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CHAPTER4

LONGTERMFINANCIALPLANNING
ANDGROWTH
Learning Objectives

LO1Theobjectivesandgoalsoffinancialplanning.
LO2Howtocomputetheexternalfinancingneededtofundafirmsgrowth.
LO3Howtoapplythepercentagesalesmethod.
LO4Thefactorsdeterminingthegrowthofthefirm.
LO5Howtocomputethesustainableandinternalgrowthrates.
LO6Someoftheproblemsinplanningforgrowth.
Answers to Concepts Review and Critical Thinking Questions
1.

(LO1) The reason is that, ultimately, sales are the driving force behind a business. A firms assets, employees,
and, in fact, just about every aspect of its operations and financing exist to directly or indirectly support sales.
Put differently, a firms future need for things like capital assets, employees, inventory, and financing are
determined by its future sales level.

2.

(LO1) Its probably more important for a capital intensive company because such companies must make large
cash outlays long in advance of actual needs. For example, a new manufacturing facility might have to be
started years before the planned output is needed.

3.

(LO2) The internal growth rate is greater than 15%, because at a 15% growth rate the negative EFN indicates
that there is excess internal financing. If the internal growth rate is greater than 15%, then the sustainable
growth rate is certainly greater than 15%, because there is additional debt financing used in that case (assuming
the firm is not 100% equity-financed). As the retention ratio is increased, the firm has more internal sources of
funding, so the EFN will decline. Conversely, as the retention ratio is decreased, the EFN will rise. If the firm
pays out all its earnings in the form of dividends, then the firm has no internal sources of funding (ignoring the
effects of accounts payable); the internal growth rate is zero in this case and the EFN will rise to the change in
total assets.

4.

(LO2, 3) The sustainable growth rate is greater than 20%, because at a 20% growth rate the negative EFN
indicates that there is excess financing still available. If the firm is 100% equity financed, then the sustainable
and internal growth rates are equal and the internal growth rate would be greater than 20%. However, when the
firm has some debt, the internal growth rate is always less than the sustainable growth rate, so it is ambiguous
whether the internal growth rate would be greater than or less than 20%. If the retention ratio is increased, the
firm will have more internal funding sources available, and it will have to take on more debt to keep the
debt/equity ratio constant, so the EFN will decline. Conversely, if the retention ratio is decreased, the EFN will
rise. If the retention rate is zero, both the internal and sustainable growth rates are zero, and the EFN will rise to
the change in total assets.

5.

(LO6) Presumably not, but, of course, if the product had been much less popular, then a similar fate would have
awaited due to lack of sales.

6.

(LO6) Since customers did not pay until shipment, receivables rose. The firms NWC, but not its cash,
increased. At the same time, costs were rising faster than cash revenues, so operating cash flow declined. The
firms capital spending was also rising. Thus, all three components of cash flow from assets were negatively
impacted.

7.

(LO6) Apparently not! In hindsight, the firm may have underestimated costs and also underestimated the extra
demand from the lower price.

8.

(LO6) Financing possibly could have been arranged if the company had taken quick enough action. Sometimes
it becomes apparent that help is needed only when it is too late, again emphasizing the need for planning.

9.

(LO6) All three were important, but the lack of cash or, more generally, financial resources ultimately spelled
doom. An inadequate cash resource is usually cited as the most common cause of small business failure.

10. (LO6) Demanding cash up front, increasing prices, subcontracting production, and improving financial
resources via new owners or new sources of credit are some of the options. When orders exceed capacity, price
increases may be especially beneficial.

Solutions to Questions and Problems


NOTE:Allendofchapterproblemsweresolvedusingaspreadsheet.Manyproblemsrequiremultiplesteps.Dueto
spaceandreadabilityconstraints,whentheseintermediatestepsareincludedinthissolutionsmanual,rounding
mayappeartohaveoccurred.However,thefinalanswerforeachproblemisfoundwithoutroundingduringany
stepintheproblem.
Basic
1.

(LO3)Itisimportanttorememberthatequitywillnotincreasebythesamepercentageastheotherassets. If
everyotheritemontheincomestatementandbalancesheetincreasesby15percent,theproformaincome
statementandbalancesheetwilllooklikethis:
Proformaincomestatement
Sales
Costs
Netincome

$ 26,450
19,205
$
7,245

Proformabalancesheet
Assets
Total

$ 18,170

$18,170

Debt
Equity
Total

$ 5,980
12,190
$18,170

Inorderforthebalancesheettobalance,equitymustbe:
Equity=TotalliabilitiesandequityDebt
Equity=$18,170$5,980
Equity=$12,190
Equityincreasedby:
Equityincrease=$12,19010,600
Equityincrease=$1,590
Netincomeis$7,245butequityonlyincreasedby$1,590;therefore,adividendof:
Dividend=$7,2451,590
=$5,655
musthavebeenpaid.Dividendspaidistheplugvariable.
2.

(LO2,3)Herewearegiventhedividendamount,sodividendspaidisnotaplugvariable.Ifthecompanypays
outonehalfofitsnetincomeasdividends,theproformaincomestatementandbalancesheetwilllooklike
this:
Proformaincomestatement
Sales
Costs
Netincome
Dividends
Add.toRE

$ 26,450
19,205
$
7,245

Proformabalancesheet
Assets
Total

$ 18,170

$18,170

Debt
Equity
Total

$ 5,200
14,222.50
$19,422.50

$3,622.50
3,622.50

Notethatthebalancesheetdoesnotbalance.ThisisduetoEFN.TheEFNforthiscompanyis:

EFN=TotalassetsTotalliabilitiesandequity
EFN=$18,17019,422.50
EFN=$1,252.50
3.

(LO2)Anincreaseofsalesto$7,434isanincreaseof:
Salesincrease=($7,4346,300)/$6,300
Salesincrease=.18or18%
Assumingcostsandassetsincreaseproportionally,theproformafinancialstatementswilllooklikethis:
Proformaincomestatement
Sales
Costs
Netincome

$ 7,434.00
4,590.20
$2,843.80

Proformabalancesheet
Assets
Total

$ 21,594

$
21,594

Debt
Equity
Total

$ 12,400
8,743.80
$21,143.80

Ifnodividendsarepaid,theequityaccountwillincreasebythenetincome,so:
Equity=$5,900+2,843.80
Equity=$8,743.80
Notethatthebalancesheetdoesnotbalance.ThisisduetoEFN.TheEFNforthiscompanyis:
EFN=TotalassetsTotalliabilitiesandequity
EFN=$21,59421,1434=$450
4.

(LO2)Anincreaseofsalesto$21,840isanincreaseof:
Salesincrease=($21,84019,500)/$19,500
Salesincrease=.12or12%
Assumingcostsandassetsincreaseproportionally,theproformafinancialstatementswilllooklikethis:
Proformaincomestatement
Sales
Costs
EBIT
Taxes(40%)
Netincome

$
21,840
16,800
5,040

2,016
$

3,024

Proformabalancesheet
Assets
Total

$109,760

$109,760

Debt
Equity
Total

$52,500
46,956
$99,456

Thepayoutratioisconstant,sothedividendspaidthisyearisthepayoutratiofromlastyeartimesnetincome,
or:

Dividends=($1,400/$2,700)($3,024)
Dividends=$1,568
Theadditiontoretainedearningsis:
Additiontoretainedearnings=$3,0241,568
Additiontoretainedearnings=$1,456
Andthenewequitybalanceis:

Equity=$45,500+1,456
Equity=$46,956
SotheEFNis:
EFN=TotalassetsTotalliabilitiesandequity
EFN=$109,76099,456
EFN=$10,304
5.

(LO2)Assumingcosts,assetsandcurrentliabilitiesincreaseproportionally,theproformafinancialstatements
willlooklikethis:
Proformaincomestatement
Sales
Costs
Taxableincome
Taxes(34%)
Netincome

$ 4,830.00
3795.00
1,035.00
351.90

$
683.10

Proformabalancesheet
CA
FA
Total

$ 4,140.00
9085.00

$13,225.00

CL
LTD
Equity
Total

$ 2,415.00
3,650.00
6,159.86

$12,224.86

Thepayoutratiois40percent,sodividendswillbe:
Dividends=0.40($683.10)
Dividends=$273.24
Theadditiontoretainedearningsis:
Additiontoretainedearnings=$683.10273.24
Additiontoretainedearnings=$409..86
SotheEFNis:
EFN=TotalassetsTotalliabilitiesandequity
EFN=$13,22512,224.86
EFN=$1,000.14
6.

(LO5)Tocalculatetheinternalgrowthrate,wefirstneedtocalculatetheROA,whichis:
ROA=NI/TA
ROA=$2,262/$39,150
ROA=.0577or5.77%
Theretentionratio,R,isoneminusthepayoutratio,so:
R=1.30
R=.70
Nowwecanusetheinternalgrowthrateequationtoget:
Internalgrowthrate=(ROAR)/[1(ROAR)]
Internalgrowthrate=[0.0577(.70)]/[10.0577(.70)]
Internalgrowthrate=.04209or4.209%

7.

(LO5)Tocalculatethesustainablegrowthrate,wefirstneedtocalculatetheROE,whichis:
ROE=NI/TE
ROE=$2,262/$21,650
ROE=.1045or10.45%
Theretentionratio,R,isoneminusthepayoutratio,so:
R=1.30
R=.70
Nowwecanusethesustainablegrowthrateequationtoget:
Sustainablegrowthrate=(ROER)/[1(ROER)]
Sustainablegrowthrate=[0.1045(.70)]/[10.1045(.70)]
Sustainablegrowthrate=.0789or7.89%

8.

(LO2) Themaximumpercentagesalesincreaseisthesustainablegrowthrate.Tocalculatethesustainable
growthrate,wefirstneedtocalculatetheROE,whichis:
ROE=NI/TE
ROE=$8,910/$56,000
ROE=.159107142
Theretentionratio,R,isoneminusthepayoutratio,so:
R=1.30
R=.70
Nowwecanusethesustainablegrowthrateequationtoget:
Sustainablegrowthrate=(ROER)/[1(ROER)]
Sustainablegrowthrate=[.1591(.70)]/[1.1591(.70)]
Sustainablegrowthrate=.125334083or12.53%
So,themaximumdollarincreaseinsalesis:
Maximumincreaseinsales=$42,000(.125334083)
Maximumincreaseinsales=$5,264.03

9.

(LO3)Assumingcostsvarywithsalesanda20percentincreaseinsales,theproformaincomestatementwill
looklikethis:
DartmoorCORPORATION
ProFormaIncomeStatement
Sales
$45,600.00
Costs
22,080.00

Taxableincome
$23,520.00
Taxes(34%)
7,996.80
Netincome
$15,523.20

Thepayoutratioisconstant,sothedividendspaidthisyearisthepayoutratiofromlastyeartimesnetincome,
or:

Dividends=($5,200/$12,936)($15,523.20)
Dividends=$6,240.00
Andtheadditiontoretainedearningswillbe:
Additiontoretainedearnings=$15,523.706,240
Additiontoretainedearnings=$9,283.20

10. (LO3)Belowisthebalancesheetwiththepercentageofsalesforeachaccountonthebalancesheet.Notes
payable,totalcurrentliabilities,longtermdebt,andallequityaccountsdonotvarydirectlywithsales.
DartmoorCORPORATION
BalanceSheet
($)
(%)
Assets
Currentassets
Cash
Accountsreceivable
Inventory
Total
Fixedassets
Netplantand
equipment

Totalassets

$ 3,050
8.02
6,900
18.15
7,600 20.00

$17,550
46.18
34,500 90.79

$52,050 136.97

LiabilitiesandOwnersEquity
Currentliabilities
Accountspayable
Notespayable
Total
Longtermdebt
Ownersequity
Commonstockand
paidinsurplus
Retainedearnings
Total
Totalliabilitiesandowners
equity

($)

(%)

$ 1,300
6,800
$
8,100
25,000

3.42
n/a
n/a
n/a

$ 15,000
3,950
$18,950

n/a
n/a
n/a

$52,050

n/a

11. (LO2,3)Assumingcostsvarywithsalesanda15percentincreaseinsales,theproformaincomestatement
willlooklikethis:
DartmoorCORPORATION
ProFormaIncomeStatement
Sales
$43,700.00
Costs
21,160.00

Taxableincome
$22,540.00
Taxes(34%)
7,663.60
Netincome
$14,876.40
Thepayoutratioisconstant,sothedividendspaidthisyearisthepayoutratiofromlastyeartimesnetincome,
or:

Dividends=($5,200/$12,936)($14,876.40)
Dividends=$5,980.00

Andtheadditiontoretainedearningswillbe:
Additiontoretainedearnings=$14,876.405,980
Additiontoretainedearnings=$8,896.40
Thenewaccumulatedretainedearningsontheproformabalancesheetwillbe:
Newaccumulatedretainedearnings=$3,950+8,896.40
Newaccumulatedretainedearnings=$12,846.40

Theproformabalancesheetwilllooklikethis:
DartmoorCORPORATION
ProFormaBalanceSheet
Assets
Currentassets
Cash
Accountsreceivable
Inventory
Total
Fixedassets
Netplantand
equipment

Totalassets

3,507.50
7,935.00
8,740.00

$20,182.50

39,675

$
59,857.50

LiabilitiesandOwnersEquity
Currentliabilities
Accountspayable
$ 1,495.00
Notespayable
6,800.00

Total
$ 8,295.00
Longtermdebt
25,000.00
Ownersequity
Commonstockand
paidinsurplus
Retainedearnings
Total
Totalliabilitiesandowners
equity

$ 15,000.00
12,846.40
$
27,846.40
$
61,141.40

SotheEFNis:
EFN=TotalassetsTotalliabilitiesandequity
EFN=$59,857.5061,141.40
EFN=$1,283.90
12. (LO5)Weneedtocalculatetheretentionratiotocalculatetheinternalgrowthrate.Theretentionratiois:
R=1.2
R=.8
Nowwecanusetheinternalgrowthrateequationtoget:
Internalgrowthrate=(ROAR)/[1(ROAR)]
Internalgrowthrate=[.08(.8)]/[1.08(.8)]
Internalgrowthrate=.0684or6.84%
13. (LO5)Weneedtocalculatetheretentionratiotocalculatethesustainablegrowthrate.Theretentionratiois:
R=1.25
R=.75
Nowwecanusethesustainablegrowthrateequationtoget:
Sustainablegrowthrate=(ROER)/[1(ROER)]
Sustainablegrowthrate=[.15(.75)]/[1.15(.75)]
Sustainablegrowthrate=.1268or12.68%

14. (LO5)WefirstmustcalculatetheROEusingtheDuPontratiotocalculatethesustainablegrowthrate.Todo
thiswemustrealizetwootherrelationships.Thetotalassetturnoveristheinverseofthecapitalintensityratio,
andtheequitymultiplieris1+D/E.Usingtheserelationships,weget:
ROE=(PM)(TAT)(EM)
ROE=(.082)(1/.75)(1+.40)
ROE=.1531or15.31%
Theretentionratioisoneminusthedividendpayoutratio,so:
R=1($12,000/$43,000)
R=.7209
Nowwecanusethesustainablegrowthrateequationtoget:
Sustainablegrowthrate=(ROER)/[1(ROER)]
Sustainablegrowthrate=[.1531(.7209)]/[1.1531(.7209)]
Sustainablegrowthrate=.1241or12.41%
15. (LO5)WemustfirstcalculatetheROEusingtheDuPontratiotocalculatethesustainablegrowthrate.The
ROEis:
ROE=(PM)(TAT)(EM)
ROE=(.078)(2.50)(1.80)
ROE=.351or35.1%
Theretentionratioisoneminusthedividendpayoutratio,so:
R=1.60
R=.40
Nowwecanusethesustainablegrowthrateequationtoget:
Sustainablegrowthrate=(ROER)/[1(ROER)]
Sustainablegrowthrate=[.351(.40)]/[1.351(.40)]
Sustainablegrowthrate=.1633or16.33%
Intermediate
16. (LO3)Todeterminefullcapacitysales,wedividethecurrentsalesbythecapacitythecompanyiscurrently
using,so:
Fullcapacitysales=$550,000/.95
Fullcapacitysales=$578,947.37
Themaximumsalesgrowthisthefullcapacitysalesdividedbythecurrentsales,so:
Maximumsalesgrowth=($578,947.37/$550,000)1
Maximumsalesgrowth=.0526or5.26%

17. (LO3) Tofindthenewleveloffixedassets,weneedtofindthecurrentpercentageoffixedassetstofull


capacitysales.Doingso,wefind:
Fixedassets/Fullcapacitysales=$440,000/$578,947.37
Fixedassets/Fullcapacitysales=.76

Next,wecalculatethetotaldollaramountoffixedassetsneededatthenewsalesfigure.
Totalfixedassets=.76($630,000)
Totalfixedassets=$478,800
Thenewfixedassetsnecessaryisthetotalfixedassetsatthenewsalesfigureminusthecurrentleveloffixed
assts.
Newfixedassets=$478,800440,000
Newfixedassets=$38,800
18. (LO3) We first need to determine full capacity sales. To do so we divide the current sales by the capacity the
company is currently using:
Full capacity sales = $350,000 / .60
Full capacity sales = $583,333.33
The maximum sales growth is the full capacity sales divided by the current sales, so:
Maximum sales growth = ($583,333.33 / 350,000) 1
Maximum sales growth = .6667 or 66.67%
19. (LO4) At full fixed asset capacity: sales = $200,000/0.94 = $212,765.96
This means that sales can grow from $200,000 to $212,765.96 before new fixed assets are needed.
Therefore the most that sales can grow before new fixed assets are needed =
($212,765.96/200,000) 1 = 0.0638 or 6.38%
20. (LO4) We have all the variables to calculate ROE using the DuPont identity except the profit margin. If we
find ROE, we can solve the DuPont identity for profit margin. We can calculate ROE from the sustainable
growth rate equation. For this equation we need the retention ratio, so:
R = 1 .30
R = .70
Using the sustainable growth rate equation and solving for ROE, we get:
Sustainable growth rate = (ROE R) / [1 (ROE R)]
.12 = [ROE(.70)] / [1 ROE(.70)]
ROE = .1531 or 15.31%
Now we can use the DuPont identity to find the profit margin as:
ROE = PM(TAT)(EM)
.1531 = PM(1 / 0.75)(1 + 1.20)
PM = (.1531) / [(1 / 0.75)(2.20)]
PM = .0522 or 5.22%

21. (LO4) We have all the variables to calculate ROE using the DuPont identity except the equity multiplier.
Remember that the equity multiplier is one plus the debt-equity ratio. If we find ROE, we can solve the DuPont
identity for equity multiplier, then the debt-equity ratio. We can calculate ROE from the sustainable growth
rate equation. For this equation we need the retention ratio, so:
R = 1 .30
R = .70
Using the sustainable growth rate equation and solving for ROE, we get:
Sustainable growth rate = (ROE R) / [1 (ROE R)]
.115 = [ROE(.70)] / [1 ROE(.70)]
ROE = .1473 or 14.73%
Now we can use the DuPont identity to find the equity multiplier as:
ROE = PM(TAT)(EM)
.1474 = (.062)(1 / .6)EM
EM = (.1474)(.6) / .062
EM = 1.426
So, the D/E ratio is:
D/E = EM 1
D/E = 1.4267 1
D/E = 0.426
22. (LO4) We are given the profit margin. Remember that:
ROA = PM(TAT)
We can calculate the ROA from the internal growth rate formula, and then use the ROA in this equation to find
the total asset turnover. The retention ratio is:
R = 1 .25
R = .75
Using the internal growth rate equation to find the ROA, we get:
Internal growth rate = (ROA R) / [1 (ROA R)]
.07 = [ROA(.75)] / [1 ROA(.75)]
ROA = .0872 or 8.72%
Plugging ROA and PM into the equation we began with and solving for TAT, we get:
ROA = (PM)(TAT)
.0872 = .05(TAT)
TAT = .0872 / .05
TAT = 1.74 times

23. (LO5) We should begin by calculating the D/E ratio. We calculate the D/E ratio as follows:
Total debt ratio = .65 = TD / TA
Inverting both sides we get:
1 / .65 = TA / TD
Next, we need to recognize that
TA / TD = 1 + TE / TD
Substituting this into the previous equation, we get:
1 / .65 = 1 + TE /TD
Subtract 1 (one) from both sides and inverting again, we get:
D/E = 1 / [(1 / .65) 1]
D/E = 1.86
With the D/E ratio, we can calculate the EM and solve for ROE using the DuPont identity:
ROE = (PM)(TAT)(EM)
ROE = (.048)(1.25)(1 + 1.86)
ROE = .1714 or 17.14%
Now we can calculate the retention ratio as:
R = 1 .30
R = .70
Finally, putting all the numbers we have calculated into the sustainable growth rate equation, we get:
Sustainable growth rate = (ROE R) / [1 (ROE R)]
Sustainable growth rate = [.1714(.70)] / [1 .1714(.70)]
Sustainable growth rate = .1363 or 13.63%
24. (LO2, 5) To calculate the sustainable growth rate, we first must calculate the retention ratio and ROE. The
retention ratio is:
R = 1 $9,300 / $17,500
R = .4686
And the ROE is:
ROE = $17,500 / $58,000
ROE = .3017 or 30.17%
So, the sustainable growth rate is:
Sustainable growth rate = (ROE R) / [1 (ROE R)]
Sustainable growth rate = [.3017(.4686)] / [1 .3017(.4686)]
Sustainable growth rate = .1647 or 16.47%

If the company grows at the sustainable growth rate, the new level of total assets is:
Current TA = $86,000 + 58,000 = $144,000
New TA = 1.1647($144,000) = $167,716.80
To find the new level of debt in the companys balance sheet, we take the percentage of debt in the capital
structure times the new level of total assets. The additional borrowing will be the new level of debt minus the
current level of debt. So:
New TD = [D / (D + E)](TA)
New TD = [$86,000 / ($86,000 + 58,000)]($167,716.80)
New TD = $100,164.20
And the additional borrowing will be:
Additional borrowing = $100,164.20 86,000
Additional borrowing = $14,164.20
The growth rate that can be supported with no outside financing is the internal growth rate. To calculate the
internal growth rate, we first need the ROA, which is:
ROA = $17,500 / $144,000
ROA = .1215 or 12.15%
This means the internal growth rate is:
Internal growth rate = (ROA R) / [1 (ROA R)]
Internal growth rate = [.1215(.4686)] / [1 .1215(.4686)]
Internal growth rate = .06038 or 6.038%
25. (LO5) Since the company issued no new equity, shareholders equity increased by retained earnings. Retained
earnings for the year were:
Retained earnings = NI Dividends
Retained earnings = $19,000 2,500
Retained earnings = $16,500
So, the equity at the end of the year was:
Ending equity = $135,000 + 16,500
Ending equity = $151,500
The ROE based on the end of period equity is:
ROE = $19,000 / $151,500
ROE = 12.54%
The retention ratio is:
Retention ratio = Addition to retained earnings/NI
Retention ratio = $16,500 / $19,000
Retention ratio = .8684 or 86.84%
Using the equation presented in the text for the sustainable growth rate, we get:

Sustainable growth rate = (ROE R) / [1 (ROE R)]


Sustainable growth rate = [.1254(.8684)] / [1 .1254(.8684)]
Sustainable growth rate = .1222 or 12.22%
The ROE based on the beginning of period equity is
ROE = $19,000 / $135,000
ROE = .1407 or 14.07%
Using the shortened equation for the sustainable growth rate and the beginning of period ROE, we get:
Sustainable growth rate = ROE R
Sustainable growth rate = .1407 .8684
Sustainable growth rate = .1222 or 12.22%
Using the shortened equation for the sustainable growth rate and the end of period ROE, we get:
Sustainable growth rate = ROE R
Sustainable growth rate = .1254 .8684
Sustainable growth rate = .1089 or 10.89%
Using the end of period ROE in the shortened sustainable growth rate results in a growth rate that is too low.
This will always occur whenever the equity increases. If equity increases, the ROE based on end of period
equity is lower than the ROE based on the beginning of period equity. The ROE (and sustainable growth rate)
in the abbreviated equation is based on equity that did not exist when the net income was earned.
26. (LO5) The ROA using end of period assets is:
ROA = $19,000 / $250,000
ROA = .076 or 7.6
The beginning of period assets had to have been the ending assets minus the addition to retained earnings, so:
Beginning assets = Ending assets Addition to retained earnings
Beginning assets = $250,000 ($19,000 2,500)
Beginning assets = $233,500
And the ROA using beginning of period assets is:
ROA = $19,000 / $233,500
ROA = .081370449 or .8.14%
Using the internal growth rate equation presented in the text, we get:
Internal growth rate = (ROA R) / [1 (ROA R)]
Internal growth rate = [.076(.8684)] / [1 .076(.8684)]
Internal growth rate = .0707 or 7.07%
Using the formula ROA R, and end of period assets:
Internal growth rate = .076 .8684
Internal growth rate = .0659984 or 6.6%
Using the formula ROA R, and beginning of period assets:
Internal growth rate = .081370449 .8684

Internal growth rate = .070662097 or 7.07%

27. (LO2) Assuming costs vary with sales and a 20 percent increase in sales, the pro forma income statement will
look like this:
HOPINGTON TOURS INC.
Pro Forma Income Statement
Sales
$ 1,114,800
Costs
867,600
Other expenses
22,800
EBIT
$
224,400
Interest
14,000
Taxable income
$
210,400
Taxes(35%)
73,640
Net income
$
136,760
The payout ratio is constant, so the dividends paid this year is the payout ratio from last year times net income,
or:
Dividends = ($33,735/$112,450)($136,760)
Dividends = $41,028
And the addition to retained earnings will be:
Addition to retained earnings = $136,760 41,028
Addition to retained earnings = $95,732
The new addition to retained earnings on the pro forma balance sheet will be:
New retained earnings = $182,900 + 95,690
New retained earnings = $278,590
The pro forma balance sheet will look like this:
HOPINGTON TOURS INC.
Pro Forma Balance Sheet
Assets
Current assets
Cash
Accounts receivable
Inventory
Total
Fixed assets
Net plant and
equipment

Total assets

Liabilities and Owners Equity


$
$

30,360
48,840
104,280
183,480
495,600

679,080

Current liabilities
Accounts payable
Notes payable
Total
Long-term debt
Owners equity
Common stock and
paid-in surplus
Retained earnings
Total
Total liabilities and owners
equity

$
$

81,600
17,000
98,600
158,000

140,000
278,632
418,632

675,232

So the EFN is:


EFN = Total assets Total liabilities and equity
EFN = $679,080 675,232
EFN = 3,848
28. (LO2) First, we need to calculate full capacity sales, which is:
Full capacity sales = $929,000 / .80
Full capacity sales = $1,161,250
The capital intensity ratio at full capacity sales is:
Capital intensity ratio = Fixed assets / Full capacity sales
Capital intensity ratio = $413,000 / $1,161,250
Capital intensity ratio = .355651237
The fixed assets required at full capacity sales is the capital intensity ratio times the projected sales level:
Total fixed assets = .35565($1,114,800) = $396,480
So, EFN is:
EFN = ($183,480 + $396,480) $675,232 = $95,272
Note that this solution assumes that fixed assets are decreased (sold) so the company has a 100 percent fixed
asset utilization. If we assume fixed assets are not sold, the answer becomes:
EFN = ($183,480 + 413,000) $675,232 = $78,752
29. (LO2) The D/E ratio of the company is:
D/E = ($85,000 + 158,000) / $322,900
D/E = .75255
So the new total debt amount will be:
New total debt = .75255($418,632)
New total debt = $315,043.59
This is the new total debt for the company. Given that our calculation for EFN is the amount that must be
raised externally and does not increase spontaneously with sales, we need to subtract the spontaneous increase
in accounts payable. The new level of accounts payable will be, which is the current accounts payable times
the sales growth, or:
Spontaneous increase in accounts payable = $68,000(.20)
Spontaneous increase in accounts payable = $13,600

This means that $13,600 of the new total debt is not raised externally. So, the debt raised externally, which will be
the EFN is:
EFN = New total debt (Beginning LTD Beginning CL Spontaneous increase in AP)
EFN = $315,043.59 [$158,000 + (68,000 + 17,000)] 13,600 = $58,443.59
The pro forma balance sheet with the new long-term debt will be:
HOPINGTON TOURS INC.
Pro Forma Balance Sheet
Assets
Current assets
Cash
Accounts receivable
Inventory
Total
Fixed assets
Net plant and
equipment

Total assets

Liabilities and Owners Equity


$
$

30,360
48,840
104,280
183,480
495,600

679,080

Current liabilities
Accounts payable
Notes payable
Total
Long-term debt
Owners equity
Common stock and
paid-in surplus
Retained earnings
Total
Total liabilities and owners
equity

81,600
17,000
$
98,600
216,443.59

$
$

140,000
278,632
418,632

$ 731,675.59

The funds raised by the debt issue can be put into an excess cash account to make the balance sheet balance.
The excess debt will be:
Excess debt = $731,675.59 679,080 = $54,595.59
To make the balance sheet balance, the company will have to increase its assets. We will put this amount in an
account called excess cash, which will give us the following balance sheet:
HOPINGTON TOURS INC.
Pro Forma Balance Sheet
Assets
Current assets
Cash
Excess Cash
Accounts receivable
Inventory
Total
Fixed assets
Net plant and
equipment

Total assets

Liabilities and Owners Equity


$

30,360
54,595.59
48,840
104,280
$238,075.59
495,600

$ 733,675.59

Current liabilities
Accounts payable
Notes payable
Total
Long-term debt
Owners equity
Common stock and
paid-in surplus
Retained earnings
Total
Total liabilities and owners
equity

81,600

17,000
98,600
216,443.59

$
$

140,000
278,632
418,632

$ 733,675.59

The excess cash has an opportunity cost that we discussed earlier. Increasing fixed assets would also not be a
good idea since the company already has enough fixed assets. A likely scenario would be the repurchase of
debt and equity in its current capital structure weights. The companys debt-assets and equity assets are:
Debt-assets = .75255 / (1 + .75255) = .4294
Equity-assets = 1 / (1 + .75255) = .5706
So, the amount of debt and equity needed will be:
Total debt needed = .4294($679,080) = $291,600
Equity needed = .5706($679,080) = $387,480
So, the repurchases of debt and equity will be:
Debt repurchase = ($98,600 + 216,443.59) 291,600 = $23,443.59
Equity repurchase = $418,632 387,480 = $31,152
Assuming all of the debt repurchase is from long-term debt, and the equity repurchase is entirely from the
retained earnings, the final pro forma balance sheet will be:
HOPINGTON TOURS INC.
Pro Forma Balance Sheet
Assets
Current assets
Cash
Accounts receivable
Inventory
Total
Fixed assets
Net plant and
equipment

Total assets

Liabilities and Owners Equity


$
$

30,360
48,840
104,280
183,480
495,600

679,080

Current liabilities
Accounts payable
Notes payable
Total
Long-term debt
Owners equity
Common stock and
paid-in surplus
Retained earnings
Total
Total liabilities and owners
equity

$
$

81,600
17,000
98,600
193,000

140,000
247,480
387,480

679,080

Challenge
30. (LO2, 5) The pro forma income statements for all three growth rates will be:
HOPINGTON TOURS INC.
Pro Forma Income Statement

Sales
Costs
Other expenses
EBIT
Interest
Taxable income
Taxes (35%)
Net income
Dividends
Add to RE

15 % Sales
Growth
$1,068,350
831,450
21,850
$ 215,050
14,000
$ 201,050
70,367.50
$ 130,682.50

20% Sales
Growth
$1,114,800
867,600
22,800
$ 224,400
14,000
$ 210,400
73,640
$ 136,760

39,204.75
91,477.75

25% Sales
Growth
$1,161,250
903,750
23,750
$233,750
14,000
$219,750
76,912.50
$142,837.50

41,028
95,372

$42,851.25
99,986.25

We will calculate the EFN for the 15 percent growth rate first. Assuming the payout ratio is constant, the
dividends paid will be:
Dividends = ($33,735/$112,450)($130,682.50)
Dividends = $39,204.75
And the addition to retained earnings will be:
Addition to retained earnings = $130,682.50
Addition to retained earnings = $91,477.75
The new retained earnings on the pro forma balance sheet will be:
New retained earnings = $182,900 + 91,477.75
New retained earnings = $274,377.75
The pro forma balance sheet will look like this:
15% Sales Growth:

HOPINGTON TOURS INC.


Pro Forma Balance Sheet

Assets
Current assets
Cash
Accounts receivable
Inventory
Total
Fixed assets
Net plant and
equipment

Liabilities and Owners Equity


$
$

29,095
46,805
99,935
175,835
474,950

Current liabilities
Accounts payable
Notes payable
Total
Long-term debt
Owners equity
Common stock and
paid-in surplus
Retained earnings
Total
Total liabilities and owners

$
$

78,200
17,000
95,200
158,000

140,000
274,377.75
$ 414,377.75

Total assets

650,785

equity

$ 667,577.75

So the EFN is:


EFN = Total assets Total liabilities and equity
EFN = $650,785 667,577.75
EFN = $16,792.75
At a 20 percent growth rate, and assuming the payout ratio is constant, the dividends paid will be:
Dividends = ($33,735/$112,450)($136,760)
Dividends = $41,028
And the addition to retained earnings will be:
Addition to retained earnings = $$136,760 41,028
Addition to retained earnings = $95,732
The new retained earnings on the pro forma balance sheet will be:
New retained earnings = $182,900 + 95,732
New retained earnings = $3278,632
The pro forma balance sheet will look like this:
20% Sales Growth:
HOPINGTON TOURS INC.
Pro Forma Balance Sheet
Assets
Current assets
Cash
Accounts receivable
Inventory
Total
Fixed assets
Net plant and
equipment

Total assets

Liabilities and Owners Equity


$
$

30,360
48,840
104,280
183,480
495,600

$ 679,080

Current liabilities
Accounts payable
Notes payable
Total
Long-term debt
Owners equity
Common stock and
paid-in surplus
Retained earnings
Total
Total liabilities and owners
equity

$
$

$
$

So the EFN is:


EFN = Total assets Total liabilities and equity
EFN = $679,080 675,232
EFN = $3,848
At a 25 percent growth rate, and assuming the payout ratio is constant, the dividends paid will be:
Dividends = (33,735/$112,450)($142,837.50)
Dividends = $42,851.25

81,600
17,000
98,600
158,000

140,000
278,632
418,632
$ 675,232

And the addition to retained earnings will be:


Addition to retained earnings = $142,837.50 - $42,851.25
Addition to retained earnings = $99,986.25
The new retained earnings on the pro forma balance sheet will be:
New retained earnings = $182,900 + 99,986.25
New retained earnings = $282,886.25
The pro forma balance sheet will look like this:
25% Sales Growth:
HOPINGTON TOURS INC.
Pro Forma Balance Sheet
Assets
Current assets
Cash
Accounts receivable
Inventory
Total
Fixed assets
Net plant and
equipment

Total assets

Liabilities and Owners Equity


$
$

31,625
50,875
108,625
191,125
516,250

707,375

Current liabilities
Accounts payable
Notes payable
Total
Long-term debt
Owners equity
Common stock and
paid-in surplus
Retained earnings
Total
Total liabilities and owners
equity

$
$

85,000
17,000
102,500
158,000

140,000
282,886.25
$ 422,886.25
$ 682,886.25

So the EFN is:


EFN = Total assets Total liabilities and equity
EFN = $707,375 682,886.25
EFN = $24,488.75

Inspection of the plot shows that EFN = 0 at approximately 18% growth rate. The formula for EFN is:
EFN = -(PM)(R) + [(TA) (PM)(R)](g) = Increase in total assets Addition to retained earnings

Setting EFN = 0 gives :


g = (PM)(R) / [(TA) (PM)(R)]
This EFN equation is derived under the assumption that current liabilities are lumped together with long-term
liabilities and that neither of these liabilities varies with sales, so that the only change on the right-hand side of
the balance sheet occurs in retained earnings. However, in this question accounts payable vary with sales.
Hence, we will not obtain exactly the same growth rate in this question at EFN = 0 from the plot as from the
formula.
31. (LO2, 5) The pro forma income statements for all three growth rates will be:

Sales
Costs
Other expenses
EBIT
Interest
Taxable income
Taxes (35%)
Net income
Dividends
Add to RE

HOPINGTON TOURS INC.


Pro Forma Income Statement
20% Sales
30% Sales
Growth
Growth
$1,114,800
$1,207,700
867,600
939,900
22,800
24,700
$ 224,400
$ 243,100
14,000
14,000
$ 210,400
$ 229,100
73,640
80,185
$ 136,760
$ 148,915
$

41,028
95,732

44,674.50
104,240.50

35% Sales
Growth
$1,254,150
976,050
25,650
$ 252,450
14,000
$ 238,450
83,457.50
$ 154,992.50
$ 46,497.75
108,494.75

Under the sustainable growth rate assumption, the company maintains a constant debt-equity ratio. The D/E
ratio of the company is:
D/E = ($158,000 + 85,000) / $322,900
D/E = .75255
At a 20 percent growth rate, and assuming the payout ratio is constant, the dividends paid will be:
Dividends = ($33,735/$112,450)($136,760)
Dividends = $41,028
And the addition to retained earnings will be:
Addition to retained earnings = $136,760 41,028
Addition to retained earnings = $95,732
The new retained earnings on the pro forma balance sheet will be:
New retained earnings = $182,900 + 95,732
New retained earnings = $278,632
The new total debt will be:
New total debt = .75255($418,632)
New total debt = $315,043.59

So, the new long-term debt will be the new total debt minus the new short-term debt, or:
New long-term debt = $315,043.59 98,600
New long-term debt = $216,443.59
The pro forma balance sheet will look like this:
Sales growth rate = 20% and Debt/Equity ratio = .75225:
HOPINGTON TOURS INC.
Pro Forma Balance Sheet
Assets
Current assets
Cash
Accounts receivable
Inventory
Total
Fixed assets
Net plant and
equipment

Total assets

Liabilities and Owners Equity


$
$

30,360
48,840
104,280
183,480
495,600

$ 679,080

Current liabilities
Accounts payable
Notes payable
Total
Long-term debt
Owners equity
Common stock and
paid-in surplus
Retained earnings
Total
Total liabilities and owners
equity

81,600
17,000
$
98,600
216,443.59

$
$

So the EFN is:


EFN = Total assets Total liabilities and equity
EFN = $679,080 735,675.59
EFN = $54,595.59
At a 30 percent growth rate, and assuming the payout ratio is constant, the dividends paid will be:
Dividends = ($33,735/$112,450)($148,915)
Dividends = $44,674.50
And the addition to retained earnings will be:
Addition to retained earnings = $148,915 44,674.50
Addition to retained earnings = $104,240.50
The new retained earnings on the pro forma balance sheet will be:
New retained earnings = $182,900 + 104,240.50
New retained earnings = $287,140.50
The new total debt will be:
New total debt = .75255($427,140.50)
New total debt = $321,446.71

140,000
278,632
418,632
$735,675.59

So, the new long-term debt will be the new total debt minus the new short-term debt, or:
New long-term debt = $321,446.71 105,400
New long-term debt = $216,046.71
Sales growth rate = 30% and debt/equity ratio = .75255:
HOPINGTON TOURS INC.
Pro Forma Balance Sheet
Assets
Current assets
Cash
Accounts receivable
Inventory
Total
Fixed assets
Net plant and
equipment

Total assets

Liabilities and Owners Equity


$
$

32,890
52,910
112,970
198,770
536,900

735,670

Current liabilities
Accounts payable
Notes payable
Total
Long-term debt
Owners equity
Common stock and
paid-in surplus
Retained earnings
Total
Total liabilities and owners
equity

88,400
17,000
$
105,400
216,046.71

$ 140,000.00
287,140.50
$ 427,140.50
$ 748,587.21

So the EFN is:


EFN = Total assets Total liabilities and equity
EFN = $735,670 748,587.21
EFN = -12,917.21
At a 35 percent growth rate, and assuming the payout ratio is constant, the dividends paid will be:
Dividends = ($33,735/$112,450)($154,992.50)
Dividends = $46,497.75
And the addition to retained earnings will be:
Addition to retained earnings = $154,992.50 46,497.75
Addition to retained earnings = $108,494.75
The retained earnings on the pro forma balance sheet will be:
New retained earnings = $182,900 + 108,494.75
New retained earnings = $291,394.75
The new total debt will be:
New total debt = .75255($431,394.75)
New total debt = $324,648.26
So, the new long-term debt will be the new total debt minus the new short-term debt, or:
New long-term debt = $324,648.26 108,800

New long-term debt = $215,848.26

Sales growth rate = 35% and debt/equity ratio = .75255:


HOPINGTON TOURS INC.
Pro Forma Balance Sheet
Assets
Current assets
Cash
Accounts receivable
Inventory
Total
Fixed assets
Net plant and
equipment

Total assets

Liabilities and Owners Equity


$
$

34,155
54,945
117,315
206,415
557,550

763,965

Current liabilities
Accounts payable
Notes payable
Total
Long-term debt
Owners equity
Common stock and
paid-in surplus
Retained earnings
Total
Total liabilities and owners
equity

91,800
17,000
$
108,800
215,848.26

140,000
291,394.75
$ 431,394.75
$ 756,043.01,

So the EFN is:


EFN = Total assets Total liabilities and equity
EFN = $763,965 756,043.01
EFN = 7,921.99

Inspection of the plot shows that EFN = 0 at approximately 38% growth rate. The formula for EFN is:
EFN = -(PM)(R) + [(TA) (PM)(R)](g) = Increase in total assets Addition to retained earnings
Setting EFN = 0 gives :
g = (PM)(R) / [(TA) (PM)(R)]
This EFN equation is derived under the assumption that current liabilities are lumped together with long-term
liabilities and that neither of these liabilities varies with sales, so that the only change on the right-hand side of
the balance sheet occurs in retained earnings. However, in this question accounts payable vary with sales and
long term debt varies with equity. Hence, we will not obtain exactly the same growth rate in this question at
EFN = 0 from the plot as from the formula.

32. (LO4) We must have the ROE to calculate the sustainable growth rate. The ROE is:
ROE = (PM)(TAT)(EM)
ROE = (.067)(1 / 1.35)(1 + 0.3)
ROE = .0645 or 6.45%
Now we can use the sustainable growth rate equation to find the retention ratio as:
Sustainable growth rate = (ROE R) / [1 (ROE R)]
Sustainable growth rate = .12 = [.0645(R)] / [1 .0645(R)]
R = 1.66
This implies the payout ratio is:
Payout ratio = 1 R
Payout ratio = 1 1.66
Payout ratio = 0.66
This is a negative dividend payout ratio of 66 percent, which is impossible. The growth rate is not consistent
with the other constraints. The lowest possible payout rate is 0, which corresponds to retention ratio of 1, or
total earnings retention.
The maximum sustainable growth rate for this company is:
Maximum sustainable growth rate = (ROE R) / [1 (ROE R)]
Maximum sustainable growth rate = [.0645(1)] / [1 .0645(1)]
Maximum sustainable growth rate = .06896 or 6.896%
33. EFN (LO2)
External Financing Needed (EFN) = Asset needs Additions to Retained Earnings
EFN = A(g) PM(S)b x (1+g) (then we expand the formula)
EFN = A(g) PM(S)b PM(S)b(g) (then simply rearrange formula and isolate g)
EFN = -PM(S)b + (A PM(S)b) x g
34. Growth Rates (LO3)
The Internal Growth Rate is the rate of growth that a company can maintain with only internal financing (or
from earnings.
Since there is no External Financing Needed we set EFN = 0 as the retained earnings are sufficient to fund the
growth
EFN = -PM (S) b + (A PM (S) b) x g
0 = -PM(S)b + (A-PM(S)b) x g (simply rearrange and isolate g)
g = PM (S) b
A PM (S) b
Divide the equation through by A
You get = (PM(S) x b) / ( A PM (S) b)
A

note that ROA = PM (S)


A

Therefore the Internal Growth Rate = (ROA x b) / (1 ROA x b)

The sustainable growth rate is the growth rate a firm can maintain given its debt capacity, ROE and retention ratio.
Assuming you wish to maintain the same D/E ratio of the firm.
Therefore D/E = New Borrowings/Additions to Retained Earnings
New Borrowings = D/E ( PM(S)b x (1+g) )
Since Additions to RE = (PM(S)b x (1+g) )
EFN = Increase in total Assets Additions to RE New borrowings
Therefore EFN = A ( g ) PM (S) b x (1+g) PM (S) b x (1+g) x D/E
Set EFN = O = A (g) PM(S)b x (1+g) PM(S)b x (1+g) x D/E
We solve for g and then divide both the numerator and denominator by A which results in
g = PM(S)b x (1+D/E) / (A PM(S)b (1+D/E))
g = (ROA (1+D/E) b) / (1 ROA (1+ D/E) b) Note ROA = PM(S) / A
g = (ROE x b) / (1 ROE x b)
35. Sustainable Growth Rate (LO3)

In the following derivations, the subscript E refers to end of period numbers, and the subscript
B refers to beginning of period numbers. TE is total equity and TA is total assets.
For the sustainable growth rate:
Sustainable growth rate = (ROEE b) / (1 ROEE b)
Sustainable growth rate = (NI/TEE b) / (1 NI/TEE b)
We multiply this equation by:
(TEE / TEE)
Sustainable growth rate = (NI / TEE b) / (1 NI / TEE b) (TEE / TEE)
Sustainable growth rate = (NI b) / (TEE NI b)
Recognize that the numerator is equal to beginning of period equity, that is:
(TEE NI b) = TEB
Substituting this into the previous equation, we get:
Sustainable rate = (NI b) / TEB
Which is equivalent to:

Sustainable rate = (NI / TEB) b


Since ROEB = NI / TEB
The sustainable growth rate equation is:
Sustainable growth rate = ROEB b
For the internal growth rate:
Internal growth rate = (ROAE b) / (1 ROAE b)
Internal growth rate = (NI / TAE b) / (1 NI / TAE b)
We multiply this equation by:
(TAE / TAE)
Internal growth rate = (NI / TAE b) / (1 NI / TAE b) (TAE / TAE)
Internal growth rate = (NI b) / (TAE NI b)
Recognize that the numerator is equal to beginning of period assets, that is:
(TAE NI b) = TAB
Substituting this into the previous equation, we get:
Internal growth rate = (NI b) / TAB
Which is equivalent to:
Internal growth rate = (NI / TAB) b
Since ROAB = NI / TAB
The internal growth rate equation is:
Internal growth rate = ROAB b