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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT)

Volume Issue, Month year, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

308

PWM Based Passive Power Factor Correction

Shamal Padmawar * , Prof. Anil Wanare **

* E&TC, Pune University, Dhole Patil COE, Pune, Maharashtra, India ** E&TC, Pune, Dr.D.Y.Patil School of Engineering, Pune, Maharashtra, India

ABSTRACT

Most of the commercial and industrial installation in the country has large electrical loads which are severally inductive in nature causing lagging power factor which gives heavy penalties to consumer by electricity board. This situation is taken care by PFC. Power factor correction is the capacity of absorbing the reactive power produced by a load. In case of fixed loads, this can be done manually by switching of capacitors, however in case of rapidly varying and scattered loads it becomes difficult to maintain a high power factor by manually switching on/off the capacitors in proportion to variation of load within an installation. This drawback is overcome by using an APFC panel. In this paper measuring of power factor from load is done by using PIC microcontroller and trigger required capacitors in order to compensate reactive power and bring power factor near to unity. In the designed circuit, the power factor is measured using PIC16F877. This paper focuses to design the simple circuit and low-cost. The current and voltage signals of the load are measured at the same phase. Those signals are inserted into PIC16F877 by means of analog circuit. The power factor is calculated by the algorithm written on the PIC16F877. The measurement value of the power factor is displayed on the LCD screen.

Keywords: Power factor; Reactive power; PIC microcontroller; Capacitor bank; Pulse Width Modulated wave.

1.

INTRODUCTION

Power factor is the ratio of KW and KVA. KW is the actual load power and KVA is the apparent load power. It is a measure of how effectively the current is being converted into useful work output . Electrical energy is always in great demand for industrial usage. It is on the increase for the development of industrial applications.

One of the most economical methods to meet the electrical energy demand is to improve the system efficiency by correcting the power factor. There are a lot of studies in this subject. Christofer Larsson Olof Johansson presents boost-type power factor correction topology with a three-phase modular approach.The boost-type power factor correction topology was simulated using Matlab/Simulink with a simplified dynamic model of the current stage[1].Irwan Y,Irwanto M, Safwati I presents a new approach to improve power factor (PF) generated by a single phase induction motor. By designing the necessary technique and methodology, the power factor can be improve and the total harmonic distortion (THD i ) can be reduced to the expectation[2].Rahim N.A.,

Mekhilef S. presents a new three-phase inverter power-factor correction (PFC) scheme using field programmable gate array[3]. Nader Barsoum presents programming of PIC Micro-Controller for Power Factor Correction which describes the design and development of a three-phase power factor corrector using PIC (Programmable Interface Circuit) micro-controlling chip[4]. Abhinav Sharma, Vishal Nayyar, S presents PIC Microcontroller Based SVC for Reactive Power Compensation and Power Factor Correction which describes the design and development of a single phase TRIAC based Static VAR Compensator for reactive power compensation and power factor correction using PIC micro-controlling chip[5]. This paper implement a circuit using PIC16F877 microcontroller which decides PF by getting a PWM wave and switch on the required capacitors in the capacitor bank.

2 PROJECT WORK

The block diagram of the APFC is as shown in fig 1 as below.

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT)

Volume Issue, Month year, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

309

Volume Issue, Month year, ISSN No.: 2348 – 8190 309 Fig.1 Block Diagram of the APFC

Fig.1 Block Diagram of the APFC

The project work mainly divided into four which are described below:

2.1

SENSORS

The alternative voltage and current signals are both sensed and scared down using sensors, while the current is converted into an equivalent voltage representation. the voltage transducer is able to read both DC and AC signal by converting the captured signal into smaller scale with ratio of 2500:1000. The current transducer scares down input signal with ratio of 1:1000.

2.2 POWER FACTOR SENSING SECTION

Block diagram consists of power factor sensing section in that square wave generators are used which are nothing but the Zero Crossing Detectors. A zero crossing detector is used as analog circuit to achieve the converting process of the current and voltage signals. Zero crossing detectors are given in Fig. 2[6].

signals. Zero crossing detectors are given in Fig. 2[6]. Fig.2 Zero crossing detectors As shown in

Fig.2 Zero crossing detectors

As shown in Fig. 2, the outputs of the current and voltage sensors are connected to numbered pins 2 and 6 of LM358, respectively. When AC signal is applied to LM358,the output of LM358 is 1 as logically (5 Volt)

while signal is crossing from the zero point. If the AC signal is different from zero, the output is 0 (0 Volt). The input and output signals of LM358 are given in Fig.3.

The input and output signals of LM358 are given in Fig.3. Fig.3 The input and output

Fig.3 The input and output signals of LM358

2.3 PIC MICROCONTROLLER UNIT

Microchip Technologies’ 16 bit microcontroller PIC16F877A has several useful stand-alone features like built in Flash Program Memory, EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory), Data Memory, A/D (Analog-to-Digital) converter, 8 and 16 bit Timers, watchdog timer, Capture/ Compare/ PWM modules, serial and parallel communication interface etc.

2.4 CAPACITOR BANK

Capacitors are commonly used within a lot of power system, especially electronic constructed circuitry, capacitors normally installed within an isolating nonconductor metal box, which called capacitor bank, they are fixed or switched. Fixed banks are connected permanently to the primary conductors through fused switches. Switch capacitors banks are tied to primary system through automated switch, allowing them to be put on line and taken off line as needed. Distribution power system usually connects capacitor in parallel rather connecting in series. The function of shunt power capacitor is to provide leading KVARS to an electrical system when and where needed. The actual capacitor in farads of a capacitor bank can be calculated using the following equation:[7]

bank can be calculated using the following equation:[7] Where, VAR = capacitor unit var rating C=

Where, VAR = capacitor unit var rating C= capacitor in farad F = frequency VR = capacitor unit rated voltage.

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT)

Volume Issue, Month year, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

Standard capacitors sizes are 50,100,150,200,300 and 400 KVAR. Since capacitors can be connected more than one per phase in order to increase the bank size, it is recommended to select two or at most three capacitor unit sizes to avoid stocking the sizes. [7]

3. GENERATION OF PWM WAVE

Applying pulses to an AND gate, a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) wave is obtained where the displacement angle between voltage and current wave determines the pulse width as shown in Figure 2.

wave determines the pulse width as shown in Figure 2. Fig.4: Generation of PWM waves For

Fig.4: Generation of PWM waves

For power factor measurement, angle of concern is between 0 and 90 degrees. At 0 degree, the two waveforms are in phase, and so the PWM output is 100% ON. At 90 egrees, there is a 50% overlap, so the PWM output has a 50% high state.

is a 50% overlap, so the PWM output has a 50% high state. (a) (b) (c)

(a)

a 50% overlap, so the PWM output has a 50% high state. (a) (b) (c) Fig.5:

(b)

50% overlap, so the PWM output has a 50% high state. (a) (b) (c) Fig.5: Generation

(c)

Fig.5: Generation of PWM wave from equivalent voltage and current pulse, (a) at Power Factor=1, (b) at Power Factor=0.5, (c) at Power

Factor=0.

4. PROGRAMME FLOW CHART

Simplified flowcharts for the developed software are shown in Figure 6. MikroC compiler was used to code and compile the program and WinPIC to load HEX code to microcontroller unit.

program and WinPIC to load HEX code to microcontroller unit. Fig. 6: Program flow charts, (a)

Fig. 6: Program flow charts, (a) main program (b) interrupt service routine.

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT)

Volume Issue, Month year, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

5. HARDWARE AND RESULTS

year, ISSN No.: 2348 – 8190 5. HARDWARE AND RESULTS Fig. 8 Hardware Fig.6 Before PF

Fig. 8 Hardware

No.: 2348 – 8190 5. HARDWARE AND RESULTS Fig. 8 Hardware Fig.6 Before PF correction Fig

Fig.6 Before PF correction

AND RESULTS Fig. 8 Hardware Fig.6 Before PF correction Fig .7 After PF correction 6. CONCLUSION

Fig .7 After PF correction

6.

CONCLUSION

The system has the ability to sense power factor effectively and by using proper algorithm sufficient capacitors are switched on in order to compensate the

reactive power. PWM based power factor measurement and correction unit can improve the power factor close to unity in an automatic way and can remove the capacitor banks when the power factor is leading. The circuit is designed to display the power factor of the load connected the network. The conversion process of difference between the current and voltage signals of the load to degree and time, and calculation process are achieved by PIC16F877 and designed analog-digital integrated circuit.

REFERENCES

[1]

Christofer Larsson Olof Johansson, Active

Correction for Airborne

Power

Factor

Applications ,2012. [2] Irwan Y,Irwanto M, Safwati I, Improvement of induction machine performance using power factor correction,2011.

[3] Rahim N.A., Mekhilef S.,A new three-, phase inverter power-factor correction (PFC) scheme using field programmable gate array,2002. [4] Nader Barsoum, Programming of PIC Micro- Controller for Power Factor Correction,2007.

[5] Abhinav Sharma, Vishal Nayyar, S, PIC Microcontroller Based SVC for Reactive Power Compensation and Power Factor Correction,2013. [6] Sabir RUSTEMLI, Muhammet ATES, University of Yuzuncu Yil ,Measurement and Simulation of Power Factor using PIC16F877. [7] International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 3, Issue 4, October 2013,Power Factor Correction Using PIC Microcontroller. [8]Md. Rifat Shahriar,Nyma Alamgir,Kabju Hwang,Uipil Chong,A PWM-Based Scheme for Power Factor Correction”, 2011,School of Electrical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Republic of Korea. [9] P. S. Filipski, Y. Baghzouz and M. D. Cox, Discussion of Power Definitions Contained in The IEEE Dictionary”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 9, No. 3, July 1994, pp 1237-1243. [10] Bogdan Spasojevc, “The Time Domain Method for Power Line Reactive Energy Measurement”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 56, No. 5, October 2007, pp 2033-2042.

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