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Homework 4_1

REVIEW PROBLEMS ( FM )
ECET310
1. Define FM.
The modulation that changes the frequency is called frequency
modulation. We can write an equation for a sine wave as e(t) = E sin(t

+Amplitude modulation is achieved by varying E, frequency modulation is


realizedbyvaryinginaccordancewiththemodulatingsignalormessage.
2. What parameter of the intelligence signal causes
frequency deviation of the carrier?
The amplitude of intelligence signal decides the frequency deviation of
the carrier.
3. What parameter of the intelligence signal causes or
determines the rate of carrier frequency deviation?
The frequency of intelligence signal determines the rate of carrier
frequency deviation.
4. Define modulation index for FM.

,where ismaximumfrequency
fM
deviationandfMisthefrequencyofintelligencesignal.

Theindexofmodulation,mf,isgivenbymf=

Ascanbeseenfromtheequation,mfisafunctionofboththemodulatingsignal
amplitudeandfrequency.Furthermore,mfcantakeonanyvaluefrom0toinfinity.
ItsrangeisnotlimitedasitisforAM.
5. What is the reason that FM requires wider bandwidth as
compared to AM?
Strictly speaking, bandwidth of FM modulated signal is infinite but
effective bandwidth, in which about 98% of the signal power is
contained, is given by
2(mf +1)fM; for AM signal, bandwidth is 2f M. Hence, bandwidth for FM is
more than bandwidth for AM.
6. What characteristics of FM signal are shown by Bessel
Function Solution of FM signal?

BesselfunctionsolutionofFMsignalgivesthevarioussignalcomponentsinan
FMwaveandtheiramplitudes.
Whatsolutionindicatesisthatthereareaninfinitenumberofsidebandpairsfor
anFMwave.Eachsidebandpairissymmetricallylocatedaboutthetransmitters
carrierfrequency,fC,andseparatedfromtherestfrequencybyintegralmultiplesof

themodulatingfrequency,nfM,wheren=1,2,3,....Themagnitudeoftherest
frequencyandsidebandpairsisdependentupontheindexofmodulation,mf,and
givenbytheBesselfunctioncoefficients, Jn(mf), wherethesubscriptnofJnis
theorderofthesidebandpairandmfisthemodulationindex.NotethatJn(mf)is
allonetermandnottheproductoftwonumbers.
7. If you are tuned to an FM station at a frequency of 100.1
MHz, show the bandwidth allocation for two adjacent
stations.
The other adjacent stations will be tuned at 99.9MHzAND 100.3MHz.
8. What is the required BW to transmit an FM signal if the
maximum deviation is 60 KHz and intelligence frequency is
15 KHz?
Band width =2*maximum frequency deviation = 2*60 = 120kHz
9. Determine the power distribution in carrier and sidebands
if the transmitted power is 1,000 W and mf = 1

Formf=1.0,wehavethefollowing:J0=0.77,J1=0.44,J2=0.11,andJ3=0.02.
UsingP0=J02(Ptrans)=(.77)21000=592.9Watcarrierfrequency.
Similarly,P1=193.6W,P2=12.1W,andP3=0.4W
10.

Why is Pre-emphasis required?

Preemphasisgivesaddedamplitudetothehighermodulatingfrequenciespriorto
modulationunderawelldefinedpreemphasiscurve.Thisaddedamplitudeserves
tomakethehigherfrequenciesmoreimmunetonoisebyincreasingtheirindexof
modulation.
11. What is the RC time constant required for Pre-emphasis
circuits?
75 micro-secs
12. An FM transmitter delivers to a 75 ohm antenna a signal
voltage of

V(t) = 1000 sin ( 109t + 4 sin 104t )

Determine:
(a) Carrier frequency = 109/(2pi)= 159.154MHz
(b)Intelligence frequency = (104/2pi)=1.5915kHz
(c) Modulation index = 4
(d)Total power in FM signal = (1000)2/(2*75) = 6.67kW
(e) Carrier power = (-0.4)2*6.67=1.0672kW as J0 =-0.4 for mf =4.
(f) Power in each side band = (6.67-1.0672)/2=2.8014kW
13.

Why are RF amplifiers necessary in FM receivers?

The power level after frequency multiplication is low and we require RF


amplifiers to raise the power level. RF amplifiers are required as
frequency is high after frequency multiplication.
14. What are the two functions of a Limiter?

Aslongasthereisasufficientsignaltonoiseratio(SNR)attheinputtotheFM
receiver,theFMsystemhassubstantiallybetternoiseperformancethananAM
system. However, there is a point below whichFMsystem performance is no
longerbetterthanAM.Asamatteroffact,beyondthispointperformancecanbe
evenworsethanAM.ThiseffectcanbetracedtotheuseoflimitersintheFM
receiver.ThepurposeofthelimiteristoremoveanyAMnoiseonthesignal
because it contains no information. If the signal strength is high enough, the
limiter performs its function. If the input signal strength is not sufficient, the
limiterdoesnotperformitsfunction,andthenoiseperformanceofthereceiveris
similartoanAMreceiver.
IfthetwoFMsignalsareofalmostidenticalstrength,theFMreceiverwillswitch
backandforthbetweenthetwosignals.Iftheinterferingsignalisstrongerthan
the desired signal, the FM receiver will lock onto the interfering signal. The
amplitudelimiterinthereceiverwilltendtosuppresstheweakersignalinthe
samemannerasitsuppressedAMnoise.
What is the meaning of the term center frequency in
reference to FM
broadcast?
There is carrier frequency fc and side bands are fcnfm where n
varies from to +. We call fc as central frequency also.
16. What frequency swing is defined as 100 % modulation for
an FM broadcast station?
150kHz
17. Draw a block diagram for a Cross by FM transmitter for a
transmitter frequency of 100.1 MHz.
Circuit is given below.
15.

160 V
1.91 A
18.
4 V P-P
11.61 KHz

Reactance
Modulator

+/- 215 Hz / Vp-p

Carrier
oscillator

1.97593
MHz

Frequenc
y
Multiplier

Final
Power
Amp

1 doubler
2 triplers

The given diagram shows an FM transmitter.


(a) What is the total multiplication factor?
21+32= 18
(b) What is the carrier rest frequency at the antenna?

1.97593*18 = 35.566MHz
(c) What is the deviation of the radiated signal?

2*4*215*18 =30960=30.96kHz
(d) What is the % of modulation?

135 Vrms
72.9

30.96/150=0.2064 or 20.64%
(e) What is the modulation index?

2*4*215/(11.61*1000) = 0.1481
(f) How many sideband pairs are in the radiated signal?
1 on +ve side and 1 on ve side.
(g) What is the bandwidth of the radiated signal?

2(0.1481+1)*11.61*18 = 479.86kHz
(h) What is the input power to the final power amplifier?
160*1.91 = 305.6W
(i) What is the output power?

1352/72.9=250W
(j) What is the efficiency of the final power amplifier?

250/305.6 = 0.71306 or 71.306%

(k) How much power is in the carrier?

J02*Ptrans =0.992*250=245.025W
(l) How much total power is in the sidebands?
Power is side bands = 250-245.025 = 4.975W
(m) If not already at 100 % modulation, what level of input
signal would cause 100 % modulation?

For 100% modulation, frequency deviation should be +75kHz. The input frequency deviation = 150/18 = 8.33kHz.
Hence, input signal = 8.33*1000/(2*215)=19.38p-p.

19.
Reactance
Modulator

3.24 V
8.1 KHz

+/- 1.8 KHz

Carrier
Oscillator

3.5

Frequenc
y
Multiplier

Final
Power
Amp

3 triplers

MHz

(a) What is the total multiplication factor?


3*3*3=27
(b) What is the carrier rest frequency?

3.5*27= 94.5MHz
(c) What is the deviation of the radiated signal?
3.6*27=97.2kHz
(d) What is the % of modulation?
97.2/150=0.648 or 64.8%
(e) What is the modulation index?

3.6/8.1=0.444

(f) How many sideband pairs are in the radiated signal?

2
(g) What is the frequency separation between the sidebands?
4fn=4*27*1.8 = 194.4kHz
(h) What is the bandwidth of the radiated signal?
2(0.444+1)*8.1*27=631.6056kHz
(i) If not already at 100 % modulation, what level of input
signal would cause 100 % modulation?

For 100% modulation, frequency deviation should be +75kHz. The input frequency deviation = 150/18 = 8.33kHz.
Hence, input signal = (8.33*3.24)/3.6=7.497,say 7.5volts.