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BASIC TERMS IN STATISTICS

Statistics the science of collecting, presenting, analyzing data for effective decisions.
Data facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis.

Types of Data:
1. As to Nature
a. Qualitative Data- non-numeric data
b. Quantitative Data-numeric data
Types of Quantitative data:
i.
ii.

Discrete result of counting process or represented by whole


numbers.
Continuous result of measuring process or contained in an
infinite number of possible values in a continuum such as
temperature, weight, height or distance.

2. As to Sources
a. Primary personal encounters or experiences of a person or data obtained from
observation, survey or experimentation.
b. Secondary works or researches made by other person.
3. As to Manner of Presentation
a. Ungrouped Data is a set or an array of things or observations whether
arranged or not arranged in a particular arrangement or order.
b. Grouped Data data presented in a frequency distribution presentation.
Levels of Data Measurement
1. Nominal Level Data observations are just classified, categorized, or counted.
2. Ordinal Level Data distance or gaps between ranks cannot be quantified.
3. Interval Level Data distance or gaps between ranks can be measured. A zero value
does not show absence of a condition.
4. Ratio Level Data the zero point in ratio is meaningful. It shows absence of the
condition.
Classification of Statistics
1. Descriptive Statistics is a manner of organizing, presenting or summarizing a set of
data or observations in an informative way.
2. Inferential Statistics is used to make inferences about the characteristics of a
populations based on sample data.

Population it is the totality of objects, things or person under study.


Sample is a subset taken from a population.
Parameter descriptive or numerical measure or characteristic of the population.
Statistic is a descriptive or numerical measure or characteristic of the sample.

SUMMATION NOTATION

Theorem 1
The summation of a constant is equal to the summation of constant multiplied by the
number of cases n.
n

j=1

j =1

c = nc
Example:
5

j=1

j=1

6= ( 5 ) ( 6 )
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Theorem 2
The summation of the product of a constant and a variable is equal to the constant
multiplied by the summation of the variable.
Example:

Let

j=1

j=1

c=3, x 1=5, x 2=7, x 3=2

c ( x j ) =c x j
c ( x z + x 2 + x 3)
3 (5+ 7+2 )
3 (14 )
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Theorem 3
The summation of the sum of two or more variables is equal to the sum of their
summations.
n

j=1

j =1

j=1

j=1

( x j+ y j + z j ) = x j + y j + z j
Example:

Let

x1=5

y1=-5

z1=4

x2=2

y2=3

z2=5

x3=7

y3=8

z3=-9

j=1

j =1

j=1

j=1

( x j+ y j + z j ) = x j + y j + z j
( x 1+ x 2 + x 3 ) + ( y 1 + y 2+ y 3 ) +(z 1 + z 2+ z 3 )

( 5+2+7 ) + (5+3+8 )+ ( 4+59 )


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