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# Polarity (mutual inductance) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polarity_(mutual_inductance)

## The polarity of a device with mutual inductance designates the

relative instantaneous current directions of such device's winding
A dot marking convention, or alphanumeric marking convention, or
both, can be used to denote the same relative instantaneous
polarity of two mutually inductive components such as between
transformer windings. These markings may be found on transformer
cases beside terminals, winding leads, nameplates, schematic and
wiring diagrams.
Leads of primary and secondary windings are said be of the same
polarity when instantaneous current entering the primary winding
lead results in instantaneous current leaving the secondary winding
lead as though the two leads were a continuous circuit. [1][2] In the
case of two windings wound around the same core in parallel, for
example, the polarity will be the same on the same ends: A sudden
(instantaneous) current in the first coil will induce a voltage
opposing the sudden increase (Lenz's law) in the first and also in
the second coil, because the inductive magnetic field produced by
the current in the first coil traverses the two coils in the same
manner. The second coil will therefore show an induced current
opposite in direction to the inducing current in the first coil. Both
leads behave like a continuous circuit, one current entering into the

conventions

## LV side with dot

conventions

Contents
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2
3
4
5
6

Transformer windings
Terminal layout conventions
Autotransformers
References
Bibliography

Transformer windings
Two methods are commonly used to denote which terminals present the same relative polarity. A
dot may be used, or an alphanumeric designation. Alphanumeric designations are typically in the
form H1 for primaries, and for secondaries, X1, (and Y1, Z1, if more windings present).
Unlike single-phase transformers, three-phase transformers may incorporate a phase shift due to
different winding configurations resulting in a multiple of 30 degree phase shift between H1 and
X1 bushing designations.

28/11/2015 11:09

## Polarity (mutual inductance) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2 of 3

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polarity_(mutual_inductance)

## Terminal layout conventions

Referring to the circuit diagrams below: The circuit polarity signs '+' and '-' indicate the relative
polarities of the induced voltages in both coils, i.e. how an instantaneous (sudden) magnetic field
traversing the primary and secondary coils induces a voltage in both coils.
The instantaneous polarities of the voltages across each inductor with respect to the dotted
terminals are the same.[3]
The circuit arrows indicate example applied and resultant relative current directions. The '+'
and '-' polarities in the diagram are not the voltages driving the currents.
The instantaneous directions of the current entering the primary inductor at its dotted end
and the current leaving of the secondary inductor at its dotted end are the same.
Subtractive polarity transformer designs are shown in the upper circuit diagrams. Additive
polarity transformer designs are shown in the lower circuit diagrams. [4]

Autotransformers
If two mutually coupled inductors are in series, the dot convention can be used in the same
manner as in the case of autotransformers. Relative polarity in autotransformer drawings is
usually quite obvious by physical placement of the windings in circuit drawings.

Electrical polarity
Instrument transformer

References
1. Knowlton p.552, 15.
2. Alexander 2009, p. 559560.

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## Polarity (mutual inductance) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

3 of 3

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polarity_(mutual_inductance)

## 3. "PS-E-15 Provisional Specifications for Approval of Electronic Voltage Transformers".

Measurement Canada. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
4. "Transformer Polarity" (PDF). .idc-online/electrical_engineering. Retrieved 23 April 2013.

Bibliography
Alexander, Charles (2009). Fundamentals of electric circuits. McGraw-Hill.
ISBN 0073529559.
ANSI/IEEE C57.13, American National Standard Requirements for Instrument Transformers
Brenner, Egon; Javid, Mansour (1959). "18.1 'Symbols and Polarity of Mutual Inductance'
in Chapter 18 - Circuits with Magnetic Circuits". Analysis of Electric Circuits. McGraw-Hill.
pp. 589590.
Boylestad, Robert L. (2003). "Section 21.8: Series connection of mutually coupled coils".
Introductory Circuit Analysis (10th ed.). Prentice Hall. p. 954. ISBN 0-13-097417-X.
Knowlton, A.E. (Ed.) (1949). Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers (8th ed.).
McGraw-Hill. p. 552, 6-15 & p. 606, 6-162.
Kothari, D.P.; Nagrath, I.J. (2010). 3.7 'Transformer Testing' in Chapter 3 - Transformers
(4th ed.). Tata McGraw-Hill. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-07-069967-0.
Parker, M. R; Ula, S.; Webb, W. E. (2005). "2.5.5 'Transformers' & 10.1.3 'The Ideal
Transformer' ". In Whitaker, Jerry C. The Electronics Handbook (2nd ed.). Taylor & Francis.
pp. 172, 1017. ISBN 0-8493-1889-0.