and effective project design in which planners take local
culture into account; opposite of one-size-fits-all project design.
development: directed change toward improving human welfare.
development aggression: the imposition of development projects and policies without the free,
prior, and informed consent of the affected people.
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development project: a set of activities designed to put development policies into action.
diffusion: the spread of culture through contact.
extractive industry: a business that explores for, removes and processes, and sells minerals, oil,
and gas that are found on or beneath the earths surface and are nonrenewable.
invention: the discovery of something new.
life project: local peoples definition of the direction they want to take in life, informed by their
knowledge, history, and context.
male bias in development: the design and implementation of development projects with men as
beneficiaries and without regard to their impact on womens roles and status.
modernization: a model of change based on belief in the inevitable advance of science and
Western secularism and processes, including industrial growth, consolidation of the state,
bureaucratization, a market economy, technological innovation, literacy, and options for social
mobility.
poverty: the lack of tangible and intangible assets that contribute to life and the quality of life.
project cycle: the steps of a development project from initial planning to completion: project
identification, project design, project appraisal, project implementation, and project evaluation.
social capital: the intangible resources existing in social ties, trust, and cooperation.
social impact assessment: a study conducted to gauge the potential social costs and benefits of
particular innovations before change is undertaken.
traditional development anthropology: an approach to international development in which the
anthropologist accepts the role of helping to make development work better by providing cultural
information to planners.
Video Suggestions
Amazon Journal (Filmakers Library, 1996, 58 minutes). This video chronicles recent political
events in the Brazilian Amazon beginning with the assassination of Chico Mendes in 1988
and ending with a return trip to Yanomami territory in 1995. It analyzes the complex
interactions between semi-isolated indigenous societies and outsiders and shows how
outsiders perceptions of Indians as either primitives or noble savages resulted in the
downfall of the indigenous rights movement in Brazil in the 1980s. It includes material on
Stings arrival in the rain forest and his reflections on his experience five years later, the
impact of the assassination of Chico Mendes, the Altamira Gathering of Indigenous People,
the gold miners invasion of Yanomami territory, charges of rape against indigenous leader
Payakan, and an update on the state of the rainforest and its people. Anthropologist: Alcida
Ramos.
Our Friends at the Bank (First Run/Icarus Films, 1997, 90 minutes). Uganda has been
considered one of the model cases of economic development. This video looks at the
relationship between Uganda and the World Bank over a period of 18 months, including
footage of in-country teams and a confrontation between the World Bank president, James
Wolfensohn, and Ugandas president, Yoweri Museweri. The message of the film links to the
question of choice: do developing countries, faced with enormous economic debts, have a
choice of whether or not to accept loans from the World Bank?
Follow the Rainbow: Resistance among the Ho of India (Films for the Humanities and Sciences,
1992, 52 minutes). This video shows how the damming of the Subarnarekha River in Indias
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south Bihar region will have catastrophic results for the indigenous Ho people. The Hos
campaign of resistance has led to the suspension of World Bank payments for the project.
Full Circle (1991, 50 minutes). Indians in Washington State have been at the forefront of a
Native American renaissance. Legal victories and new economic and political power prompt
thinking about how to retain Indian identity while living in the contemporary United States.
This success story is depicted through an examination of the diverse lives of tribal elders,
business leaders, traditional artists, environmental activists, salmon fishermen, and
innovative teachers.
In Danku the Soup is Sweeter: Women and Development in Ghana (Filmakers Library, 1993, 30
minutes). In Danku, northern Ghana, women care for the children, raise food, and try to
improve life for their families. A special project of the Canadian International Development
Agency provided women access to credit. The film shows how, through this modest financial
aid, women became small-scale entrepreneurs. It follows two women who participated in the
program. One makes butter, another cooks soup. Each sells her products from door to door
and at the market near the village. Eventually their efforts yield profits that provide some
necessities and comforts for their families.
Indigenous People (Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1993, 48 minutes). The indigenous
people of Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, are the present-day
descendants of a culture that lived in harmony with the harsh terrain of the land downunder for over 40,000 years. Two hundred years of white settlement have changed that
heritage forever. This video documents the resilience of indigenous culture especially
through music and dance.
An Invisible Enemy (Pennsylvania State University, 1987, 52 minutes). This video focuses on the
destructive impact that the radioactive fallout from Chernobyl has had on the cultural
survival of the reindeer-herding Saami people of Scandinavia and how the future of the
Saami lifestyle is in jeopardy.
The Kayapo (Pennsylvania State University, 1987, 52 minutes). This film looks at how the
discovery of gold in Brazils Amazonian rain forest has dramatically changed the lives of the
Indians and how some of the Kayapo men have become businessmen in order to maintain
the traditional Kayapo way of life. Anthropologist: Terry Turner.
The Kayapo: Out of the Forest (Pennsylvania State University, 1989, 53 minutes). This film
shows the threatened existence of the Kayapo of the Brazilian rain forest by the attempts of
Brazilian developers to build a dam that would force their resettlement. It shows the attempts
of Payakan, a Kayapo leader, to bring hundreds of Indians together at Altamira to protest the
dam construction and how he gained international recognition for these efforts. The film
includes scenes of Indians explaining to outsiders why the dam should not be built and a clip
showing the arrival of Sting in support of the resistance. Anthropologist: Terry Turner.
The Land Is Ours (Aurora Films, 1997, 56 minutes). This video depicts the history and culture of
the Tlingits and Haidas, coastal Indians of southeastern Alaska. Nineteenth-century contact
with Europeans brought epidemics and nearly wiped out the salmon runs that supported the
Native peoples and their culture. In the 1920s they organized to win the right to vote and to
integrate public schools. Their leader, a Native attorney named William Paul, challenged the
white power brokers of Alaska and Washington, DC, but his skills as a legal hero eventually
offended many of his people. Professor Wallace Olson of the University of Alaska, says that
this film is Exceptionally accurate and balanced...
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Large Dams, Small People (Institute for Development Anthropology, Binghamton, NY, 1993, 30
minutes). This film documents the negative social effects of the construction of a high dam in
West Africa and the positive role of cultural anthropologists, working with engineers,
agronomists, and others, in suggesting ways to reduce the negative effects.
Mined to Death (Berkeley Media LLC, 2006, 38 minutes). Produced by Regina Harrison.
Working at an elevation of 16,000 feet, Quechua-speaking miners in Potosi, Bolivia, dig out
zinc, tin, and silver, much like their Incan ancestors did over five centuries ago. Today 28
indigenous mining cooperatives eke out a living on the mountain. This documentary explores
the lives and work of the miners. Commentary by the miners, their wives, and their children
powerfully convey the hardships and tragedies of life in the Andes. Miners put their faith in
the subterranean deity called Tio, who they hope will lead them to a rich vein of ore and
protect them as they blast out the metal. International mining companies predict an end to the
mining on Potosi mountain: like the miners, the mountain is exhausted and dying.
Paradise Lost (Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1997, 53 minutes). This documentary
compares two culturesNenetsi nomads of the Yamal peninsula of Siberia and Caribou
Indians of Canada. The Nenetsi, who maintain their fishing, hunting, and reindeer herding
existence, are faring better than the Caribou who live a more modern existence. Among the
Caribou, conveniences such as television are blamed for the erosion of customs and values,
along with the tribes increasing dependence on white society.
Philippines: The Price of Power (First Run/Icarus Films, 1986, 28 minutes). This film explores
the role of the Igorots, horticulturalists of the hills region of Luzon, and the events that led to
the People Power revolution as they fought a massive dam project which threatened their
land and culture.
Rigoberta Menchu: Broken Silence (Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1993, 25 minutes).
Rigoberta Menchu was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992 in recognition of her work for
social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation. This video profiles Menchu, whose life has
become a symbol of suffering of her own Maya people and of all indigenous peoples of the
Americas.
Sixteen Decisions (Berkeley Media LLC, 2000, 59 minutes). This film focuses on the life of 18year-old Selina, a mother of two, who lives in poverty in Bangladesh. While presenting
scenes from her life of hard work and struggle, the film also provides information on the
Grameen Bank, a successful micro-lending program, and how its effects will change the life
of Selina and millions others like her.
Teaching Indians to be White (Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1993, 28 minutes).
Schools are places where children are taught to integrate into mainstream society. Thus
schools represent a major problem for Native childrenwhether they are religious schools
with Native teachers, residential (boarding) schools which separate children from their
families, or public day schools where Native children find it nearly impossible to balance the
White view they are taught with the language and values they learn at home. This video
shows how the Seminole of Florida resist being integrated, the Miccosukee join mainstream
culture instead of resisting, and the Cree have taken back their own schools.
The Toured: The Other Side of Tourism in Barbados (Berkeley Media LLC, 1992, 38 minutes).
Tourism is the second largest industry in the world and growing. The touristic encounter
may be one of the most important forms of contact today between people of different
cultures. This film portrays the experience of tourism from the point of view of those who are
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toured, in this case, people of the Caribbean island of Barbados. It examines the realities of
making a living in a tourist economy, dealing with stereotypical ugly Americans,
witnessing ones traditional culture change through the impact of foreign visitors, and being
subject to government messages to make a friend for Barbados today. Professor Nelson
Graburn of the University of California at Berkeley says that This is one of the best films
ever made portraying the human side of the tourist-host encounter. It is nonjudgmental and
sensitive to both points of view...
Water for Tounomasse (Filmakers Library, 1991, 28 minutes). During the long, dry season in
southern Togo, West Africa, womens day begins at 1am with an eight-hour trek for water,
and the water is contaminated. This video documents the efforts of a group of villagers to get
clean water by drilling a well. It chronicles the success of the project in which women played
a key role. To the surprise of the village men, the women capably made decisions, handled
money, and learned how to keep the pump running. The women now have more time to grow
food and provide better for their children.
The World Bank: The Great Experiment (Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1997, 2 parts,
60 minutes each). The World Banks investments in global development programs top $150
billion. It dwarfs other agencies in size and scope. Yet until this two-hour program was
filmed, no camera crew had ever been allowed access to the inner workings of the World
Bank. This two-part documentary provides a rare glimpse into both the inner workings of the
Bank and its efforts to bring economic stability to Africa. A case study tracks the fortunes of
proposed development projects in Uganda over a year. We learn how decisions are made,
who benefits and why, and what happens when the World Bank and Ugandan policies clash.
It includes footage of closed-door meetings and private conversations between officials in
Washington, DC, and in Uganda.
Suggested Readings
Mario Blaser, Harvey A. Feit, and Glenn McRae, eds. In the Way of Development: Indigenous
Peoples, Life Projects and Globalization. New York: Zed Books, 2004. The authors are
indigenous leaders, social activists, and anthropologists. Topics include the environment,
womens status, social justice, participation, and dealing with mega-development projects.
Glynn Cochrane. Festival Elephants and the Myth of Global Poverty. Boston: Pearson, 2008.
Over 40 years of experience in international development inform this memoir and critique.
Cochrane argues that no single form of global poverty exists but that poverty is local and
must be addressed with local solutions.
Ann Frechette. Tibetans in Nepal: The Dynamics of International Assistance among a
Community in Exile. New York: Bergahn Books, 2002. Frechette shows how aid complicates
exiled Tibetans attempts to define and maintain a sense of community.
Dorothy L. Hodgson. Once Intrepid Warriors: Gender, Ethnicity, and the Cultural Politics of
Maasai Development. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004. This ethnography shows
how Maasai identity and gender connect with development and globalization to shape Maasai
life today.
Gideon M. Kressel. Let Shepherding Endure: Applied Anthropology and the Preservation of a
Cultural Tradition in Israel and the Middle East. Albany: SUNY Press, 2003. Kressel
presents a case study of the Bedu of the Negev, southern Israel, showing how globalization is
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encroaching on herders to their great detriment and laying out an applied anthropology
program for reconstituting and promoting pastoralism.
Goodale, Mark. Surrendering to Utopia: An Anthropology of Human Rights. Stanford: Stanford
University Press, 2009. Goodale examines the influence of cultural anthropology on human
rights doctrine following World War II.
William Loker. Changing Places: Environment, Development, and Social Change in Rural
Honduras. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2004. Loker uses qualitative and
quantitative data to assess the social and environmental effects of a large dam in the El Cajn
region of Honduras.
Mathews, Gordon and Carolina Izquierdo, eds. Pursuits of Happiness: Well-Being in
Anthropological Perspective, 2009. Case studies provide varied notions about individual and
social well-being in different contexts.
Richard J. Perry. From Time Immemorial: Indigenous Peoples and State Systems. Austin:
University of Texas Press, 1996. Perry provides a comparative review of the history and
status of indigenous peoples of Mexico, the United States, Canada, and Australia. Topics
covered are state policies, state violence, resistance of the indigenous people, and efforts at
self-determination.
Joanne Rappaport. Intercultural Utopias: Public Intellectuals, Cultural Experimentation, and
Ethnography. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005. Drawing on collaborative research
with indigenous activists in Columbia, the author documents the countrys complex
indigenous political movement with a focus on the southwestern Cauca region.
John Sherry. Land, Wind and Hard Words: A Story of Navajo Activism. Albuquerque: University
of New Mexico Press, 2002. This book presents the story of the community-based activists of
a Navajo environmental organization called Din CARE, that seeks to protect Navajo forests
from logging.
Jennie M. Smith. When the Hands Are Many: Community Organization and Social Change in
Rural Haiti. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001. Fieldwork in southwest Haiti reveals
how poor rural people use social organizing and expressive culture to unite in resistance to
the larger forces that impoverish them.
For further information about topics covered in this chapter, go to MyAnthroLab at
www.myanthrolab.com and access the following readings in MyAnthroLibrary:
Ben J. Wallace. Doing Development One Chicken at a Time: Happy Hollow Egg Production as
an Unlikely Spin-Off from an Agro-forestry Development Project. Practicing Anthropology
31(1):910, 2010. Wallace describes how community members came up with an idea that
worked for them, but it was not about trees.
Cheryl White. Saramaka Maroon Community Environmental Heritage. Practicing Anthropology
31(3):4549, 2009. The Sara maka Maroons of Suriname, South America, have been
asserting their human rights in the face of government-supported logging on and destruction
of their ancestral land.

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Appendix
Reader's Guides for Selected Books
Contents
Bougois, Philippe. In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio.
Cochrane, Glynn. Festival Elephants and the Myth of Global Poverty =
Dettwyler, Katherine. Dancing Skeletons: Life and Death in West Africa
Fadiman, Anne. The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down
Farmer, Paul. Pathologies of Power
Fernea, Elizabeth. Guests of the Sheikh: An Ethnography of an Iraqi Village.
Hecht, Tobias At Home in the Street: Street Children of North Brazil
Holtzman, Jon D. Nuer Journeys, Nuer Lives: Sudanese Refugees in
Lindenbaum, Shirley. Kuru Sorcery
McGee, R. Jon. Watching Lacandon Maya Lives
Potter, Sulamith Heins. Family Life in a Northern Thai Village: A Study in the
Structural Significance of Women
Ziker, John. Peoples of the Tundra

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Philippe Bourgois, In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio, 2nd


edition (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003).
Note: Consider skimming rapidly the "front matter" (Acknowledgments, Preface, and
Introduction) to get a quick taste. Also skip over the sections in this Guide that have to do with
the "front matter."
Move on to a more careful reading of the body of the book, starting with Chapter 1. Once you
have read the entire book, come back to the "front matter," especially the Introduction.
You will see that, at the end, I stop providing notes/tips and ask you to come up with your own.
Acknowledgments, pp xiii-xvi
xiii: Pay attention to which people from El Barrio the author thanks for help.
xv-xvi: What roles did the author's family members play in his research and writing of this book?
Preface to the 2003 Second Edition:
Seven years after the 1996 publication of the first edition and almost 20 years after Bourgois
began his research in East Harlem in 1995, he offers insights about four major aspects of change
affecting the neighborhood and particular individuals. What are they?
xxiii: Bourgois reports that "two main characters" were forced to move out of Manhattan because
NYC vigorously enforced the "one strike you're out" policy. Who are they?
On the same page, Bourgois discusses the "most troubling trend" and how it relates to "chronic
social suffering" and the "prison industrial complex." What is it?
Introduction:
Concepts, places, people:
East Harlem/Spanish Harlem/El Barrio
underground economy
inner-city street culture
political economy
the projects
cocaine, crack, heroin
"subsistence"
tenement
The Underground Economy
Economic life in El Barrio:
poverty
public assistance
men's involvement in the underground economy
retail drug sales: millions of dollars of business
Demographics: p. 6, "missing" men
Street Culture: Resistance and Self-Destruction
Growing up poor in the richest city in the world
"inner city street culture"
defiance of racism and economic marginalization
"oppositional style"
p. 11: the research "participants" in this study
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pp. 11-15: ethnographic methods and negative stereotyping


politics of representation (p. 11)
inferiorizing narratives
structural oppression and individual action (structure vs agency) (p. 12)
postmodernist theory (p. 13)
culture as text
collaborative research strategy
poststructural theoretical critiques (p. 14)
informed consent
pornography of violence (p. 15)
who hears and who doesn't hear the arguments he is making (p. 15)
pp. 16-18 Critiquing the Culture of Poverty
Puerto Ricans in the US as least researched and least understood (p. 16)
"culture of poverty " theories esp Oscar Lewis
history and context in understanding self-destructive daily life (p. 17)
structure vs. agency again
imperative to "expose the horrors" (p. 18) and the people's strategies
political implications of exposing the details of the life of the poor to the general public
Chapter 1. Violating Apartheid in the United States
What does Bourgois mean by this chapter's title?
Who are the main characters and what do you learn about them?
What perceptions did local people have of Bourgois ("false role assignments")?
Key concepts, places:
La Farmacia
Bougois' first mistake
street smarts
to respect/disrespect someone
the Game Room
youth gangs
rape threats, threats of violence in general
juice
pp. 24-25 the importance of dreams and cultural context of Puerto Rican culture and AfricanAmerican elements esp Santera
pp. 28-29 cultural capital; French social theorist Pierre Bourdieu
pp. 29-31 Confronting Race, Class and the Police
race and class-based apartheid in America
Bourgois and the police: their perceptions of him and how he learned to act
pp. 32-37 Racism and the Culture of Terror (phrase from Michael Taussig)
external ("mainstream society") "enforcement" of inner-city apartheid
whites in Harlem
"the real possibility of assault"
peaceful majority (p. 34)/distrust of neighbors (p. 34) but sense of community (p. 35)
pp. 37-39 Internalizing Institutional Violence
"bullpens"/homophobic talk
pp. 39-43 Accessing the Game Room Crackhouse
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PB as an "object of prestige" (p. 41)


PB as "honorary nigga"
"white talk"/"dirty sexual pervert"
racial tension in the Game Room (p. 45)
PB's book and giving something back (pp. 46-47) "Word up!"
Notes and queries:
1. Be able to summarize the author's purpose in this chapter in two sentences.
2. How do Primo and Caesar "internalize" "institutionalized violence"?
Chapter 2. A Street History of El Barrio:
Key point: The importance of history in understanding contemporary street culture.
Key concepts etc:
jbaro
"subsistence"
Taino
Moor
respeto
Dutch colonialists
Reckgawawanac
tenement
speakeasy, crackhouse, shooting gallery
Key people and families and groups:
Fat Tony, the Genovese family, the Mafia
Notes and queries:
1. Be prepared to summarize the scope and main messages of this chapter.
2. Be able to discuss PB's evidence to support his argument that, from the perspective of some
people in El Barrio, "crime pays."
3. Know how PB justifies his position that El Barrio, due to its ecology (location, history) is
consistently at risk for high rates of poverty and crime.
4. Understand how "urban renewal" can reinforce a violent street culture.
5. Be able to trace the transition from sale of various forms of illegal drugs in El Barrio from the
first half of the twentieth century to the present.
Chapter 3. Crackhouse Management: Addiction, Disciplines, and Dignity:
Know who the main characters of this chapter are.
Focus on Primo:
relationship between his use of crack and his work in the crackhouse
trade-offs between work in the underground economy and the formal economy
money: how much does Primo make
Problems in saving money
Crackhouse management: how does the boss deal with workers?
Crackhouse security: how do the hang-out crowd and lookouts contribute to crackhouse security?
Key terms:
compadre relationship (compadrazgo) (p. 82)
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capacidad (p. 96)


Notes and queries:
1. What is PB covering in this chapter and how does extensive use of narrative help him make
his points?
2. Why does the crackhouse not get busted by the police?
3. How do the sellers avoid arrest?
Chapter 4."Goin Legit": Disrespect and Resistance at Work:
pp. 114-115 PB reminds readers of structural conditions
p. 115 ff resistance to exploitation in the legal market: becoming a crack dealer as "voluntarily
triumphalist decision"
p. 119 no one in Ray's network considered himself a victim
p. 120 ff: focus on Primo
p. 121 more on the economic situation in 1990 and internalization of structural marginalization
and psychological depression (Primo)
p. 141 PB says "It almost appears as if Caesar, Primo, and Willi were caught in a time warp
during their teenage years." Their dreams vs. economic realities...
p. 143 ff "Getting "Dissed" in the office"
p. 152 ff Weapons of the Weak: Note: this phrase comes from a book title (James Scott, Weapons
of the Weak, about small farmer resistance to exploitation by landlords in Southeast Asia): How
does PB use it here?
p. 157 ff the importance of clothing
p. 165 ff the union ideal
pp. 172-173 Caesar's cousin
Challenges:
1. Summarize the key points of this chapter in 2-3 sentences.
Chapter 5. School Days: Learning to Be a Better Criminal:
p. 174 How did PB collect data on childhood school experiences?
p. 175 ff Kindergarten experiences and links to theory
Bourdieu and cultural/symbolic capital--what does PB mean by this term and how does he
see it playing out in the experiences of Primo and Caesar?
p. 176 cultural production theory: know what PB means by this term
p. 178 resistance begins early in life
p. 179 variations in experience of violence early on related to family
p. 183 fighting for survival, thoughts of suicide
p. 186 the Grafitti Hall of Fame and what it means
p. 189 the 2 am schoolyard conversation
p. 190 ff learning street skills in middle school
being labeled as "mentally and emotionally disabled"
Caesar's case as "overdetermined"
p. 193 PB has to face the possibility of "individual psyschopathology"
p. 194 ff the peer group and blame
theft as rite of passage (and p. 200)
p. 198 conspicuous consumption
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p. 199 drugs
p. 203 Caesar's rejection of PB's theory of structural violence and racism as causing violent
youth culture
p. 205 ff adolescent gang rape and its internal logic and its connections to sense of worthlessness
Notes and queries:
1. How do teachers contribute to channeling El Barrio male students into street culture?
2. How do Caesar, Primo, and Eddie differ in their experiences in school?
3. Does PB offer any room for hope in this chapter?
Chapter 6. Redrawing the Gender Line on the Street:
p. 213 ff how does PB define patriarchy? What is the "crisis in patriarchy" in El Barrio?
p. 226 Puerto Rican explanations: ataque de nervios
p. 229 ff defining and redefining women's rights in El Barrio, and women's situation in El Barrio
compared to in Puerto Rico
Notes and queries:
1.
Compare PB's relationship/rapport with Candy compared to that with Primo and
Caesar and the significance of this difference for his findings.
2.
Be able to summarize Candy's story.
3.
What are the strains between PB's understanding of structural components of her
experiences versus the "individualistic, medicalized explanation" (p. 221)
Chapter 7. Families and Children in Pain:
p. 259 PB again juxtaposes the individualizing/psychopathologizing view of psychiatry and
psychology with a view that emphasizes the larger structural/cultural context
p. 261 most difficult of aspect of the fieldwork for PB
pp. 262-263 PB as a parent in the research context
p. 272 ff pregnancy, birth, having a baby
experiences of Maria, Carmen
p. 276 ff motherhood, gender, and the double standard of crack
p. 278 child abuse and neglect
p. 280 the "feminization" of crack use
p. 283 crack babies, cerebral palsy, and PB
p. 285 connection with Nancy Scheper-Hughes' critique of the Western theory of maternal
bonding
PB places the blame of child abandonment on the patriarchal family and the public sector
Chapter 8. Vulnerable Fathers:
On your own!
Epilogue
On your own!

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Glynn Cochrane, Festival Elephants and the Myth of Global Poverty (2008)
Chapter 1: The Myth of Global Poverty:
What does Cochrane mean by The Myth of Global Poverty?
When, roughly, did it come into being and how did it become so pervasive?
Who/what institutions subscribe to the Myth?
How does it influence how they operate to deal with poverty?
How is armchair anthropology related to the Myth?
Chapter 2. Lessons from Elephants in Sri Lanka:
What is a Festival Elephant and what does it do and not do, according to Cochrane, in terms
of alleviating poverty? (He gives several examples and amplifies on FEs in this chapter and
others).
What two key approaches did Cochrane take in his work in Sri Lanka (p. 14)?
What is a Worker Elephant and how is it different from a Festival Elephant in terms of
development and poverty alleviation?
How are anthropologists like Worker Elephants?
What does Cochrane say about training of Worker Elephants and how it changed in the latter
part of the 20th century?
Chapter 3. A Worker Elephant Apprenticeship in the Solomon Islands:
Know where this phase of work fits chronologically in Cochranes career.
Know the context of the Solomon Islands when Cochrane was there.
What are some notable aspects of the British colonial presence in the Solomons at the time?
What were Cochranes tasks?
What were some lessons he learned about the importance of cultural anthropology in colonial
administration?
What did Cochrane think was the most important thing the British did in the Solomons and
why?
What does Cochrane say about poverty in the Solomons?
What is a tour and how is it different from traditional fieldwork in cultural anthropology?
Why was the tour of value to the British administrators?
One of the major lessons Cochrane learned in the Solomons was the importance of social
relationships and forging partnerships. Be prepared to discuss his thoughts on this matter.
What was the challenge of money?
Chapter 4. Festival Elephant Culture Shock in Papua New Guinea and Polynesia:
Know the basics about the context of Papua New Guinea (PNG) when Cochrane worked
there.
What were two major gaps in Festival Elephants understanding of culture in PNG?
What was Cochranes major task in PNG and what did he accomplish?
Know the basics of the context of the Cook Islands.
How is poverty defined in the Cooks?
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What did the Festival Elephants do wrong in the Cooks?


What are some examples of failed development projects in the Cooks?

Chapter 5. Festival Elephant Grandstanding in Tanzania:


Know the general situation in Tanzania at the time Cochrane worked there and the historical
background.
What was Cochrane working on while he was in Tanzania?
What went wrong with foreign aid in Tanzania?
How do Tanzanians define poverty?
How do Festival Elephants function as a shadow government?
Chapter 6. Worker Elephants in the Mining Industry:
What is the Bougainville case and why is it important?
What does the mining process involve?
Rio Tinto has taken the lead globally in a social relations approach to communities affected
by mining, and Cochrane has led the company in this direction. What are the key elements in
this approach?
What does Cochrane see as the main challenges ahead for mining and other extractive
industries?
Chapter 7. Reinventing Worker Elephant Skills:
What are Cochranes suggestions for bringing more Worker Elephants into development work
and poverty prevention/alleviation?
Broader issues to consider:
1. Cochranes several involvements in applied/development anthropology took place over several
decades. What continuities and changes can you see in his workgoals, approaches,
accomplishments?
2. Where do you stand on large-scale extractive industries such as mining and oil drilling?
Should these industries continue to grow, and if so, what are their social responsibilities to socalled affected peoples? Or should they be scaled back and if so, how do human consumption
patterns need to change?
3. Are you convinced by this book that cultural anthropologists have a positive role to play in
development and poverty reduction/prevention? If so, what are the roles? If not, why not?

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Katherine A. Dettwyler, Dancing Skeletons: Life and Death in West Africa


Chapter 1. Return to the Field:
The main focus of Dettwylers field research and her general approach
Why did she take her daughter to the field and leave her husband at home with their son?
What contributed to the authors feelings of culture shock during her second field trip?
Aspects of research ethics
Importance of knowing the local language
The child in compound #4
Chapter 2. Of Mosquitoes and Men:
Malaria in the context of Mali
Major ethnic groups in Mali
Context of Magnambougou
Kinship terms: extended family, polygyny, patrilineal descent, patrilocal residence
Local religious practices and beliefs; concept of religious syncretism
Major childhood health problems in the region
Chapter 3. Female Circumcision: Not Just Another Bit of Exotic Ethnographic Trivia:
Varieties of female circumcision or genital cutting or genital mutilation
Indigenous rationales and views of outsiders; cultural relativism
FGC and control of female behavior? And female sexuality?
Views about the female body and beauty
Case of Daouda and why Dettwyler had to harden her heart
Chapter 4. Of Worms and Parasites:
The culture of riding baches
Dettwylers student research assistant and her role
Collecting urine and fecal samples and why
Interviewing mothers about their children
Schistosomiasis
Red urine and local interpretations
Chapter 5. The Grande Marche:
Typical day for a Malian woman in Magnambougou
Eating practices
Research on household spending patterns
Diet and preferred foods
The Grande Marche
Fulani wedding blankets
Chapter 6. Rural Africa At Last:
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Goals of the Freedom from Hunger/AMIJP project in Dogo?


Dettwylers role in the project
Joking relationships
Moussas attitudes about the rural areas
Urban/rural differences in latrines and public health implications
Bakary
Kwashiorkor and its causes and local and Western interpretations

Chapter 7. Children, Snakes, and Death:


Collecting data on measurements and age
The pizza metaphor and population control
Health of young babies and breastfeeding
Amulets for babies
The Kafoune look
Miscellaneous fieldwork events
children who never grow up
How do the Bambara explain, and cope with, children who are severely ill or handicapped?
Chapter 8. Bad Breath, Gangrene, and Gods Angels:

Measuring session in the Merediela schoolhouse

Dental problems in Dogo

The little boy who hurt his leg

Giving the best pieces of chicken to Miranda

Quinine injections for malaria as possibly iatrogenic

The case of Abi and Down syndrome


Chapter 9. Poulet Bicyclette:
Lunch in Famabougou
Assessing child malnutrition in the absence of age data
Adult health
Bambara hunting and the traditional division of labor
Iodine deficiency
Tea brewing and etiquette
What is poulet bicyclette?
What is an animatrice?
Chapter 10. I Give You Rural Africa:
A performance for the anthropologists
Maternity clinic in NTenkoni
Maternal mortality in the region
Bambara cooking and shea nuts
Nutritional status of adolescent boys and girls
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Views on female breasts

Chapter 11. Turtles All the Way Down:


Anthropometric survey at Magnambougou school
turtles all the way down?
Moussas proverb
Ami
Chapter 12. Dancing Skeletons:
Research in northern Mali on vitamin A deficiency
Pysical (biological) anthropology views
CARE health projects in the villages around Macina
Dancing children
The role of archaeology?
Health problems in the Macina area
Environmental problems in the region
Population distribution of vitamin A deficiency/night blindness
Difficulties in providing children with more vitamin A; Bambara approaches
Chapter 13. Mother Love and Child Death:
Mirandas sickness
Malian womens experiences of child death and Moussas explanation
Neonatal tetanus in the Macina region
Perspectives on the root causes of malnutrition in developing countries and possible solutions

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Anne Fadiman, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down
1. What is/are the cultural contexts that are important in this book?
The Lee family, their background, their current situation
Merced, CA
Western biomedicine, MCMC, Valley Childrens Hospital
2. Who are the Hmong people?
Their history in SE Asia
Key features of their traditional culture
Hmong and opium
The effects of the American war in SE Asia on the Hmong
Their exodus story
As refugees in the US
3. Individuals to know:
The Lee family: Foua, Nao Kao, Ching, Zoua, Cheng, May, Yer, True, Lia, Pang
Anne Fadiman
Dan Murphy
Neil Ernst
Peggy Philips
Roger Fife
Raquel Arias
Jeanine Hilt
Terry Hutchinson
Jonas Vangay
Dang Moua
Arthur Kleinman
Francesca Farr
4. Hmong peoples attitudes toward children and child rearing practices
5. What are key features of the adjustment of the Lees to life in the US?
Bureaucracy
MCMC
Language
Work
Other?
6. Hmong terms to know:
Dab (pronounced da)
Hu plig
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Quag dab peg (pronounced kow da pay)


neeb
Txiv neeb (pronounced tsi neng)

7. Hmong view of quag dab peg


8. Hmong peoples views of WBM
Views of healers
Blood, the body, the liver
9. Lias biomedical history
10. Culture and compliance and child abuse
11. The factors of control and fear on both sides: Hmong and WBM
12. Anthropological angles on this case:
What would a critical medical anthropologist say?
What would an interpretive medical anthropologist say?
What might a clinical medical anthropologist offer as practical insights?
13. How do structure/agency play out among the Hmong in Merced and the various
doctors, social workers, teachers and other mainstream US people who interact with
them?
14. How does blame figure in Lias story (and be able to compare the role of blame in
this book with blame in Farmers book on Haiti)
Note: please also go through the Readers Guide: Questions and Subjects for Discussion at
the end of the book and be able to answer them.

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Paul Farmer, Pathologies of Power


Foreword by Amartya Sen (economist/philosopher):
xiii: This book is about the most basic human right: the right to survive; social conditions and
their discriminatory effects
Case studies that establish the overall picture of powerlessness and deprivation
xiv: Haiti and the structured risk for AIDS and other forms of suffering such as hunger,
torture, and rape
xvi: The four inequalities of power that Acphie faced
Preface to the paperback edition:
xxi-xxii: Effects of international (esp US) policies on Haiti such as supplying weapons,
embargoes, etc.
xxiv: This book is about the struggle for social and economic rights.
xxvii: The central thesis is that a rising tide of inequality breeds violence.
xxviii: fn 4, Washingtons ongoing war on Haiti
Introduction:
p. 5: Complex meanings of the word liberal; meaning of neoliberalism
p. 7: Rights violations as symptoms of deeper pathologies of power, linked to social conditions.
p. 8: Earlier writing on structural violence by liberation theologists: offences against human
dignity including
pp. 11-12: Development and humanitarian aid in Rwanda as laying the groundwork for the
genocide.
pp. 12-13: Anthropologists have neglected to examine SV; quotation from Orin Starn;
diverted gaze toward atomistic cultural specificities [have we heard this point before?].
p. 15: anthro-lite
p. 17: erasure
p. 17: Human rights are best understood from the point of view of the poor.
p. 17: State power has been responsible for most human rights violations.
pp. 18-19: Social justice must be central to public health and medicine and replace, as central,
views that put cost-effectiveness, sustainability, and replicability at the center
Part I: Bearing Witness:
pp. 25-28: Two ways of knowing
p. 28: theodicy: what does this term mean?
Chapter 1. On Suffering and Structural Violence:
pp. 29-30: how to define terms
p. 30: embodiment
p. 31: Measuring suffering in Haiti; and stories of Acphie Joseph and Chouchou Louis:
what do they share?
pp. 32-33: Central Plateau, village of Kay
p. 40 ff: structure vs. agency of Acphie and Chouchou
pp. 40-41: Problems with us in understanding and explaining the suffering.
p. 41: liberation theology
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pp. 42-43: Simultaneous consideration of many structural factors (axes): location (geography),
history, class, ethnicity/race, gender, inadequate provision of services (governance), social
responsibility
p. 45: Poverty as primary cause of prevalence of many diseases and widespread hunger and
malnutrition among black South Africans and related to rapid spread of HIV.
p. 46: Refugee status as another axis of oppression.
p. 47 ff: Conflation of structural violence and cultural difference.
p. 50: The worlds poor are the chief victims of structural violence.
Chapter 2. Pestilence and Restraint:
Focus on Haiti
p. 51 ff: 1991 overthrow of popular and democratically elected president Aristide;
subsequent repression of his supportersmany refugees, some HIV positive
p. 52 ff: Guatnamo as oasis; forced repatriation; Yolande Jean
p. 55 ff: How the US media represent Guatnamo vs. Cuban AIDS sanatorium
p. 67: US two-track asylum process
p. 70 ff: Cubas HIV program; Jorge Prez
pp. 76-77: Cubas health care ranking; compared to Haiti
p. 80 ff: The case of Raboteau
p. 84 ff: Political opposition to Aristide from the US, the IDB, embargoes
Chapter 3. Lessons from Chiapas:
p. 92 ff: background, context of Zapatista uprising
p. 94: liberation theology, again
p. 95: comparison with Haiti
p. 95 ff: village of Moiss Gandhi, a village in rebellion
p. 98 ff: Background on Chiapasenvironmental riches and exploitation, local poverty,
indigenous population, linguistic diversity, heavy load of treatable pathologies
p. 101: cattle
p. 102 ff: neo-slavery of indigenous people
p. 102 ff: Important resources and commodities: land, corn, coffee
p. 102: inequality
pp. 104-108: liberation theology, again
p. 111: hopeful resistance
Chapter 4. A Plague on All Our Houses?:
p. 115: prisons as mirrors of society
p. 115 ff: Sergei
pp. 116-117: Since break-up of USSR, rates of imprisonment doubled; TB rates rising
p. 118 ff: MDRTB, and first-line drugs
p. 119: TB leading cause of death among young prisoners
p. 120: links to crowding and poor nutrition
p. 121: pragmatic solidaritywhat does this mean?
p. 122: second-line drugs
p. 124: DOTS
p. 125 ff: The right to effective therapy
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Part II. One Physicians Perspective on Human Rights:


Analytic perspective of a physician in service to the poor: a preferential option for the poor vs.
market forces approach.
Chapter 5. Health, Healing and Social Justice:
p. 139 ff: Liberation theology and preferential option for the poor
p. 140: observe, judge act
p. 141: Understanding of causality in political economy/structural conditions.
p. 143: and how related to medicine
p. 151: Importance of economic factors.
p. 154: Approaches: charity, development, and social justice
Chapter 6. Listening for Prophetic Voices:
p. 161 ff: Critique of medicine as commerce
p. 164 ff: Case of Brenda
pp. 167-168: Case of Sanot
pp. 169-173: Case of Olga
p. 173: What the cases tell us
Chapter 7. Cruel and Unusual:
p. 179: tuberculosis as punishment
p. 180 ff: key concepts
pp. 182-190: US and Russia compared
Chapter 8. New Malaise:
p. 196: Double standards of ethics
p. 198 ff: globalization, inequality, and health
p. 203: Ethical questions
Chapter 9. Rethinking Health and Human Rights:
p. 213: Toward linking medicine with human rights.
What does a focus on human rights bring to medicine?
What does a focus on medicine bring to human rights?
p. 237 ff: Five [not six] suggestions for a new agenda for health and human rights
--Put concern for the sick at the core
--Make provisions of service central
--Establish new research agendas
--Achieve independence from powerful governments and bureaucracies
--Secure more resources for health and human rights

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Elizabeth Warnock Fernea, Guests of the Sheikh: An Ethnography of an Iraqi Village. New
York: Anchor Books, 1989 [1955].
As you read the book, pay attention to the following questions/topics:
1. Who is/was Elizabeth Fernea at the time when she did the research for this book? What skills
or training did she have?
2. Why did she go to Iraq?
3. Where in Iraq did she and Robert live and for how long? What were some general
characteristics of the village of El Nahra at the time?
4. What were Elizabeths early reactions to the place, the women, and the abayah?
5. What were the local womens perceptions of Elizabeth and her situation?
6. What factors helped build friendships between Elizabeth and some of the women?
7. How did Elizabeths lack of fluency in Arabic constrain her efforts early on?
8. Who were some of Elizabeths closest contacts among the women?
9. What does Elizabeth tell the reader about:
Economic practices: how people make a living
Housing, public services
Forms of exchange
Food, hospitality
Wealth and consumption (gold, for example)
Health and perceptions of the female body and beauty
Childbirth
Marriage practices, kinship rules, the family/household
Friendship (among women)
Social organization and politics
Religion
Gender separation (purdah), gender inequality
Honor codes
Leisure and expressive culture
Cultural change
10. What does Elizabeth learn from participating in the following special events?
Weddings
Feasts
Krayas
Taaziyas
Pilgrimage to Karbala
Funerals
11. What mistake did Elizabeth make in relation to Laila, and what lesson did Elizabeth learn
from it?
12. What were some of Elizabeths final thoughts about her experience in the village?
Additional local terms to know:
fellah/fellahin
hajj
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muezzin
mullah
Ramadan
salaam alaykum
Shiite
Sunni
suq
Discussion questions:
1. What light does Elizabeths account shed on village womens agency at the time?
2. How does this book help us understand Iraq today?
3. If you read just this one ethnography about Iraq, how would your information be
biased/limited?
Extra Resources:
1. Locate roughly where El Nahra is, using whatever information is provided in the book. For a
fairly detailed map of Iraq, go to www.mideastweb.org
2. Learn about the current situation of refugees and internally displaced people in Iraq by going
to the website of Refugees International and using the search terms Iraq
www.refugeesinternational.org

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Tobias Hecht, At Home in the Street: Street Children of North Brazil (New
York: Cambridge University Press, 1998).
1. Context: know about the location of the research, the time period, and Hechts choice of this
particular locale.
2. Research topic: why did Hecht choose to study street children? What does he seek to learn
about them?
3. Research methods: how did Hecht carry out his study?
4. The public discourse about street children: what are the various public voices in Brazil, and
beyond, that shape the problem of street children
5. The main arguments in the book: what are they, and what position does Hecht take on various
issues?
6. Findings: what are some key points that Hecht learned about the lives of street children?
7. How does the book contribute to an understanding of the tensions between structure and
agency (review these two perspectives in Chapter 1 of the Cultural Anthropology textbook).
8. Choose 5 or 6 of the emic terms that Hecht presents and know their definitions.
9. Who are some of the main children in the book, and what is their situation?
10. How are various organizations involved in trying to address the situation of street children?
Are their approaches successful? If so, why, and if not, why not?
11. How does Hechts book shed light on the meaning of words such as children, home, the
street, and rights?
12. How does the theme of violence (structural violence, interpersonal violence) weave through
the book? Does Hecht offer any insights about how to reduce such violence?
13. How have your perspectives on street children changed as a result of reading this book?

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Jon D. Holtzman, Nuer Journeys, Nuer Lives: Sudanese Refugees in Minnesota


(2nd edition, Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2008)
Introduction:
Who are the traditional Nuer as described by Evans-Pritchard, and when was that time?
What are the key features of their culture at that time?
What are important aspects of Holtzmans fieldwork on the Nuer?
What were Holtzmans goals in conducting research among Nuer refugees in Minnesota?
Chapter 1. Nuer Journeys: War, Flight, and Resettlement:
What is the context in Sudan that led to refugee flight?
What are some of the different journeys that the refugees made?
What are the major institutional challenges the refugees faced?
Chapter 2. The Birth of a Community:
What were the major challenges facing Nuer refugees who came to the US?
What do some individual Nuer have to say about their experiences (their voices)?
What were the major challenges facing Nuer refugees who settled in Minnesota?
How did the Nuer have to adjust their patterns of community in Minnesota compared to in
Sudan?
What role did mutual assistance associations play in their adjustment?
Chapter 3. Jobs, Welfare, College, and Cars:
What does Holtzman report about everyday life of the Nuer in Minnesota?
How are Nuer refugees making a living in Minnesota?
What are key gender and age differences in Nuer lives in Minnesota, and their aspirations?
(Know specific examples of individuals).
How well do American cars fit into Nuer culture, especially as compared to cows?
Chapter 4. Gender, Generation, and Family Change:
What are important elements of traditional Nuer marriage, kinship, and family life in
Sudan?
What were the major changes that occurred among refugee Nuer?
How are gender roles and relationships changing among the Nuer in Minnesota?
What is life like for Nuer teenagers?
What is their situation in Minnesota schools?
How are Nuer families changing in Minnesota? What are some of the consequences of these
changes?
[Note: This is a very rich chapter, so read carefully and take detailed notes]
Chapter 5. Nuer Refugees in the American Community:
What does Holtzman report about Nuer-Nacirema relationships? How do Nuer
relationships with white Americans differ from relationships with African Americans?
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What happens in formal institutional contexts such as health care settings?


What is the role of religion in Nuer lives in Minnesota?

Chapter 6. Looking Forward:


What is the basic message in this brief chapter?

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Shirley Lindenbaum, Kuru Sorcery


1. Basic, background information:
Location of this study
Time of the research
Characteristics of the Fore
Population size
Economy
Kinship and family organization
Gender roles
Other
2. What were the various theories of etiology (causation) for kuru?
Fore peoples theories
Carleton Gadjusek
Shirley Lindenbaum
How do these various theories link to the cultural context in each case?
How did peoples theories change over time and why?
3. What was the epidemiology of kuru, from the perspective of Western scientists?
4. According to Lindenbaum, what is the value of cultural anthropologists studying epidemics?
5. According to Lindenbaum, why is it informative to interpret an epidemic in stages, like a
drama with several acts? Lindenbaum delineates 4 stages in the kuru epidemic. Know them
the time frame of each, and what happened during each.
6. What other health problems do the Fore have, and how do the Fore understand and deal with
them?
7. What is the Fore view of the body? How is it a metaphor for the group? How is it related to
fear, risk, and danger?
8. How are sorcery and concepts of pollution linked?
9. What people were involved in curing afflictions including kuru?
10. What is a kibung and what role do kibungs play in Fore life?
11. What effects did European colonialism have on the Fore and other highland people in the
region?
12. What does Lindenbaum mean by the politics of protein?

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R. Jon McGee, Watching Lacandon Maya Lives


Introduction:
What prompted McGees interest in the Lacandon Maya?
What does he say is the heart of this book?
Chapter 1. Lacandon: The Last Lords of the Rain Forest?:
What are some of the major themes about the Lacandon that appear in the writings of
explorers and other early writers who were not anthropologists?
What were the major effects of Spanish colonialism on the Lacandon?
What is the value of reading about the history of the Lacandon?
What are the links between contemporary Lacandon Maya and the ancient Maya civilization?
What are some of the important changes that have taken place among the Lacandon in recent
decades?
Chapter 2. Reconstructing the Traditional Lacandon:
How does this chapter complicate the meaning of the term traditional?
On p. 29, the author names three topics that the chapter will cover that are important to
cultural anthropology and to the Lacandon.
What are these three topics?
What do you learn about each of them in the chapter?
Who was Tozzer?
What does the chapter reveal about the Lacandons gender division of labor on the basis of
Tozzers letters?
What does the chapter reveal about Lacandon religion on the basis of Tozzers letters?
What does the chapter reveal about Lacandon marriage and family life on the basis of the
Bloms descriptions?
What happened to traditional religion?
What are key selling points of Lacandon culture to tourists?
What do Koh and Antonio tell us about traditional culture among the Lacandon?
Do the traditional Lacandon still exist?
Chapter 3. Watching life in a Lacandon Community:
McGee says, on p. 52, that In order to write accurately about Lacandon lives it is necessary
to understand the elements that determine what men and women do. Be able to discuss why
he says this and be able to provide specific examples from the ethnography that support this
statement.
What is the contemporary gender division of labor among the Lacandon, as described by
McGee?
Why is the story of Nuk important?
What are the important features of Lacandon demography that McGee discusses? How are
they related to gender?

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Chapter 4. Three Decades of Change:


p. 71 and following presents information about structural factors related to recent changes
among the Lacandon. Take note of this information, specifically:
The role of the Mexican government
Oil
Population migration
Cash crops
Cattle
Conservation projects
Logging
On p. 80, the author provides a working definition of traditional. Know what it is, as a
benchmark, in comparison to what he later presents as contemporary.
What is Lacandon farming like now compared to what it was traditionally?
What is the relationship between farming and tourism?
Is there a difference between Nah and Lacanha? What is happening to the milpas? What are
the gender roles here?
How has tourism affected the Lacandon?
What do the cases of K?in and K?in Quinto reveal?
Chapter 5. The Decline of Traditional Religious Practices in Nah:
Be prepared to discuss the major changes described in this chapter.
Chapter 6. The Decline of Traditional Healing Practices:
Be prepared to discuss the major changes described in this chapter.
Chapter 7. Twenty Years among the Lacandon: Some Lessons Learned:
What are the lessons learned?
What does the author mean by involved objectivity?

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Family Life in a Northern Thai Village: A Study in the Structural Significance of Women, by
Sulamith Heins Potter. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.
xiii: the cast of characters
Chapter 1. Theoretical Setting:
p. 1:
humanistic anthropology as narrative, thick description, not formal analysis
female-centered family system
compared to patrilineal and matrilineal: somewhere in between
term: consanguineal (kinship relationship based on blood-ties)
term: affinal (kinship relationship based on ties through marriage)
p. 2:
Previous anthropological bias toward seeing kinship importance of males
The Courtyard
pp. 2-18:
These studies are pretty old, and the basic point is that the early anthropologists failed to
discover the female-centered family system that Potter found in Chiangmai
p. 19:
Kinship and spirit cults
Wife takes husbands surname only since 1918
Marriage residence is matrilocal
Property inheritance is *mainly* bilineal
p. 20:
Discussion of the female-centered system in Chiangmai
Women are at the center of the family, but not necessarily dominant
pp. 21-22:
Brief discussion of fieldwork methods
Chapter 2. The Courtyard:
Context: location of the village in northern Thailand
The courtyard, the family, the houses
Make sure you know whos who in the family and where they all live and sleep
Importance of age and gender
Symbolism within the house in terms of status of members, the spirits
Chapter 3. Economic Life:
Economic status of the Plenitudes; how they make a living
Plenitude family history
The importance of rice
Division of family labor by gender and age
Individual enterprises
Markets and marketing
A working day
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Chapter 4. The Family and the Temple:


Role of the temple in the village
Interplay between family roles and wider social roles through the temple
How age and gender shape participation in temple activities
Social functions of the temple
Chapter 5. The Order of Social Relationships in the Family:
The importance of gender, age, and lineality
Various family members and their roles and status
Family decision-making
Courtship and the importance of ambiguity
Chapter 6. Encounters with Spirits:
Kinds of spirits
Spirits and kinship
Conclusion
1) The structure of the Northern Thai family
2) How do different individuals experience social structure and act as agents within it?
Some cross-cutting themes/issues:
1) The humanistic approachpointing out individual variation within structures.
2) Meals, diet, food
3) Difference between male authority and female importance
Some questions:
1) The Plenitude family may not be typicalwhat does Potter tell us about this issue?
2) What might the situation be in the Chiangmai region now, compared to when Potter did her
fieldwork in the early 1970s?
3) How might the presence of Potter and her family changed the Plenitudes and others in the
village? (Note: Potter wrote her book before reflexive anthropology developed).

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John Ziker, Peoples of the Tundra


Chapter 1. People of the Tundra (introduction and laying the foundations of the book):
The native peoples of Taimyr
Location: Ust Avam [pron.: oost uh-VAM]
Numbers
Names of major groups: Dolgan/Tiajano, Nganasan etc.
Term: tia
Two main languages and ethnic groups: Dolgan, Nganasan
Where Ziker conducted his research and why
Making a living after the USSR
Foraging (hunting, gathering, fishing)
Changes in hunting transportation
Unemployment, economic depression
Social safety nets
Zikers entry into the field
Learning about traps and territory
Research methods
Challenges in studying change
Overview of changes in Ust Avam: preview of chapters in the book
Making a living
Shamanism
Social organization
Chapter 2. Making a Living: Ecology and Economy:
Question: consider the meaning of the word subsistence and its implication that it is suba
lowly form of existence
Geography, climate and fauna
The importance of reindeer
Other food sources
Hunting and fishing
Hunting seasons
Consumption of meat and fish
Hunt types
Bears
Geese
Types of fishing
Foxes, other
Collecting
Division of labor
Gender
Age
Concept of underproduction (p. 45)
Food distribution and sharing
Impact of rising transportation costs
Formal and informal networks
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Obligation to share
Patterns of sharing: kin and non-kin
Buffering hypothesis
Successful hunting and social status (p. 53)
Food consumption
Non-local foods: sugar, flour
Food preparation techniques
The raw versus the cooked (p. 59 ff)
Gender differences in food preparation and reasons (p. 60)
Meals and satisfaction
Diversification of dietary strategies
Chapter 3. The Loud Years: Resistance and Collaboration:
Concept of multilinear process (p. 64): it means that the same external force or policy
(colonialism, globalization) will have different effects in different local contexts
Prehistory of the Taimyr Peninsula
Wider Siberian connections
Russian expansion starting in the 12th century
Formation of the Dolgan nationality
Descendants of Yakut and Evenk herders
Term: chum
The Communist Revolution and the formation of the regional government
Suffering of Siberian native peoples
Collectivization, Rebellion, and Repression: from independence to dependence
1930s
June 1971 creation of Taimyrskii and Ust Avam
The states economic goals for the region
Declining quality of life (p. 83)
Chapter 4. Alcohol and Violent Death:
Severity of rapid change of certain types: speculators in alcohol
Stress of sedentism, unemployment
Russian state budget
Ethnodemographics of Ust Avam
Outmigration
Declining reproduction and economic changes
Rising infant mortality rate
Male/female mortality rate
Violent deaths and natural causes of death
Relatively high female mortality among the Nganasan
Pitfalls in the Post-Soviet Transition
Regional differences in inactivity, suffering and alcohol consumption
Chapter 5. Shamans, Ancestors, Sin, and Sacrifice:
Terms: cosmology, shaman, and shamanism
Cosmology: still important for economy, land tenure, and social relationships
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Case study of a shaman


The oldest man in the Ngumtuso clan and what he taught John Ziker: musical instruments,
hunting spots, ancestral spirits, sances, sacred bears
The importance of fire (p. 115)
The Soviets and shamanism
Shamanism runs in families
Traditional cosmological knowledge
Essences in nature
Mutual aid
Ancestors and sacrifice
Sacred places
Chapter 6. The Law of the Tundra:
Informal and formal rights, and change over time in Ust Avam
Traditional use rights
Soviet era: assigned territories: family/clan holdings and common-pool resources
Formal land claims now (p. 128 ff)
Management of hunting grounds and resources
Cosmology and subordination of individual maximization of land and resource use in Ust Avam
Term: zakon tundry (law of the tundra) and its two rules
Lack of a market sector and strong leveling principle for consumption
Kinship and visiting
Physical and social territoriality
Use rights, still, and sharing
Benefits from inclusion
The importance of kinship and friendship and territorial extension and flexibility
Chapter 7. The Future Is In Their Hands:
Themes
The return to foraging as viable and more dependable
The return to informal cooperation and non-market food distribution
Ethnic convergence in Ust Avam
Globalization and Circumpolar Cooperation
Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North (RAIPON)
Russian state policy
The Northern Forum, the Arctic Council

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Chapter 1 Anthropology and the Study of Culture


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. The Garbage Project has much practical relevance because it provides information on
A how rural areas differ from urban areas.
B how long it has taken for garbage from prehistoric times to decompose.
C recent consumption patterns.
D how the poor of the world are creating the least garbage.
E none of the above: the Garbage Project is a case of "pure research" and has no practical relevance.
Answer: C pp. 6-7
2. Culture
A is more developed in contemporary North America than in contemporary China.
B first emerged among humans around 10,000 years ago.
C is predominantly transferred through genes.
D is being destroyed by globalization.
E none of the above.
Answer: E p. 11
3. The tendency to apply one's own cultural values in judging the behavior and beliefs of people raised in other
cultures is known as
A cultural relativism.
B cultural universalism.
C ethnocentrism.
D egocentrism.
E cultural anthropology.
Answer: C p. 20
4. A cultural relativist would view contemporary Nacirema culture as
A materialistic, aggressive, and without much worth.
B just as interesting and worthy of study as any other.
C more ethical than most others.
D adaptively superior to any other.
E trivial, frivolous, and simplistic.
Answer: B p. 20
5. Anthropology is usually divided into four fields, but some people claim that a fifth should be included, called
A interpretivist anthropology.
B functionalist anthropology.
C theoretical anthropology.
D applied anthropology.
E cultural relativism.
Answer: D p. 8
6. Linguistic anthropologists study
A how contemporary languages differ in terms of structure, grammar and sound systems.
B nonverbal communication.
C how languages change over time.
D how languages are related.
E all of the above.
Answer: E pp. 7-8
7.
A

San peoples of Southern Africa fought a long legal battle to gain profits from
diamond mines on their land.

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B the discovery of oil on their land.


C a new diet pill.
D all of the above.
E none of the above: the San are completely demoralized and lack the means of fighting for any kind of rights.
Answer: C p. 19
8. A major theoretical debate exists in cultural anthropology today between
A applied anthropologists and archaeologists.
B cultural materialists and interpretivist anthropologists.
C ecological anthropologists and economic anthropologists.
D psychological anthropologists and medical anthropologists.
E none of the above: there is no theoretical debate since all cultural anthropologists share the same theoretical
perspective.
Answer: B p. 22
9. The field of anthropology that studies human language and communication is called
A biological anthropology.
B communication science.
C linguistic anthropology.
D applied anthropology.
E audiovisual anthropology.
Answer: C p. 7
10. Archaeologists use which of the following as research materials?
A pieces of old pottery
B prehistoric stone tools
C remains of ruined houses
D contemporary garbage heaps
E all of the above
Answer: E pp. 5-7
11. People who have a longstanding connection with their home territory predating colonialism are referred to as
A ethnic groups.
B racial groups.
C local groups.
D lost people.
E indigenous people.
Answer: E p. 18
12. The main goal of cultural anthropology is to
A understand why people behave and think the way they do.
B predict culture change.
C trace the evolution of culture from nonhuman primates to human primates.
D discover the biological bases of culture.
E learn how to change culture.
Answer: A p. 8
13. Biological anthropologists focus on
A the impact of colonialism on different cultures.
B cross-cultural patterns of contemporary human politics.
C human evolution and contemporary human variation.
D how culture is passed on from one generation to the next.
E historic data about various cultures.
Answer: C p. 5

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14. The functionalist approach says that


A powerful structures shape culture.
B cross-cultural comparisons are not valid.
C culture should be studied on the basis of how people make a living.
D cultures evolve from primitive to more advanced, or civilized.
E culture is like a biological organism with interacting parts.
Answer: E p. 9
15. The cultural materialist perspective uses a three-level model of culture that includes
A infrastructure, structure, and superstructure.
B class, "race," and gender.
C ethnicity, age, and class.
D structure, agency, and change.
E globalization, McDonaldization, and localization.
Answer: A p. 22
16. Microcultures, according to the textbook, can be formed on the basis of
A age.
B class.
C race.
D gender.
E all of the above.
Answer: E p. 11
17. The San people of Southern Africa
A mainly value the hoodia cactus as a source of a hallucinogenic drug.
B worked with transnational advocacy groups to gain a portion of profits from hoodia's use in a diet pill.
C still earn a living mainly from foraging on their traditional land in the Kalahari desert.
D are now the economically dominant ethnic group in South Africa.
E now reject the term Bushmen as derogatory.
Answer: B p. 19
18. The increased spread of international ties and spread of Western capitalism worldwide is referred to as
A internationalization.
B capitalization.
C interdependency.
D holism.
E globalization.
Answer: E p. 16-17
19. The cultural materialist interpretation of the Hindu belief in sacred cows points to
A their ritual purity.
B their fertility, as "mother figures."
C their economic and environmental value.
D all of the above.
E none of the above.
Answer: C p. 22
20. Among Tejano immigrants in the United States, making tamales symbolizes
A a connection with the homeland in Mexico.
B the triumph of culture over nature.
C rejection of US values especially fast food.
D a woman's role as a "good wife."
E the importance of corn in Tejano culture.
Answer: D p. 14

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21. A recent mental health disorder in Japan related to sleep is


A insomnia.
B nightmares about work.
C falling asleep during the day.
D sleeping sickness.
E none of the above: Japan has no sleep-related disorder.
Answer: C p. 13
22. The only great ape found in Asia is the
A chimpanzee.
B orangutan.
C baboon.
D bonobo.
E gorilla.
Answer: B p. 6
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
23. Culture is best defined as the effects of biological heredity on human behavior.
Answer: FALSE
p. 11
24. Most North American anthropologists agree that general anthropology consists of five fields.
Answer: FALSE p. 8
25. Indigenous peoples are strongly connected to their homeland, but often do not have legal rights to it.
Answer: TRUE p. 18
26. Biological determinism is opposed to the perspective called cultural constructionism.
Answer: TRUE p. 22
27. Two theoretical trends were influenced by postmodernism: structurism and functionalism.
Answer: FALSE pp. 9-11
28. Absolute cultural relativism is a view that promotes questioning and debate concerning cross-cultural practices.
Answer: FALSE pp. 20-21
29. Cultural constructionism is best seen as a theoretical argument that stands in opposition to cultural relativism.
Answer: FALSE p. 22
30. Cultural materialists attempt to learn about culture by examining the material aspects of it, such as the
environment and how people make a living within a particular environment.
Answer: TRUE pp. 10-11
31. One way that Tejano immigrant women can express dissatisfaction with their marriages is by refusing to make
tamales.
Answer: TRUE p. 14
32. Basic natural functionssuch as eating, drinking, sleeping, and eliminatingare done and thought about the
same way everywhere, as opposed to cultural functions such as language.
Answer: FALSE pp. 12-13
33. Both globalization and localization can be seen in the spread of McDonald's restaurants.
Answer: TRUE p. 17
34. Microcultures can be formed on the basis of institutions such as hospitals and schools.

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Answer: TRUE p. 20
35. Papua New Guinea has many natural resources and a low rate of HIV/AIDS among its population.
Answer: FALSE p. 15
36. A study of middle schools in the southwestern Rocky Mountain region of the U.S. found that Mexican
immigrant girls are marginalized, especially because they are not interested in or good at sports.
Answer: TRUE p. 20
37. The Weywa people of Indonesia are known for recognizing over 20 types of "taste."
Answer: FALSE p. 12
38. Orangutans now live only in pockets of forested areas in the country of Brunei.
Answer: FALSE p. 6
39. The four models of cultural interaction are: clash of civilizations, McDonaldization, hybridization, and
localization.
Answer: TRUE p. 17
40. In India, widows wear black.
Answer: FALSE p. 16
IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or
answers the question.
41. In the framework of cultural materialism, the most basic aspect of culture is called __________.
Answer: infrastructure
p. 22
42. Malinowski's functionalism approach is similar to the concept of __________, which is the interrelatedness of
various aspects of culture.
Answer: holism p. 9
43. Judging other people's cultures on the basis of one's own culture is called __________.
Answer: ethnocentrism
p. 20
44. The theoretical approach which is the view that powerful structures such as economics, politics, and media
shape cultures and create entrenched systems of inequality and oppression is referred to in the textbook as
__________.
Answer: structurism p. 11
45. In a cultural materialist framework, the mental aspects of culture are referred to as __________.
Answer: superstructure
p. 22
46. __________ refers to the process by which one culture dominates another.
Answer: Cultural imperialism p. 21
47. __________ refers to the approach that seeks to explain why people do and think what they do by considering
biological factors such as people's genes and hormones.
Answer: Biological determinism p. 22
48. Franz Boas promoted the theoretical approach called __________, which is the view that individual cultures
must be studied and described in their own terms and understood within their own historical context.
Answer: historical particularism
pp. 9-10
49. An example of a basis for microcultural formation is __________.

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Answer: race/age/gender/class/etc.

pp. 11, 17-20

50. Excessive daytime sleepiness is correlated with decreased worker productivity in the country of ___________.
Answer: Japan p. 13
51. The concept of biological evolution says that ___________.
Answer: early forms of an organism evolve into later forms through the process of natural selection.
p. 9
52. Interpretive anthropology and "thick description" are mainly associated with a cultural anthropologist named
__________.
Answer: Clifford Geertz p. 10
53. The French anthropologist Claude Lvi-Strauss is associated with the theoretical perspective called
__________.
Answer: French structuralism p. 10
54. A step proposed to move anthropology to being "anti-racist anthropology" is ___________.
Answer: examining anthropology's historical connections with racism/increase racial diversity in academia/teach
about racism p. 11
ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50100 words] for each of the questions below.
Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your
points as necessary.
55. Describe the past and present situation of the San peoples of Southern Africa; discuss the challenges they are
currently facing and how they are seeking to rebuild their culture.
Answers will vary. p. 19
56. State the overall goal(s) of cultural anthropology and provide two examples of how cultural anthropologists
have contributed to achieving the goal(s).
Answers will vary. pp. 8-11
57. What is a microculture and what are some examples of important microcultures?
Answers will vary. pp. 11, 17-20
58. Define the concept of holism and provide a cultural example.
Answers will vary. p. 9
59. Define globalization and localization and give an example of each.
Answers will vary. pp. 16-17
60. How have anthropologists approached the definition of culture?
Answers will vary. pp. 11-12
61. What does the theory of agency emphasize; provide an example.
Answers will vary. p. 22
62. How do cultural anthropologists define gender? Discuss two examples of gender as cultural rather than
"natural."
Answers will vary. pp. 18-20
63. What is applied anthropology and what are two examples of it?
Answers will vary.
p. 8

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64. How has theory in cultural anthropology changed since the late nineteenth century?
Answers will vary. pp. 9-11
65. What is culture and what are three of its key characteristics?
Answers will vary. pp. 11-17
66. Define the principles of ethnocentrism, cultural relativism, absolute cultural relativism, and critical cultural
relativism. Choose an issue and consider it from two of these perspectives.
Answers will vary. p. 20-21
67. Describe one microculture that you know about from your personal experience, class lecture, class films, or
reading. What makes this microculture distinct? What characteristics, if any, does it share with another
microculture?
Answers will vary. pp. 11, 17-20
68. Discuss three examples of behavior that show how culture is not the same as nature.
Answers will vary. pp. 12-15
69. Describe and discuss two of the three major debates in cultural anthropology.
Answers will vary. pp. 22-21
70. Contrast cultural materialism with interpretivism in terms of their theoretical position, definition of culture, and
methods.
Answers will vary
pp. 11, 22

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Chapter 2 Researching Culture


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Culture shock occurs when
A an anthropologist finds that he/she learns the local language more easily than expected.
B you discover, to your surprise, that you really like living in another culture.
C a person has shifted from one culture to another.
D two different cultural groups compete with each other.
E all of the above.
Answer: C p. 35
2. In the Trobriand Islands, the British colonialists substituted which activity for local warfare?
A Christianity
B the kula
C village dances
D boat racing
E cricket
Answer: E p. 32
3. Trobriand women's most prized material items are
A skirts.
B pigs.
C shell necklaces.
D grass mats.
E none of the above: only Trobriand men have material goods of value.
Answer A p. 32
4. On the basis of his experience in the Trobriand Islands during World War I, Bronislaw Malinowski is generally
considered to be
A the "father" of participant observation.
B the founder of the etic approach.
C the first person to realize that no culture is more or less "civilized" than another.
D the first person to define the concept of culture.
E the first person to do fieldwork in his own culture.
Answer: A p. 28
5. Research that is guided by a hypothesis is called
A emic.
B deductive.
C holistic.
D inductive.
E prescriptive.
Answer: B p. 36
6. One thing about which most cultural anthropologists agree is
A that anthropologists should study primarily people's thoughts and ideas.
B that culture is genetically determined.
C the definition of culture.
D the importance of doing fieldwork.
E whether anthropological fieldwork should proceed inductively or deductively.
Answer: D p. 28

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7. Compared to Malinowski's research in the Trobriands, Weiner's restudy addressed


A women's lives.
B changing leadership patterns.
C the rise of HIV/AIDS.
D the decline of the kula trade.
E the high rate of suicide.
Answer: A p. 31
8. __________ is a cluster name for many indigenous peoples who live in the eastern Canadian Arctic.
A Eskimo
B Neanderthal
C Sri Lankan
D Inuit
E Trobriand
Answer: D p. 39
9. People's naming of places is called
A rapport.
B toponymy.
C numerology.
D topography.
E ethnocentrism.
Answer: B p. 39
10. Inuit place naming is an example of
A indigenous knowledge.
B cultural relativism.
C globalization.
D clash of civilizations.
E leveling mechanism.
Answer: A p. 39
11. A major challenge for Richard Kurin, during his fieldwork in Pakistan, was
A learning proper rules of gift exchange.
B false role assignments.
C learning the language.
D not having a wife or children, which would have made him an "adult."
E learning proper rules of greeting.
Answer: B p. 33
12. Given current globalization and the rarity of small, isolated cultures, many contemporary cultural
anthropologists have abandoned
A fieldwork.
B learning a non-Western language.
C the concept of holism.
D the concept of cultural relativism.
E participant observation.
Answer: C p. 29
13. When doing fieldwork, establishing rapport
A is easier for male than female anthropologists.
B is a waste of time when you could be conducting a survey instead.
C usually happens during the first week.
D makes life easier but doesn't improve the quality of the information gathered.
E can involve exchanging gifts with the local people.
Answer: E pp. 33-34

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14. According to the code of ethics of the American Anthropological Association, the anthropologist's first
responsibility is to
A protect the people studied from harm related to the research.
B the agency that funded the study since they are the ones who paid for it.
C the home country of the anthropologist.
D the host government in the country where the research is conducted.
E the United Nations.
Answer: A p. 42
15. A key factor that helps in selecting a research project is
A finding a topic that has been neglected by previous researchers.
B a certain degree of intuition and luck.
C relating to a current issue of importance such as refugee movements.
D finding a place that was studied long ago and merits restudy.
E all of the above.
Answer: E pp. 30-31
16. During his fieldwork in Japan, Matthews Hamabata had a problem in terms of
A learning to appreciate the food.
B learning when to smile and when not to smile.
C having to sit for long periods of time with his legs folded underneath him.
D how to understand the meaning of a gift given to him and the appropriate response.
E how to get people to tell him the truth.
Answer: D p. 34
17. The Hawthorne effect refers to
A the tendency for men to answer questions on behalf of women.
B the stage that comes in fieldwork after culture shock when the researcher begins to feel comfortable.
C biases in the data when the researcher doesn't know the language well.
D the tendency for respondents to avoid telling the truth about private matters.
E the tendency for respondents to change their behavior to correspond with the researcher's interests.
Answer: E p. 36
18. The life history approach
A is more successful for women respondents than men since women have more time.
B has been rejected in cultural anthropology as too unreliable.
C was popular in the nineteenth century but has been abandoned as too time-consuming.
D is favored by anthropologists who seek quantitative data for large populations.
E none of the above.
Answer: E p. 37
19. A major catalyst to the adoption of a code of ethics by the American Anthropological Association was
A the decline of small, isolated populations and increase in research in "modern" cultures.
B the increasing proportion of anthropologists from non-Western cultures who supported a code of ethics.
C World War II.
D the Vietnam-American War.
E the realization that "native" peoples were learning to read and would be able to comment on anthropological
writings.
Answer: D pp. 41-42
20. The research method in cultural anthropology that involves living in a culture for an extended period while
gathering data is
A the inductive method.
B archival research.
C participant observation.

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D life history.
E the interview method.
Answer: C p. 28
21. Interpretivist anthropologists tend to favor which kind of research approach?
A inductive
B deductive
C etic
D applied
E predictive
Answer: A p. 41
22. An emic approach focuses on
A what people in the study area say about their own culture.
B gathering data on culturally shared rules for behavior.
C explanations for culture offered by members of that culture.
D events that have meaning for members of a particular culture.
E all of the above.
Answer: E p. 36
23. When Tony Whitehead, an African American anthropologist, did fieldwork in Jamaica, he was surprised that
A he was unable to speak easily with the people because of his American English.
B people thought he was much older than he was.
C people expected him to bring his family with him and found it difficult to accept him as a lone male.
D people assigned him to a high status.
E none of the above: Whitehead's fieldwork proceeded with no surprises since he was of the same "race" as the
people he was studying.
Answer: D p. 34
24. An ethnography is
A the main way cultural anthropologists present their findings about culture.
B a descriptive writing about a culture.
C an important aspect of anthropological research.
D all of the above.
E none of the above
Answer: D p. 41
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
25. In the Trobriand Islands, kinship follows the female line.
Answer: TRUE p. 32
26. A major challenge facing the Trobriand Islanders today is the large number of western tourists.
Answer: FALSE p. 32
27. Many Institutional Review Boards now accept the possibility of informed oral consent in some research
situations.
Answer: TRUE p. 33
28. According to the ethical guidelines of the American Anthropological Association, undergraduate students are
not allowed to do anthropological fieldwork.
Answer: FALSE p. 31
29. One recommendation for improving fieldwork safety is that fieldworkers should obtain appropriate medical
training.

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Answer: TRUE p. 43
30. Deductive methods of research are more likely to collect quantitative data while the inductive approach tends to
emphasize qualitative data.
Answer: TRUE p. 36
31. During Christa Salamandra's research in Damascus, Syria, some people suspected that she was a tax collector.
Answer: FALSE pp. 33-34
32. Interpretivist anthropologists tend to collect etic data.
Answer: FALSE p. 36
33. Maria Catdra's use of tape recording during her research in Spain revealed the importance of maintaining
people's trust.
Answer: TRUE p. 40
34. Some cultural anthropologists seek to reveal how a culture works by looking closely at one person's life.
Answer: TRUE p. 37
35. Data that are numerical and are presented in charts and tables are called quantitative.
Answer: TRUE p. 44
36. One method of gathering data on people's time allocation patterns is asking people to keep daily logs or diaries.
Answer: TRUE pp. 37-38
37. Dangers from the physical environment, social violence and war can affect fieldwork.
Answer: TRUE p. 43
38. Cultural anthropologists who use the interview method feel that only the open-ended interview provides reliable
data.
Answer: FALSE p. 36
39. Culture shock can occur when an anthropologist returns home as well as when he/she enters the field.
Answer: TRUE pp. 35
40. Gender is a less important microcultural factor in anthropological fieldwork than "race" or ethnicity.
Answer: FALSE pp. 34-35
41. The armchair approach in cultural anthropology came before the verandah approach.
Answer: TRUE p. 28
42. Damascus is one of the world's oldest continually occupied cities.
Answer: TRUE p. 33
43. Annette Weiner's fieldwork on women's trading networks in the Trobriand Islands is an example of a restudy.
Answer: TRUE p. 31
44. Multi-sited research conducts fieldwork on a topic in more than one location.
Answer: TRUE p. 29
45. The rationale for developing the food product Go-Gurt was based on study of California peoples busy
lifestyles.
Answer: TRUE p. 30
IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or

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answers the question.


46. The approach in cultural anthropology that focuses on what local people think or say is called __________,
while the outsider's analysis is referred to as __________.
Answer: emic/etic
p. 36
47. The goal of the Inuit Place Names Project is to __________
Answer: document climatically important information/indigenous knowledge/climate change p. 39
48. Men's trading networks in the Trobriands are called __________ and they involve __________.
Answer: kula/exchanging valued armbands and necklaces/or everyday goods
p. 32
49. Collaborative research involves anthropologists working with members of the study populations as
__________.
Answer: partners/teammates pp. 42-43
50. In the AAA Code of Ethics, the Association makes it clear that anthropologists' ethical obligations to people,
species, and material are more important than the goal of seeking __________.
Answer: new knowledge p. 42
51. One step in anthropological fieldwork that comes before going to the field is __________.
Answer: project selection/funding the project/language learning/buying equipment/gaining permission from
officials/etc. pp. 33-34
52. Liza Dalby's research among the geisha of Japan involved the study of a microculture based on which factor?
Answer: gender p. 35
53. When an anthropologist has difficulty adjusting to a new culture and feels uneasy, unhappy and wishes to go
home, this condition is referred to as __________.
Answer: culture shock
p. 35
54. __________ data are mainly words and description while __________ data are mainly numeric.
Answer: Qualitative/quantitative p. 41
55. One way that cultural anthropologists record their findings while in the field is in the form of __________.
Answer: field notes/notes/tape recordings/photographs/videos pp. 40-41
56. The Vietnam-American War prompted anthropologists to give serious attention to the issue of __________.
Answer: ethics pp. 41-42
57. Doing research among powerful people is called __________.
Answer: studying up p. 34
58. Lanita Jacobs-Huey's study of African-American women's hair culture is an example of __________ research.
Answer: multi-sited p. 29
59. __________ is research that puts the anthropologist in danger because it is carried out in war zones and areas of
conflict.
Answer: War zone anthropology p. 43

ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50100 words] for each of the questions below.
Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your
points as necessary.

150
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60. How has research in anthropology changed since the nineteenth century? Mention specific figures in the
development of research methods.
Answers will vary. pp. 26-31
61. Define rapport and discuss an example of an anthropologist having difficulty establishing it.
Answers will vary. pp. 33-34
62. What is participant observation, when was it "discovered" as a method, and what positive benefits does it have
in terms of data quality?
Answers will vary. pp. 28-29
63. What are two special methods used by cultural anthropologists in addition to participant observation?
Answers will vary. pp. 36-39
64. What are two common problems in anthropological fieldwork?
Answers will vary. pp. 33-39
65. What is a life history and why is this method controversial?
Answers will vary. p. 37
66. Name three microcultures that the textbook mentions as affecting fieldwork and describe the effects of one of
them on an anthropologist's experience.
Answers will vary. pp.34-35
67. What is the background of the American Anthropological Association's Code of Ethics and how is this
background related to two of its key principles?
Answers will vary. pp. 41-42
68. Discuss two ways that cultural anthropologists record data while in the field.
Answers will vary. pp. 40-41
69. Discuss one example of danger in doing fieldwork and describe a way of reducing that danger.
Answers will vary. p. 43
70. Describe the difference between deductive and inductive research and how this difference relates to fieldwork
methods. Discuss the kinds of ethnographies that cultural materialists and interpretivists tend to write.
Answers will vary. p. 36
71. What are some of the key ethical issues in cultural anthropology and how do they make cultural anthropology
different from another discipline that you have studied (such as history, chemistry or political science?).
Answers will vary. p. 40-41
72. Discuss the findings of Malinowski in the Trobriand Islands and then the findings of Weiner. Do the differences
suggest that anthropologists should always work in teams comprising more than one gender?
Answers will vary. pp. 29, 31-32
73. Describe the research phases in The South Baffin Island Place Name Project and the kind of information each
phase produced.
Answers will vary. p. 39
74. What is the background and context of Trobriand Island culture and what are some of the major issues facing
the Trobriand Islanders today?
Answers will vary. p. 32

151
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Chapter 3 Economic Systems


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. A pure gift is
A the predominant form of exchange among foragers.
B something that is given only once.
C something for which a "return" is not expected or calculated.
D when reciprocity is immediate and completely balanced.
E the most common form of exchange in all modes of livelihood.
Answer: C p. 60
2. Exchange relationships between settled Lese farmers and Efe foragers in the Ituri Forest are best characterized
as
A sustained unbalanced exchange.
B generalized reciprocity.
C exchanging pure gifts.
D market trade.
E pooled budgeting.
Answer: A p. 65
3. Which mode of livelihood has characterized most of human existence?
A cannibalism
B pastoralism
C foraging
D agriculture
E horticulture
Answer: C pp. 48-49
4. The gender division of labor in the agricultural mode of livelihood
A is most egalitarian of all modes of livelihood.
B involves highly overlapping tasks for males and females in most societies.
C means that men work more hours and women work fewer than in horticulture.
D tends to allocate both production and processing of food to men.
E is more segregated than in temperate foraging societies.
Answer: E p. 55
5. Compared to family farming, corporate farming is
A more geared to production for sale.
B less reliant on capital.
C declining in importance as an economic system in the United States.
D more energy-efficient.
E none of the above: there are no differences between the two.
Answer: A p. 56
6. Children have the most tasks in which mode of livelihood?
A pastoralism
B industrialism/informatics
C intensive agriculture
D horticulture
E none of the above: children's work roles are universally minimal.
Answer: D p. 53
7.
A

Maintaining the fallow period is essential for the sustainability of which system?
horticulture

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B agriculture
C pastoralism
D foraging
E industrialism/informatics
Answer: A p. 53
8. Female farming systems are
A mainly associated with wet rice cultivation.
B numerically more predominant than male farming systems.
C found mainly in Europe.
D mainly associated with wheat cultivation.
E farming systems in which women do most of the domestic work.
Answer: A pp. 55-56
9. Property relations in foraging societies are best termed
A class-based.
B based on the concept of use rights.
C age-based.
D gender-based.
E all of the above.
Answer: B p. 50
10. Which of the following occurs at the industrialized/informatic mode of consumption and exchange?
A increased expected reciprocity
B increased social equality
C increased leisure time
D increased unbalanced exchange
E increased reliance on eating meat
Answer: D p. 58
11. Balanced exchange
A is non-existent in industrial/informatic societies.
B involves only inexpensive, everyday items.
C is usually administered or regulated by a central leader or the by the government.
D best describes what happens at a shopping mall.
E is a system of transfers in which the goal is either immediate or eventual balance in value.
Answer: E p. 61
12. Pastoralism
A is a mode of livelihood based on domesticated animal herds and the use of their products, such as meat and
milk.
B is the oldest way of making a living.
C has more occupational specialization than agricultural societies.
D gives women a dominant economic role in all pastoralist societies.
E originated first in the New World.
Answer: A p. 54
13. Compared to temperate climate foragers, circumpolar foragers
A rely more on plant food.
B have less sophisticated technology.
C spend less time and energy procuring food.
D have a more sharply differentiated gender division of labor.
E spend less time and energy on constructing shelters.
Answer: D p. 49
14. The two most important factors on which the division of labor is based in horticultural societies are

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A age and race.


B gender and race.
C age and gender.
D gender and class.
E class and race.
Answer: C pp. 52-53
15. Minimalism most characterizes which mode of consumption and exchange?
A industrialism/informatics
B pastoralism
C horticulture
D agriculture
E foraging
Answer: E p. 58
16. The Yanomami region is located
A between Brazil and Venezuela.
B between Peru and Brazil.
C on the coast of Brazil.
D in Chile.
E in Ecuador.
Answer: A p. 53
17. Tokyo's Tsukiji fish market
A sells only to individual customers.
B is declining in importance due to globalization.
C is the largest fish market in the world.
D allows only Japanese people to spend time in the market.
E posts all fish prices on cardboard signs.
Answer: C p. 63
18. In foraging societies, the largest share of people's "budget" usually is devoted to
A taxes, just like the rest of us.
B contributions and gifts for the chief.
C basic needs such as food and shelter.
D parties, public ceremonies, festivals, etc.
E none of the above: foragers live in a "free" society.
Answer: C p. 58
19. If you were invited to attend a potlatch among the Kwakwaka'wakw Indians of the Pacific Northwest, you
would probably
A be expected to bring cash to give to the host.
B come back empty handed.
C eat a lot.
D never see those same people again afterwards.
E be sure to take a lot of rice to throw at the bride.
Answer: C p. 57
20. Among the Hare Indians, the most important animal is
A dogs.
B horses.
C sheep.
D dogs and horses.
E none of the above: the Hare have no domesticated animals of importance to them.
Answer: A p. 50

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21. The social distribution of the disease kuru in Papua New Guinea reflects an entitlement pattern based on which
microcultural factor?
A ethnicity
B class
C age
D gender
E all of the above
Answer: D p. 60
22. Infinite needs most characterize which economic system?
A industrialism/informatics
B horticulture
C agriculture
D foraging
E pastoralism
Answer: A p. 58
23. A study of consumption patterns among low-income African-American schoolchildren in New Haven,
Connecticut, revealed that
A the children do not understand the negative effects of overspending when money is available.
B their consumption patterns are similar to those of white middle-class children.
C the boys are more likely to spend their money on family needs and gifts than girls are.
D girls spend most of their money on clothes for themselves when they shop in a mall.
E the children learn practical lessons about household finances at a young age.
Answer: E pp. 60-61
24. In the US the state with the greatest economic inequality between American Indian reservations with and
without casinos is
A Michigan.
B Wisconsin.
C Nebraska.
D Maine.
E California.
Answer: E p. 64
25. The Brazilian government's 'pacification' strategy for foraging groups involved which action?
A. military attacks
B. establishment of a non-interference zone around tribal areas
C. forced resettlement in cities
D. introduction of desirable modern tools and other items
E. treatment of certain vitamin deficiencies
Answer: D p. 66
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
26. The mode of livelihood that is based on growing food on shifting plots of land is called agriculture.
Answer: FALSE pp. 51-52
27. According to the textbook, economic systems include three components: production, consumption and
sustainability.
Answer: FALSE p. 48
28. The precolonial Iroquois depended mainly on pastoralism for their livelihood.
Answer: FALSE p. 52

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29. The concept of property relations that exists among traditional, undisturbed foragers is called the informal
sector.
Answer: FALSE p. 50
30. Compared to pastoralism and horticulture, agriculture is a more labor-intensive and land-intensive strategy.
Answer: TRUE p. 54
31. In some parts of the world, family farming involves a complementary division of labor between men and
women.
Answer: TRUE pp. 55-56
32. Foragers of temperate climates have a more clearly marked gender division of labor than foragers of the
circumpolar region.
Answer: FALSE p. 49
33. Cultural anthropologists have studied patterns of livelihood and consumption, but they have neglected the study
of exchange.
Answer: FALSE p. 48
34. The primary category of exchange in market economies is sale for profit.
Answer: TRUE p. 62
35. Minimalism is the mode of consumption most associated with settled agriculturalists.
Answer: FALSE p. 58
36. The basic needs fund is the largest budgetary category among foragers.
Answer: TRUE p. 58
37. In terms of per capita income, Connecticut is the wealthiest state in the United States.
Answer: TRUE p. 61
38. The kula is an example of expected reciprocity.
Answer: TRUE p. 62
39. Potlatching is now being revitalized among the Kwakwaka'wakw.
Answer: TRUE p. 66
40. Among most agricultural societies sharing within the group is the norm.
Answer: FALSE p. 56
41. The adoption of Western foods among indigenous Amazon peoples is an aspect of globalization related to
consumption patterns.
Answer: TRUE p. 71
42. The income and other effects of gaming in California are so substantial for Indians and their neighbors that the
gap is nearly closed between conditions on Indian reservations and those for most Americans.
Answer: FALSE p. 64
43. Market forces controlled by core countries are the primary factors affecting change in patterns of consumption
and exchange in contemporary times.
Answer: TRUE p. 65
44. Alternative food movements seek to make convenience and take-away food more affordable.
Answer: FALSE p. 66

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IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or
answers the question.
45. Before the invention of __________, modes of livelihood were all extensive rather than intensive.
Answer: agriculture p. 54
46. One hypothesis to explain male dominance in plowing is __________.
Answer: men are stronger than women/women are more involved in child care/women are more involved in foodprocessing p. 55
47. In Southeast Asia, a form of agriculture is practiced which is characterized by a predominant role of women; it
is called __________.
Answer: wet rice agriculture p. 55
48. The mode of livelihood that depends mainly on herding animals and using their products is called __________.
Answer: pastoralism p. 54
49. An example of a pastoral group is the __________.
Answer: Qasqai/Mongolian herders /Saami/Navajo/other

p. 54

50. An example of a horticultural group is the __________.


Answer: Yanomami/Mundurucu/Iroquois/Gusii/etc. pp. 52-53
51. Cross-culturally, a key task in agriculture mainly done by men is __________.
Answer: plowing
p. 55
52. A microculture with important effects on consumption that is discussed in the textbook is _________.
Answer: class/gender/race pp. 60-61
53. Unwritten, culturally embedded rules that prevent an individual from becoming wealthier or more powerful
than anyone else are referred to as __________.
Answer: leveling mechanisms p. 59
54. In Papua New Guinea, gender inequalities and food consumption patterns have caused many of the Fore people,
mostly women, to suffer from ___________.
Answer: kuru
p. 60
55. Consumption patterns in the contemporary globalized world linked to mass production and are labeled as
__________.
Answer: depersonalized consumption p. 59
56. Efforts to re-establish direct links between food consumers, producers and marketers are called __________.
Answer: alternative food movements p. 66
57. The area in which Katherine Milton studied the effects of Western contact was __________.
Answer: the Brazilian Amazon
p. 65
ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50100 words] for each of the questions below.
Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your
points as necessary.
58. Why is agriculture less sustainable than foraging?
Answers will vary. pp. 51, 57
59. Name and briefly describe the five major modes of livelihood.

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Answers will vary.

pp. 48-57

60. What is the difference between an extensive strategy and an intensive strategy, and provide an example of
livelihood in each.
Answers will vary. pp. 49, 54, elsewhere
61. What are two characteristics of the gender division of labor in family farming?
Answers will vary. pp. 55-56
62. What are use rights and in what mode of livelihood area they most prominent?
Answers will vary. p. 50
63. What factors put the sustainability of horticulture at risk?
Answers will vary. p. 53
64. How does children's labor differ in different modes of livelihood and what factor best explains the variation??
Answers will vary. pp. 50-56
65. Describe an example of contemporary change in a mode of livelihood
Answers will vary. pp. 65-66, elsewhere
66. How do property relations differ in the various modes of livelihood? Provide illustrations.
Answers will vary. pp. 50-56
67. What are three key features of industrial agriculture and their social effects?
Answers will vary. p. 56-57
68. What is meant by minimalism and describe an ethnographic example.
Answers will vary. pp. 58-59
69. Discuss some of the major effects of the global spread of consumerism.
Answers will vary. p. 58, elsewhere
70. What is the historical context and contemporary situation of the Kwakwaka'wakw?
Answers will vary. p. 67
71. Discuss three examples of change in consumption and exchange in recent times.
Answers will vary. pp. 58-66

158
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Chapter 4 Reproduction and Human Development


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. One reason why foragers typically have low rates of population growth is because
A foragers kill most female infants at birth.
B many women are infertile due to HIV/AIDS.
C breast-feeding occurs over frequent and long periods of time, thereby suppressing ovulation.
D the men have a deep fear of sexual intercourse as weakening.
E "inbreeding" leads to high rates of genetic problems in infants and high rates of child mortality.
Answer: C p. 72
2. Throughout human history, population growth
A has increased geometrically since the time of the earliest humans.
B was high until the emergence of agriculture.
C reached its peak rate of increase in industrialized/informatics states.
D was uncontrolled or "natural" until the advent of industrialism and "modern" forms of contraception.
E increases with the emergence of agriculture and food surpluses.
Answer: E pp. 72, 92
3. Abortion
A is universally disapproved of by society even though many people resort to it anyway.
B is less approved of by Western religions such as Christianity and more disapproved of by Asian religions such
as Buddhism.
C is often a response to economic conditions.
D has been found only in agricultural and industrial societies, not in preindustrial societies.
E is never commonly practiced in industrialized states because of access to "modern" forms of contraception.
Answer: C p. 79
4. The most frequent motive for direct infanticide reported cross-culturally is that the infant is
A a girl.
B deformed or very ill.
C another mouth to feed.
D born outside of marriage.
E a twin and mothers were unable to breastfeed two infants at one time.
Answer: B p. 80
5. The phrase "the modernization of mortality" refers to
A the medical and scientific "takeover" of involvement in reproduction and mortality and decline of involvement
of religion.
B the general decline in mortality rates among infants and children in contemporary societies.
C different patterns of mortality among the rich and the poor.
D the use of the "new reproductive technology" to abort unwanted fetuses.
E the aging of the populations of industrialized countries.
Answer: C p. 81
6. Cultural anthropologists link the modes of reproduction to
A emics.
B genetics.
C diffusion.
D the modes of livelihood.
E religion.
Answer: D p. 72

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7. Pronatalism is most characteristic of which mode of livelihood?


A foraging
B industrialism/informatics
C horticulture
D agriculture
E pastoralism
Answer: D p. 73
8. Parents' desire to have children is affected by
A infant and child mortality rates.
B economic costs of raising children.
C children's value as support during parents' old age.
D children's labor value.
E all of the above.
Answer: E p. 78
9. The "lost semen complex" refers to a belief associated with
A foragers.
B Hinduism.
C people who live at high altitude.
D Judaism.
E the Ju/'hoansi.
Answer: B p. 77
10. Below-replacement-level fertility is characteristic of which mode of livelihood?
A agriculture
B pastoralism
C horticulture
D foraging
E industrialism/informatics
Answer: E p. 73
11. Family planning occurs
A at the state level.
B at the global level.
C at the local (family) level.
D all of the above.
E none of the above.
Answer: D pp. 77-79
12. The reproductive patterns of the Hutterites and Mennonites of North America are characterized by
A high suicide rates.
B high rates of secret abortion.
C well-developed systems of "indigenous" contraception methods to maintain low birth rates.
D below-replacement-level population growth.
E high fertility rates.
Answer: E p. 74
13. Contemporary Japan is an example of a country with
A rising fertility among the middle class.
B strong laws against abortion.
C a one-child-per-couple policy.
D a population pyramid shaped like a triangle with a broad base at the bottom.
E population aging.
Answer: E p. 73

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14. Among the Old Order Amish of the United States and Canada,
A population growth is reaching replacement level.
B those who enter business try to retain Amish family values by working at home and selling products from home.
C education through college is the norm.
D children are baptized at birth.
E after rumspringa, about 50 percent of teenagers decide to be baptized.
Answer: B p. 74
15. Of the following cultures, fathers play the greatest role in infant caretaking among
A the Aka.
B middle-class Euro-Americans.
C the Yanomami.
D middle and upper class people of Japan.
E none of the above: in no society do fathers have substantial roles in infant care.
Answer: A p. 89
16. When a father-to-be experiences pain and exhaustion while the mother gives birth, anthropologists refer to the
phenomenon as
A birth envy.
B couvade.
C matrescence.
D narcissism.
E a pure gift.
Answer: B p. 89
17. A common feature of people who take on "third gender roles" among Native American cultures is
A their exclusion from the wider society.
B their general acceptance by society.
C a higher than usual rate of mental illness.
D their prominence in political leadership roles in their groups.
E none of the above: third gender roles never were common among Native North American cultures.
Answer: B p. 88
18. Studies attempting to test for innate ("inborn") gender differences have found that
A boy babies are more independent since they cry less when separated from their care-takers.
B boy babies appear to be more aggressive than girl babies because they learn to walk sooner.
C boy babies smile as frequently as girl babies.
D the relatively smaller size of girl babies may predispose them to higher rates of crying than boy babies.
E none of the above.
Answer: E pp. 82-83
19. Boys and girls are most likely to be socialized into nurturant/caring behavior in which mode of livelihood?
A trade and business
B intensive agriculture
C intensive industry
D horticulture
E none of the above
Answer: D p. 83
20. Research shows that women's experience of discomfort and distress associated with menopause is
A found only in the United States as a result of its "creation" by the medical establishment here.
B cross-culturally universal.
C universal in the species "primate."
D less common in Japan than elsewhere.
E most common and severe in foraging societies.
Answer: D p. 90

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21. The Maasai homeland is in


A West Africa.
B East Africa.
C South Africa
D North Africa.
E the Middle East.
Answer: B p. 84
22. According to the words of a Maasai male youth regarding his circumcision, the event made him feel
A like a Maasai warrior.
B happy because his marriage was arranged at the same time.
C alienated from his culture because of the unnecessary pain.
D nervous about the new responsibilities he was expected to take on.
E angry that he was expected to endure this operation so late in life rather than as an infant.
Answer: A p. 85
23. Among many Native American groups, homosexuality
A was subject to negative reactions from Euro-American culture.
B was institutionalized in a "third gender" role.
C tends to be more accepted than among Euro-Americans.
D all of the above.
E none of the above.
Answer: D p. 88
24. Anthropologist Lara Tabac conducted research in New York City to learn about the sexual practices of
A illegal immigrants.
B heterosexual teenagers.
C men who have sex with men.
D all of the above.
E none of the above: due to the Code of Ethics, anthropologists cannot study sexual practices of anyone.
Answer: C p. 76
25. Fuambai Ahmadu writes about FGC in terms of
A its positive aspects on female status and sense of belonging.
B how it should be banned worldwide due to its negative health consequences.
C its similarities with male circumcision.
D its positive effects on lowering fertility.
E how it violates women's human rights.
Answer: A p. 86
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
26. Breaking Out is a rite of passage in U.S. sororities.
Answer: FALSE p. 86
27. The invention of the birth control pill marked the first time that women were able to control their fertility
through direct means.
Answer: FALSE p. 79
28. Research shows that the major factor behind India's high rate of population growth is the higher frequency of
sexual intercourse compared to countries such as the United States.
Answer: FALSE p. 76-77
29. Infertility is high among couples in Western countries, especially middle- and upper-class couples.

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Answer: TRUE p. 73
30. In general, the value of having many children is highest among agriculturalists.
Answer: TRUE p. 73
31. Morocco is one of the largest producers and exporters of cannabis.
Answer: TRUE p. 77
32. In the Middle East, Islamic men accept in vitro fertilization in order to have a son.
Answer: FALSE p. 80
33. Brazil has low rates of illegal and unsafe abortions.
Answer: FALSE pp. 79-80
34. Children who grow up in agricultural and industrial/informatics societies are more likely to have nurturant
personalities than children who grow up in horticultural societies.
Answer: FALSE p. 83
35. Solid evidence shows that gender patterns of aggressiveness and sociability are inborn.
Answer: FALSE pp. 82-83
36. Among the Maya people of Mexico, a woman generally gives birth alone as a sign of her independence from
others.
Answer: FALSE p. 81
37. Among the poor of northeast Brazil, mother-infant bonding occurs only after the baby has demonstrated a
strong chance of survival.
Answer: TRUE p. 82
38. While puberty is a cross-culturally universal biological stage of life, adolescence is variously marked or
unmarked.
Answer: TRUE pp. 83-84
39. In terms of explaining why a person is heterosexual or homosexual, biological determinism emphasizes
socialization practices and enculturation.
Answer: FALSE p. 87
40. Southeast Asia is known for its gender pluralism.
Answer: TRUE p. 88
41. In modern Japan, the most acceptable death scenario is in a hospital because that relieves the potential burden
on family.
Answer: FALSE p. 91
42. An important ceremony for Hispanic girls occurs on their twelfth birthday.
Answer: FALSE p. 71
43. Antisexuality is the term for a persons lack of sexual attraction or interest in sexual activity.
Answer: FALSE p. 88
IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or
answers the question.
44. The highest fertility rates worldwide are found among Christian groups of Canada and the United States called
the __________.

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Answer: Mennonites/Hutterites

p. 74

45. The theory proposed to explain the decline in population growth rates following industrialization in Europe is
referred to as the __________.
Answer: demographic transition model p. 73
46. A country mentioned in the textbook in which the bride's virginity is highly valued is __________.
Answer: Morocco
p. 76
47. An individual's patterned way of behaving and thinking is referred to as his or her __________.
Answer: personality p. 81
48. "Nurturant-responsible" personalities are most likely to be formed in children living in societies in which the
mode of livelihood is __________.
Answer: horticulture p. 83
49. Anthropologists use the term __________ to refer to people in many Indian tribal groups of the United States
who are genitally male but dress in female clothing and perform female tasks.
Answer: berdache
p. 88
50. The cultural process by which a male becomes a father is referred to as __________.
Answer: patrescence p. 89
51. A major threat to the Aka people of the Democratic Republic of Congo is from __________.
Answer: commercial logging/logging p. 90
52. Among Mozambique refugees living in Malawi, leaving behind deceased family members without providing a
proper burial for them was a cause of _________.
Answer: stress/mental health problems p. 91
53. In the traditional male initiation rituals at VMI, freshman students are referred to as __________.
Answer: Rats
p. 86
54. People maintain passive faces and outward expression of grief at funerals in __________.
Answer: Bali, Indonesia p. 91
55. In industrial/informatic societies, the management of reproduction tends to be mainly in the hands of
__________.
Answer: scientists/professionals/doctors
p. 75
56. Old Order Amish people in North America refer to the mainstream population as the __________.
Answer: English p. 74
57. Traditional methods related to reproduction in Afghanistan mainly focus on ___________.
Answer: increasing fertility/getting pregnant/having a baby
p. 79
ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50100 words] for each of the questions below.
Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your
points as necessary.
58. What are the four factors that affect the "demand" for children cross-culturally?
Answers will vary. p. 78
59. Describe the "lost semen complex" and how it relates to population dynamics in India.
Answers will vary. p. 77

164
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60. How do women's work roles among the Ju/'hoansi affect fertility?
Answers will vary. p. 72
61. How does direct infanticide differ from indirect infanticide?
Answers will vary. pp. 80-81
62. Provide two reasons why it is difficult for cultural anthropologists to gather accurate data on the frequency of
sexual intercourse.
Answers will vary. p. 75
63. What are three major differences between either (a) the foraging mode of reproduction and the agricultural
mode of reproduction or (b) the agricultural mode of reproduction and the industrial/informatic mode of
reproduction? Describe how these differences affect population growth in each case.
Answers will vary. pp. 72-75
64. Discuss the reasons why agricultural societies are more pronatalist than either foraging or industrial/informatic
societies.
Answers will vary. p. 73
65. What are some insights that cultural anthropologists have provided about the cultural shaping of sexual beliefs
and practices and how such beliefs and practices affect reproduction?
Answers will vary. pp. 75-77, elsewhere
66. What are some of the major issues facing the Old Order Amish of the United States and Canada today?
Answers will vary. p. 74
67. Explain why children in horticultural societies are more likely than children in industrial/informatic societies to
grow up learning to be nurturant-responsible.
Answers will vary. p. 83
68. What does a cultural relativism perspective emphasize in terms of female genital cutting?
Answers will vary. pp. 86-87
69. What is the difference between puberty and adolescence?
Answers will vary. pp. 83-84
70. What is a coming of age ceremony and describe an example of one.
Answers will vary. pp. 85-86
71. What are third gender roles and gender pluralism? Discuss two examples.
Answers will vary. pp. 87-88

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Chapter 5 Disease, Illness, and Healing


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Treating the effects of poverty on health with pills is referred to as
A cultural constructionism.
B medicalization.
C biological determinism.
D ethnomedicine.
E medical pluralism.
Answer: B p. 105
2. The phrase "diseases of development" refers to health problems
A related to adolescence as a stressful phase of human development.
B caused by economic development activities such as dam construction.
C that international aid agencies seek to prevent or alleviate.
D of people who work overseas for international development agencies.
E found mainly in urban areas.
Answer: B p. 108
3.
__________ is/are vital for health among the Orang Asli of Malaysia.
A
Hot spices in food
B
Hyssop
C
Coolness
D
Sulfur baths
E
Spiritual chanting
Answer: C pp. 100-101
4. A prominent feature of Western medical school training, according to critical medical anthropology is
A sleep deprivation.
B patient objectification.
C tunnel vision of knowledge.
D dehumanization.
E all of the above.
Answer: E pp. 107-108
5. Ethnomedicine refers to
A the study of cross-cultural health systems.
B the globalization of Western biomedicine.
C the universal use of medicines to treat illness.
D medical systems that focus on the body's internal organs.
E ways of curing disease rather than preventing it.
Answer: A p. 96
6. The role of European diseases in the depopulation of the "New World" was
A relatively unimportant compared to other causes.
B significant.
C far less important than the effect of "New World" diseases on the colonizers.
D of unknown dimensions since we have absolutely no data.
E none of the above: the "New World" was already experiencing substantial population decline before the arrival
of the Europeans.
Answer: B p. 105
7.
A
B

The Ju/'hoansi of the Kalahari desert have a healing system that is


dominated by women specialists.
humoral-based.

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C community-based.
D focused on the shaman-client relationship.
E dependant on sacrifice to the supernaturals.
Answer: C pp. 99-100
8. An increasing prevalence of the disease __________ is attributed to the construction of high dams and irrigation
in many parts of the world.
A arthritis
B measles
C high blood pressure
D schistosomiasis
E influenza
Answer: D pp. 108-109
9. An example of the interpretivist approach in medical anthropology is
A showing how a song sung by a shaman might help a woman through a difficult birth.
B analysis of the role of global political interests in causing child malnutrition.
C studying how hookworm is related to wet rice cultivation in Asia.
D assessment of the impact of disease during colonial contact.
E revealing the role poverty plays in disease.
Answer: A p. 105
10. __________ is a culture-specific syndrome in Spain and Portugal and common among Latino people in the
United States; it is associated with a stressful incident or situation.
A Hikikimori
B Susto
C Kuru
D Koro
E Suffering from water
Answer: B pp. 97-98
11. Retired Husband Syndrome and awas are examples of
A diseases of contact.
B eating disorders.
C culture-specific syndromes.
D globalized diseases.
E diseases of development.
Answer: C p. 98
12. The ecological/epidemiological approach in medical anthropology involves
A attention to how certain diseases function to control population growth.
B study of the interaction between politics, religion, and health.
C a major focus on how genetics influences death and disease.
D close attention to the symbols which different use to represent natural causes of death.
E study of how the natural environment interacts with culture to cause disease.
Answer: E p. 104
13.
Recent change in healing practices among the Sherpa of Nepal is best described as
A
medicalization.
B
Western cultural imperialism.
C
historical trauma.
D
medical confusion.
E
selective pluralism.
Answer: E p. 109
14. Humoral healing systems are based on

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A the use of joking and telling funny stories to the patient.


B the frequent holding of community dances to restore public harmony.
C the use of prayer as the crucial path to healing.
D a philosophy that seeks balance among various bodily fluids and forces.
E a combination of Western biomedicine and the use of local herbs and minerals.
Answer: D p. 100
15. The area within medical anthropology that seeks to make its knowledge useful to medical practitioners working
in health care delivery is
A applied medical anthropology.
B critical medical anthropology.
C ethnomedicine.
D medicalization.
E symbolic/interpretivist anthropology.
Answer: A p. 112
16. The term "medical pluralism" refers to the
A presence of many illnesses in one community.
B growing tendency for Western medical students to overspecialize.
C practice, in industrial countries, of a patient consulting several physicians before deciding what to do.
D presence of multiple health systems within a society.
E situation when a doctor suggests several forms of treatment to a patient.
Answer: D p. 109
17. An increasingly common culture-specific syndrome among Japanese male adolescents is
A koro.
B kuru.
C kula.
D hikikomuri.
E susto.
Answer: D p. 98
18. Structural suffering refers to health problems caused by
A poverty.
B war.
C famine.
D forced migration.
E all of the above.
Answer: E p. 99
19. Medicinal chewing of coca leaves is
A popularly used to stop babies from crying.
B commonly used by people in the Himalayas for fighting the cold.
C important in Andean rituals and health practices.
D more common among women than men.
E all of the above.
Answer: C p. 103
20. Among the Tsiman people of Bolivia, the health status of children is strongly related to
A their gender: boys are healthier than girls.
B whether or not the child was breastfed.
C whether or not the mother received formal education.
D whether or not the mother works outside the home.
E the mother's traditional knowledge of healing plants.
Answer: E p. 102

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21. __________ is the poorest country in South America, although it is rich in natural
resources.
A Argentina
B Venezuela
C Chile
D Bolivia
E Brazil
Answer: D p. 102
22. XMDRTB is an example of
A a new strain of an infectious disease.
B a culture-specific syndrome.
C medical pluralism.
D the spread of a disease from Asia to the West through trade.
E a disease that affects the rich more than the poor.
Answer: A p. 104
23. A disease which is contracted by working in contaminated water is
A hookworm.
B malaria.
C tuberculosis.
D measles.
E diabetes.
Answer: A p.104
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
24. Sufriendo del agua is an example of a culture-specific syndrome in which structural factors play a large role.
Answer: TRUE p. 99
25. Medical anthropologists study healing practices only in non-Western cultures.
Answer: FALSE p. 96
26. The Ju/hoansi's traditional healing system is a form of community healing.
Answer: TRUE pp. 99-100
27. According to critical medical anthropologists, one significant feature of the training of Western biomedical
healers is called cognitive retrogression.
Answer: TRUE p. 107
28. Robert Trotter's work in discovering the role of lead poisoning in some traditional medicines used by Mexican
Americans is an example of critical medical anthropology.
Answer: FALSE p. 112
29. The case of Mary, the Samoan girl with diabetes, illustrates the non-fit of two different cultures' explanatory
models for illness.
Answer: TRUE pp. 111-112
30. One factor that may explain the success of placebos is the act of the prescription itself.
Answer: TRUE p. 105
31. Ethno-etiology refers to cross-culturally variations in causal explorations for health problems and suffering.
Answer: TRUE p. 99
32. Forced migration that causes mental and physical stress is an example of structural suffering.

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Answer: TRUE p. 99
33. In rural Nepal, the increasing role of tourism in the local economy has led to a complete replacement of
traditional healing practices with Western biomedicine.
Answer: FALSE p. 109
34. Some forms of alternative healing include the use of radon.
Answer: TRUE p. 103
35. Since 1978, the World Health Organization has endorsed the incorporation of local healing practices into
national health systems.
Answer: TRUE p. 113
36.
Women working in padi fields in China have an increased risk of hookworm infection.
Answer: TRUE p. 104
37. In the United States, all states allocate reservations to so-called "recognized tribes."
Answer: FALSE p. 107
38. Historical trauma as a result of European colonialism is closely associated with substance abuse among
indigenous peoples of North America.
Answer: TRUE p. 105
39. Surveys conducted by medical anthropologists in several developing countries reveal that most parents have a
clear and thorough understanding of vaccines and eagerly seek inoculations for their children.
Answer: FALSE p. 113
40. A study of the Tsiman people in Bolivia concluded that local people's access to plant resources must be
protected.
Answer: TRUE p. 102
41. World famous chef Jamie Oliver spent time in a town in West Virginia in order to help improve peoples food
habits.
Answer: TRUE p.109
IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or
answers the question.
42. When medical anthropologists consider how the natural and social environments interact to cause disease, they
are following the __________ approach.
Answer: ecological/epidemiological
p. 104
43. Health problems caused by powerful forces such as poverty, war, famine, and forced migration are referred to as
__________.
Answer: structural suffering p. 105
44. A disease that was a prominent cause of deaths of Native Americans during early contact with European
colonizers is __________.
Answer: smallpox/typhus fever/measles p. 105
45.
One of the criteria for becoming a healer is _________.
Answer: selection/training/certification/professional image/expectation of payment

p. 101

46.
A positive result from a healing method due to a symbolic nonmaterial factor is known as ________.
Answer: placebo effect
p. 105

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47. A healing system that concentrates on maintaining balance in the body among various substances and factors
judged to be "heating" or "cooling" is called a __________ system.
Answer: humoral
pp. 100-101
48. In the country of __________, as a whole, nearly one-third of the population has inadequate access to water.
Answer: Mexico
p. 99
49. An example of a culture-specific syndrome among White middle-class adolescent girls in the United States is
__________.
Answer: anorexia nervosa/bulimia
p. 98
50. Heavy reliance on the use of technology in diagnosis and treatment is a characteristic of the __________
healing system.
Answer: Western biomedical p. 96
51. The use of anthropological research to help improve health care delivery is called __________.
Answer: applied medical anthropology p. 112
52. Selective pluralism characterizes the contemporary healing situation of the __________ people of Nepal.
Answer: Sherpa p. 109
53. A major category of affliction among the Subanun people of the Philippines is __________.
Answer: skin disorders
p. 97
54. The "retired husband syndrome" affects women in the country of __________.
Answer: Japan p. 98
55. Most Sherpas live in the country of __________.
Answer: Nepal p. 110
56. An example of a disease of development mentioned in the textbook is __________.
Answers: schistosomiasis/obesity/childhood obesity pp.108-109
ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50100 words] for each of the questions below.
Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your
points as necessary.
57. What is the goal of applied medical anthropology and what is one example of it?
Answers will vary. pp. 112-113
58. To what does the term medicalization refer and provide an example of it.
Answers will vary. p. 105
59. What is structural suffering, and what is an ethnographic example of it?
Answers will vary. p. 99
60. Define and give an example of the interpretivist approach in medical anthropology.
Answers will vary. p. 105
61. Discuss the disease/illness dichotomy and provide an example of a disease and an illness.
Answers will vary. pp. 96-97
62. Describe two differences between shamanic healers and Western biomedical healers.
Answers will vary. pp. 101, 106-108

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63. Define phytotherapy and discuss its role among the Tsiman people of Bolivia.
Answers will vary. p. 102
64. What is a "disease of development?" Provide an example and explain its specific cause.
Answers will vary. pp. 108-109
65. What is community healing and how does it work?
Answers will vary. pp. 99-100
66. What is humoral healing and describe one ethnographic example of it.
Answers will vary. pp. 100-101
67. Describe the ecological/epidemiological approach to understanding health systems. Why are settled populations
more likely to have certain health problems, like infectious diseases, than mobile populations?
Answers will vary. p. 104
68. What are the primary criteria for becoming a healer? Compare what you know about shamans/shamankas with
Western biomedical healers in terms of the criteria.
Answers will vary. p. 101
69. How is globalization changing health, illness, and healing? Provide a specific cultural example.
Answers will vary. pp. 108-113
70. Explain the concept of a culture-specific syndrome and discuss one example of a culture-specific syndrome
including attention to symptoms, social distribution, and possible cause(s).
Answers will vary. pp. 97-98
71. What are some of the major issues facing the Sherpa of Nepal today?
Answers will vary. p. 110

172
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Chapter 6 Kinship and Domestic Life


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Unilineal descent systems
A include all biological relatives in the lineage group.
B are found in about 45 percent of the world's cultures.
C are on the decline due to globalization.
D place a high value on female roles and inheritance.
E all of the above.
Answer: B p. 121
2. Brideprice refers to
A the sale of women at auction to the highest bidder.
B the joint contribution by the bride's and groom's families to the couple.
C a gift to the groom's family from the bride's side.
D the exchange of women between two matrilineal groups.
E a gift to the bride's family from the groom's side.
Answer: E p. 129
3. Large extended households are most prevalent in which mode of livelihood?
A circumpolar foraging
B socialism
C industrialism/informatics
D temperate-climate foraging
E agriculture
Answer: E p. 130
4. Bilineal descent systems are
A always found in pastoralist societies.
B found to exist only in people's myths, never reality.
C the most common descent system known.
D most clearly linked with tropical horticulture.
E less common than unilineal descent systems.
Answer: E pp. 121-122
5. According to the textbook, kinship is based on which three factors?
A love, respect, and caring
B descent, divorce, and fate
C descent, sharing, and marriage
D genetics, language, and learning
E sharing, adoption, and marriage
Answer: C p. 120
6. The incest taboo
A applies only to sexual intercourse, not marriage.
B leads to exogamy.
C forbids marriage or sexual intercourse with the same set of relatives in all cultures.
D is the rule that universally prevents cousin marriage.
E has no apparent useful function in society.
Answer: B p. 127
7.
A
B
C

Compared to a family, a household may include


people who do not live together.
people who are not related by kinship.
fewer than four people.

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D children.
E none of the above: anthropologists use these terms as exact synonyms.
Answer: B p. 130
8.
The tracing of kinship relationships through parentage is called
A
descent.
B
matriarchy.
C
endogamy.
D
exogamy.
E
caste system.
Answer: A p. 120
9. Neolocal residence for married couples is associated with
A a foraging mode of livelihood.
B Western industrialized society.
C bilineal kinship systems.
D all of the above.
E none of the above.
Answer: D pp. 119 (Figure 6.1), 121
10.
_________ is an example of sharing-based kinship that is ritually formalized.
A
Exogamy
B
Neolocality
C
Blood brotherhood
D
A household
E
Endogamy
Answer: C p. 122
11. Brideservice involves
A the groom working for the bride's family.
B the bride working for the groom's family.
C either the bride or groom working for their family of marriage.
D all of the above.
E none of the above.
Answer: A p.129
12. A factor in high rates of wife abuse in rural Kentucky is
A men's heavy use of marijuana.
B geographical isolation.
C lack of police staffing.
D women's unusual degree of economic independence that men find threatening.
E women's better level of education than men's which threatens the men.
Answer: B p. 132
13. The system of descent in which kinship is traced through the female line is called
A matriarchal.
B fostering.
C bilineal.
D matrilineal.
E feminism.
Answer: D p. 121
14.
A
B
C

An example of kinship established through sharing is


brideprice.
marriage.
godparenthood.

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D descent.
E double descent.
Answer: C p. 125
15. "Eskimo" and "Iroquois" were two of the six types of an early anthropological classification system of which of
the following?
A. household structure
B. family structure
C. spouse selection criteria
D. kinship terminology
E. descent
Answer: D p. 120
16. The research tool showing the relatives known by an individual or "ego" is a(n)
A extended family.
B life history.
C kinship diagram.
D descent system.
E genealogy.
Answer: C p. 119
17. In a patrilineal kinship system, a married couple is most likely to reside
A with or near the parents of the bride.
B with the bride's family for the first year and then with the groom's family.
C with or near the bride's mother's brother.
D alternating between the bride's family and the groom's family.
E with or near the parents of the groom.
Answer: E p. 121
18. Which of the following statements about the Minangkabau culture is accurate?
A It is the world's largest matrilineal culture.
B Fewer Minangkabau now practice the kula.
C The traditional heartland is based in Malaysia.
D Most Minangkabau are Christians.
E Tigers are the most important animal in terms of symbolism.
Answer: A p. 124
19. Claude Lvi-Strauss suggested that incest taboos
A. are not common because they have no practical benefit in the short-term.
B. are not common because spouse selection is often determined by exclusionary rules.
C. are only common in agricultural and industrial cultures.
D. are common due to the dangers of genetic endogamy.
E. are common because they promote social contact.
Answer: E p. 126
20. Which of the following is a recent change in marriage patterns?
A. The western "white wedding" is completely replacing many local traditions.
B. Chinese women are facing a crisis-level shortage of marriageable men.
C. Arranged marriages in Nepal are decreasing.
D. The average age of newlyweds is decreasing.
E. Non-western, traditional ceremonies are increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa.
Answer: C p. 134
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

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21. Most cultural anthropologists would accept as the minimal accepted definition of marriage a "union between
two or more people."
Answer: TRUE p. 126
22. A rule that says a person must find a marriage partner from outside their village is called exogamy.
Answer: TRUE p. 127
23. Brideprice is more common in foraging societies than in other modes of livelihood.
Answer: FALSE p. 129
24. In the United States, notions of romantic love are more strongly held by Euro-American women than by
African-American women.
Answer: TRUE p. 128
25. Adopting a child forms kinship bonds that the textbook categorizes as sharing-based.
Answer: TRUE p. 122
26. Bilineal kinship is more characteristic of foraging and industrial/informatics societies than of the other three
modes of livelihood.
Answer: TRUE p. 119
27.
Fostering is a formal and permanent form of child transfer.
Answer: FALSE p. 130
28. Cultural anthropologists generally accept that marriage involves a binding union between a man and woman
such that children born to them are considered legitimate by society.
Answer: FALSE p. 125
29. In South India, cross-cousin marriage is a preferred form of marriage.
Answer: TRUE p. 126
30. When marriage involves a woman of lower status than the man, this is referred to as isogamy.
Answer: FALSE p. 127
31. The Republic of Ghana has rich natural resources and exports gold, timber, and cocoa.
Answer: TRUE p. 125
32. Bilineal descent systems are found in roughly one third of cultures.
Answer: TRUE p. 121
33. In Niger, the current marriage crisis is caused by the fact that many young men cannot raise the necessary funds
for the brideprice and additional gifts to the bride's family.
Answer: TRUE p. 134
34. The major ethnic group in Ghana are the Akan.
Answer: TRUE p. 125
35. Neolocal marital residence implies that newlyweds will transition from a nuclear to an extended household.
Answer: FALSE p. 121
36. A major cause of the "marriage crisis" throughout sub-Saharan Africa is the high rate of unemployment about
marriage-age men.
Answer: TRUE p.134
37. The naming system in rural Hong Kong reflects the power, importance, and autonomy of males.
Answer: TRUE p. 122

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38. A world center of finance and trade, Hong Kong lacks natural resources and agricultural land, so it imports most
of its food and raw materials.
Answer: TRUE p. 123
39.
An extended household contains more than one adult married couple.
Answer: TRUE p. 130
40. In Minangkabau society women control the production of, and men the market sale of rice.
Answer: FALSE p. 124
41. An endogamous marriage requirement can be based on social category, kinship or locality
Answer: TRUE p. 126
42. Islamic teachings on family matters are one factor explaining the decline of the matrilineal tradition among the
Minangkabau
Answer: TRUE p. 133
IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or
answers the question.
43. An example of a matrilineal culture is __________.
Answer: Minangkabau/Navajo/other
p. 121
44. Compared to village exogamy, the practice of village __________ (in-marriage) tends to maintain close ties
between a bride and her family of origin.
Answer: endogamy p. 127
45. The three bases of kinship described in the textbook are __________, sharing, and marriage.
Answer: descent p. 120
46. When goods and money go from the bride's family to the groom's family, this is referred to as __________.
Answer: dowry/groomprice
p. 128
47. __________ is the term that applies to marriages between one man and several women.
Answer: Polygyny
p. 129
48. One force of change in contemporary household arrangements is __________.
Answer: migration/economic change/female employment/poverty/etc. pp. 133-135
49. A nuclear household that contains one or more adult children, as is becoming increasingly common in the U.S.,
is referred to as ___________.
Answer: multigenerational household p. 135
50. Dowry gifts in Ghana typically include __________.
Answer: pots/bowls/ornamental glass/cookware p. 129
51. With the rise of industrialization and urbanization, the existence of the longhouse household tradition in Borneo
is __________.
Answer: declining/dying out pp. 134-135
52. Located in the southeastern United States, in the wider Appalachian region, the state of __________ has more
farmers per square mile than any other state and a per capita income that is 43rd in the 50 states.
Answer: Kentucky
p. 132

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53. A marriage that transfers resources from the bride's side to the groom's is __________.
Answer: brideprice/brideservice
p. 129
54. In brother-sister relationships in Beirut, Lebanon, the dominant sibling is the __________.
Answer: brother p. 131
ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50100 words] for each of the questions below.
Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your
points as necessary.
55. What is unilineal descent and with which modes of livelihood is it most associated? Discuss an ethnographic
example.
Answers will vary. p. 121
56. Define a nuclear household and an extended household. How do they differ in terms of key functions?
Answers will vary. p. 130
57. Define the incest taboo and some important cross-cultural variations in it.
Answers will vary. p. 126
58. Describe two different economic transfer involved in marriage arrangements and their implications for the
status of the bride and groom.
Answers will vary. pp. 128-129
59. Discuss the three bases of kinship discussed in the textbook.
Answers will vary. pp. 120-129
60. Describe one aspect of intrahousehold relationships with an ethnographic example.
Answers will vary. pp. 130-133
61. Discuss key findings about husband-wife relationships cross-culturally and in Japan.
Answers will vary. pp. 130-131, elsehwere
62. Discuss how and why household structure is changing in contemporary times. Provide one example of such
change.
Answers will vary. pp. 134-135
63. Discuss how patrilineal descent shapes naming practices in a Chinese village of rural Hong Kong Territory.
Answers will vary. pp. 122-123
64. What findings did ethnographic research in rural Kentucky provide to help prevent wife abuse there?
Answers will vary. p. 132
65. How do the terms "family" and "household" differ from each other? Define each and explain the contrasts and
similarities. Draw a kinship diagram of your family and then draw a diagram of your household (the people with
whom you live when you are not at college).
Answers will vary. p. 130
66. How does the mode of livelihood affect kinship systems? Give concrete examples.
Answers will vary. pp. 118-122
67. How is marriage changing in contemporary cultures?
Answers will vary. pp. 133-134
68. What are key features of Minangkabau culture of Indonesia and what changes are they experiencing today?

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Answers will vary.

p. 124

69. Describe three criteria of spouse selection.


Answers will vary. pp. 126-128
70. Discuss the varying role of romantic love in spouse/partner selection.
Answers will vary. p. 128
71. Present key findings of cultural anthropologists on adoption and fostering of children.
Answers will vary. pp. 122-124

179
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Chapter 7 Social Groups and Social Stratification


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. A person's class position is
A determined mainly by ethnicity.
B almost completely ascribed.
C closely correlated with his/her religion.
D usually measured in terms of income level.
E determined solely by education.
Answer: D p. 148
2. A social group in which ritual is important in reinforcing bonding is
A youth gangs.
B age sets.
C body piercers.
D fraternities.
E all of the above.
Answer: E pp. 140-144
3. The CO-MADRES organization demonstrates that
A women's groups mostly focus on issues related to the domestic domain.
B personal interests can mix with political interests.
C the key issue uniting women in this case is the provision of food and basic needs for poor mothers.
D organizations with political motives are dominated by male leaders in Latin America.
E women in Latin America depend completely on men to organize people into protest groups.
Answer: B p. 154
4. Social ranking on the basis of caste is
A of great ritual importance in India but has no economic or political importance.
B an example of a primary social group.
C an ascribed system.
D no longer an operational social system in India.
E a cross-cultural universal.
Answer: C p. 152
5. Which of the following is an ascribed status?
A prime minister of England
B president of the United States
C Olympic medal winner
D Queen of England.
E anthropology professor
Answer: D p. 147
6. Dalits are
A the most oppressed social category in India.
B the most oppressed social category in Brazil.
C an example of an age set.
D the warrior males among the Maasai.
E a group of body piercers.
Answer: A p. 152
7.
A
B
C

Bonds based on friendship are


one of the most over-studied topics of cultural anthropology.
most common in foraging cultures where all relationships are "face-to-face."
probably found in all cultures.

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D more common among youth than among adults.


E more common among women than among men.
Answer: C p. 141
8. The term used in some US fraternities to describe gang rape of a woman is a/an
A "train."
B "party."
C "brother thing."
D "event."
E "grouper."
Answer: A p. 144
9. Among the low-income African Americans with whom Carol Stack did research, an important basis of
economic survival is the creation of social bonds through
A monetary exchanges.
B shared childcare.
C friendship.
D all of the above.
E none of the above.
Answer: D p. 142
10. A structurist view of youth gang violence sees it as a result of
A lack of proper child socialization.
B absence of a father figure in the family.
C poverty and constricted economic opportunities.
D genetics.
E all of the above.
Answer: C p. 145
11. The Chinese Women's Movement
A functions alongside the Chinese government, but is not connected to the government.
B is an example of a state-created organization.
C is a clear example of civil society in action.
D has had no positive impact on women's education in China.
E is controlled by the government at the national level, but not at the village level.
Answer: B pp. 153-154
12. Studies of U.S. fraternities show that
A a sense of privilege and power among the brothers appears to be related to abuse of women.
B gynophobic (woman-hating) behavior is not typical of the entire fraternity system.
C they socialize and reinforce certain behavior in males in cultures that value male competitiveness.
D they are similar to exclusive male clubs in many other cultures.
E all of the above.
Answer: E p. 144
13. A feature that unites the Masta Liu of Samoa is
A shared unemployment.
B the fact that they came from households with no resident father.
C a shared sense of in-born power and privilege.
D their shared position as last-born sons with no claim to the family property.
E the fact that they were all circumcised together.
Answer: A p. 145
14.
A
B

One difference between male and female friendships in rural Spain is that
men have fewer friends than women.
men's friends are mainly kin, while women's friends are neighbors.

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C
women's friendships are reinforced through spending leisure time together.
D
men have a greater variety of types of friends than women do.
E
men's friendships are more fragile due to competition for jobs and women.
Answer: D p. 142
15. In Africa, youths who go through circumcision rituals together are said to constitute
A secondary groups.
B cooperatives.
C non-mainstream groups.
D age sets.
E distinct ethnic groups.
Answer: D p. 140
16. In villages in India, a group of people who control most of the land and may also be the numerical majority are
referred to as
A the primary group.
B a diaspora population.
C civil society.
D the dominant caste.
E dalits.
Answer: D p. 148, 152
17. All systems based on inequality (such as" race," caste, etc.), regardless of their local specificities, share this
feature:
A Those who have greater entitlements control those who have lesser entitlements.
B Underprivileged groups may rebel against the system.
C Members of dominant groups work to keep their position.
D People are relegated to particular levels of entitlement.
E All of the above.
Answer: E pp. 148-149
18. Two features of traditional Roma life are
A horticulture and fallowing.
B goat herding and migration.
C migration and marginality.
D all of the above, depending on the context.
E none of the above.
Answer: C p. 151
19. The only South American country whose official language is English is
A Chile.
B Venezuela.
C Guyana.
D Argentina.
E none of the above.
Answer: C p. 143
20. The Kuna people, known for their matrilineal descent and colorful molas, live mainly in the country of
A Costa Rica.
B Panama.
C Venezuela.
D Brazil.
E Mexico.
Answer: B p. 147
21. According to case study of friendship in Andalucia, Spain,

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A gender roles explain the different types of friends men and women have.
B women's friends are also neighbors.
C men's friendships are built on work roles and reinforced through socializing outside work.
D all of the above.
E none of the above: the study found no evidence of a concept of "friendship" in the region.
Answer: D p. 142
22. Which type of anthropology did Fredy Peccerelli practice in his study of the victims of political violence in
Guatemala?
A. holistic
B. forensic
C. linguistic
D. interpretive
E. Verandah
Answer: B p. 155
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
23. Sharing stories is a prominent basis for formation of friendship groups cross-culturally.
Answer: TRUE p. 141
24. The Roma are a diaspora group whose members are frequently treated negatively by members of mainstream
society.
Answer: TRUE p. 151
25. Research on college campuses in the U.S. reveals that fraternities and sororities construct a sense of belonging
through identical rituals.
Answer: FALSE pp. 143-144
26. Many body modifiers in the U.S. are motivated to alter their bodies through a wish to belong with a specific
group of people.
Answer: TRUE p. 146
27. Agricultural and credit cooperatives are the most common forms of cooperatives worldwide.
Answer: TRUE p. 146
28. No successful cases of women's cooperatives have been documented cross-culturally.
Answer: FALSE pp. 146-147
29. The concept of class was especially important to the theories of Karl Marx.
Answer: TRUE p. 148
30. In much of Latin America, local categories of "race" and ethnicity overlap.
Answer: TRUE p. 149
31. Specialized forms of nonkin groups are more common in agricultural and industrial societies than in foraging,
horticultural, and pastoralist societies.
Answer: TRUE p. 140
32. According to the constitution of India, discrimination on the basis of class is against the law.
Answer: TRUE p. 153
33. Groups formed to help protect the ecology in contemporary nations fit in the category of civil society.
Answer: TRUE p. 141
34. Romania has the highest number of Roma of any country in the world.

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Answer: TRUE p. 151


35. Fifty percent of the population in South Africa is Black.
Answer: FALSE p. 149
36. The geography of Bangladesh is a deltaic flood plain.
Answer: TRUE p. 140
37.
Violence against the Roma by mainstream populations of Eastern Europe has decreased in recent years.
Answer: FALSE p. 160
38.
Compared to kinship relationships, people tend to choose and retain friendship ties voluntarily.
Answer: TRUE p. 141
39. Something similar to India's caste system can be found in the history of every agricultural culture.
Answer: FALSE p. 152
40. Around the world, a popular social pastime of women is playing dominoes.
Answer: FALSE p.143
41. In India, all Dalits are Hindus.
Answer: FALSE p.153
IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or
answers the question.
42. An example of an ascribed position is ________.
Answer: race/gender/age/caste/Queen of England/etc.

p. 148, elsewhere

43. India's traditional system of social ranking is referred to as the ________ system.
Answer: caste
p. 152
44. New social movements commonly use which form of communication?
Answer: new social media/Internet/websites/Facebook/Twitter
p. 155
45. The ________ system of legalized racial stratification and segregation has recently been brought to an end in
South Africa.
Answer: apartheid
pp. 149-150
46. ________ is the more acceptable term than "untouchable" for the people in India who are of the lowest social
rank.
Answer: Dalit
p. 152
47. The term used to refer to groups of people who are displaced or dispersed from their original homeland is
________ population.
Answer: diaspora
p. 150
48. One way that dominant caste groups maintain their power in India is through ________.
Answer: land ownership/control of education/threats of violence/marriage rules pp. 152-153
49. The Latin American term for indigenous people who have "mixed" with the dominant group is __________.
Answer: mestizaje
p. 148
50. __________ is a sense of group identity based on a shared sense of identity.
Answer: Ethnicity
p. 150

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51. Among low-income people in Jamaica, extensive social networks are maintained through the use of
__________.
Answer: cell phones pp. 141-142
52. The form of exchange most common among friends is __________.
Answer: balanced exchange p. 141
53. According to a study of youth gangs in the U.S., two characteristics of a defiant individualistic personality are
__________ and __________.
Answer: intense competitiveness/mistrust of others/self-reliance/social isolation/strong survival instinct
p. 145
54.
A position or standing in a society is referred to as a persons __________.
Answer: status p. 148
55. CO-MADRES is an example of a/an __________.
Answer: Activist Group p. 154
56. "Tibetan" is considered an ascribed status based on __________.
Answer: Ethnicity
p. 150
ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50100 words] for each of the questions below.
Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your
points as necessary.
57. Define the concepts of status, ascribed position, and achieved position, and provide an example of each from
class reading and discussion.
Answers will vary. pp. 148-153
58. Discuss the concepts of " race" and racism as cultural constructions; provide an example of racial stratification
and its consequences.
Answers will vary. pp. 149-150
59. Define the concept of civil society and discuss an example of a civil society organization in terms of its goals
and functions.
Answers will vary. pp. 153-155
60. Describe the workings of one example of a cooperative; address its membership, goals, and activities.
Answers will vary. pp. 146-147
61. How does a primary group differ from a secondary group, and what is an example of each?
Answers will vary. p. 140
62. How do cultural anthropologists define youth gangs and what are some of their findings about this type of
group?
Answers will vary. pp. 144-145
63. Peggy Sanday's study of a U.S. college fraternity revealed what key findings?
Answers will vary. p. 144
64. Compare urban youth gangs with U.S. college fraternities in terms of three features of your choice (such as
motivations for joining, rituals of initiation or solidarity, relationship with the wider society, anthropological theories
concerning them).
Answers will vary. pp. 143-145

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65. Explain the basic features of India's caste system and how it works. Compare it with apartheid in South Africa.
Answers will vary. pp. 149-150, 152-153
66. Describe how aspects of social inequality are reinforced through two examples of social groups or social
stratification (for example," race," gender, class, caste, indigeneity).
Answers will vary. pp. 147-153
67. Describe two examples of how civil society groups perform important roles complementary to government.
Answers will vary. pp. 153-155
68. How do the aspects of economic systems (livelihood, consumption, exchange) relate to the existence of
particular social groups and to social stratification?
Answers will vary. pp. 140-141, 147, elsewehere
69. What are some of the major issues facing the Roma people today?
Answers will vary. p. 151
70. Summarize how "race" and ethnicity are defined in the context of this chapter, and provide an example for each
of how it has been used to determine social status.
Answers will vary. pp. 149-150

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Chapter 8 Political and Legal Systems


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. A big-man's position depends on
A his personality.
B his generosity.
C many supporters working on his behalf.
D having at least one wife.
E all of the above.
Answer: E p. 163
2. In the tribal form of political organizations, leadership tends to be based on
A heredity.
B physical strength.
C achievement.
D luck.
E ascribed status.
Answer: C p. 162
3. Leadership in bands is
A informal.
B restricted to men.
C based on a person's greater access to material resources.
D symbolized by elaborate armbands and necklaces.
E linked to the ability to go into trance.
Answer: A pp. 161-162
4. A band is a form of political organization associated with
A pastoralists.
B horticulturists.
C foragers.
D agriculturalists.
E industrialists.
Answer: C p. 161
5. The subfield of anthropology that addresses issues of social order and conflict resolution cross-culturally is
called
A political anthropology.
B legal anthropology.
C critical anthropology.
D organizational anthropology.
E social anthropology.
Answer: B p. 160
6. Despite Carneiros views, cultural anthropologists have shown that war is
A inevitable.
B necessary.
C not a cultural universal.
D part of evolution.
E all of the above.
Answer: C p. 177
7.
A
B

In terms of traditional political organization, pastoralism is most associated with


a state-level form of government.
a tribal or chiefdom model of political organization.

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C band organization.
D big-woman politics.
E no formal leadership.
Answer: B p. 162
8. Moka is associated with which form of political organization?
A bands
B tribes
C chiefdoms
D big-man/big-woman systems
E emerging nations
Answer: D p. 163
9. The leader of a band
A usually gets his title from his mother.
B forces band members to follow his directions with song contests.
C is distinguished by certain privileges and property.
D is "first among equals."
E sponsors lavish feasts.
Answer: D pp. 161-162
10. The biological determinist (or Darwinian) view explains high rates of warfare among the Yanomami by
emphasizing
A how warfare contributes to land acquisition and higher nutritional status of the winners.
B women's role in starting wars through their demand for meat.
C that successful warriors have more wives and thus have greater "reproductive success" than other men.
D the role of meat availability in regulating nutritional status and group size.
E all of the above.
Answer: C p. 170
11. The sides in a sectarian conflict are based on differences of
A. political system.
B. ascribed status.
C. religion.
D. "race."
E. language.
Answer: C p. 171
12. The historical view of high rates of violence among the Yanomami emphasizes
A the unbalanced sex ratio (scarcity of women) as a motivation for conflict.
B how high rates of warfare are a response to "protein hunger."
C the role of the increased presence of Westerners in the region.
D its adaptive role in keeping population growth rates down.
E how such warfare has increased the biological adaptiveness of the population by favoring the reproduction of
strong males.
Answer: C p. 171
13. The category of big-man/big-woman leadership is most characteristic of which cultural region?
A Central America
B Middle East
C mainland Southeast Asia
D Melanesia and the South Pacific
E Japan
Answer: D p. 162
14. Formal taxation most characterizes which form of political organization?

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A tribe
B band
C state
D chiefdom
E all of the above: all forms of political organization must be able to raise resources from their people
Answer: C p. 165
15. According to the textbook, a nation is a group of people who share a
A language.
B culture.
C territorial base.
D political organization.
E. all of the above.
Answer: E p. 175
16. The form of political organization called the state is characterized by
A a standing army.
B control of information (propaganda).
C a way of maintaining demographic records about its citizens.
D its ability to define citizenship.
E all of the above.
Answer: E p. 165
17. Social control in small-scale societies is centered around
A maintenance of social relationships.
B norms.
C informal enforcement.
D the use of personalized mechanisms such as gossip or shunning.
E all of the above.
Answer: E p. 167
18. The use of a physically painful procedure for determining guilt or innocence is called
A jury trial.
B trial of endurance.
C trial by ordeal.
D feuding.
E informal social control.
Answer: C p. 168
19. An example of a political confederacy is
A pre-colonial Hawai'i.
B the Cherokee.
C the Iroquois.
D the Algonquins.
E all of the above.
Answer: E p. 164
20. Cultural anthropologists who focus on revealing how legal systems discriminate against certain groups are
referred to as
A applied anthropologists.
B clinical legal anthropologists.
C critical legal anthropologists.
D legal pluralists.
E all of the above.
Answer: C p. 169

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21. The major religion of people of the Central Asian states is


A Buddhism.
B Islam.
C Confucianism.
D Christianity.
E none of the above: the people mainly follow localized tribal traditions.
Answer: B p. 172
22. The country of __________ imprisons more people than any other country in the world.
A Russia
B United States
C Japan
D France
E Mexico
Answer: B p. 168
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
23. While there are many examples of women leaders in states, anthropologists have found no examples of women
leaders in other forms of political organization.
Answer: FALSE p. 163, elsewhere
24. Influence refers to a way of gaining a desired end without the use of force.
Answer: TRUE p. 160
25. An example of a society with tribal political organization is the Kayapo.
Answer: TRUE p. 162
26. The form of political organization typically found among horticulturalists is the band.
Answer: FALSE p. 162
27. Band leaders have authority and influence but no power.
Answer: TRUE p. 162
28. Only 5 modern states are currently dominated by female leadership.
Answer: FALSE p. 165
29. A big man's leadership position depends on, among other factors, the productivity of his wife or wives.
Answer: TRUE p. 163
30. Big-man and big-woman leadership is most closely associated with a form of exchange called redistribution.
Answer: TRUE p. 162
31. The Kurds are an example of an ethnic group that seeks to form a separate nation.
Answer: TRUE p. 176
32. Traditionally, most Kurds are farmers.
Answer: FALSE p. 176
33. Japan's crime rate is lower than the United States' crime rate.
Answer: TRUE p. 168
34. The use of prisons to punish people emerged only with the state.
Answer: TRUE p. 161

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35. In large-scale societies, punishment is often legitimized through supernatural forces and their ability to affect
people.
Answer: FALSE p. 167
36. In the premodern period, warfare was a more effective way to gain domination over new regions than it is now.
Answer: TRUE p. 173
37. Anthropologist Robert Carneiro is pessimistic about the future of world peace and about anthropology's ability
to contribute to world peace.
Answer: TRUE p. 177
38. Capital punishment is most commonly used in tribal forms of political organization.
Answer: FALSE p. 161
39. High levels of interpersonal lethal violence are cross-culturally universal.
Answer: FALSE p. 172
40. Prisons are the oldest form of social control.
Answer: FALSE p. 167
41. Australia's juvenile justice system is an example of a legal system that has managed to avoid discrimination
against Aboriginal peoples.
Answer: FALSE p. 169
42. In the United States, southern states have higher rates of incarceration (imprisonment)
than northern states.
Answer: TRUE p. 169
43. In England and France, a disproportionate number of prisoners are Muslims.
Answer: TRUE p. 168
IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or
answers the question.
44. __________ is the term for the ability to use force in order to bring about results.
Answer: Power p. 160
45. The band form of organization most characterizes the __________ mode of livelihood.
Answer: foraging
p. 161
46. The maintenance of a full-time, standing army is a characteristic of the form of political organization known as
the __________.
Answer: state
p. 165
47. A policy of ethical behavior on the part of private commercial entities is called __________.
Answer: corporate social responsibility/CSR
p. 173, 175
48. Kurds have faced political repression in Iraq and __________.
Answer: Turkey p. 176
49. The economy of Puerto Rico is based on __________.
Answer: agriculture p. 177
50. Because more than half of the "nation" of Puerto Rico lives outside the home island, most Puerto Ricans have a
__________ identity.

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Answer: transnational

p. 175

51. While some people argue that the Iroquois were a matriarchy, it is more likely that gender __________
characterized political leadership and decision-making.
Answer: equality p.164
52. Stuart Kirsch advocated on behalf of an indigenous community in __________.
Answer: Papua New Guinea p.174
53. The number of people in prison per 100,000 people in a country is referred to as the
__________.
Answer: incarceration rate
p. 168
54. In contrast to laws that are formal and written, __________ are unwritten and informal understandings about
proper behavior.
Answer: norms pp. 166-167
55. An example of a culture with an internalized system of social control that operates through interpersonal and
group pressure is __________.
Answer: Amish/Mennonites p. 166
56. An example discussed in the textbook of a social group that cultural anthropologists have shown to be
discriminated against by legal systems is __________.
Answer: Australian Aboriginal youths p. 169
57. The main religion of the Central Asian States is __________.
Answer: Islam p. 172
ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50100 words] for each of the questions below.
Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your
points as necessary.
58. What is a major difference between a band organization and a big-man or big-woman political organization?
Answers will vary. pp. 161-164
59. Discuss who are the Kurds, their current situation of the Kurds, and the challenges they are facing.
Answers will vary. p. 176
60. Discuss two differences between the political organization of bands and states.
Answers will vary. pp. 161-162, 164-165
61. What does Benedict Anderson's concept of "imagined communities" mean and what are three examples of how
states attempt to create a sense of political unity from diversity?
Answers will vary. p. 175
62. Discuss how modes of livelihood relate to forms of political organization
Answers will vary. p. 161, elsewhere
63. Summarize what anthropologists know about women's roles in political leadership in bands, tribes, chiefdoms
and states. Discuss two ethnographic examples.
Answers will vary. pp. 161-165
64. Define a norm and a law and give an example of each.
Answers will vary. pp. 166-167

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65. Describe trial by ordeal and compare it with the court system/trial by jury.
Answers will vary. p. 168
66. Discuss an example of findings of critical legal anthropologists.
Answers will vary. pp. 169-170
67. What is the anthropological definition of warfare?
Answers will vary. p. 172
68. What is the subject matter of legal anthropology?
Answers will vary. pp. 160, 165-175
69. Discuss how social inequality affects the legal system for youth in Australia.
Answers will vary. p. 169
70. What are key features of Kurdish culture and what challenges are they experiencing today?
Answers will vary. p. 176
71. Summarize each side of the debate over whether anthropologists should advocate on behalf of the communities
studied.
Answers will vary. p. 174
72. Describe the global-local category of social conflict and provide an example from the text.
Answers will vary. pp. 173-175
73. Using examples from the text, discuss the possibility that the democratization process could be impaired by
local political traditions based on kinship and patronage.
Answers will vary. pp. 160-164, elsewhere

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Chapter 9 Communication
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. One thing that all languages have is
A the same sounds.
B similar words for key concepts.
C the same focal vocabularies.
D a shared origin in Central Asia.
E grammar/syntax.
Answer: E p. 183
2. Among the Apache, in situations of ambiguous relationships between people
A silence is maintained.
B certain standard conversations are carried out for five to ten minutes.
C it is appropriate to "break the ice" with the offer of a drink of some sort.
D a handshake is followed by rapid chatter.
E avoidance is maintained until someone else can provide a formal introduction.
Answer: A p. 187
3. In Japan, the length of the kimono sleeve indicates
A age.
B gender.
C formality.
D marital status.
E all of the above.
Answer: E p. 188
4. Human language has an infinite capacity for generating very efficient messages, a feature called
A displacement.
B mode of communication.
C condensation.
D abundance.
E productivity.
Answer: E p. 182
5. Language refers to
A speech.
B words.
C communication based on arbitrary symbols.
D written forms of communication.
E all of the above.
Answer: E p. 182
6. Tok Pisin is one of the official national languages of
A the Philippines.
B India.
C Papua New Guinea.
D Sudan.
E none of the above: Tok Pisin is a local dialect, not a national language.
Answer: C p. 196
7.
A
B
C

A key marker of gender coding in spoken English in the U.S. is


women's tendency to lower their intonation at the end of a sentence.
women's greater use of paralanguage compared to men.
women's greater use of tag questions.

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D women's more frequent use of eye contact.


E men's tendency to speak more formally and politely.
Answer: C p. 190
8. The word khipu refers to a
A trade language that emerged in Papua New Guinea.
B method of recording the seasons so that rituals could be performed regularly.
C a female form of writing in Japanese literature.
D method of record keeping without the use of writing.
E the pattern of turn-taking in conversations between mothers and children in Samoa.
Answer: D p. 194
9. The claim that a person's language determines the person's thought is called
A mental determinism.
B sociolinguistics.
C psychological anthropology.
D cultural materialism.
E Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
Answer: E p. 190
10.
A
B
C
D

A reason for the emergence of linguistic anthropology in the United States is the
interest in recording disappearing languages.
fact that so many different languages are spoken in the U.S.
ever-increasing need to find jobs for anthropologists.
inspiration from primate studies that revealed how chimpanzees could learn certain aspects of human
language.
E none of the above: this subfield began in Europe just like all the others.
Answer: A p. 197
11. The point at which a language no longer has competent users is referred to as
A linguistic relativism.
B displacement.
C language decay.
D language extinction.
E linguistic determinism.
Answer: D p. 197
12. Among the Western Apache, silence is
A used in situations of ambiguous social relationships.
B expected when someone is giving and receiving a gift.
C more frequently used by women than by men.
D more frequently used by children than by adults.
E frequently used in communication with White people.
Answer: A p. 187
13. The system of human communication based on a systematic set of symbols and signs with learned and shared
meanings is called
A turn-taking.
B productivity.
C displacement.
D grammar.
E language.
Answer: E p. 182
14. The feature of human language that allows people to talk about the past and the future is referred to as
A productivity.

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B non-verbal communication.
C sign language.
D grammar.
E displacement.
Answer: E p. 182
15. A first-generation "contact" language is called a
A paralanguage.
B dialect.
C pidgin.
D displaced language.
E creole.
Answer: C p. 195
16. Within a particular language, an especially rich cluster of related words is referred to as a
A creole.
B dialect.
C focal vocabulary.
D grammar.
E pidgin.
Answer: C p. 184
17. Many of the terms the Saami use to describe snow are related to
A conditions for reindeer herding.
B visibility conditions.
C skiing conditions.
D all of the above.
E none of the above.
Answer: A p. 185
18. Language endangerment is judged to exist when a language has fewer than
A 50,000 speakers.
B 10,000 speakers.
C 100,000 speakers.
D 25,000 speakers.
E 15,000 speakers.
Answer: B p. 197
19. The culture which appears to have the simplest form of grammar is the
A Yanomami.
B Nacirema.
C Pirah.
D Bosnians.
E Han Chinese.
Answer: C pp. 182-183
20. Sounds that make a critical difference in a language are referred to as
A structures.
B phonemes.
C grammar/syntax.
D focal sounds.
E essential elements.
Answer: B p. 183
21. Vocal communication among nonhuman primates is referred to as
A call system.

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B nonverbal communication.
C sign language.
D phonetic.
E prosody.
Answer: A p. 182
22. The adult male bonobo who is skilled at symbolic communication with human researchers is
A Bonzo.
B Lucy.
C Hobbit.
D Kanzi.
E none of the above: no bonobo has achieved skills in symbolic communication.
Answer: D p. 182
23. Culturally patterned verbal language is referred to as
A communication.
B intonation.
C discourse.
D indirect response.
E linguistic determinism.
Answer: C p. 190
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
24. Linguistic anthropologists do not study deaf communities, because people who are deaf have no real language.
Answer: FALSE p. 186
25. Language decay occurs when speakers abandon their language in favor of another language.
Answer: FALSE p. 197
26. Language may be signed, spoken, or written.
Answer: TRUE p. 182
27. Research suggests that the reports of war correspondents in El Salvador were influenced by the agencies
wrote for.
Answer: TRUE p. 189
28. Advertisers target Latino markets by using the trope of individualism.
Answer: FALSE p. 189
29. Historical linguistics originated in the 18th century after Sir William Jones discovered similarities in the
vocabulary and syntax of Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin.
Answer: TRUE p. 193
30. Productivity is the ability to create an infinite range of understandable expressions from a finite set of rules.
Answer: TRUE p. 182
31. The Japanese terms for box lunch, "bentoo" and "obentoo," reflect gender code differences.
Answer: TRUE p. 191
32. Spanish is an example of a global language.
Answer: TRUE p. 196
33. As yet, anthropologists have avoided studying aspects of the mass media.
Answer: FALSE p. 188

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they

34. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is an example of a cultural materialist theory.


Answer: FALSE p. 190
35. In spoken English, a tag question is more often used by men than women.
Answer: FALSE p. 190
36. The language of the Proto-Indo-Europeans is probably the earliest form of all large language families including
Sanskrit and English.
Answer: TRUE p. 194
37. Displacement is a key feature of nonhuman primate communication.
Answer: FALSE p. 182
38. In Hindi, aspiration is an important phonetic feature.
Answer: TRUE p. 183
39. When making a retroflex sound, the tongue is placed against the roof of the mouth.
Answer: TRUE p. 183
40. In South Africa, women use more hand gestures to communicate than men do.
Answer: FALSE p. 186
41. When Muslim women in Kuwait wear a headscarf, the meaning it conveys is that the woman is an immigrant
from a poor, Arab culture.
Answer: FALSE p. 188
42. In 1996 the Oakland, California school board recognized AAE as a primary language.
Answer: TRUE p. 192
43. In English, Textese involves making words shorter and using several stock phrases that are widely recognized.
Answer: TRUE p. 197
IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or
answers the question.
44. Languages that are spoken in diverse cultural contexts, worldwide, are called __________.
Answer: global languages/world languages p. 196
45. Sounds that make a meaningful difference in a language are called __________.
Answer: phonemes p. 183
46. The ability of human language to generate efficient, meaning rich utterances is referred to as __________.
Answer: productivity p. 182
47. The similarities in the word for "father" in many European and South Asian languages suggest the existence of
an early parent language called __________.
Answer: Proto Indo-European pp. 193-194
48. One region of the world where creole languages are common is __________.
Answer: West Africa/Caribbean/South Pacific p. 196
49. The study of the meaning of words, phrases, and sentences in particular cultural contexts is called
Answer: ethnosemantics p. 184

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50. Among the Apache, __________ is an important form of communication in situations of social ambiguity.
Answer: silence p. 187
51. According to the textbook, Muslim women in Egypt and Kuwait signal aspects of their religious identity
through __________.
Answer: veiling/wearing a headscarf
pp. 187-188
52. Two key features of human communication are __________ and __________.
Answers: productivity and displacementp. 182
53. The Pirah people live in __________.
Answer: Brazil pp. 182-183
54. A key value among the Pirah people is to __________.
Answer: remain living as they are p. 183
55. One kind of snow that the Saami distinguish, roughly translated into English, is __________.
Answer: firm snow/thickly packed snow/hard-packed snow/dry snow/hard layer snow/ice sheet/frozen snow
between other layers p. 185
56. Kogals are __________.
Answer: young women in urban Japan with a distinct microculture and microlanguage

p. 191

57. Two examples of loan words in English are __________ and __________.
Answer: p. 196
ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50100 words] for each of the questions below.
Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your
points as necessary.
58. What is language and what is communication? How does nonhuman primate communication differ from
of humans?
Answers will vary. pp. 182-183
59. Define critical discourse analysis and give an example.
Answers will vary. pp. 190-192
60. What is the difference between a pidgin and a creole?
Answers will vary. pp. 195-196
61. What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?
Answers will vary. p. 190
62. Define a tag question and give an example of one.
Answers will vary. p. 190
63. What is an example of communication through dress?
Answers will vary. pp. 187-188, elsewhere
64. What is the difference between language decay and language extinction?
Answers will vary. p. 197
65. What is sociolinguistics?
Answers will vary. p. 190

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that

66. What does critical media anthropology encompass? Give two examples of critical media anthropology studies
and the conclusions drawn from these studies.
Answers will vary. pp. 188-189
67. How does the use of language (verbal or non-verbal) relate to a person's or group's sense of and expression of
identity? Provide three examples from the textbook.
Answers will vary. pp. 190-192, elsewhere
68. Microcultures based on race, class, gender and age often have distinct communication styles. Choose two
these dimensions and provide examples for each; specify the microcultures you choose to discuss.
Answers will vary. pp. throughout the chapter

of

69. What are three major topics that linguistic anthropologists have studied? What is an example of an
important finding in each area?
Answers will vary. pp. throughout the chapter
70. Issues of power and politics (interpersonal as well as public) intersect with language/communication. Discuss
three examples of such an intersection, using material in the textbook or from class.
Answers will vary. pp. throughout the chapter
71. Explain how supporters of language preservation disagree with those who take a Darwinian view of
linguistic heritage.
Answers will vary. p. 199
72. What is the background of the Saami people and key features of their culture? What challenges are they
facing today, especially in terms of their cultural heritage and language?
Answers will vary. p. 198
73. Define global language and discuss which languages currently qualify for this categorization. How does
category relate to global political/economic realities? What other languages are likely to become global
languages in the near future?
Answers will vary. pp. 196-197

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this

Chapter 10 Religion
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. A cultural materialist interpretation of Klamath and Modoc Indian myths supports the idea that they
A help people deal with philosophical issues, like life and death.
B store and transmit information for managing economic crises.
C express core beliefs.
D teach morality.
E none of the above: cultural materialists do not study myths.
Answer: B pp. 206-207
2. The comparative analysis of Islam's Feast of the Sacrifice in Morocco and Sumatra shows that
A the Moroccan ritual receives far more public fanfare.
B Islamic ritual practices vary cross-culturally.
C there is less specificity about which animals are to be sacrificed in Sumatra.
D Islam is more patriarchal as practiced in Morocco.
E all of the above.
Answer: E pp. 220, 222
3. The current anthropological definition of religion says that it is
A the way that people view the world and their place in it.
B organized beliefs about God.
C beliefs and behavior concerning supernatural beings and powers.
D a set of ethics (guidelines about proper group behavior).
E a set of ideas that involve both magic plus science.
Answer: C p. 204
4. If someone were to collect bits of your hair and nail clippings to use in a magical ritual, this person is practicing
A contagious magic.
B a rite of passage.
C imitative magic.
D polytheism.
E divination.
Answer: A p. 204
5. As opposed to a shaman or shamanka, a priest or priestess tends to
A be more formally trained.
B live in state-level societies.
C have their success judged in terms of their ritual knowledge.
D occupy a hereditary position.
E all of the above.
Answer: E pp. 212-213
6. The sense of collective unity that develops out of individual diversity is called
A communitas.
B syncretism.
C relativism.
D reversal.
E rite of passage.
Answer: A p. 218
7.
A
B
C

Magic
depends on the proper conduct of rituals to please the gods.
is no longer practiced in any society.
is more associated with horticultural societies than agricultural societies.

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D is more associated with male gender roles in religion than female gender roles.
E is most likely to be practiced in situations of uncertainty.
Answer: E p. 205
8. Expressing religious beliefs through explicit and direct statements is termed
A art.
B religious pluralism.
C myths.
D song.
E doctrine.
Answer: E p. 205
9. The major items that the Hui Muslims of Xi'an, China, believe to be impure are
A pork and beef.
B pork, beef, and alcohol.
C pork and mutton.
D pork and alcohol.
E beef and alcohol.
Answer: D p. 221
10. A general feature of African religions is that
A rituals involve animal sacrifices and other offerings.
B they often include elements of Christianity and Islam.
C they include myths about a rupture that once occurred between the creator deity and humans.
D the are linked to healing.
E they involve elaborate initiation rituals.
Answer: E p. 223
11. A religion with many zoomorphic supernaturals is
A Islam.
B Hinduism.
C Christianity.
D Judaism.
E none of the above: all world religions have only anthropomorphic supernaturals.
Answer: B p. 208
12. An example of a life-cycle ritual is
A Thanksgiving in the U.S.
B the annual fall harvest.
C a rain dance during a severe drought.
D a coming-of-age ceremony for young men or women.
E Carnival.
Answer: D p. 209
13. A religion that traces its origin to an important male figure is
A Buddhism.
B Rastafarianism.
C Christianity.
D Islam.
E all of the above.
Answer: E pp. 215, 219, 220, 223
14.
A
B
C

The cultural materialist interpretation of Aztec human sacrifice and cannibalism emphasizes
that only a few sacrificial victims were actually eaten.
the major function of the system was population control.
strengthening the role of the elite by demonstrating their power and providing food to the people.

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D emic views of the symbolic meaning of the practices.


E that it functioned to create a sense of communitas and shared belonging.
Answer: C p. 212
15. The indirect expression of religious beliefs through stories about supernatural beings and forces is referred to
as
A seasonal ritual.
B animatism.
C myth.
D ritual of inversion.
E magic.
Answer: C p. 205
16. The three universal phases of life-cycle rituals, according to Victor Turner, are
A separation, transition, and reintegration.
B separation, ritual death, and reincarnation.
C separation, pain, and pleasure.
D separation, sacrifice, and recovery.
E none of the above: the phases of such rituals vary greatly depending on cultural context.
Answer: A p. 209
17. Carnival is an example of a
A life-cycle ritual.
B secular ritual.
C ritual for improving crop yields.
D universal ritual.
E ritual of inversion.
Answer: E p. 211
18. The region in which cargo cults emerged is
A southern Africa.
B China.
C the Mediterranean.
D the Northwest Coast region of Canada and the United States.
E Melanesia.
Answer: E p. 224
19. Among the Hopi, the link between living humans and the spiritual world is through the ritual sacrifice of
A sheep.
B dogs
C foxes.
D kachinas.
E golden eagles.
Answer: E p. 206
20. About __________ people live on the Hopi reservation.
A 500
B 7,000
C 25,000
D 50,000
E 1 million
Answer: B p. 207
21. Where is Hindmarsh Island?
A southeastern Australia
B northeastern United States

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C Wales
D western Canada
E Indonesia
Answer: A p. 210
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
22. Sacrifice is probably the oldest form of ritual.
Answer: TRUE p. 212
23. The two world religions that emphasize proselytizing are Christianity and Judaism.
Answer: FALSE p. 214
24. Anthropologists agree that magic was an early form of religion that has disappeared in modern times.
Answer: FALSE pp. 204-205
25. Religious syncretism refers to the merging of a religious belief or practice from one religion with another.
Answer: TRUE p. 214
26. The Muslim ritual of khatam quran creates a permanent sacred space.
Answer: FALSE p. 208
27. Compared to a myth, a religious doctrine is more likely to be unwritten.
Answer: FALSE p. 207
28. The city of Xi'an is located on the eastern coast of China.
Answer: FALSE p. 221
29. Tourism is an important aspect of the economy of the Hui Muslims of Xi'an, China.
Answer: TRUE p. 221
30. Fertility rituals among the Nayar of Kerala, India, reflect the importance of a woman's husband's family.
Answer: FALSE p. 215
31. Mardi Gras is best thought of as a ritual of sacrifice.
Answer: FALSE p. 211
32. A people's worldview always includes a religious element.
Answer: FALSE p. 204
33. Christian missionaries have historically found their encounters with indigenous religions to be peaceful,
converts willing and accepting.
Answer: FALSE p. 214, elsewhere
34. Tylor's definition of religion was based on people's belief in spirits.
Answer: TRUE p. 204
35. Magic is most likely to be practiced by people in situations of greatest uncertainty.
Answer: TRUE p. 205
36. Recent statistics indicate that about one-third of the world's population is Christian.
Answer: TRUE p. 219
37. The Klamath and Modoc Indians live in Canada.
Answer: FALSE p. 206

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and

38. In Isak, Sumatra, both Muslim men and women participate in sacrificing an animal, which may include
water buffalo.
Answer: TRUE p. 222
39. A structurist interpretation of handling poisonous snakes in religious ceremonies in "Holiness-type"
in the United States explains this phenomenon as related to economic insecurity.
Answer: TRUE pp. 219-220

churches

40. According to Claude Lvi-Strauss, myths help people think about contradictions in life.
Answer: TRUE p. 206
41. All religions that cultural anthropologists have studied have anthropomorphic deities.
Answer: FALSE p. 208
42. In spite of Ngarrindjeri womens efforts to protect their land from economic development by outsiders,
lost the case and a bridge was built connecting their island to the mainland.
Answer: TRUE p. 210

they

IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or
answers the question.
43. Beliefs expressed in narrative form are called __________.
Answer: myths p. 205
44. The Hopi Reservation is surrounded by the much larger __________ reservation.
Answer: Navajo p. 207
45. A religious specialist chosen primarily because of his or her ability to go into trance and communicate with the
supernaturals is called a __________.
Answer: shaman/shamanka
p. 212
46. An example of a life-cycle ritual is __________.
Answer: baptism/circumcision/marriage/etc. pp. 209, 211
47. __________ is the term for the blending of features of more than one religion.
Answer: Syncretism/Religious syncretism p. 214
48. The Hindu term for fate or destiny is __________.
Answer: karma p. 215
49. An important aspect of Aztec public religious ritual was __________.
Answer: human sacrifice p. 212
50. The youngest of the "world religions" is __________.
Answer: Islam p. 220
51. Two of the Five Pillars of Islam are __________ and __________.
profession of faith in Allah/ daily prayer/ fasting/ contributing alms to the poor/ pilgrimage to Mecca.
Answers will vary. p. 222
52. The image of the Virgin of Guadalupe combines symbols from __________ and __________ religions. .
Answer: Christian or Catholic and Aztec/Mexican. p. 213
53. In the Wicca or Neo-Pagan religion, a key symbol is the __________.

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Answer: pentacle/five-pointed star p. 205


54. When people take on roles that are opposite to their normal roles during a ritual, they are participating in a kind
of ritual termed a __________.
Answer: ritual of inversion
p. 211
55. Sites in the Old City of Jerusalem are sacred to which three religions?
Answer: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. pp. 211, 225
56.

An example of a revitalization movement among Indians of the U.S discussed in the textbook is
__________.
Answer: Ghost Dance Movement p. 224
57. Rastafarianism is best described as a __________ religion.
Answer: protest p. 223
ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50100 words] for each of the questions below.
Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your
points as necessary.
58. Identify an example of religious change that cultural anthropologists have studied.
Answers will vary. pp. 224-225
59. Provide an example of a contested sacred site and identify the parties involved in the conflict.
Answers will vary. p. 225
60. What is a cargo cult, where did they emerge and why?
Answers will vary. p. 224
61. What inspired the Ghost Dance Movement and what were its characteristics?
Answers will vary. p. 224
62. Define religious syncretism and religious pluralism and give an example of each.
Answers will vary. p. 214, elsewhere
63. What is an example of how a "world religion" is transformed when transferred to a new context?
Answers will vary. pp. 215-224
64. Name the qualifications and characteristics of the priest/priestess role.
Answers will vary. pp. 212-213
65. Describe a ritual of inversion and give an example.
Answers will vary. pp. 211-212
66. Define a ritual and then discuss the four main categories of ritual described in the textbook. Provide an example
of each type of ritual.
Answers will vary. pp. 209-212
67. Describe key features of three world religions in terms of beliefs, rituals, and one example of adaptation to a
new local context.
Answers will vary. pp. 213-224, elsewhere
68. What are some of the major issues facing the Hui Muslins of Xi'an, China today?
Answers will vary. p. 221

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69. Discuss the context of and Hopi perspective on ritual sacrifice and how their cultural heritage conflicts with
mainstream U.S. interests in protecting endangered species.
Answers will vary. pp. 206-207
70. Why did a group of Ngarrindjeri women seek protection for an area on Hindmarsh Island and how did the
situation get resolved?
Answers will vary. p. 210

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Chapter 11 Expressive Culture


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. John Chernoff's research on drumming in Ghana revealed
A fieldwork is more than gathering data.
B how the role of the ethnographer affects the research.
C how creativity is related to society.
D how Ghanaian family life is connected to music.
E all of the above.
Answer: E pp. 232-233
2. An example of a form of theater is
A maskit.
B kathakali.
C heterotopia.
D tatami.
E all of the above.
Answer: B p. 236
3.
A
B
C

A study of Japanese interior decoration


used home decorating magazines as a major source of data.
found no class differences in patterns of adoption of Western styles.
demonstrated that nearly 100 percent of the population now has nuclear households and are designing their
homes with no regard for parents-in-laws.
D discovered that "traditional" values are being maintained within the home with little Western influence
apparent.
E found very few differences between middle class American preferences and styles and those in Japan.
Answer: A p. 236
4.
A
B
C
D
E

Men's wrestling in India


allows a freer, more indulgent lifestyle for the wrestlers than what is typical.
has experienced revitalization due to the interest in it by international tourists.
requires a high level of spirituality and self-control.
is a dying tradition.
none of the above: men's wrestling does not exist in India because of people's unwillingness to touch
strangers.
Answer: C pp. 239-240
5. The anthropology of tourism has focused mainly on
A how tourism has affected the health of both tourists and people in the destination areas.
B the impact of Western tourism on indigenous peoples.
C the role of international tourism in the world economy.
D resistance movements of indigenous peoples against mass tourism on their land.
E the impact of tourists on the quality of the environment in the United States and Canada.
Answer: B p. 241
6. Cultural anthropologists who study art focus on
A ethno-esthetics.
B the meaning of art to the people of the culture.
C the artist.
D the process of making art.
E all of the above.
Answer: E p. 232

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7. A prominent interpretation offered by cultural anthropologists about games and sports sees them as
A best analyzed from a biological perspective.
B the clearest examples of human agency.
C "survivals" from the hominin heritage of humans.
D more important in non-state societies than in state-level societies.
E "microcosms" of society.
Answer: E p. 239
8. Esthetics
A may vary among different individuals within a culture.
B are a set of standards defining what is art.
C differ widely cross-culturally in what they include.
D exist in all cultures.
E all of the above.
Answer: E pp. 230-231
9. In Michael Cernea's strategy for Cultural Heritage Preservation, written for the World Bank, he urges
A a passive approach of non-interference.
B generating capital from tourism to cultural heritage sites.
C a "do no harm" approach.
D cataloging and storing artifacts so that they will not be damaged in their natural environments.
E that material cultural heritage not be used for financial gain.
Answer: C p. 246
10. After the British introduction of cricket to Trobriand Islands, local changes to the game involved
A insertion of Christian prayers during the game due to the missionaries' influence.
B making sure there were equal numbers of male and female players.
C abandoning the white clothing of the British game.
D playing Western rock music between batting rounds.
E making it even more "British" by serving British-style "tea" following the game.
Answer: C pp. 243-244
11. An important aspect of the "Hawai'ian Renaissance" is the
A increased interest in the hula in Hawai'i.
B increased commercial development in the islands.
C increased popularity of the hula in the mainland U.S.
D more people in the mainland U.S. wanting to learn to play the ukulele.
E increased interest in tourists from the mainland U.S. going to Hawaii.
Answer: A pp. 246-247
12. The cross-cultural study of music is referred to as
A ethnoesthetics.
B epidemiology.
C ethnography.
D ethnomusicology.
E emics.
Answer: D p. 234
13. The current style in which cricket is played in the Trobriands is the result of
A syncretism.
B local adaptation and change.
C colonialism.
D all of the above.
E none of the above.
Answer: D pp. 243-244

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14. A garden that includes specimens from many cultures is called


A a botanical museum.
B globalized.
C microcultural.
D multicultural.
E heterotopic.
Answer: E p. 238
15. Gers, or yerts, are associated with which mode of livelihood?
A industrialism/informatics
B horticulture
C pastoralism
D agriculture
E foraging
Answer: C p. 236
16. Among the Temiar of Malaysia, economic and musical roles are
A dominated by older women.
B dominated by older men.
C completely unrelated to each other.
D dominated by young men.
E balanced and complementary between men and women.
Answer: E p. 234
17. The most serious internal security issue of Turkey is the __________.
A predominance of the Muslim religion
B widespread acceptance of Western cultural elements
C Kurdish quest for greater cultural autonomy and rights
D decentralized political system established after the break-up of the Ottoman Empire
E lack of an official state religion
Answer: C p. 244
18. The rising popularity of __________ is evidence of Turkeys growing cosmopolitanism.
A soccer
B politics
C McDonalds
D belly dancing
E water puppetry
Answer: D p. 245
19. Country music in Brazil
A draws heavily on U.S. country music.
B is usually performed by a pair of men who are brothers or resemble each other.
C emphasizes themes about the past.
D critiques American-driven globalization.
E all of the above.
Answer: E p. 235
20.
Another name for intangible cultural heritage is
A
living heritage.
B
material culture.
C
putting people first.
D
ethno-esthetics.
E
arts and crafts.
Answer: A p. 245

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21. The concept of the garden as enclosed within four walls is most associated with which religion?
A Christianity
B Hinduism
C Buddhism
D Islam
E none of the above: none of the major religions offers insights about gardens
Answer: D p. 238
22.

A comparison of how baseball is played in the United States and Japan revealed the importance of
__________ in Japan:
A a higher level of competitiveness between teams
B a high level of competitiveness between players
C ikat
D wa
E waanyi
Answer: D p. 239
23. The origin of the cultural heritage of the Gullah people of South Carolina is in
A West and Central Africa.
B South Africa.
C North Africa.
D East Africa.
E the Caribbean.
Answer: A p. 242
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
24. International tourism has had little effect on indigenous arts around the world.
Answer: FALSE pp. 240-241
25. Compared to art historians, anthropologists who study art are more likely to focus on ethno-esthetics.
Answer: TRUE p. 231
26. The definition of art used by anthropologists is broader than that used by art historians.
Answer: TRUE p. 230
27. Games can both reflect and reinforce cultural values.
Answer: TRUE p. 239
28. Foragers dwellings are an image of the family and not of the wider society.
Answer: TRUE p. 236
29. A common effect of tourism is the eradication of so-called "primitive" traditions.
Answer: FALSE p. 241
30. Analysis reveals that Indian wrestlers are a lot like Hindu holy men in their discipline and diets.
Answer: TRUE pp. 239-240
31. Going to a Turkish-style bath may involve both pleasure and pain.
Answer: TRUE p. 240
32. Ruins of an ancient city are an example of material cultural heritage.
Answer: TRUE p. 245

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33. Sports, cross-culturally, are universally associated with religion.


Answer: FALSE p. 238
34. Art may serve as a form of social control as well as a form of social protest.
Answer: TRUE p. 234
35. According to the constitution, the official state religion of Turkey is Islam.
Answer: FALSE p. 244
36. Making and selling sweetgrass baskets is an important part of the Gullah economy.
Answer: TRUE p. 242
37. Charleston, South Carolina, was the center of the largest trans-Atlantic slave market in the British Empire
during the early eighteenth century.
Answer: TRUE p. 242
38. Gullah men are largely responsible for "sewing" sweetgrass baskets.
Answer: FALSE p. 242
39.
Classical dancing in Thailand is on UNESCO's list of material heritage.
Answer: FALSE p. 245
40. In Turkey, belly dancing is influence by Roma dancing traditions.
Answer: TRUE p. 244
41. During the 2010 World Cup in South Africa, the vuvuzela caused much debate due to its noisiness.
Answer: TRUE p. 239
42. The Waanyi Womens History Project sought to preserve indigenous Australian womens culture in order
display it to tourists.
Answer: FALSE p. 247

to

IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or
answers the question.
43. The concept of __________ culture encompasses art, leisure, and play.
Answer: expressive p. 230
44. One feature that the Trobrianders have introduced into the British game of cricket is __________.
Answer: use of magic/spells for winning/ritual treatment of ball, bat/songs/dances/costumes/host team always
wins/feastingpp. 327, 329
45. A difference between play and leisure is that leisure is more likely to __________.
Answer: have no rules/lacks tension/lacks change
pp. 243-244
46. The importance of the Japanese concept of "wa" affects how the American game of __________ is played in
Japan.
Answer: baseball
p. 239
47. Two examples of performance art found in many cultures are __________ and __________.
Answer: theater/dance/music p. 234
48. Bullfighting is an example of what is called a __________.
Answer: blood sport p. 240

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49. The "dive bomb" is related to a variety of performance called __________.


Answer: male stripping p. 234
50.
The cross-cultural study of music is known as __________.
Answer: ethnomusicology
p. 234
51. A feature of the architecture of settled agricultural peoples is __________.
Answer: class differences in home decorations/class differences in housing quality/centralized town planning/gridstyle streets/monuments/temples/etc. p. 236
52. Study has shown that there is a relative absence of flowers in the art of __________.
Answer: Africa p. 321
53.

An example of "putting people first" in cultural heritage preservation discussed in the textbook is
__________.
Answer: Waanyi Park/Waanyi Women's History Project p. 247
54.
Vietnamese water puppetry survives mainly because of its attraction to __________.
Answer: international tourists/tourists p. 245
55. Domestic architecture in pastoralist groups emphasizes __________.
Answer: transportability/portability/movability p. 236
56. One feature of traditional Japanese domestic interior design is __________.
Answer: tatami/ mats/shoji/sliding doors/fusuma/sliding wall panels
pp. 236-237
ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50100 words] for each of the questions below.
Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your
points as necessary.
57.

Provide two examples from the textbook of how Western influence has transformed art/expressive culture
in a non-Western context.
Answers will vary. pp. 243-247, elsewhere
58. Define heterotopia and give an example of it in terms of art/expressive culture.
Answers will vary. p. 238
59. What does blood sport refer to and what is one example of it?
Answers will vary. p. 240
60. How does housing differ between mobile groups and settled peoples?
Answers will vary. p. 236
61. What is ethnomusicology and describe an example of it.
Answers will vary. pp. 234-235
62.

Explain the concept of ethno-esthetics and discuss key principles of ethno-esthetics in West African wood
carving.
Answers will vary. pp. 230-231
63. Name a game that anthropologists have studied and discuss one of the findings.
Answers will vary. pp. 239-240, elsewhere
64. Discuss a finding from the anthropological study of tourism?
Answers will vary. pp. 240-245

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65. How and why do anthropologists study the artist? What are some findings about artists that anthropological
research has provided?
Answers will vary. pp. 233-234
66. What are important questions in research related to gender and expressive culture? Discuss one example of
anthropological research on gender in art/expressive culture/performance.
Answers will vary. p. 234, elsewhere
67. What are two major factors that create change in art/expressive culture? Illustrate each of these with an indepth example. What are the similarities or differences in the change(s) involved and what accounts for
them?
Answers will vary. pp. 243-247, elsewhere
68. Discuss three examples of change in expressive culture that anthropologists have documented. What are
features of change and were these changes related to globalization?
Answers will vary. pp. 243-247, elsewhere
69. Describe the historical context of the Gullah people, key elements of their culture and current situation, and
the challenges they face.
Answers will vary. p. 242
70. Discuss two examples of how architecture or interior design are related to power relations, either in the
public or private domain.
Answers will vary. pp. 319-323

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key

Chapter 12 People on the Move


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. When immigrants, such as the Dominicans in New York City, help bring in and settle relatives and friends, this
process is called
A localization.
B asylum.
C circular migration.
D right of return.
E chain migration.
Answer: E p. 260
2. Anthropological research shows that refugees have an easier time adapting to their new location when
A the "pioneer refugee" is the male head of household.
B they are relocated to a rural area.
C the culture of their destination area resembles the one they left.
D they are relocated to a warm climate.
E they have been able to spend a long period in relocation camps as a "transition" period.
Answer: C p. 257
3. One disagreement about the issue of Palestinian refugees is
A whether or not they should have the "right of return."
B how many refugees there actually are.
C whether they should have citizenship rights in the countries in which they now reside.
D all of the above.
E none of the above.
Answer: D p. 267
4. The continent with the most internally displaced persons is
A North America.
B Europe.
C Asia.
D Africa.
E none of the above.
Answer: D p. 256
5. Cultural anthropologists study how migration is related to
A economic systems.
B reproduction.
C religion.
D politics.
E all of the above.
Answer: E p. 252
6.

A major argument in anthropology and human rights policy about laborers who migrate to the Dominican
Republic to cut cane concerns
A the extensive use of child labor.
B the degree of free will in the participation in cane-cutting in the DR.
C the comparison between the situation in the D.R. and the situation of migratory workers from Mexico to the
U.S.
D whether or not social security should be paid to retired cane-cutters.
E the discrimination against women in wages.
Answer: B p. 254
7.

One key characteristic of the "new immigration" is

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A localization.
B feminization.
C declining numbers.
D specialization.
E juvenilization.
Answer: B p. 259
8. Remittances are most closely associated with
A internally displaced persons.
B military personnel.
C institutional migrants.
D labor migrants.
E refugees.
Answer: D p. 255
9. The study of Salvadoran immigrants on Long Island demonstrates that
A such refugees tend to stay on welfare for many years.
B kinship ties play little role in adaptation.
C many new immigrant people take on low-wage work that other Americans are unwilling to do.
D like many East Asian immigrants, these people are "an economic success story."
E employment in the informal sector is more lucrative than employment in the formal sector.
Answer: C p. 262
10. According to the "lifeboat mentality,"
A people in a group should all have equal entitlements to resources available.
B already established immigrants should take responsibility for helping more recent and needy immigrant
groups of the same race or ethnicity.
C the number of people in a group should not be increased because it will reduce resources available to those
already in the group.
D life is a hopeless struggle and we are all sinking.
E the government should provide welfare benefits for the unemployed and poor.
Answer: C p. 265
11. Push-pull theory, in terms of migration, refers to
A motivations for migrating from rural to urban areas.
B why illegal immigration occurs.
C the circular migration of workers between two places.
D the effect of war on refugee displacement.
E the pervasive feeling of migrants not feeling "at home."
Answer: A p. 253
12. In a case described in the textbook, anthropologists combined ethnographic data with data on the environment
to provide risk assessments and improve service delivery to
A horticulturalists.
B refugees.
C pastoralists.
D foragers.
E internally displaced peoples.
Answer: C p. 266
13.
A
B
C
D
E

Asian women are the fastest growing category of


institutional migrants.
women refugees.
political refugees.
illegal immigrants.
labor migrants.

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Answer: E

p. 254

14. Transnational migrants are a form of


A chain migrants.
B refugees.
C illegal migrants.
D circular migrants.
E institutional migrants.
Answer: D pp. 253, 255
15.
A major cause of population displacement is
A
slavery.
B
colonialism.
C
natural disasters.
D
dam building.
E
all of the above.
Answer: E p. 255
16. Salvadoran migrants to the United States are mainly in the category of
A unemployed.
B illegal aliens.
C working poor.
D middle class.
E senior citizens.
Answer: C p. 262
17.
A
B
C
D

Among the new immigrant groups in the United States,


immigrants from Southeast Asia (especially Vietnam) are one of the better-off immigrant groups.
the largest number are from the Middle East.
the largest number come from Mexico.
none are from the former Soviet Union, since the U.S. has consistently denied entry to refugees from that
country.
E Vietnamese constitute the largest number of immigrants.
Answer: C p. 260
18. __________ is the country that receives the largest total amount of remittances.
A India
B Russia
C Mexico
D Brazil
E Portugal
Answer: A p. 254
19. A refugee's entitlement to return and live in his or her homeland
A is referred to as the right of return.
B has been considered a basic human right in the West since the signing of the Magna Carta.
C is included in a UN resolution passed in 1948.
D is a pressing issue for many refugees worldwide including Palestinian refugees following the 1948 war.
E all of the above.
Answer: E p. 267
20.
A,
B
C
D

Most Maya people live in


Mexico and Guatemala.
Guatemala and El Salvador.
Guatemala.
Honduras and El Salvador.

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E Guatemala and the United States.


Answer: A p. 258
21. In Beatriz Manz' case study of a Maya group who relocated to the jungle to start a new life, the major threat
they experienced in the new location was from
A tropical diseases.
B lack of clean water.
C lack of electricity and communications.
D lack of schools and teachers.
E political violence.
Answer: E p. 258
22. An example of an institutional migrant is a
A boarding school student.
B soldier.
C resident in a home for the aged.
D all of the above.
E none of the above: anthropology does not recognize such a category of migrants as valid.
Answer: D pp. 257, 259
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
23. Cultural anthropologists who study migration tend to do multi-sited research.
Answer: TRUE p. 252
24. Three categories of population movement are internal, international, and transnational migration.
Answer: TRUE p. 252
25. Soldiers generally receive adequate cultural training before they arrive at a new location that provides them
with an in-depth understanding of the context in which they will be operating.
Answer: FALSE p. 259
26. A major aspect of the new immigration is the increase in female migrants.
Answer: TRUE p. 259
27. The Kingdom of Tonga consists of five large islands.
Answer: FALSE p. 256
28. Among labor migrant workers, Asian men are the fastest growing category.
Answer: FALSE p. 254
29. The more different a refugee's place of origin and destination, the easier will be his or her process of
adjustment to the new location.
Answer: FALSE p. 257
30. Refugees are people who are forced to relocate.
Answer: TRUE p. 255
31. The United Nations has declared the "Right of Return" to be an inalienable human right.
Answer: TRUE p. 267
32. In Lebanon, Palestinian refugees are able to become citizens, work, and own land.
Answer: FALSE p. 267
33. The United Nations has authority over the issues surrounding internally displaced persons.

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Answer: FALSE p. 256


34. Internally displaced persons are often forced to leave their communities because of development projects.
Answer: TRUE p. 256
35. The majority of refugees from Vietnam went to Canada.
Answer: FALSE p. 263
36. A major challenge facing Soviet Jewish immigrants to the United States is finding employment
commensurate with their training and experience.
Answer: TRUE p. 264
37. The term "lifeboat mentality" refers to an ethic of sharing with others during a time of emergency or
Answer: FALSE p. 265

scarcity.

38. El Salvador's population is predominantly indigenous.


Answer: FALSE p. 261
39. About one in every 10,000 people today is a refugee.
Answer: FALSE p. 255
40. Haitian braceros mainly go to Florida for wage work.
Answer: FALSE p. 254
41. Hindu temples in North America have had the most success when they adhere to the ritual practices of specific
regions of India.
Answer: FALSE p. 264
IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or
answers the question.
42. The movement of a person or a group from one place to another is termed __________.
Answer: migration p. 252
43.

The theory that says people often move from economically depressed rural areas to urban areas is called
__________.
Answer: push-pull theory p. 253
44. __________ are economic transfers of money from migrants to their family back home.
Answer: Remittances p. 254
45. Forced migration that is a result of projects like dam building and mining is called __________.
Answer: development-induced displacement
p. 256
46. __________ is the country that is the major source of immigrants to the United States.
Answer: Mexico p. 260
47. __________ is the fastest-growing category of involuntary migrant people.
Answer: Internally displaced persons p. 256
48. Salvadorans who have migrated to suburban Long Island in the United States tend to make a living by
__________.
Answer: service jobs for better-off households p. 262
49. An example of a refugee group that has had to leave their homeland due to war is __________.

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Answer: Salvadorans p. 261


50. About 40 percent of the economic niche of taxi driving in New York City is filled by "new immigrants"
from __________.
Answer: India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh
p. 263
51. People who migrate for work are referred to as __________.
Answer: labor migrants p. 254
52. Three Gorges Dam, the worlds largest dam, is located in __________.
Answer: China p. 257
53. Name two new immigrants groups in the U.S. and Canada: __________ and __________.
Answer: Latinos, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Dominicans, Salvadorans, Koreans, Hong Kong Chinese,
Vietnamese, Khmer/Cambodians, South Asian Indians/Pakistanis/Bangladeshis, Soviet Jews pp. 259-264
54. A person who moved internationally, especially to the United States and Canada, since the 1960s is
to as a __________.
Answer: new immigrant p. 259

referred

55. Soldiers posted overseas are an example of __________ migrants.


Answer: institutional p. 259
ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50100 words] for each of the questions below.
Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your
points as necessary.
56. Name three distinguishing characteristics of the "new immigration."
Answers will vary. p. 259
57. What are two categories of "displaced persons"? Give an ethnographical example of each explaining the
cause of the displacement and the challenges the people face in their new location.
Answers will vary. pp. 255-257
58. What does the term "transnational migration" mean and what is an example of a transnational migrant group?
Answers will vary. pp. 253-254
59. What is circular migration and what is an example of it discussed in the textbook?
Answers will vary. pp. 254-255
60. What is the definition of a refugee and what light does research in cultural anthropology shed on this
of migrant?
Answers will vary. pp. 255-256

category

61. What does the term "lifeboat mentality" mean and how is it related to migration?
Answers will vary. p. 265
62. What is internal migration and what are two examples of it?
Answers will vary. p. 253, elsewhere
63. Explain how the "new immigration" differs from earlier forms of migration. Then discuss two examples of new
immigrants. Compare and contrast their reasons for migrating and their patterns of adaptation to the
new context.
Answers will vary. pp. 259-265
64. Discuss the theoretical debate in cultural anthropology between structurism and agency and describe how it

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plays out in the context of the bracero system of the Dominican Republic. Explore the strengths and
weaknesses of both theoretical angles in terms of the evidence available.
Answers will vary. pp. 254-255
65. What are some of the political and policy aspects of migration? How do anthropological studies contribute to
an understanding of these?
Answers will vary. pp. 265, 267
66. Describe some of the negative environmental and cultural aspects of the Three Gorges Dam project.
Answers will vary. p. 257
67. Describe the factors that led the Maya villagers (in the Culturama) to leave their home area and establish a new
settlement. What was their new settlement like in terms of social organization and amenities. What
challenges
did they face there during the civil war?
Answers will vary. p. 258
68. Discuss the kinds of data collected by the applied research project that seeks to provide risk assessment and
improved service delivery for pastoralists.
Answers will vary. p. 266

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Chapter 13 People Defining Development


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. A major bilateral aid organization is
A World Bank.
B United States Agency for International Development.
C United Nations.
D UNICEF.
E International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
Answer: B p. 277
2. Gerald Murray helped USAID address problems with reforestation projects in Haiti by
A educating participants about the importance of the profit motive.
B involving women as participants.
C replacing the reforestation project with a health clinic.
D improving cultural fit.
E conducting an environmental impact analysis.
Answer: D p. 280
3. Life projects promote development through
A more bilateral aid for projects.
B a greater role for the United Nations.
C emphasis on health care projects.
D emphasis on crossing the digital divide.
E giving priority to local people's aspirations.
Answer: E p. 289
4. The first phase of the project cycle is
A project implementation.
B project design.
C budget assessment.
D project identification.
E project appraisal.
Answer: D p. 280
5.
A
B
C
D

The male bias in development planning and projects refers to the


exclusion of women from many development projects.
greater attention given to men's health problems than women's.
tendency for development experts to emphasize the importance of schooling for boys more than for girls.
greater number of men than women hired to work for the large development organizations like the World
Bank.
E tendency for family planning projects to target men rather than women.
Answer: A p. 286
6.

In the early stages of development anthropology, anthropologists were typically hired to work in which
phase of the project cycle?
A project appraisal
B project implementation
C project design
D project identification
E project evaluation
Answer: E p. 280
7.

Seventeenth century European ideas of secular rationalism and the inevitable advance of scientific thinking
were the basis for which model of change?

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A human development
B distribution-based development
C diffusion
D grass-roots development
E modernization
Answer: E p. 275
8. A major lesson gained from the study of change among the Saami is
A the need to do social impact assessments before introducing new technology.
B the power of the "trickle down" effect.
C that women benefitted more than men from the introduction of technology.
D that sustainable development is best achieved through World Bank projects.
E that environmental impact assessments should be done before all projects.
Answer: A p. 274
9. Distributional development emphasizes
A health as the most important sector for development projects.
B the assessment and adjustment of entitlements.
C education as the most important sector for development projects.
D the importance of economic growth as the major path to development.
E irrigation and water management as the most important development objective.
Answer: B p. 276
10. World Bank requirements that lending countries adjust their spending away from social programs such as
education and health are called
A positive reinforcement.
B structurism.
C adjustment of the project cycle.
D cultural appraisal.
E structural adjustment.
Answer: E p. 275
11. Kerala, India, provides an example of success in terms of which approach to development?
A economic growth approach
B structural adjustment
C feminist approach
D distributional approach
E industrialization
Answer: D p. 276
12.
A
B
C

Women's organizations for change


mirror the "male bias in development" by leaving out issues important to poor women.
are primarily initiated and led by elite women.
have been successful in terms of promoting handicrafts but completely unsuccessful in increasing women's
access to credit.
D are focused completely on domestic (home) issues such as child care.
E none of the above.
Answer: E pp. 286-287
13. Culture change that occurs through contact is referred to as
A confusion.
B transfusion.
C structural adjustment.
D diffusion.
E cultural heritage.
Answer: D p. 273

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14. Women vendors in San Cristobal, Mexico, faced problems related to


A the fact that they were refugees from the highlands.
B harassment from men.
C the lack of traditional kin ties in the city.
D robberies.
E all of the above.
Answer: E p. 287
15. A case study of the Society of Muslim Women in Kazakhstan found that
A SMW's main approaches to dealing with wife abuse are counseling, shelter, and mediation.
B SMW members have no funding or professional training.
C SMW sees domestic violence as a problem that the Islamic faith should address.
D sheltering abused women fits with the Kazakhi custom of hospitality.
E all of the above.
Answer: E p. 287
16. __________ is the most populous country in Africa, with over 140 million people. It has over 250 ethnic
groups, with the largest being the Fulani, Hausa, Yorb, and Igbo.
A Nigeria
B Egypt
C Ethiopia
D South Africa
E Kenya
Answer: A p. 289
17. The resource over which violence exists in the Niger Delta is
A oil.
B diamonds.
C wetlands and beaches for international tourism.
D gold.
E all of the above.
Answer: A p. 288
18. Ken Saro-Wiwa was
A influential in developing micro-credit schemes for women.
B the first indigenous leader to be employed by Shell Oil.
C an Ogoni martyr.
D the first African to work for the World Bank.
E a pioneer in promoting land rights for pastoralists in Sudan.
Answer: C pp. 288-289
19. The newest and largest of Canada's provinces is
A Kalaalit Nunaat.
B Nunavut.
C Northwest Territories.
D Baffin Island.
E Iqaluit.
Answer: B p. 284
20.
A
B
C
D
E

Estimates of the number of indigenous people worldwide are


100150 million.
300350 million.
500600 million.
1 billion.
5 billion.

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Answer: B

p. 282

21. The poorest country in the Western Hemisphere is


A Mexico.
B Guatemala.
C Haiti.
D Guyana.
E Brazil.
Answer: C p. 279
22. BEC's attempt to build social solidarity among scavengers in Cebu City, the Philippines, failed mainly because
A the scavengers are so poor.
B the project was not well-funded.
C the project had not been pilot-tested before implementation.
D the planning committee did not involve women.
E most of the scavengers are children and they were not interested in organizing.
Answer: A p. 278
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
23. English is the official language of Nigeria.
Answer: TRUE p. 289
24. Shell Oil has fully compensated the Ogoni people of the Niger Delta for the environmental and cultural
damage caused by the petroleum industry.
Answer: FALSE pp. 288-289
25. The issue of violence against women has long been accepted by development policy makers as being of
priority on their agenda.
Answer: FALSE p. 286

high

26. International development projects always have a positive effect on human rights.
Answer: FALSE p. 282, elsewhere
27. A major issue facing indigenous people in the Niger Delta is the presence of large oil companies.
Answer: TRUE p. 288
28. Attempts to change the economy of the highland peoples of Thailand through alternative farming practices or
relocation have been largely successful.
Answer: FALSE p. 283
29. Access to natural resources is a basic component of indigenous people's development.
Answer: TRUE p. 282
30. Thanks to efforts of the United Nations, we now have accurate demographic statistics on indigenous
Answer: FALSE p. 282

peoples.

31. Social capital refers to money earned from small-scale development projects such as micro-credit schemes.
Answer: FALSE p. 278
32. In the early years of cultural anthropologists' involvement with development work, they were most likely to
play a role in the project identification stage.
Answer: FALSE p. 280
33. Nunavut Province is the newest and largest of Canada's provinces.

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Answer: TRUE p. 284


34. The last stage of the project cycle is project evaluation.
Answer: TRUE p. 280
35. The United States Agency for International Development is a bilateral aid institution.
Answer: TRUE p. 277
36. Cuba's development aid to other countries has focused mainly on education.
Answer: FALSE p. 278
37. The NGO Hundee relies on indigenous principles in its approach to development.
Answer: TRUE p. 285
38. Investment in economic growth is the primary strategy of the United Nations' approach called "human
development."
Answer: FALSE p. 276
39. In Africa, political interests of state governments in establishing and enforcing territorial boundaries have
created difficulties especially for mobile populations such as foragers and pastoralists.
Answer: TRUE p. 284
40. The government of Australia has made substantial progress recently in recognizing Aboriginal territorial
rights.
Answer: TRUE p. 285
41. Over 90 percent of Haiti's forests have been cleared.
Answer: TRUE p. 279
42. In general, countries of Asia have taken the lead in ensuring indigenous people's traditional rights to land
other resources.
Answer: FALSE p. 284
43. The January 2010 earthquake in Haiti displaced around 1.5 million people.
Answer: TRUE p. 279
44. Thanks to generous international donors, the billions of dollars of aid pledged to Haiti after the January
2010 earthquake reached the people in need within a few weeks of the disaster.
Answer: FALSE p. 279
IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or
answers the question.
45. A lack of tangible assets, including basic needs and the ability to provide for them, is termed __________.
Answer: poverty p. 272
46.

The process of change in which a minority culture becomes more like the culture that dominates it is
__________.
Answer: acculturation p. 273
47. The name of a multilateral development organization is __________ (acronym is acceptable).
Answer: World Bank/United Nations p. 277
48. The name of a bilateral development organization is __________ (acronym is acceptable).
Answer: USAID/DfID/CIDA/DANIDA/SIDA/JICA p. 277

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and

49.

The introduction of snowmobiles had a major impact on the economy and culture of the people called the
__________.
Answer: Saami p. 274
50. The approach to development which emphasizes impacts on the environment and controlling the use of
nonrenewable resources is called __________.
Answer: sustainable development p. 276
51.

The phase of a development project in which the project is actually put in place and starts working is called
__________.
Answer: project implementation p. 280
52. The "add an anthropologist and stir" approach to development is termed __________.
Answer: traditional development anthropology p. 281
53. The approach to development that emphasizes social equity and most directly goes against a pure growthoriented approach is referred to as __________ development.
Answer: distributionalp. 276
54. The state of India that has most emphasized a distributional approach to development is __________.
Answer: Kerala p. 276
55. Because of the adoption of snowmobiles, the Saami overhunted [which animal] __________.
Answer: reindeer
p. 274
56. A business that explores for, removes, processes, and sells minerals, oil, and gas is called a(n) __________.
Answer: extractive industry p. 290
ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50100 words] for each of the questions below.
Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your
points as necessary.
57. To what does the term indigenous peoples refer? How many indigenous people are there worldwide today?
Discuss two ethnographic examples and the challenges they face.
Answers will vary. pp. 282-285
58. What does the term "international development" mean and what are two approaches to it?
Answers will vary. pp. 273-276
59. What is a life project and how does a life project approach differ from traditional development projects?
Answers will vary. pp. 286-290
60. What are the five phases of a development project?
Answers will vary. p. 280
61. What is traditional development anthropology and what is critical development anthropology? Provide an
example of each.
Answers will vary. p. 281
62. What is invention? What is diffusion? What is an example of each that has led to cultural change?
Answers will vary. p. 273
63. Discuss how cultural heritage preservation relates to development.
Answers will vary. pp. 290-291

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64. What is social impact assessment and why is it important?


Answers will vary. p. 275
65. What are some similarities and differences in the problems that indigenous peoples and women face? How
have people in each category reacted to these challenges?
Answers will vary. pp. 282-287
66. What is involved in the anthropological critique of development projects in terms of major findings
(mention specific case studies)? How has this critique led to improved strategies for improving human welfare?
Answers will vary. p. 281, elsewhere
67. What is the historical context of and some major contemporary challenges facing the Peyizan Yo of Haiti?
How are the Peyizan Yo attempting to deal with the challenges?
Answers will vary. p. 279
68. What are some examples of the political activism of indigenous peoples?
Answers will vary. pp. 282-285 elsewhere
69. Discuss the concept of development aggression and two ethnographic examples of it.
Answers will vary. p. 288, elsewhere
70. Discuss two examples of development projects that have addressed entitlement deprivations.
Answers will vary. p. 276, elsewhere

228
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