Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 78

Module 11

Configuring and Testing


Your Network

Objectives
Roles of Router and Router Components
Boot-up process
Cisco IOS and Configuration file
Cisco IOS modes
Basic configuring router
Examination Commands
Managing file
Recovery password

Roles of a Router and Router components

Roles of a Router

A router connects multiple networks. This means that it has multiple interfaces
that each belong to a different IP network.
Each network that a router connects to typically requires a separate interface.
These interfaces are used to connect a combination of both Local Area
Networks (LANs) and Wide Area Networks (WANs)

Roles of a Router

The primary responsibility of a router is to direct packets destined for local and remote
networks by:
Determining the best path to send packets
Forwarding packets toward their destination
The interface that the router uses to forward the packet may be the network of the final
destination of the packet (the network with the destination IP address of this packet), or it
may be a network connected to another router that is used to reach the destination network.

What is a Router?
CPU
RAM
Flash
NVRAM
BUS
ROM
Interfaces

Router Components - CPU


Router Components - CPU

Router Components - RAM


Stores
Routers active configuration (running-config)
Routing tables
ARP cache
Fast-switching cache
Packet buffering (shared RAM)
Packet hold queues
Content is lost when power down or restart
8

Router Components - Flash


Erasable, re-programmable ROM.
Holds the operating system image Cisco IOS.
The router normally acquires the default IOS from
flash.
Allows you to update software without removing and
replacing chips on the processor.
Content remains when you power down or restart.
Multiple versions of IOS software can be stored in
Flash memory.

Router Components - NVRAM


Nonvolatile random-access memory (NVRAM)
Store the startup configuration.
Content remains when you power down or restart

10

Router Components - ROM


Read-Only Memory (ROM) is used for permanently
storing startup diagnostic code (ROM Monitor).
Main tasks for ROM are hardware diagnostics during
router bootup and loading the Cisco IOS software from
flash to RAM.
ROMs are not erasable. They can only be upgraded by
replacing the ROM chips in the sockets.

11

Router Components - Interfaces


The interfaces are the router connections to the
outside.
Three types of interfaces:
LANs interfaces
WANs interfaces
Management ports (Console and Auxiliary)

12

Internal Components of a 2600 Router

13

Access Method to Cisco Devices


Accessing the Cisco IOS on a Device

There are several ways to access the CLI environment. The most usual
methods are:
Console
Telnet or SSH
AUX port

14

Console port

Is also preferred over the auxiliary port for troubleshooting.

It is used to set up the initial configuration of a router and to monitor it.

Displays router startup, debugging, and error messages by default.

Can also be used when the networking services have not been started or have
failed.

Can be used for disaster and password recovery procedures.


15

Console Port Connections

A rollover cable and an RJ-45 to DB-9 adapter are used to connect a PC


to the console port.
Cisco supplies the necessary adapter to connect to the console port.
The PC or terminal must support VT100 terminal emulation.
Terminal emulation software such as HyperTerminal is usually used
16

Connecting Console Interfaces


To connect the PC to a router:
1. Configure terminal emulation software on the PC for:

The appropriate com port

9600 baud

8 data bits

No parity

1 stop bit

No flow control

2. Connect the RJ-45 connector of the rollover cable to the


router console port.
3. Connect the other end of the rollover cable to the RJ-45 to
DB-9 adapter.
4. Attach the female DB-9 adapter to a PC.

17

Connecting Console Interfaces

18

Connecting Router LAN interfaces

LAN interfaces allow the router to connect to the Local Area Network media.

This is usually some form of Ethernet.

It could be some other LAN technology such as Token Ring or Asynchronous


Transfer Mode (ATM).

The router is a host that communicates with the LAN via a hub or a switch:
use straight-through cable

The router is connected directly to the computer or to another router: a


crossover cable is required.
19

Connecting WAN Interfaces

Wide Area Network connections provide connections through a service provider


to a distant site or to the Internet

With some types of WAN interfaces, an external device such as a CSU is


required to connect the router to the local connection of the service provider.

With other types of WAN connections, the router may be directly connected to
the service provider.
20

WAN Interfaces

Synch:
Serial DB-60, WIC

Asynchronous:
DB-68 with octal cable, RJ-45.

T1, E1:
DB-15, RJ-45 with CSU/DSU built-in.

ISDN:
BRI: RJ-45 , PRI: same as T1, E1 interface.

POTS:
RJ-45 with Modem build-in.

21

Boot-up process

22

Router Boot-up Process

23

Router Boot-up Process

24

Router Boot-up Process

25

Examining the initial router bootup

The user has the option to enter setup mode.


Purpose of the setup mode is to permit to install a
minimal configuration for a router, unable to locate a
configuration from another source.
26

Initial startup of Cisco routers

no

During the setup process, Ctrl-C can be pressed at any


time to terminate the process.
27

Router Boot-up Process


Verifying Router Bootup Process

28

Cisco IOS and


Configuration File

29

IOS File System Overview

running-config
IOS (running)

startup-config

IOS

ios

Routers and switches depend on software for their operation.


The two types of software required are operating systems and
configuration.
The operating system used in almost all Cisco devices is the Cisco
Internetwork Operating System (IOS).
The software a router or switch uses is referred to as the configuration
file or the config, running-config and startup-config.
30

Cisco IOS
The Cisco IOS provides
devices with the following
network services:
Basic routing and
switching functions
Reliable and secure
access to networked
resources
Network scalability

The IOS operational details vary on different internetworking devices, depending


on the device's purpose and feature set.
The IOS image file itself is several megabytes in size and is stored in a semipermanent memory area called flash.
The services provided by the Cisco IOS are generally accessed using a command
line interface (CLI).
31

IOS Naming Conventions

A relocatable image is copied


from flash into RAM to run. A nonrelocatable image is run directly
from flash.

Examples of feature-set categories are:


Basic A basic feature set for the hardware platform, for example IP and IP/FW
Plus A basic feature set plus additional features such as IP Plus, IP/FW Plus, and
Enterprise Plus
Encryption The addition of the 56-bit data encryption feature sets, such as Plus 56, to
either a basic or plus feature set. Examples include IP/ATM PLUS IPSEC 56 or Enterprise
Plus 56. From Cisco IOS Release 12.2 onwards, the encryption designators are k8/k9:

k8 Less than or equal to 64-bit encryption in IOS version 12.2 and up


k9 Greater than 64-bit encryption (on 12.2 and up)
32

Configuration Files
Configuration Files

33

Cisco IOS Mode

34

Cisco IOS Modes


IOS Primary Modes

35

IOS Configuration Modes


IOS Configuration Modes

36

Logging into the router

User EXEC mode


Typical tasks include those that check the router status.
In this mode, router configuration changes are not allowed.

Privileged EXEC mode


Typical tasks include those that change the router configuration.
37

IOS Command Structure

38

Help in the router CLI

39

Help in the router CLI

40

Command Syntax Check

41

CLI Hot Keys

42

Editing and History Functions

43

Router Command History

terminal history size: maximum number of commands is 256

44

Basic Configuration
Using Cisco IOS

45

Enter Global Configuration mode

Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#

46

Configuring a router name


Mistake

Should be
Router#config t
Router(config)#hostname Tokyo
Tokyo(config)#

A router should be given a unique name as one of the first


configuration tasks.
This task is accomplished in Global Configuration Mode.
47

Configuring Router Passwords

Not recommended, clear text

Encrypts the passwords


above, but
Use this command instead, password is encryped

Router(config)#enable secret <password>


48

Using exit, end and Control-Z


end
exit

49

Login Banners

A login banner is a message that is displayed at login and is useful


for conveying messages that affect all network users.
A login banner should be a warning not to attempt login unless
authorized.

Configuring Message-Of-The-Day (MOTD)

Host Name Resolution

Router# ping 172.16.32.1


Router# ping Auckland
Router# telnet 192.168.53.1
Router# telnet Beirut
Router# traceroute 192.168.89.1
Router# traceroute Capetown

Host name resolution is the process that a computer system uses


to associate a host name with an IP address
Host names, unlike DNS names, are significant only on the router
on which they are configured.

Host Name Resolution

Router(config)# ip domain-lookup
Router#vdc3
Translating vdc3"...domain server (255.255.255.255) (Takes a few
seconds)
Translating vdc3"...domain server (255.255.255.255) (Takes a few
seconds)
Router(config)# no ip domain-lookup
Router#wreh
Translating wreh"
% Unknown command or computer name, or unable to find computer
address

Configuring Router Interfaces

54

Configuring an Ethernet Interface

55

Configuring a Serial Interface


Real
PPP, HDLC, Frame relay

Lab

DCE cable
DTE cable

56

Configuring a Serial Interface


DTE Cable

DCE Cable

On serial links that are directly interconnected, as in a lab environment, one


side must be considered a DCE and provide a clocking signal.
The clock is enabled and speed is specified with the clock rate command.
How can you tell which end is the DTE and which end is the DCE?
Look at the label on the cable.
Look at the connecter between the two cables - The DTE cable will
always be male and the DCE cable will always be female.
Use the show controllers command!

Router Interface Description

58

Examination Command

59

IOS Examination Commands

60

IOS Examination Commands


Example of IOS Output

61

IOS Examination Commands

62

IOS Examination Commands

63

IOS Examination Commands

64

IOS Examination Commands

65

Managing Cisco File

66

Saving running to NVRAM

67

Export file running to a .txt file

68

Backup IOS with TFTP Server


Router# copy flash tftp

When using Windows, the TFTP server software must be


running.
The copy can be performed from the console port or from a
telnet session.
The telnet session can be performed on the same computer
where the TFTP server is running (or to a different computer).

Copying Configuration file


to TFTP Server

A TFTP server will allow image and configuration uploads and


downloads over the network.
The TFTP server can be another router, or it can be a host
system.

Copying Configuration file


to TFTP Server

Troubleshooting: Be sure you can ping the TFTP


server.

TFTP Software and Servers

Cisco TFTP Server.lnk

Just double click on the shortcut


Remember, TFTP is Trivial FTP:
No authentication
No login
No choice for directory
Uses UDP and verified via a TFTP checksum (not TCP ACKs)

Copying, Editing, and Pasting


Configurations

running-config
IOS (running)

RAM

startupconfig

IOS
copy flash
copy tftp
tftp
flash

copy startup-config tftp


copy tftp startup-config

copy running-config tftp


copy tftp running-config

Password Recorvery

74

Password Recovery(1)

75

Password Recovery(2)

76

Password Recovery(3)

77

Good luck with this module!

78