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Math Chapter two, it's about math, and the chapter two.

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Erich Steiner

University of Exeter

Solutions

Chapter 2. Algebraic functions

2.1 Concepts

2.2 Graphical representation of functions

2.3 Factorization and simplification of expressions

2.4 Inverse functions

2.5 Polynomials

2.6 Rational functions

2.7 Partial fractions

2.8 Solution of simultaneous equations

E Steiner 2008

Section 2.1

1.

(i)

2 3 0 = 2 0 = 2

(ii) 2 3 2 = 2 6 = 4

(iii) 2 3 (3) = 2 + 9 = 11

(iv) 2 3

2.

2

= 22 = 0

3

(i)

0 + 0 1 = 1

(ii) 2 + 3 1 = 4

(iii) 2 (1) 2 + 3 (1) 1 = 2 3 1 = 2

2

8

8 18 9

19

2

2

=

(iv) 2 + 3 1 = 2 1 =

9

9

9

3

3

3.

(i)

f (5) = 53 3 52 + 4 5 3 = 125 75 + 20 3 = 67

(ii) f (0) = 0 0 0 3 = 3

(iii) f (2) = (2)3 3 ( 2) 2 + 4 ( 2) 3 = 8 12 8 3 = 31

8

4

2

8 + 36 + 72 + 81

197

2

=

(iv) f = 3 4 3 =

27

9

3

27

27

3

4.

(i)

f ( a ) = 2a 2 + 4a + 3

(ii) f ( y 2 ) = 2( y 2 ) 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 = 2 y 4 + 4 y 2 + 3

E Steiner 2008

5.

f (a + 3) = (a + 3) 2 3(a + 3) 4 = a 2 + 6a + 9 3a 9 4

(i)

= a 2 + 3a 4

(ii) f (a 2 + 1) = (a 2 + 1) 2 3(a 2 + 1) 4 = a 4 + 2a 2 + 1 3a 2 3 4

= a4 a2 6

(iii) f ( x + 1) = ( x + 1) 2 3( x + 1) 4 = x 2 + 2 x + 1 3 x 3 4

= x2 x 6

(iv) f ( x 2 3 x 4) = ( x 2 3 x 4) 2 3( x 2 3 x 4) 4

= x 4 6 x3 8 x 2 + 9 x 2 + 24 x + 16 3 x 2 + 9 x + 12 4

= x 4 6 x3 2 x 2 + 33x + 24

6.

f ( g ) = f (3 x + 1) = 2(3 x + 1) 1

= 6x + 1

Section 2.2

Make a table of ( x, y ) values and sketch a fully labelled graph of the quadratic:

7.

y = x2 4 x

x

12

12

E Steiner 2008

x .

8

y = x2 x + 2

10

10

x = 1 . Also, y as x .

Section 2.3

Factorize:

9.

6 x 2 y 2 2 xy 3 4 y 2

2 y 2 is a common factor.

Therefore

6 x 2 y 2 2 xy 3 4 y 2 = 2 y 2 (3 x 2 xy 2)

10. x 2 + 6 x + 5 = ( x + a )( x + b) = x 2 + (a + b) x + ab if a + b = 6 and a b = 5 .

Therefore

a = 5, b =1

and

x 2 + 6 x + 5 = ( x + 5)( x + 1)

11. x 2 + x 6 = x 2 + (a + b) x + ab if a + b = 1 and a b = 6 .

Therefore

a = 3 , b = 2

and

x 2 + x 6 = ( x + 3)( x 2)

12. x 2 8 x + 15 = x 2 + (a + b) x + ab if a + b = 8 and a b = 15 .

Therefore

a = 5 , b = 3

and

x 2 8 x + 15 = ( x 5)( x 3)

E Steiner 2008

13. x 2 4 = x 2 22 = ( x + 2)( x 2)

14. 4 x 2 9 = (2 x) 2 32 = (2 x + 3)(2 x 3)

15. 2 x 2 + x 6 = (2 x + a)( x + b) = 2 x 2 + (a + 2b) x + ab if a + 2b = 1 and a b = 6 .

Therefore

a = 3 and b = 2

and

2 x 2 + x 6 = (2 x 3)( x + 2)

16. x 4 10 x 2 + 9

Therefore

x 4 10 x 2 + 9 = ( x 2 9)( x 2 1) .

Now

Therefore

Simplify if possible:

17.

x

3x + 2 x

2

x is a common factor.

Therefore

18.

x+2

x+4

19.

x2 4

x2

x

3x + 2 x

2

x

3x + 2 x

2

1

3x + 2

No simplification is possible.

Therefore

20.

x 2 4 ( x + 2) ( x 2)

=

= x+2

x2

x2

x 2 + 3x + 2

x+2

Therefore

E Steiner 2008

x 2 + 3x + 2 ( x + 2) ( x + 1)

=

= x +1

x+2

x+2

21.

22.

x2 9

x + 5x + 6

2

( x + 3)( x 3) ( x + 3) ( x 3)

=

( x + 3)( x + 2) ( x + 3) ( x + 2)

x 3

x+2

2 x2 3x + 1

x 2 3x + 2

=

=

(2 x 1) ( x 1)

( x 2) ( x 1)

2x 1

x2

Section 2.4

Find x as a function of y:

23. y = x 2 x = y + 2

24. y =

1

(3 x + 1) 2 y = 3x + 1 2 y 1 = 3 x

2

Therefore

1

x = (2 y 1)

3

1

25. y = (2 x) 3 y = 2 x 3 y 2 = x

3

Therefore

26. y =

x = 2 3y

x

y (1 x) = x y yx = x y = x + yx

1 x

y = x(1 + y )

Therefore

27. y =

x=

y

1+ y

2x + 3

y (3 x 2) = 2 x + 3 3 xy 2 y = 2 x + 3

3x 2

3 xy 2 x = 2 y + 3

x(3 y 2) = 2 y + 3

Therefore

E Steiner 2008

x=

2y + 3

3y 2

28. y =

x 1

y (2 x + 1) = x 1 2 xy + y = x 1

2x + 1

2 xy x = y 1

x(2 y 1) = y 1

x=

Therefore

29. y =

x2 1

x +1

2

1+ y

1 2y

y ( x 2 + 1) = x 2 1 yx 2 x 2 = 1 y

x 2 ( y 1) = (1 + y )

Therefore

x2 =

1+ y

1+ y

x=

1 y

1 y

30. (i) y 2 = x 2 + 1 x = f 1 ( y ) = y 2 1

(ii) y 2 = x 2 + 1 y = f ( x) = x 2 + 1

y = f ( x) has two branches, one for which y 1 and y + as x , and one for which

y 1 and y as x . The sketch of the y = f ( x) should look like graph (a) below.

The graph (b) of x = f 1 ( y ) is identical to (a), but rotated around the line x = y

(a) y = f ( x)

E Steiner 2008

(b) x = f 1 ( y )

31. (i) y = ( x 2 1) 2 y = x 2 1 x = f 1 ( y ) =

1 y

(ii) y = f ( x) = ( x 2 1) 2

We have y = 1 when x = 0 , and y = 0 when x = 1 . The value of the function is positive for all

values of x , and y + as x . The sketch of y = f ( x) should look like graph (a) below.

The graph (b) of x = f 1 ( y ) is identical to (a), but rotated around the line x = y

(a) y = f ( x)

(b) x = f 1 ( y )

32. The virial equation of state of a gas can be approximated at low pressure as

B

pVm = RT 1 +

Vm

where p is the pressure, Vm is the molar volume, T is the temperature, R is the gas constant, and B is

the second virial coefficient. Express B as an explicit function of the other variables.

pVm

B

B

pVm = RT 1 +

= 1+

V

RT

V

m

m

pVm

B

=

1

Vm

RT

Therefore

E Steiner 2008

pV

B = Vm m 1

RT

33. Kohlrauschs law for the molar conductivity m of a strong electrolyte at low concentration c is

m = 0m K c

where 0m is the molar conductivity at infinite dilution and K is a constant. Express c as an explicit

function of m .

m = 0m K c K c = 0m m

Therefore

c=

0 m

c= m

0m m

K

Kp

1 + Kp

gives the fractional coverage of a surface by adsorbed gas at pressure p, where K is a constant.

Express p in terms of .

Kp

(1 + Kp ) = Kp + Kp = Kp

1 + Kp

Kp (1 ) =

Therefore

p=

K (1 )

35. In Example 2.12 on the van der Waals equation, verify the explicit expressions given for T and p, and

For T :

n2 a

n2 a

p + 2 (V nb) nRT = 0 p + 2 (V nb) = nRT

V

V

Therefore

T=

For p :

n2 a

n2 a

nRT

p + 2 (V nb) nRT = 0 p + 2 =

nb

V

V

V

Therefore

E Steiner 2008

p=

1

nR

n2 a

p + V 2 (V nb)

nRT

n2 a

2

V nb V

10

Section 2.5

36.

(n + 1) x n = (0 + 1) x0 + (1 + 1) x1 + (2 + 1) x 2

n =0

= 1 + 2 x + 3x 2

3

37.

i =0

= 1 + 2 x + 3x2

3

38.

k (k + 1) x k = 1 2 x1 + 2 3x 2 + 3 4 x 3

k =1

39.

n! xn

2

x

6

x

12

x3

2

= 0! x 0 + 1! x1 + 2! x 2 + 3! x3

n =0

= 1 + x + 2 x 4 + 6 x9

40. Find the equation and sketch the graph of the straight line that passes through the points:

(2, 5) and (1, 4)

at point ( x1 , y1 ) = (2, 5),

at point ( x2 , y2 ) = (1, 4),

5 = 2m + c

4 = m+c

m = 3 and c = 1 .

Therefore

E Steiner 2008

y = 3x + 1

11

41. Find the equation and sketch the graph of the straight line that passes through the points:

(1, 6) and (3, 2)

at point ( x1 , y1 ) = (1, 6),

6 = m + c

3= m+c

m = 2 and c = 4 .

Therefore

y = 2 x + 4

m = 0m K c

can be obtained graphically from the results of measurements of m over a range of concentration c.

Plot m against

c for a straight line. The slope of the line is K and the intercept with the m

axis is 0m

r 1 NA

2

=

+

3kT

r + 2 M 3 0

relates the relative permittivity (dielectric constant) r of a pure substance to the dipole moment and

polarizability of the constituent molecules, where is the density at temperature T, and M, NA, k, and

0 are constants. Explain how and can be obtained graphically from the results of measurements of

r and over a range of temperatures.

Plot

N

N 2

1 r 1

1

for a straight line whose slope is A

and whose intercept is A .

against

r + 2

T

9M 0 k

3M 0

Hence and .

E Steiner 2008

12

Find the roots and sketch the graphs of the quadratic functions:

44. f ( x) = x 2 3x + 2 = ( x 1)( x 2)

= 0 when x = 1 and x = 2

The roots of the quadratic are x1 = 1 and x2 = 2 , for which f ( x) = 0 and the graph of the function

crosses the x-axis. Also, f (0) = 2 and f ( x) + as x .

45. f ( x) = 2 x 2 3 x + 2 = (2 x 1)( x + 2)

= 0 when x = 1 2 and x = 2

46. f ( x) = 3x 2 3x 1

= 0 when x =

3 9 + 12 1

= 3 21

6

6

f ( x) + as x .

E Steiner 2008

13

47. f ( x) = x 2 + 6 x 9 = ( x 3) 2

= 0 when x = 3

The sketch of the function should look like

48. f ( x) = 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 = (2 x + 1) 2

= 0 when x = 1 2

The sketch of the function should look like

49. f ( x) = x 2 + x + 2

= 0 when x =

1 1 8 1

= 1 i 7

2

2

The roots of the quadratic are complex and the graph of the function does not cross the x-axis;

f ( x) > 0 for all real values of x. Also, f (0) = 2 and f ( x) + as x .

E Steiner 2008

14

50. f ( x) = 3 x 2 + 3x 1

3 9 12 1

= 3i 3

6

6

= 0 when x =

The roots of the quadratic are complex and the graph of the function does not cross the x-axis;

f ( x) < 0 for all real values of x.. Also, f (0) = 1 and f ( x) as x .

51. If y =

2 x2 + x + 1

2x2 + x 1

y=

find x as a function of y.

2x2 + x + 1

(2 x 2 + x 1)

y (2 x 2 + x 1) = 2 x 2 + x + 1

y (2 x 2 + x 1) (2 x 2 + x + 1) = 0

2( y 1) x 2 + ( y 1) x ( y + 1) = 0

2x2 + x

y +1

=0

y 1

x=

1

y +1

1 1 + 8

4

y 1

Ka =

2c

1

where is the degree of ionization. Express in terms of Ka and c (remember that , Ka, and c are

positive quantities).

Ka =

2c

K a (1 ) = 2 c

1

2 c + K a K a = 0

E Steiner 2008

15

The quadratic in has roots

1

Ka Ka2 + 4Ka c

2c

Now K a > 0 , and c > 0 , so that K a 2 + 4 K a c > K a . Therefore, for positive degree of dissociation,

=

=

1

Ka + Ka2 + 4Ka c

2c

Ka

4c

1

1+

Ka

2c

53. Given that x 1 is a factor of the cubic x3 + 4 x 2 + x 6 , (i) find the roots, (ii) sketch the graph

x3 + 4 x 2 + x 6 = ( x 1)( x 2 + ax + b)

= x3 + (a 1) x 2 + (b a ) x b

Then

a = 5 and b = 6 ,

and

x3 + 4 x 2 + x 6 = ( x 1)( x 2 + 5 x + 6)

= ( x 1)( x + 2)(x + 3)

(ii) The graph of the function y = x3 + 4 x 2 + x 6 , crosses the x-axis at x = 1, 2, and 3 and the y-

E Steiner 2008

16

54. Given that x 1 is a factor of the cubic x3 6 x 2 + 9 x 4 , (i) find the roots, (ii) sketch the graph.

(i) Because x 1 is a factor, the cubic can be factorized:

x3 6 x 2 + 9 x 4 = ( x 1)( x 2 + ax + b) = x3 + (a 1) x 2 + (b a ) x b

Then

a = 5 and b = 4 ,

and

x3 6 x 2 + 9 x 4 = ( x 1)( x 2 5 x + 4)

= ( x 1)( x 1)( x 4)

(ii) The graph of the function y = x3 6 x 2 + 9 x 4 , touches the x-axis at x = 1 and crosses it at

x = 4 . It crosses the y-axis at y = 4 . Also y + as x + and y as x .

55. Given that x 1 is a factor of the cubic x3 3x 2 + 3x 1 , (i) find the roots, (ii) sketch the graph.

(i) Because x 1 is a factor, the cubic can be factorized:

x3 3x 2 + 3x 1 = ( x 1)( x 2 + ax + b) = x3 + (a 1) x 2 + (b a ) x b

Then

a = 2 and b = 1 ,

and

x3 3x 2 + 3x 1 = ( x 1)( x 2 2 x + 1)

= ( x 1)3

(ii) The graph of the function y = x3 3 x 2 + 3 x 1 , crosses the x-axis at x = 1 . It crosses the y-axis at

y = 1 . Also y + as x + and y as x .

E Steiner 2008

17

56. Given that x 2 1 is a factor of the quartic x 4 5 x3 + 5 x 2 + 5 x 6 , (i) find the roots, (ii) sketch the

graph.

x 4 5 x3 + 5 x 2 + 5 x 6 = ( x 2 1)( x 2 + ax + b)

= x 4 + ax3 + (b 1) x 2 ax b

Then

a = 5 and b = 6 ,

and

x 4 5 x3 + 5 x 2 + 5 x 6 = ( x 2 1)( x 2 5 x + 6)

= ( x 2 1)( x 2)( x 3)

= ( x + 1)( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)

(ii) The graph of the function y = x 4 5 x3 + 5 x 2 + 5 x 6 , crosses the x-axis at x = 1 , x = 1 , x = 2 ,

x = 3 . It crosses the y-axis at y = 6 . Also y + as x .

E Steiner 2008

18

Section 2.6

Use algebraic division to reduce the rational function to proper form:

57.

58.

2x 1

x+3

2

x + 3 2x 1

2x + 6

7

= 2

x+3

3x3 2 x 2 x + 4

x+2

remainder

3 x 2 8 x + 15

x + 2 3x3 2 x 2 x + 4

3x3 + 6 x 2

8x2 x + 4

8 x 2 16 x

26

= 3x 8 x + 15

x+2

x3 + 2 x 2 5 x 6

x +1

59.

15 x + 4

15 x + 30

26

x2 + x 6

x + 1 x3 + 2 x 2 5 x 6

x3 + x 2

x2 5x 6

x2 + x

6x 6

6 x 6

= x2 + x 6

60.

2 x 4 3 x3 + 4 x 2 5 x + 6

x2 2 x 2

0

2 x 2 + x + 10

x 2 2 x 2 2 x 4 3x3 + 4 x 2 5 x + 6

2 x 4 4 x3 4 x 2

x3 + 8 x 2 5 x + 6

x3 2 x 2 2 x

10 x 2 3 x + 6

= 2 x 2 + x + 10 +

E Steiner 2008

17 x + 26

x2 2 x 2

10 x 2 20 x 20

17 x + 26

19

Section 2.7

61. Express

1

in terms of partial fractions.

( x 1)( x + 2)

Let

1

A

B

=

+

( x 1)( x + 2) x 1 x + 2

Therefore

1

A( x + 2) + B ( x 1)

=

( x 1)( x + 2)

( x 1)( x + 2)

For this to be true for all values of x it is required that the numerators on the two sides of the equal sign

be equal:

1 = A( x + 2) + B ( x 1)

The values of A and B can be obtained by making suitable choices of the variable x. Thus

Therefore

62. Express

when x = 1 :

1 = 3A

and

A =1 3

when x = 2 :

1 = 3B

and

B = 1 3

1

1 1

1

=

( x 1)( x + 2) 3 x 1 x + 2

x+2

in terms of partial fractions.

x( x + 3)

Let

x+2

A

B

A( x + 3) + Bx

= +

=

x( x + 3) x x + 3

x( x + 3)

It is required that

x + 2 = A( x + 3) + Bx

Then

Therefore

E Steiner 2008

when x = 0 :

2 = 3A

and

A=2 3

when x = 3 :

1 = 3B and

B =1 3

x+2

1 2

1

= +

x( x + 3) 3 x x + 3

20

63. Express

x2

x + 3x + 2

2

x2

Let

x + 3x + 2

2

A

B

A( x + 1) + B( x + 2)

+

=

x + 2 x +1

( x + 2)( x + 1)

It is required that

x 2 = A( x + 1) + B( x + 2)

Then

when x = 2:

4 = A and

A=4

when x = 1:

3 = B

B = 3

and

x+2

4

3

=

x( x + 3) x + 2 x + 1

Therefore

64. Express

2 x2 5x + 7

in terms of partial fractions.

x( x 1)( x + 2)

Let

A

B

C

2 x2 5x + 7

= +

+

x( x 1)( x + 2) x x 1 x + 2

=

x( x 1)( x + 2)

It is required that

2 x 2 5 x + 7 = A( x 1)( x + 2) + Bx( x + 2) + Cx ( x 1)

Then

when x = 0:

7 = 2 A

and

A = 7 2

when x = 1:

4 = 3B

and

B=4 3

25 = 6C

and

B = 25 6

when x = 2 :

2 x2 5x + 7

1 21

8

25

= +

+

x( x 1)( x + 2) 6 x x 1 x + 2

Therefore

65. Express

x2 + 2x 1

( x + 2)( x 1) 2

Let

x2 + 2x 1

( x + 2)( x 1)

E Steiner 2008

A

B

C

+

+

x + 2 x 1 ( x 1) 2

A( x 1) 2 + B( x 1)( x + 2) + C ( x + 2)

( x + 2)( x 1) 2

21

It is required that

x 2 + 2 x 1 = A( x 1) 2 + B( x 1)( x + 2) + C ( x + 2)

Then

when x = 1:

2 = 3C

and

C=2 3

when x = 2 : 1 = 9 A

and

A = 1 9

when x = 0 :

Therefore

x2 + 2x 1

( x + 2)( x 1)

1 = A 2 B + 2C B = (1 + A + 2C ) 2 = 10 9

=

1 1

10

6

+

+

9 x + 2 x 1 ( x 1) 2

Section 2.8

66.

x+ y =3

x y =1

(1)

(2)

(1) + (2)

2x = 4 x = 2

Therefore

x = 2, y = 1

67.

(1)

(2)

3x 2 y = 1

2x + 3y = 2

(1)

(2)

6x 4 y = 2

6x + 9 y = 6

and subtract (1) from (2) to give 13 y = 4 y = 4 13 . Substitution for y in (1) then gives

3x 8 13 = 1 x = 7 13 .

Therefore

x = 7 13, y = 4 13

E Steiner 2008

22

68.

(1)

(2)

3x 2 y = 1

6x 4 y = 6

(1)

(2)

3x 2 y = 1

0=4

The second equation is not possible. The equations are said to be inconsistent and there is no solution.

Graphically, the equations describe parallel lines.

69.

(1)

(2)

3x 2 y = 1

6x 4 y = 2

In this case, doubling equation (1) gives equation (2) and there is effectively only one independent

equation; both equations represent the same line. The equations are said to be linearly dependent and it

is only possible to obtain a partial solution

x = (1 + 2 y ) 3

70.

(1)

(2)

(3)

x 2 y + 3z = 3

2x y 2z = 8

3x + 3 y z = 1

To solve, eliminate x from equations (2) and (3) by subtracting 2 (1) from (2) and 3 (1) from (3):

(1)

(2)

(3)

x 2 y + 3z = 3

3 y 8z = 2

9 y 10 z = 8

(1)

(2)

(3)

x 2 y + 3z = 3

3 y 8z = 2

14 z = 14

The equations can now be solved in reverse order: (3) is z = 1 , then (2) is 3 y + 8 = 2 so that

y = 2 , and (1) is x + 4 3 = 3 so that x = 2 .

E Steiner 2008

23

71.

(1)

2x y = 1

(2)

x 2 xy + y 2 = 1

Equation (1) can be solved for y in terms of x and the result substituted in equation (2). Thus, from (1),

y = 2 x 1 , and (2) becomes

x 2 (2 x 1) x + (2 x 1) 2 1 = 0

3x 2 3x = 0

x( x 1) = 0

This has roots x1 = 0 and x2 = 1 , with corresponding value of y, y1 = 1 and y2 = 1 . In this case the

two solutions are the points at which the straight line (1) crosses the ellipse (2); ( x1 , y1 ) = (0, 1) and

( x2 , y2 ) = (1, 1) , as demonstrated in the figure below.

72.

(1)

2x y = 2

(2)

x 2 xy + y 2 = 1

As in exercise 71, equation (1) can be solved for y in terms of x and the result substituted in equation

(2). Thus, from (1), y = 2 x 2 , and (2) becomes

x 2 (2 x 2) x + (2 x 2) 2 1 = 0

3x 2 6 x + 3 = 0

( x 1) 2 = 0

This has the double root x = 1 , with corresponding value y = 0 . In this case the line (1) is tangent to

(touches) the ellipse (2) at point ( x, y ) = (1, 0) , as demonstrated in the figure below.

73.

(1)

2x y = 3

(2)

x 2 xy + y 2 = 1

As in Exercises 71 and 72, equation (1) can be solved for y in terms of x and the result substituted in

equation (2). Thus, from (1), y = 2 x 3 , and (2) becomes

x 2 (2 x 3) x + (2 x 3) 2 1 = 0

3x 2 9 x + 8 = 0

x=

9 81 96 9 i 15

=

6

6

and the line dose not touch the ellipse, as demonstrated in the figure below.

E Steiner 2008

Note

Exercises 71 to 73 are special cases of the line y = 2 x a and the ellipse x 2 xy + y 2 = 1 . The general

solution is x =

3a 12 3a 2

. The line crosses the ellipse when | a | < 2 , touches the ellipse when

6

a = 2 , and misses the ellipse when | a | > 2 , as demonstrated in the following figure.

E Steiner 2008

24

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