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Time Frame in Large Water Project Implementation

KLutchmun Principal Engineer Central Water Authority lutchmun_d@cwa.intnet.mu

VProag Faculty of Engineering, University of Mauritius vproag@uom.ac.mu

Abstract

Since the Central Water Authority was created in 1971, there have been many large water projects that have been recommended in the four Master Plans to improve the water situation in Mauritius. However in most cases,these projects have been delayed and / or not implemented at all for various reasons. By knowing these reasons, corrective measures can be taken to mitigate the impact of long time frame for implementation of large water projects. As a result, adequate water may be available in time to satisfy the water requirement of the whole country.

The different reasons,which played a major role in the long time frame have been studied. None of the large water projects listed in the Master Plans has been carried out as pertherecommendedtimeframeandthemajorityofthese projects takes over 25 years for their implementation.

Recommendations have been put forward in order to reduce the long time frame in implementing a large water project. There is nevertheless a minimum of about 17 years.

This also means that the proposed projects must start meeting demand requirements as from 17 - 20 years after the initial studies mention the project.

1. Time Between Inspiration and Operation

There are many large water projects that have been implemented ages after the original conception. One example is the Midlands Dam Project. Initial construction started in 1926,resumed in 1999 and was completed in 2002

The aim of this paper is to identify and assess the reasons for the long time in the implementation and/or non-implementation of large water projects, identified in the different Master Plans and comparing the proposed and the actual implementation schedule.

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2. Master Plans

2.1 Definition

Easley V.G., Goyle G. (2005) define a Master Plan as “a guide to accomplish a coordinated and harmonious long term development based on analyses of present and future needs to promote health, safety and general welfare as well as efficiency and economy in the land development process and the maintenance of property values”. Furthermore, the Environmental Planning and Management (EMP) Guidebook defines a Master Plan

as “a tool which allows for a continuous process to

continually improve a community and better environment and developed for the long term strategic planning of resources”. (http://www.gdrc.org/uem/epm/epm.htm)

Since the creation of the Central Water Authority in 1971, there have been four Master Plans for the development of the water resources in Mauritius in order to meet the short-term, medium-term and long- term water requirement for domestic, commercial, industrial and irrigation purposes.

A Master Plan defines a project and provides a guide

for its implementation, including a time schedule for the execution of the project,from its conception to the

construction stage. Unfortunately, the recommendations made in the four Master Plans, especially concerning the implementation stages have practically never been respected.

2.2 PlanningPhaseandTimeFrame

Prior to implementation of any project, the planning phase is of utmost importance as it lays down the foundation on how to go about meeting the project objectives efficiently. It also allows the identification of risks for proper decision making. Based on practical considerations, Proag V (2007) listed out the following activities which need to be examined in order to implement the necessary water infrastructure before it

is required.

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Assess the water requirementsTHE JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS MAURITIUS Assess the availability Preliminary matching of resources

Assess the availabilityOF ENGINEERS MAURITIUS Assess the water requirements Preliminary matching of resources and

Preliminary

matchingPreliminary

of

resources

and

requirements

Formulating possible schemesmatching of resources and requirements Cost estimates of schemes Formulating the draft Master Plan

Cost estimates of schemesand requirements Formulating possible schemes Formulating the draft Master Plan Marketing the Master Plan

Formulating the draft Master PlanFormulating possible schemes Cost estimates of schemes Marketing the Master Plan and acceptance thereof Feasibility

Marketing the Master Plan and acceptance thereofCost estimates of schemes Formulating the draft Master Plan Feasibility studies Looking for funds Implementation of

Feasibility studiesMaster Plan Marketing the Master Plan and acceptance thereof Looking for funds Implementation of proposed schemes

Looking for fundsthe Master Plan and acceptance thereof Feasibility studies Implementation of proposed schemes This author emphasised

Implementation of proposed schemesand acceptance thereof Feasibility studies Looking for funds This author emphasised that the studies that have

This author emphasised that the studies that have been carried out by a group of technicians may be technically very sound, but unless the Master Plan meets the approval of the various stakeholders (users, politicians, etc) it is foolish to expect that any of the schemes will be implemented in time, if at all. It is thus very important that some time be devoted to meeting the different stakeholders (or their representatives or associations) quite early during the formulation of possible schemes and the draft Master Plan. It is advisable to organise presentation at different stages to potential stakeholders and ask for their comments.It is further pointed out that after the Master Plan has been approved by the relevant authorities, the implementation of any scheme would require a detailed feasibility study. Hopefully, a few of these studies would be initiated.

A realistic time frame for a large water project may

vary between 10 to 20 years. Basically, in the best of circumstances, 10 years will lapse before it is possible

to benefit from a major water project forming part of

a coherent plan. In normal circumstances,17 years may elapse. A longer period is in fact more likely, say 20 years, as there are always people who will delay in taking decisions, or through the normal bureaucratic way that things move (ProagV, 2007).

2.3 Delays in Project Implementation

However, not all projects are implemented or meet their objectives. Randal B (2004) attributes project failure to the following factors:

Starting with half-baked ideas(2004) attributes project failure to the following factors: Failure to consider and manage stakeholders Lack of

Failure to consider and manage stakeholdersto the following factors: Starting with half-baked ideas Lack of committed sponsorship Not planning all deliverables

Lack of committed sponsorshiphalf-baked ideas Failure to consider and manage stakeholders Not planning all deliverables and other project activities

Not planning all deliverables and other project activities in detailand manage stakeholders Lack of committed sponsorship Sufficient resources were not obtained or estimated

Sufficient

resources were not obtained orand other project activities in detail Sufficient estimated Unrealistic schedule or deadlines Lack of

estimated

Unrealistic schedule or deadlinesdetail Sufficient resources were not obtained or estimated Lack of technical expertise Allowing the scope to

Lack of technical expertisenot obtained or estimated Unrealistic schedule or deadlines Allowing the scope to change or creep without

Allowing the scope to change or creep without changing the planschedule or deadlines Lack of technical expertise Unforeseen or changing conditions 62 2.4 Implementation A

Unforeseen or changing conditionsthe scope to change or creep without changing the plan 62 2.4 Implementation A Master Plan

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2.4 Implementation

A Master Plan is only useful if its recommendations are

implemented. In order for a Master Plan to serve as an effective guide to continually meet the water requirement of Mauritius, it has to be implemented as per the recommended schedule.

Implementation is almost universally a weak point:

cities all over the world (but especially those in lower- income and transitional countries) have chronic difficulties with implementing strategies and plans. Experience has shown the value of an integrated process leading from strategies directly into action plans, utilizing the same participatory and consultative mechanisms in a continuous process.Action Plans have been most successful when formulated as clear and detailed agreements for co-ordinated action, including agency-specific and stakeholder-specific agreements which describe each agency’s or stakeholder’s commitments for priority actions, within a well-defined timetable, including: allocation of staff time and resources, use of financial resources (both for investment and for operation and maintenance), detailed geographic focus, application of other relevant instruments for implementation, and use of a common system for monitoring the observance of commitments and achievement of action plan objectives. Formulated

in this way, action plans are much more effective (and

much more likely to be implemented successfully) than

old-fashioned Master Plans or independent annual budgeting exercises by separate agencies. [Environmental Planning and Management (EPM) Guidebook ( epm/htm).

When Master Plans are not implemented as scheduled, several problems may persist, deteriorate or arise.

3. Case Studies

Hereunder, are a few case studies which highlight the different problems encountered while implementing projects.

3.1 Kalabagh Dam Project, Pakistan

(http://www.unescap.org/drpad/vc/conference/bg_pk_

57_kdp.htm)

Kalabagh Dam on the Indus River in the Punjab province– a multi-purpose hydroelectricity cum irrigation project – has long been identified as a technically feasible project. So far, over one billion rupees have already been spent on the feasibility and design of this project, but consensus on the construction of this dam by the provincial governments is not forthcoming despite efforts by the Federal

Government. An additional water reservoir is also badly needed for irrigation needs to offset the capacity

of existing reservoirs being depleted due to siltation.

Unsuccessful resolutions of conflicts (flooding of fertile

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plains, reduced downstream flow) have also held prospects of tapping other locations for dam on the Indus with consequential adverse impact on the country.

This is a case where the different stakeholders involved in the project were in disagreement, hence the project is being delayed, if not shelved for ever.

3.2 Waste Disposal Master Plan for

Jakarta, Indonesia

By 1977, the Indonesian government had completed a waste disposal master plan for Jakarta that recommended phased construction of a conventional sewer system.

The project for Jakarta did not meet its goals because of the following reasons:

1. The project preparation took nearly four years due to disagreements between the World Bank and the Indonesian Government on the size, composition and location of the project.

2. Change

of

responsibility.

staff and arguments over sector

3. Land use within the project area changed rapidly, which made the proposed technological solutions unstable.

4. Long procurement delays.

5. Too many agencies were involved in running the project.

[Sewerage and Sanitation: Jakarta and Manila. (1995).

(http://www-

wds.worldbank.org/servlet/main?menuPK=64187510&

pagePK

=64193027&piPK=64187937&theSitePK=523679&enti

tyID=000011823_2000419102940)

3.3 1964 Master Plan, Bangladesh

The first major step in water plan formulation was the preparation of the 1964 Master Plan, [Water Sector Roadmap, Bangladesh (2003). (http://www.adb.org/ water/CRWS/Roadmap-BAN.pdf)] which focused predominantly on flood control for agriculture and included a portfolio of 58 large projects including 3 barrages on major rivers. Some of the big projects included in the plan were implemented by mid 1980s. It became, however, evident by then that the design of these projects had largely overlooked their impact on fisheries, navigation, salinity and the ecosystem as a whole.The plan did contribute toward protecting the coastal zone from tidally induced flooding. The 1964 plan over-estimated the public sector capability and over emphasized large sector surface water interventions. It largely overlooked the country’s ground water resources, which later proved to be the

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key to rapid expansion of irrigation.

3.4 Drinking Water and Sanitation in

Rural Maharashtra: A Review of Policy Initiatives

DelayinImplementationofSchemes

Individual rural water supply schemes for single villages are generally based on groundwater as source and are simple for execution.These schemes can be executed in about 18-24 months after tendering or 24-30 months after approval of the schemes. Schemes with surface water as a source like jack well; canal intake etc., could take 6 to 12 months extra. The regional water supply schemes are usually complex and could take 3 to 4 years for completion.

In practice however, there are very few schemes that have been completed within the given schedule. The delay would be anywhere between 6 months to 2 years. Major reasons for delay during execution can be summarized as:

Inadequate survey and investigations.reasons for delay during execution can be summarized as: Source found to be inadequate and a

Source found to be inadequate and a new source is to be studied and located. New source is also to be proposed if the first one is subjected to pollution.can be summarized as: Inadequate survey and investigations. Resistance of the people to the scheme as

Resistance of the people to the scheme as a whole or to the selected location of the source as recommended.to be proposed if the first one is subjected to pollution. Land acquisition problems. Resistance of

Land acquisition problems.or to the selected location of the source as recommended. Resistance of the people to take

Resistance of the people to take up a scheme common for a group of villages, with an apprehension of other villages dominating and not allowing water to be carried further to a distant village.of the source as recommended. Land acquisition problems. Resistance of the people to the choice of

Resistance of the people to the choice of the pipe. They would prefer metal pipes and would not like asbestos cement pipes.allowing water to be carried further to a distant village. Insistence on the construction of an

Insistence on the construction of an elevated service reservoir in place of a ground reservoir proposed,or insistence to have a reservoir of larger capacity.prefer metal pipes and would not like asbestos cement pipes. Absence of smooth flow of funds,

Absence of smooth flow of funds, which is at times erratic.insistence to have a reservoir of larger capacity. Lack of materials, particularly specials and fixtures.

Lack of materials, particularly specials and fixtures.Absence of smooth flow of funds, which is at times erratic. Designs required to be changed

Designs required to be changed during execution.Lack of materials, particularly specials and fixtures. Failure of officers to take timely action against the

Failure of officers to take timely action against the erring contractors.fixtures. Designs required to be changed during execution. Tendency of the contractors to carry out the

Tendency of the contractors to carry out the easy items of work or paying items first and then try to avoid other items of work.to take timely action against the erring contractors. Unworkable rates adopted in estimation. Terminating the

Unworkable rates adopted in estimation.items first and then try to avoid other items of work. Terminating the contract of first

Terminating the contract of first contractor for various reasons,the major reason being delay in execution,and thereafter difficulties in fixing new agencies.items of work or paying items first and then try to avoid other items of work.

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Failure of structures during execution like jack wells, reservoirs, etc.THE JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS MAURITIUS Increase in cost during execution for reasons such

Increase in cost during execution for reasons such as excess quantities, extra items etc. and cost escalation during delayed implementation, which requires revised administrative approval of Government. This is delayed for several reasons, particularly inability to convince the Government of the validity of reasons for delay and cost escalation. The delay on this account could be anywhere in the range of 1 to 4 years.during execution like jack wells, reservoirs, etc. Lack of permission from Irrigation Department, particularly

Lack of permission from Irrigation Department, particularly at mid level offices.this account could be anywhere in the range of 1 to 4 years. Delay in obtaining

Delay in obtaining permission for crossing of road, rivers and railways.Irrigation Department, particularly at mid level offices. Incompetence of the contractor and / or inadequate financial

Incompetence of the contractor and / or inadequate financial resources on the part of the contractor.permission for crossing of road, rivers and railways. Delay in obtaining electricity connection. This is, in

Delay in obtaining electricity connection.financial resources on the part of the contractor. This is, in fact, a long list of

This is, in fact, a long list of minor details which may hamper the implementation of any project,in particular

a large one. [Keshab Das (2006).

(http://www.forward.org.in/pdf/Maharashtra-

keshabdas-paper.pdf)]

4. The Case for Mauritius

4.1 The Central Water Authority (CWA)

The Central Water Authority (CWA) was created as a

body corporate (parastatal) by an Act of Parliament

under the provisions of the Central Water Authority Act No. 20 of 1971, and subsequently amended. The Central Water Authority operates under the aegis of the Ministry of Public Utilities.

The Central Water Authority is responsible for the control, development and conservation of water

resources. The CWA is the sole supplier of potable

water in Mauritius and is an essential provider of water

to the whole population of the island.About 99.6% of

the population has access to a potable water supply

either in their homes or on their premises.

In order to sustain the economic growth of the

country and to meet the ever increasing water demand

for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes, the Authority needs to foresee the future demand and harness additional water resources. The Master Plan is

an essential tool for the CWA to succeed in coping with the ever increasing water demand.

4.2 Master Plans Since the Creation of CWA

A Master Plan defines projects which need to be

carried out in order to meet the future demand. It also provides a guide for its implementation, including a time frame for the execution of the project in order

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that the additional water resources are available before it is required.

Since the creation of the Central Water Authority in 1971, there have been four Master Plans for the development of the water resources in Mauritius in order to meet the short-term, medium-term and long- term water requirement for domestic, commercial, industrial and irrigation purposes.

These four Master Plans are as follows( TABLE 1)

4.3 Master Plan Recommendations

The most recent Master Plan for the water sector, [Gibbs (Mts), 2007], has not proposed any new project for harnessing additional water resources. Moreover, the time scale is too small and none of the recommended projects has yet started. Consequently, this Master Plan was not considered any further.

The other three Master Plans have been studied and a summary of the recommended major works are listed below.

4.4 Purpose of this Study

For various reasons, it has not been possible to implement the works proposed in the three Master Plans as per the recommended time frame and some will probably never be implemented at all. Consequently, very often the CWA finds itself in a position of crisis to meet the ever increasing water demand.

In order to solve the problem of the long time frame for implementation / non-implementation of large water projects, there is an urgent need to determine the reasons thereof. Corrective measures can then be taken to mitigate the impact of long time frame for the implementation of large water projects. As a result, adequate water may be available in time to satisfy the water requirement of the whole country, be it for domestic, commercial, industry and irrigation and for the CWA to succeed in its “mission”.

5.

Approach

5.1 Data Collection

The projects from the different Master Plans which have been listed inTable 2“Implementation Schedule of Selected Project” have been researched. The information have been extracted from the archives of CWA and WRU, discussions were held with personnel of these two organizations and with persons who are familiar with the projects in order to know the implementation date and the actual reasons for the delay in implementing the projects and non- implementation of other projects.

For projects which have been named more than once,

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THE JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS MAURITIUS the recommended time schedule in the earliest Master
THE JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS MAURITIUS the recommended time schedule in the earliest Master

the recommended time schedule in the earliest Master Plan was considered except for Midlands Dam which was first initiated in 1926.

The different projects have been grouped into 3 categories, namely Dams, Extension of Existing Water Treatment Plant and Exploitation of Underground Water.

5.2 Construction of Dams

Table 3 gives the year the project was first initiated and the actual implementation date.

Out of the eight Dams projects only one, Midlands Dam, has been completed in 2002. Bagatelle Dam is presently being designed and is scheduled to be completed by 2013. However, funds for the project implementation have not yet been secured and the Mauritian Government is negotiating with the Indian Government under the Indian line of Credit to finance the project.

Furthermore there is another project being investigated to harness additional water resources for

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the Southern and South Western parts of the island. The feasibility study for River des Anguilles dam has been completed and the government is contemplating an early implementation.This study will cater for areas previously addressed by Astroea, La Flora, and Chamarel Dams.

The proposals to construct a dam at Calebasses, Baptiste and Cote d’Or do not appear to go ahead in the future as Midlands Dam has been constructed and Bagatelle Dam is planned to be constructed shortly.

Midlands Dam has taken 76 years to complete and Bagatelle Dam, if it is to be completed as scheduled, would materialise 23 years after its conception.

Following research and discussion, the following reasons have contributed for the long time frame in the implementation of these two projects:

Lack of long term vision and planning.long time frame in the implementation of these two projects: Lack of a global national strategy

Lack of a global national strategy for development (50 – 100 years planning for the whole infrastructure works of the country)contributed for the long time frame in the implementation of these two projects: Lack of long

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THE JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS MAURITIUS Securing external funds. Long procurement process. Political
THE JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS MAURITIUS Securing external funds. Long procurement process. Political

Securing external funds.THE JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS MAURITIUS Long procurement process. Political willingness to continue with

Long procurement process.INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS MAURITIUS Securing external funds. Political willingness to continue with a project when there

Political willingness to continue with a project when there is a change of Government.MAURITIUS Securing external funds. Long procurement process. to Water requirements keep changing due unplanned

to

Waterwith a project when there is a change of Government. to requirements keep changing due unplanned

requirements

keep

changing

due

unplanned development.

Lack of a dedicated project team to follow up a project.Water requirements keep changing due unplanned development. 5.3 Extension of Existing Water Treatment Plants The

5.3

Extension of Existing Water Treatment

Plants

The different Master Plans have recommended increasing the capacity of six treatment plants as mentioned in Table4.

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Out of the six treatment plants only one,namely Pailles Water Treatment Plant, has not yet been extended.

Table 4 compares the actual completion date to the year the project was first initiated and also included the time lag between the above two schedules.

Table 4 shows that the time difference between the initiated and implemented date varies from 9 years to 40 years with an average of 22 years.

After discussions with persons having experience with these projects, the personnel of CWA and information gathered in the archives, the same reasons as for Dam Construction can be attributed for the long time frame in implementing the above Water Treatment Plant Projects.

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Table 5 – UndergroundWater - Recommended /Actual Implementation

Table 5 – UndergroundWater - Recommended /Actual Implementation

Figure 1 – UndergroundWater - Recommended /Actual Implementation

1 – UndergroundWater - Recommended /Actual Implementation Furthermore, another major reason which has contributed for

Furthermore, another major reason which has contributed for the delay in increasing treatment plants capacities is the exploitation of underground water resources. The CWA considered that exploiting underground aquifer required a much lower investment cost and could be done much faster than extending the treatment plants capacities.

5.4 Underground Water Exploitation

The recommended time schedule as per the different Master Plans and the actual implementation for exploitation of underground water are shown in Table 5 and illustrated graphically in Figure 1 above.

Figure 1 shows that the actual implementation does not differ by much from the recommended time schedule.

Projects for exploitation of underground water cannot be considered as large water projects. The average present investment cost for exploiting of a new borehole is about Rs 8M (Rupees Eight Million – around 200,000 Euros, U$300,000) and flows vary from 3 to 8,000 m 3 /day.

As the investment cost is relatively low and there were

adequate underground water resources, CWA has embarked in exploiting aquifers to meet the increasing water demand.

As exploitation of underground water resources has reached more or less its limit, additional boreholes are yielding less and less water and the yield during the dry period has decreased sharply. The underground production during the dry period decreases by about 25% when compared to the production during normal period.

6. Results and Findings

6.1 Validity and Reliability of Results

It is difficult to confirm the validity of a survey result. However the participants have been given sufficient time to be able to fill in the questionnaire at their own pace and they were informed about the confidentiality of the survey and stating their name was optional. Being a self-administered survey, normally they view the questionnaires as anonymous and they would provide more honest answers. Hence, it can be assumed that most of the results are valid.

Given the population concerned, the sample size was

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calculated and found to be 59 by using a Confidence Level of 95%. However, only 58 questionnaires were returned and analysed.Therefore the Confidence Level has to be reduced to 94%,which is still very reasonable for a self-administered survey.Furthermore,the results were also tested using the Chi-Square statistical test and found to be statically sound with a Significance Level of 1%. Hence, it can be deduced that most of the results are reliable.

As for the analysis of the actual implementation and the reasons for the long time frame, all the results were based on fact.Therefore it can be concluded that they are valid and reliable.

Only Dam and Water Treatment Projects have been considered as large projects. The results generated by the analysis of the data collected through research, interviews and survey have been discussed and interpreted in Chapter 6. The main results and findings are summarised hereunder.

6.2 Construction of Dams

Only Midlands Dam has been constructed out of the eight Dam Projects mentioned in the different Master Plans i.e.12.5%. The project has taken 76 years from its initial conception till its implementation.

The completion of Bagatelle Dam is scheduled for 2013, i.e. at least 23 years after its proposed construction and if everything goes according to plan. However, there is a great probability that the completion date would be delayed during the design and construction phases as for most major projects.

30 years have already lapsed since the different Master Plans recommended the construction of Calebasses, Mon Vallon and Chamarel Dams. As at today, there is no sign that these projects would be constructed in the future, say the next 10-15 years.

As we can see the time frame for the implementation of a large water project, like the construction of a Dam, takes a very long time indeed, more than 25 years.

6.3 Extension of Water Treatment Plants

Out of six extensions to Water Treatment Plant Projects mentioned in the Master Plans, five have been implemented. There has been a time lag varying from 9 years to 33 years from the date the project was initiated to the completion date, with an average of more than 22 years between inception and implementation. Again, we can see that the average time for the implementation of a large water project takes above 20 years.

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7. Reasons for Long Time Frame

7.1 Analysis of Data

The 10 suggested reasons as listed below contribute for the long time frame before large water projects are materialised. The respondents from the survey exercise also agreed with the suggested reasons.

1. Lack of financial resources

2. Political willingness to carry out the project

3. Lack of coordination between the different stakeholders

4. Land acquisition / wayleave

5. Improper marketing of the importance of the project

6. Increase in the cost of the project

7. Change in priority of project

8. Human resources capacity of the Public Body to carry out the project

9. The Project is not well defined

10. Unrealistic time frame

Furthermore, following research works, discussions and survey, it has been found that these additional reasons have also played a major part in delaying the implementation of large water project.

1.

Lack of long term vision and planning.

 

2.

Lack of a global national strategy for development (50 – 100 years planning for the whole infrastructure works of the country)

3.

Securing external funds.

 

4.

Long procurement process.

 

5.

Political willingness to continue with a project when there is a change of Government.

6.

Water

requirement

keep

changing

due

to

unplanned development.

 

7.

Lack of a dedicated project team to follow project

7.2

Implementation Time Frame

 

33% of the respondents from the survey exercise believe that less than 20% of the implemented projects are executed as per the recommended time schedule. The study has shown that none of the projects has been carried out as per the recommended time frame. None of the respondents think that the implementation time takes more than 20 years. However, actual dates confirm that the majority of projects take more than 20 years from initiation to implementation.

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8.

Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations have been put forward in order to reduce the long time frame in implementing a large

water project and also for the project to attain its

objectives:-

Creation of a national policy for developmentproject and also for the project to attain its objectives:- Designed life time of project Consensus

Designed life time of projectobjectives:- Creation of a national policy for development Consensus on project Dedicated project team 8.1 National

Consensus on projectpolicy for development Designed life time of project Dedicated project team 8.1 National Policy for Development

Dedicated project teamDesigned life time of project Consensus on project 8.1 National Policy for Development Recognizing the critical

8.1 National Policy for Development

Recognizing the critical role that water plays in ensuring the development of any sector is the major step for the country to prosper. There should be a holistic water development approach that is economically, socially and environmentally sustainable. In order to achieve the above, there should be a national policy unit for development which clusters all stakeholders together in view of developing national policies for all sectors. In this way the water sector

purposes.

Consequently, it is recommended that the design life (30 - 50 years plus eventual extension) of the project

starts not less than 20 years after the initial conception

of the project.

8.3 Consensus on Project

Very often a project which had been well advanced in the implementation phase, had to be modified or even shelved because there is a change in the political sphere.

A project, once built, will probably have a lifetime

ranging from 25 to 50 years or more. It is recommended that for a large project, there must be a consensus at the very beginning and once the project has started, every effort has to be geared toward the project in order to complete it on time and hence be beneficial to both the Authority and the population in general.Any delay(be it administrative, financial or non consensus among stakeholders) in any one of the

or non consensus among stakeholders) in any one of the would align its objectives to those

would align its objectives to those of the national policy. Furthermore there is a need to develop better tools and instruments to facilitate the implementation of policies, thus the implementation of water projects too.

8.2 Design Life Time of Project

Most of the time, a water project is designed to satisfy the demand for the next twenty years or so. From our findings,we can see that a large water project may take more than 25 years from its conception to its implementation and by the time the project is completed, it may no longer serve even its original

activities mentioned in Table6 is going to lengthen the time taken to implement the project.

8.4 Dedicated Project Team

Another reason why a project is delayed is the lack of

a dedicated project team to follow up the

implementation of the project.A project team is a team

and is not an individual alone.The team must be able to function whether a member leaves or not and the team must have the full support of the management in order

to accomplish its task effectively and efficiently. The

project team must be composed of members with relevant experience and qualifications.

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9.

Conclusions

The Central Water Authority was created in 1971. Since then, there have been four Master Plans for the development of the water resources in Mauritius in order to meet the short-term, medium-term and long- term water requirement for domestic, commercial, industrial and irrigation purposes.

Most projects have been delayed and / or not implemented at all for various reasons.The study aimed to identify and assess these different reasons and the perception of persons related to the water sector.

The methodology used to obtain the perception of people was carried out through a self administered survey questionnaire which was distributed among persons familiar with the water sector. The questionnaire contained questions on their general awareness of Master Plans for the water sector, their views on implementation of projects and the reasons for the long time frame. The calculated sample size was 59 respondents. However 58 questionnaires were returned and analysed, which give a Confidence Level of 94%. The results were also tested using the Chi- Square statistical test and found to be sound with 1% Significance Level.

Following the

recommendations above have been made.

the

analysis

of

the

survey,

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