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Fishfarming
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Fishfarmingorpiscicultureistheprincipalformof
aquaculture,whileothermethodsmayfallunder
mariculture.Fishfarminginvolvesraisingfish
commerciallyintanksorenclosures,usuallyforfood.
Afacilitythatreleasesjuvenilefishintothewildfor
recreationalfishingortosupplementaspecies'natural
numbersisgenerallyreferredtoasafishhatchery.
Worldwide,themostimportantfishspeciesusedinfish
farmingarecarp,salmon,tilapiaandcatfish.[1][2]
Thereisanincreasingdemandforfishandfishprotein,
whichhasresultedinwidespreadoverfishinginwild
fisheries,Chinaholding62percentoftheworld'sfish
farmingpractice.[3]Fishfarmingoffersfishmarketers
anothersource.However,farmingcarnivorousfish,
suchassalmon,doesnotalwaysreducepressureon
wildfisheries,sincecarnivorousfarmedfishareusually
fedfishmealandfishoilextractedfromwildforage
fish.Theglobalreturnsforfishfarmingrecordedbythe
FAOin2008totalled33.8milliontonnesworthabout
$US60billion.[4]In2005,aquaculturerepresented
40%ofthe157.5milliontonsofseafoodthatwas
produced,meaningthatithasbecomeacriticalpartof
ourworld'sfoodsourceeventhoughtheindustryisstill
technicallyinits'infancy'anddidn'treallybecomewell
knownuntilthe1970s.Becauseofthisrisein
aquaculture,therehasbeenariseinthepercapita
availabilityofseafoodgloballywithinthelastfew
decades.[5]

KoifarmingindoorsinIsrael

Salmonfarminginthesea(mariculture)atLoch
Ainort,IsleofSkye

Contents
1 Majorspecies
2 Majorcategoriesoffishaquaculture
2.1 Extensiveaquaculture
2.2 Intensiveaquaculture
3 Specifictypesoffishfarms
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3.1 Pinjrasystem
3.2 Irrigationditchorpondsystems
3.2.1 Compositefishculture
3.3 Integratedrecyclingsystems
3.4 Classicfryfarming
4 Issues
4.1 Labeling
5 Indoorfishfarming
6 Slaughtermethods
6.1 Inhumanemethods
6.2 Morehumanemethods
7 Photogallery
8 Seealso
9 Notes
10 References
11 Externallinks

Majorspecies

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Toptenfreshwater,brackishwaterandmarineculturedfishin2010[6]
Freshwaterculture Tonnage

Mariculture

Tonnage Brackishwaterculture Tonnage

Grasscarp

4,337,114 Atlanticsalmon

1,421,647 Greasygrouper

Silvercarp

4,116,835 Largeyellowcroaker

378,622 Flatheadgreymullet

333,322

Catla(Indiancarp)

3,869,984 Salmonidsnei

270,436 Marinefishesnei

112,539

Commoncarp

3,444,203 Greasygrouper

215,028 Niletilapia

107,489

Bigheadcarp

2,585,962 Seatrout

143,751 Cyprinidsnei

100,000

Cruciancarp

2,217,798 Japaneseamberjack

139,077 Barramundi

49,234

Niletilapia

1,990,275 Giltheadseabream

118,212 Marblegoby

34,123

Pangascatfishesnei 1,305,277 Japaneseseabass

107,903 Tilapiasnei

23,562

Roholabeo

102,538 Europeanseabass

23,313

1,167,315 Europeanseabass

Freshwaterfishesnei 1,080,241 Silverseabream

73,924 Mozambiquetilapia

3,677,691

17,103

notelsewhereidentifiedinFAOstatistics

Majorcategoriesoffishaquaculture
Therearetwokindsofaquaculture:extensiveaquaculturebasedonlocalphotosyntheticalproductionand
intensiveaquaculture,inwhichthefisharefedwithexternalfoodsupply.

Extensiveaquaculture
Limitingforgrowthhereistheavailablefoodsupplybynatural
sources,commonlyzooplanktonfeedingonpelagicalgaeorbenthic
animals,suchascrustaceansandmollusks.Tilapiaspeciesfilter
feeddirectlyonphytoplankton,whichmakeshigherproduction
possible.Thephotosyntheticproductioncanbeincreasedby
fertilizingthepondwaterwithartificialfertilizermixtures,suchas
potash,phosphorus,nitrogenandmicroelements.Becausemostfish
arecarnivorous,theyoccupyahigherplaceinthetrophicchainand
thereforeonlyatinyfractionofprimaryphotosyntheticproduction
(typically1%)willbeconvertedintoharvestablefish.

AquaBoy,aNorwegianlivefish
carrierusedtoservicetheMarine
HarvestfishfarmsontheWestcoast
ofScotland

Anotherissueistheriskofalgalblooms.Whentemperatures,nutrientsupplyandavailablesunlightare
optimalforalgalgrowth,algaemultiplytheirbiomassatanexponentialrate,eventuallyleadingtoan
exhaustionofavailablenutrientsandasubsequentdieoff.Thedecayingalgalbiomasswilldepletethe
oxygeninthepondwaterbecauseitblocksoutthesunandpollutesitwithorganicandinorganicsolutes
(suchasammoniumions),whichcan(andfrequentlydo)leadtomassivelossoffish.
AnalternateoptionistouseawetlandsystemsuchasthatofVetaLaPalma.
Inordertotapallavailablefoodsourcesinthepond,theaquaculturistwillchoosefishspecieswhich
occupydifferentplacesinthepondecosystem,e.g.,afilteralgaefeedersuchastilapia,abenthicfeeder
suchascarporcatfishandazooplanktonfeeder(variouscarps)orsubmergedweedsfeedersuchasgrass
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carp.
Despitetheselimitationssignificantfishfarmingindustriesusethesemethods.IntheCzechRepublic
thousandsofnaturalandseminaturalpondsareharvestedeachyearfortroutandcarp.Thelargeponds
aroundTrebonwerebuiltfromaround1650andarestillinuse.

Intensiveaquaculture
Inthesekindsofsystemsfishproductionperunit
Optimalwaterparametersforcoldandwarmwater
ofsurfacecanbeincreasedatwill,aslongas
fishinintensiveaquaculture[7]
sufficientoxygen,freshwaterandfoodare
provided.Becauseoftherequirementofsufficient Acidity
pH69
freshwater,amassivewaterpurificationsystem
Arsenic
<440g/L
mustbeintegratedinthefishfarm.Acleverway
>20mg/L(asCaCO3)
Alkalinity
toachievethisisthecombinationofhydroponic
horticultureandwatertreatment,seebelow.The Aluminum
<0.075mg/L
exceptiontothisrulearecageswhichareplacedin
Ammonia(nonionized) <O.O2mg/L
ariverorsea,whichsupplementsthefishcrop
<0.0005mg/Linsoftwater
withsufficientoxygenatedwater.Some
Cadmium
<0.005mg/Linhardwater
environmentalistsobjecttothispractice.
Calcium
>5mg/L
The
Carbondioxide
<510mg/L
costof
>4.0mg/L
inputs Chloride
per
Chlorine
<0.003mg/L
unitof
<0.0006mg/Linsoftwater
fish
Copper
<0.03mg/Linhardwater
weight
<100%totalgaspressure
is
Gassupersaturation
(103%forsalmonideggs/fry)
higher
(102%forlaketrout)
thanin
Expressingeggsfromafemalerainbow
Hydrogensulfide
<0.003mg/L
trout

extensivefarming,especiallybecauseofthehigh
costoffishfeed,whichmustcontainamuch
higherlevelofprotein(upto60%)thancattlefood
andabalancedaminoacidcompositionaswell.
However,thesehigherproteinlevelrequirements
areaconsequenceofthehigherfoodconversion
efficiency(FCRkgoffeedperkgofanimal
produced)ofaquaticanimals.Fishlikesalmon
haveFCR'sintherangeof1.1kgoffeedperkgof
salmon[8]whereaschickensareinthe2.5kgof
feedperkgofchickenrange.Fishdon'thaveto
standuporkeepwarmandthiseliminatesalotof

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Iron

<0.1mg/L

Lead

<0.02mg/L

Mercury

<0.0002mg/L

Nitrate

<1.0mg/L

Nitrite

<0.1mg/L

Oxygen

6mg/Lforcoldwaterfish
4mg/Lforwarmwaterfish

Selenium

<0.01mg/L

Totaldissolvedsolids

<200mg/L

Totalsuspendedsolids

<80NTUoverambientlevels

Zinc

<0.005mg/L

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carbohydratesandfatsinthediet,requiredtoprovidethisenergy.Thisfrequentlyisoffsetbythelower
landcostsandthehigherproductionswhichcanbeobtainedduetothehighlevelofinputcontrol.
Aerationofthewaterisessential,asfishneedasufficientoxygenlevelforgrowth.Thisisachievedby
bubbling,cascadefloworaqueousoxygen.Catfish,Clariasspp.canbreatheatmosphericairandcan
toleratemuchhigherlevelsofpollutantsthantroutorsalmon,whichmakesaerationandwaterpurification
lessnecessaryandmakesClariasspeciesespeciallysuitedforintensivefishproduction.InsomeClarias
farmsabout10%ofthewatervolumecanconsistoffishbiomass.
Theriskofinfectionsbyparasiteslikefishlice,fungi(Saprolegniaspp.),intestinalworms(suchas
nematodesortrematodes),bacteria(e.g.,Yersiniaspp.,Pseudomonasspp.),andprotozoa(suchas
Dinoflagellates)issimilartoanimalhusbandry,especiallyathighpopulationdensities.However,animal
husbandryisalargerandmoretechnologicallymatureareaofhumanagricultureandbettersolutionsto
pathogenproblemexist.Intensiveaquaculturedoeshavetoprovideadequatewaterquality(oxygen,
ammonia,nitrite,etc.)levelstominimizestress,whichmakesthepathogenproblemmoredifficult.This
means,intensiveaquaculturerequirestightmonitoringandahighlevelofexpertiseofthefishfarmer.
Veryhighintensityrecycleaquaculturesystems(RAS),wherethere
iscontroloveralltheproductionparameters,arebeingusedforhigh
valuespecies.Byrecyclingthewater,verylittlewaterisusedper
unitofproduction.However,theprocessdoeshavehighcapitaland
operatingcosts.ThehighercoststructuresmeanthatRASisonly
economicalforhighvalueproductslikebroodstockforegg
production,fingerlingsfornetpenaquacultureoperations,sturgeon
production,researchanimalsandsomespecialnichemarketslike
livefish.[9][10]

Controllingroesmanually

Raisingornamentalcoldwaterfish(goldfishorkoi),although
theoreticallymuchmoreprofitableduetothehigherincomeperweightoffishproduced,hasneverbeen
successfullycarriedoutuntilveryrecently.Theincreasedincidencesofdangerousviraldiseasesofkoi
Carp,togetherwiththehighvalueofthefishhasledtoinitiativesinclosedsystemkoibreedingand
growinginanumberofcountries.Todaythereareafewcommerciallysuccessfulintensivekoigrowing
facilitiesintheUK,GermanyandIsrael.
Someproducershaveadaptedtheirintensivesystemsinanefforttoprovideconsumerswithfishthatdonot
carrydormantformsofvirusesanddiseases.

Specifictypesoffishfarms
Withinintensiveandextensiveaquaculturemethods,therearenumerousspecifictypesoffishfarmseach
hasbenefitsandapplicationsuniquetoitsdesign.

Pinjrasystem
Fishcagesareplacedinlakes,bayous,ponds,riversoroceanstocontainandprotectfishuntiltheycanbe
harvested.[2]Themethodisalsocalled"offshorecultivation[11]"whenthecagesareplacedinthesea.
Theycanbeconstructedofawidevarietyofcomponents.Fisharestockedincages,artificiallyfed,and
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harvestedwhentheyreachmarketsize.Afewadvantagesoffishfarmingwithcagesarethatmanytypesof
waterscanbeused(rivers,lakes,filledquarries,etc.),manytypesoffishcanberaised,andfishfarming
cancoexistwithsportfishingandotherwateruses.[2]Cagefarmingoffishesinopenseasisalsogaining
popularity.Concernsofdisease,poaching,poorwaterquality,etc.,
leadsometobelievethatingeneral,pondsystemsareeasierto
manageandsimplertostart.Also,pastoccurrencesofcagefailures
leadingtoescapes,haveraisedconcernregardingthecultureofnon
nativefishspeciesindamoropenwatercages.Eventhoughthe
cageindustryhasmadenumeroustechnologicaladvancesincage
constructioninrecentyears,stormswillalwaysmaketheconcern
forescapesvalid.[2]
Recently,copperalloyshavebecomeimportantnettingmaterialsin
aquaculture.Copperalloysareantimicrobial,thatis,theydestroy
Giantgouramiisoftenraisedincages
bacteria,viruses,fungi,algae,andothermicrobes.Inthemarine
incentralThailand
environment,theantimicrobial/algaecidalpropertiesofcopper
alloyspreventbiofouling,whichcanbrieflybedescribedasthe
undesirableaccumulation,adhesion,andgrowthofmicroorganisms,plants,algae,tubeworms,barnacles,
mollusks,andotherorganisms.
Theresistanceoforganismgrowthoncopperalloynetsalsoprovidesacleanerandhealthierenvironment
forfarmedfishtogrowandthrive.Traditionalnettinginvolvesregularandlaborintensivecleaning.In
additiontoitsantifoulingbenefits,coppernettinghasstrongstructuralandcorrosionresistantpropertiesin
marineenvironments.
Copperzincbrassalloysarecurrently(2011)beingdeployedincommercialscaleaquacultureoperationsin
Asia,SouthAmericaandtheUSA(Hawaii).Extensiveresearch,includingdemonstrationsandtrials,are
currentlybeingimplementedontwoothercopperalloys:coppernickelandcoppersilicon.Eachofthese
alloytypeshasaninherentabilitytoreducebiofouling,cagewaste,disease,andtheneedforantibiotics
whilesimultaneouslymaintainingwatercirculationandoxygenrequirements.Othertypesofcopperalloys
arealsobeingconsideredforresearchanddevelopmentinaquacultureoperations.

Irrigationditchorpondsystems
Theseuseirrigationditchesorfarmpondstoraisefish.Thebasic
requirementistohaveaditchorpondthatretainswater,possibly
withanabovegroundirrigationsystem(manyirrigationsystems
useburiedpipeswithheaders.)
Usingthismethod,onecanstoreone'swaterallotmentinpondsor
ditches,usuallylinedwithbentoniteclay.Insmallsystemsthefish
areoftenfedcommercialfishfood,andtheirwasteproductscan
helpfertilizethefields.Inlargerponds,thepondgrowswaterplants
andalgaeasfishfood.Someofthemostsuccessfulpondsgrow
introducedstrainsofplants,aswellasintroducedstrainsoffish.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fish_farming

Thesefishfarmingpondswere
createdasacooperativeprojectina
ruralvillage.

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Controlofwaterqualityiscrucial.Fertilizing,clarifyingandpHcontrolofthewatercanincreaseyields
substantially,aslongaseutrophicationispreventedandoxygenlevelsstayhigh.Yieldscanbelowifthe
fishgrowillfromelectrolytestress.
Compositefishculture
TheCompositefishculturesystemisatechnologydevelopedinIndiabytheIndianCouncilofAgricultural
Researchinthe1970s.Inthissystembothlocalandimportedfishspecies,acombinationoffiveorsixfish
speciesisusedinasinglefishpond.Thesespeciesareselectedsothattheydonotcompeteforfoodamong
themhavingdifferenttypesoffoodhabitats.[12][13]Asaresult,thefoodavailableinallthepartsofthepond
isused.Fishusedinthissystemincludecatlaandsilvercarpwhicharesurfacefeeders,rohuacolumn
feederandmrigalandcommoncarpwhicharebottomfeeders.Otherfishwillalsofeedontheexcretaof
thecommoncarpandthishelpscontributetotheefficiencyofthesystemwhichinoptimalconditionswill
produce30006000kgoffishperhectareperyear.
Oneproblemwithsuchcompositefishcultureisthatmanyofthesefishbreedonlyduringmonsoon.Even
iffishseediscollectedfromthewild,itcanbemixedwiththatofotherspeciesaswell.So,amajor
probleminfishfarmingisthelackofavailabilityofgoodqualityseed.Toovercomethisproblem,ways
havenowbeenworkedouttobreedthesefishinpondsusinghormonalstimulation.Thishasensuredthe
supplyofpurefishseedindesiredquantities.

Integratedrecyclingsystems
Oneofthelargestproblemswithfreshwaterpiscicultureisthatitcanuseamilliongallonsofwaterperacre
(about1mofwaterperm)eachyear.Extendedwaterpurificationsystemsallowforthereuse(recycling)
oflocalwater.
Thelargestscalepurefishfarmsuseasystemderived(admittedlymuchrefined)fromtheNewAlchemy
Instituteinthe1970s.Basically,largeplasticfishtanksareplacedinagreenhouse.Ahydroponicbedis
placednear,aboveorbetweenthem.Whentilapiaareraisedinthetanks,theyareabletoeatalgae,which
naturallygrowinthetankswhenthetanksareproperlyfertilized.
Thetankwaterisslowlycirculatedtothehydroponicbedswherethetilapiawastefeedscommercialplant
crops.Carefullyculturedmicroorganismsinthehydroponicbedconvertammoniatonitrates,andtheplants
arefertilizedbythenitratesandphosphates.Otherwastesarestrainedoutbythehydroponicmedia,which
doublesasanaeratedpebblebedfilter.
Thissystem,properlytuned,producesmoreedibleproteinperunitareathananyother.Awidevarietyof
plantscangrowwellinthehydroponicbeds.Mostgrowersconcentrateonherbs(e.g.parsleyandbasil),
whichcommandpremiumpricesinsmallquantitiesallyearlong.Themostcommoncustomersare
restaurantwholesalers.
Sincethesystemlivesinagreenhouse,itadaptstoalmostalltemperateclimates,andmayalsoadaptto
tropicalclimates.Themainenvironmentalimpactisdischargeofwaterthatmustbesaltedtomaintainthe
fishes'electrolytebalance.Currentgrowersuseavarietyofproprietarytrickstokeepfishhealthy,reducing
theirexpensesforsaltandwastewaterdischargepermits.Someveterinaryauthoritiesspeculatethat
ultravioletozonedisinfectantsystems(widelyusedforornamentalfish)mayplayaprominentpartin
keepingtheTilapiahealthywithrecirculatedwater.
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Anumberoflarge,wellcapitalizedventuresinthisareahavefailed.Managingboththebiologyand
marketsiscomplicated.OnefuturedevelopmentisthecombinationofIntegratedRecyclingsystemswith
UrbanFarmingastriedinSwedenbytheGreenfishinitiative.[14][15]

Classicfryfarming
Thisisalsocalleda"Flowthroughsystem"[16]Troutandothersportfishareoftenraisedfromeggstofry
orfingerlingsandthentruckedtostreamsandreleased.Normally,thefryareraisedinlong,shallow
concretetanks,fedwithfreshstreamwater.Thefryreceivecommercialfishfoodinpellets.Whilenotas
efficientastheNewAlchemists'method,itisalsofarsimpler,andhasbeenusedformanyyearstostock
streamswithsportfish.Europeaneel(Anguillaanguilla)aquaculturalistsprocurealimitedsupplyofglass
eels,juvenilestagesoftheEuropeaneelwhichswimnorthfromtheSargassoSeabreedinggrounds,for
theirfarms.TheEuropeaneelisthreatenedwithextinctionbecauseoftheexcessivecatchofglasseelsby
Spanishfishermenandoverfishingofadulteelsin,e.g.,theDutchIJsselmeer,Netherlands.Asper2005,no
onehasmanagedtobreedtheEuropeaneelincaptivity.

Issues
Theissueoffeedsinfishfarminghasbeenacontroversialone.Manyculturedfishes(tilapia,carp,catfish,
manyothers)requirenomeatorfishproductsintheirdiets.Toplevelcarnivores(mostsalmonspecies)
dependonfishfeedofwhichaportionisusuallyderivedfromwildcaught(anchovies,menhaden,etc.).
Vegetablederivedproteinshavesuccessfullyreplacedfishmealinfeedsforcarnivorousfishes,but
vegetablederivedoilshavenotsuccessfullybeenincorporatedintothedietsofcarnivores.
Secondly,farmedfisharekeptinconcentrationsneverseeninthewild(e.g.50,000fishina2acre
(8,100m2)area.[17]).However,fishtendalsotobeanimalsthataggregateintolargeschoolsathighdensity.
Mostsuccessfulaquaculturespeciesareschoolingspecies,whichdonothavesocialproblemsathigh
density.Aquaculturiststendtofeelthatoperatingarearingsystemaboveitsdesigncapacityorabovethe
socialdensitylimitofthefishwillresultindecreasedgrowthrateandincreasedFCR(foodconversionratio
kgdryfeed/kgoffishproduced),whichwillresultinincreasedcostandriskofhealthproblemsalong
withadecreaseinprofits.Stressingtheanimalsisnotdesirable,buttheconceptofandmeasurementof
stressmustbeviewedfromtheperspectiveoftheanimalusingthescientificmethod.[18]
Sealice,particularlyLepeophtheirussalmonisandvariousCaligusspecies,includingCaligusclemensiand
Caligusrogercresseyi,cancausedeadlyinfestationsofbothfarmgrownandwildsalmon.[19][20]Sealice
areectoparasiteswhichfeedonmucus,blood,andskin,andmigrateandlatchontotheskinofwildsalmon
duringfreeswimming,planktonicnaupliiandcopepodidlarvalstages,whichcanpersistforseveral
days.[21][22][23]Largenumbersofhighlypopulated,opennetsalmonfarmscancreateexceptionallylarge
concentrationsofsealicewhenexposedinriverestuariescontaininglargenumbersofopennetfarms,
manyyoungwildsalmonareinfected,anddonotsurviveasaresult.[24][25]Adultsalmonmaysurvive
otherwisecriticalnumbersofsealice,butsmall,thinskinnedjuvenilesalmonmigratingtoseaarehighly
vulnerable.OnthePacificcoastofCanada,thelouseinducedmortalityofpinksalmoninsomeregionsis
commonlyover80%.[26]

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A2008metaanalysisofavailabledatashowsthatsalmonfarmingreducesthesurvivalofassociatedwild
salmonpopulations.ThisrelationshiphasbeenshowntoholdforAtlantic,steelhead,pink,chum,andcoho
salmon.Thedecreaseinsurvivalorabundanceoftenexceeds50percent.[27]
Diseasesandparasitesarethemostcommonlycitedreasonsforsuchdecreases.Somespeciesofsealice
havebeennotedtotargetfarmedcohoandAtlanticsalmon.[28]Suchparasiteshavebeenshowntohavean
effectonnearbywildfish.OneplacethathasgarneredinternationalmediaattentionisBritishColumbia's
BroughtonArchipelago.There,juvenilewildsalmonmust"runagauntlet"oflargefishfarmslocatedoff
shorenearriveroutletsbeforemakingtheirwaytosea.Itisallegedthatthefarmscausesuchseveresealice
infestationsthatonestudypredictedin2007a99%collapseinthewildsalmonpopulationby2011.[29]This
claim,however,hasbeencriticizedbynumerousscientistswhoquestionthecorrelationbetweenincreased
fishfarmingandincreasesinsealiceinfestationamongwildsalmon.[30]
Becauseofparasiteproblems,someaquacultureoperatorsfrequentlyusestrongantibioticdrugstokeepthe
fishalive(butmanyfishstilldieprematurelyatratesofupto30percent[31]).Insomecases,thesedrugs
haveenteredtheenvironment.Additionally,theresidualpresenceofthesedrugsinhumanfoodproducts
hasbecomecontroversial.Useofantibioticsinfoodproductionisthoughttoincreasetheprevalenceof
antibioticresistanceinhumandiseases.[32]Atsomefacilities,theuseofantibioticdrugsinaquaculturehas
decreasedconsiderablyduetovaccinationsandothertechniques.[33]However,mostfishfarmingoperations
stilluseantibiotics,manyofwhichescapeintothesurroundingenvironment.[34]
Theliceandpathogenproblemsofthe1990sfacilitatedthedevelopmentofcurrenttreatmentmethodsfor
sealiceandpathogens.Thesedevelopmentsreducedthestressfromparasite/pathogenproblems.However,
beinginanoceanenvironment,thetransferofdiseaseorganismsfromthewildfishtotheaquaculturefish
isaneverpresentrisk.[35]
Theverylargenumberoffishkeptlongterminasinglelocationcontributestohabitatdestructionofthe
nearbyareas.[36]Thehighconcentrationsoffishproduceasignificantamountofcondensedfaeces,often
contaminatedwithdrugs,whichagainaffectlocalwaterways.However,ifthefarmiscorrectlyplacedinan
areawithastrongcurrent,the'pollutants'areflushedoutoftheareafairlyquickly.Notonlydoesthishelp
withthepollutionproblem.butwaterwithastrongercurrentalsoaidsinoverallfishgrowth.Concern
remainsthatresultantbacterialgrowthstripsthewaterofoxygen,reducingorkillingoffthelocalmarine
life.Onceanareahasbeensocontaminated,thefishfarmsaremovedtonew,uncontaminatedareas.This
practicehasangerednearbyfishermen.[37]
Otherpotentialproblemsfacedbyaquaculturistsaretheobtainingofvariouspermitsandwateruserights,
profitability,concernsaboutinvasivespeciesandgeneticengineeringdependingonwhatspeciesare
involved,andinteractionwiththeUnitedNationsConventionontheLawoftheSea.
Inregardstogeneticallymodifiedfarmedsalmon,concernhasbeenraisedovertheirprovenreproductive
advantageandhowitcouldpotentiallydecimatelocalfishpopulations,ifreleasedintothewild.Biologist
RickHoward[38]didacontrolledlaboratorystudywherewildfishandGMOfishwereallowedtobreed.
TheGMOfishcrowdedoutthewildfishinspawningbeds,buttheoffspringwerelesslikelytosurvive.
Thecolorantusedtomakepenraisedsalmonappearrosyliketheirwildcousinshasbeenlinkedwith
retinalproblemsinhumans.[37]
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Labeling
In2005,Alaskapassedlegislationrequiringthatanygeneticallyalteredfishsoldinthestatebelabeled.[39]
In2006,aConsumerReportsinvestigationrevealedthatfarmraisedsalmonisfrequentlysoldaswild.[40]
In2008,theUSNationalOrganicStandardsBoardallowedfarmedfishtobelabeledasorganicprovided
lessthan25%oftheirfeedcamefromwildfish.ThisdecisionwascriticizedbytheadvocacygroupFood
&WaterWatchas"bendingtherules"aboutorganiclabeling.[41]IntheEuropeanUnion,fishlabelingasto
species,methodofproductionandorigin,hasbeenrequiredsince2002.[42]
Concernscontinueoverthelabelingofsalmonasfarmedorwildcaught,aswellasaboutthehumane
treatmentoffarmedfish.TheMarineStewardshipCouncilhasestablishedanEcolabeltodistinguish
betweenfarmedandwildcaughtsalmon,[43]whiletheRSPCAhasestablishedtheFreedomFoodlabelto
indicatehumanetreatmentoffarmedsalmonaswellasotherfoodproducts.[42]

Indoorfishfarming
Analternativetooutdooropenoceancageaquaculture,isthroughtheuseofarecirculationaquaculture
system(RAS).ARASisaseriesofculturetanksandfilterswherewateriscontinuouslyrecycledand
monitoredtokeepoptimalconditionsyearround.Topreventthedeteriorationofwaterquality,thewateris
treatedmechanicallythroughtheremovalofparticulatematterandbiologicallythroughtheconversionof
harmfulaccumulatedchemicalsintonontoxicones.
OthertreatmentssuchasUVsterilization,ozonation,andoxygeninjectionarealsousedtomaintain
optimalwaterquality.Throughthissystem,manyoftheenvironmentaldrawbacksofaquacultureare
minimizedincludingescapedfish,waterusage,andtheintroductionofpollutants.Thepracticesalso
increasedfeeduseefficiencygrowthbyprovidingoptimumwaterquality(Timmonsetal.,2002
Piedrahita,2003).
Oneofthedrawbackstorecirculationaquaculturesystemsiswaterexchange.However,therateofwater
exchangecanbereducedthroughaquaponics,suchastheincorporationofhydroponicallygrownplants
(CorpronandArmstrong,1983)anddenitrification(Klasetal.,2006).Bothmethodsreducetheamountof
nitrateinthewater,andcanpotentiallyeliminatetheneedforwaterexchanges,closingtheaquaculture
systemfromtheenvironment.Theamountofinteractionbetweentheaquaculturesystemandthe
environmentcanbemeasuredthroughthecumulativefeedburden(CFBkg/M3),whichmeasuresthe
amountoffeedthatgoesintotheRASrelativetotheamountofwaterandwastedischarged.
From2011,ateamfromtheUniversityofWaterlooledbyTahbitChowdhuryandGordonGraffexamined
verticalRASaquaculturedesignsaimedatproducingproteinrichfishspecies.[44][45]However,becauseof
itshighcapitalandoperatingcosts,RAShasgenerallybeenrestrictedtopracticessuchasbroodstock
maturation,larvalrearing,fingerlingproduction,researchanimalproduction,SPF(specificpathogenfree)
animalproduction,andcaviarandornamentalfishproduction.Assuch,researchanddesignworkby
ChowdhuryandGraffremainsdifficulttoimplement.AlthoughtheuseofRASforotherspeciesis
consideredbymanyaquaculturaliststobecurrentlyimpractical,therehasbeensomelimitedsuccessful

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implementationofthiswithhighvalueproductsuchasbarramundi,sturgeonandlivetilapiaintheUS[46]
eelsandcatfishintheNetherlands,troutinDenmark[47]andsalmonisplannedinScotland[48]and
Canada.[49]

Slaughtermethods
Tankssaturatedwithcarbondioxidehavebeenusedtomakefishunconscious.Thentheirgillsarecutwith
aknifesothatthefishbleedoutbeforetheyarefurtherprocessed.Thisisnolongerconsideredahumane
methodofslaughter.Methodsthatinducemuchlessphysiologicalstressareelectricalorpercussive
stunningandthishasledtothephasingoutofthecarbondioxideslaughtermethodinEurope.[50]

Inhumanemethods
AccordingtoT.HsteinoftheNationalVeterinaryInstitute,"Differentmethodsforslaughteroffisharein
placeanditisnodoubtthatmanyofthemmaybeconsideredasappallingfromananimalwelfarepointof
view."[51]A2004reportbytheEFSAScientificPanelonAnimalHealthandWelfareexplained:"Many
existingcommercialkillingmethodsexposefishtosubstantialsufferingoveraprolongedperiodoftime.
Forsomespecies,existingmethods,whilstcapableofkillingfishhumanely,arenotdoingsobecause
operatorsdonthavetheknowledgetoevaluatethem."[52]Followingaresomeofthelesshumanewaysof
killingfish.
AirAsphyxiation.Thisamountstosuffocationintheopenair.Theprocesscantakeupwardsof15
minutestoinducedeath,althoughunconsciousnesstypicallysetsinsooner.[53]
Icebaths/chilling.Farmedfisharesometimeschilledoniceorsubmergedinnearfreezingwater.
Thepurposeistodampenmusclemovementsbythefishandtodelaytheonsetofpostdeathdecay.
However,itdoesnotnecessarilyreducesensibilitytopainindeed,thechillingprocesshasbeen
showntoelevatecortisol.Inaddition,reducedbodytemperatureextendsthetimebeforefishlose
consciousness.[54]
COnarcosis.
Exsanguinationwithoutstunning.Thisisaprocessinwhichfisharetakenupfromwater,heldstill,
andcutsoastocausebleeding.AccordingtoreferencesinYue,[55]thiscanleavefishwrithingforan
averageoffourminutes,andsomecatfishstillrespondedtonoxiousstimuliaftermorethan15
minutes.
Immersioninsaltfollowedbyguttingorotherprocessingsuchassmoking.Thisprocessisappliedto
eel.[56]

Morehumanemethods
Properstunningrendersthefishunconsciousimmediatelyandforasufficientperiodoftimesuchthatthe
fishiskilledintheslaughterprocess(e.g.throughexsanguination)withoutregainingconsciousness.
Percussivestunning.Thisinvolvesrenderingthefishunconsciouswithablowonthehead.
Electricstunning.Thiscanbehumanewhenapropercurrentismadetoflowthroughthefishbrain
forasufficientperiodoftime.Electricstunningcanbeappliedafterthefishhasbeentakenoutofthe
water(drystunning)orwhilethefishisstillinthewater.Thelattergenerallyrequiresamuchhigher
currentandmayleadtooperatorsafetyissues.Anadvantagecouldbethatinwaterstunningallows
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fishtoberenderedunconsciouswithoutstressfulhandlingordisplacement.[57]However,improper
stunningmaynotinduceinsensibilitylongenoughtopreventthefishfromenduringexsanguination
whileconscious.[52]It'sunknownwhethertheoptimalstunningparametersthatresearchershave
determinedinstudiesareusedbytheindustryinpractice.[57]

Photogallery

Houseboatraftswithcages
underforrearingfish.NearMy
Tho,Mekongdelta,Vietnam.

Transportboatsmooredatfish
processingplant.MyTho,
Mekongdelta,Vietnam.

Fishrearedincages.MyTho,
Mekongdelta,Vietnam.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fish_farming

Workersremovingfishfrom
holdoftransportboat.MyTho,
Mekongdelta,Vietnam.

AcommunalZapotecfishfarm
inIxtlndeJurez,Oaxaca,
Mexico.

MultiSpeciesFishand
InvertebrateBreedingand
Hatchery,[1]
(http://commons.wikimedia.org/
wiki/File:Alaminosjf403.JPG)
(OceanographicMarine
LaboratoryinLucap,Alaminos,
Pangasinan,Philippines,
RMaTDeC,2011).

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Freshwaterprawnfarmin
Bangladesh.

Seealso
AnimalSlaughter
Aquaculture
Farmraisedcatfish
JohnHalver
MaineSalmon
Listofharvestedaquaticanimalsbyweight

Notes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

BasedondatasourcedfromtheFishStatdatabase(http://faostat.fao.org/site/629/default.aspx)
<http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S167962252011000400024>
<http://www.ftai.com/article.htm#FFNsep14>
FisheryandAquacultureStatistics:AquacultureProduction(http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/global
aquacultureproduction/en)2008FAOYearbook,Rome.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/42629678?seq=2
FAOFishStatPlus(2012)
StressandPhysiology
(http://fisheries.btc.ctc.edu/Manuals/Coldwater%20Fish%20Culture/Stress%20and%20Physiology.PDF)ByDr.
BiIlKriseatBozemanTechnologyCenter,andDr.GaryWedemeyeratWesternFisheriesResearchCenter.
January2002
Torrissen,Ole,etal."AtlanticSalmon(SalmoSalar):The'SuperChicken'OfTheSea?."ReviewsInFisheries
Science19.3(2011):257278.AcademicSearchPremier.Web.13Nov.2014.
Weaver,DE(2006)Designandoperationsoffinemediafluidizedbedbiofiltersformeetingoligotrophicwater
requirements(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T4C4JB9MY5
1/1/3b89fb259193583e619415bcc27db0b8)AquaculturalEngineering34(3):303310.
AvnimelechY,MKochva,etal.(1994)Developmentofcontrolledintensiveaquaculturesystemswithalimited
waterexchangeandadjustedcarbontonitrogenratio.IsraeliJournalofAquacultureBamidgeh46(3):119131.
Offshorefishfarmingterm(http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Offshore_fish_farming_legislation)
Strategyfortransferofcompositefishculturetechnology
(http://www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/AC229E/AC229E07.htm)
Pondfishfarming(http://harfish.gov.in/technology.htm)
Berggren,Alexandra(2007)AquacultureinSwedentowardsasustainablefuture?"Master'sThesis,Stockholm
University.
(http://www.stockholmresilience.org/download/18.aeea46911a31274279800082877/Berggren+NGG+07+Thesis.p
df)

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15. McLarney,WilliamFreshwaterAquaculture:AHandbookforSmallScaleFishCultureinNorthAmerica
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22. Peet,C.R.2007.Thesis,UniversityofVictoria.
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24. Morton,A.Routledge,R.Krkoek,M.(2008)."SealouseinfestationinwildjuvenilesalmonandPacific
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26. Krkoek,Martinetal.(2007)."Report:"DecliningWildSalmonPopulationsinRelationtoParasitesfromFarm
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27. Ford,JSMyers,RA(2008)."DOI10.1371/journal.pbio.0060033"AGlobalAssessmentofSalmonAquaculture
ImpactsonWildSalmonids".PLoSBiol6(2):e33.doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060033.
28. UniversityofMaine,DepartmentofAnimal,VeterinaryandAquacultureSciences,"SeaLiceInformation".
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29. FishFarmsDriveWildSalmonPopulationsTowardExtinction
(http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/12/071213152606.htm)
30. NorthwestFishExpertsDebunkControversialSeaLiceStudy
(http://www.newsdata.com/fishletter/242/4story.html)
31. Lymbery,P.CIWFTrustreport,"InTooDeepTheWelfareofIntensivelyFarmedFish"(2002)
32. FactsAboutAntibioticResistance(http://www.fda.gov/oc/opacom/hottopics/antiresist_facts.html)
33. UNHAquaculturewebsite(http://www.ooa.unh.edu/environment/environment_care.html)
34. Barrionuevo,Alexei(July26,2009)."ChilesAntibioticsUseonSalmonFarmsDwarfsThatofaTopRivals".
TheNewYorkTimes.Retrieved20090828.
35. BulletinoftheEuropeanAssociationofFishPathologists22(2):117125.2002.Missingorempty|title=
(help)
36. Naylor,RLGoldburg,RJMooney,Hetal.(1998)."Nature'sSubsidiestoShrimpandSalmonFarming".
Science282(5390):883884.doi:10.1126/science.282.5390.883.
37. SalmonFarmingTacticsProduceUnhealthyFish
(http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/1314150/salmon_farming_tactics_produce_unhealthy_fish/index.html)
38. Purduescientists:Geneticallymodifiedfishcoulddamageecology.
(http://news.uns.purdue.edu/html4ever/2004/040223.Howard.transgenic.html)
39. "AlaskaPassesLawRequiringMandatoryLabelingofGeneticallyEngineeredFish".Retrieved29June2010.
40. "ConsumerReportsrevealsthatfarmraisedsalmonisoftensoldas"wild" ".July5,2006.Retrieved29June
2010.
41. Eilperin,JulietBlack,Jane(November20,2008)."USDAPanelApprovesFirstRulesForLabelingFarmed
Fish'Organic' ".TheWashingtonPost.Retrieved29June2010.
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42. "EnvironmentalLabelling".Retrieved29June2010.
43. "MSCecolabelhelpsconsumersidentifycertifiedwildAlaskasalmon".January15,2004.Retrieved29June
2010.
44. Whyte,Murray(20080727)."IshighrisefarminginToronto'sfuture?".TorontoStar.Retrieved20080812.
45. "SkyFarmProposedforDowntownToronto".TreeHugger.Retrieved20090314.
46. :[2](http://wayback.archive.org/web/20120302110652/http://www.indianafishfarming.com/index.php?
option=com_content&view=article&id=61&Itemid=72)[3](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bbArW16qQAM)
[4](http://www.webcitation.org/5suFaQY5m)[5]
(http://wayback.archive.org/web/20100626101238/http://mitpsc.mit.edu/outreach/landing.php?id=67)[6]
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References
Benson,Tess."AdvancingAquaculture:FishWelfareatSlaughter"(PDF).Retrieved20110612.
Yue,Stephanie."AnHSUSReport:TheWelfareofFarmedFishatSlaughter"(PDF).Humane
SocietyoftheUnitedStates.Retrieved20110612.
EuropeanFoodSafetyAuthority(2004)."OpinionoftheScientificPanelonAnimalHealthand
WelfareonarequestfromtheCommissionrelatedtowelfareaspectsofthemainsystemsofstunning
andkillingthemaincommercialspeciesofanimals"(PDF).TheEFSAJournal.Retrieved
20110612.
Hstein,T(2004),"Animalwelfareissuesrelatingtoaquaculture",ProceedingsoftheGlobal
ConferenceonAnimalWelfare:anOIEInitiative(PDF),pp.21931,retrieved20110612
JhingranVG(1987)IntroductiontoAquaculture
(http://www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/AC169E/AC169E00.htm)NigerianInstituteforOceanography
andMarineResearch,FAO,Rome.
SwiftDR(1993)AquacultureTrainingManual(http://books.google.co.nz/books?
id=uIhlQgAACAAJ&dq=%22Aquaculture:+training+manual%22+Swift&source=bl&ots=lgJm100o
qe&sig=ae4
c6Biz7xISpQjtQo8lPTRnZM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=GyFMULD1AeuiiAeL0oHIDQ&ved=0CDEQ6AE
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Manci,Bill."FishFarmingNewsAquacultureproductionreachesnewheights".Retrieved
20131107.

Externallinks
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NOAAAquacultureWebsite(http://aquaculture.noaa.gov/)
FAOFisheriesDepartment(http://www.fao.org/fi/default.asp)
anditsSOFIAreport
(http://www.fao.org/sof/sofia/index_en.htm)onfisheriesand
aquaculture
Brown,LesterR(2001)FishFarmingMaySoonOvertake
CattleRanchingAsaFoodSource

Lookupfishfarmin
Wiktionary,thefree
dictionary.
WikimediaCommonshas
mediarelatedtoFish
farming.

(http://wayback.archive.org/web/20120128184017/http://www.earthpolicy.org/Alerts/Alert9.htm)
EarthPolicyInstitute.
WatershedWatchSalmonSociety(http://www.watershedwatch.org/)ABritishColumbiaadvocacy
groupforwildsalmon
"TheCaseforFishandOysterFarming,"
(http://uscnews.usc.edu/science_technology/all_about_fish_and_oyster_farming.html)CarlMarziali,
UniversityofSouthernCaliforniaTrojanFamilyMagazine,May17,2009.
Norwegianfishfarming
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CoastalAllianceforAquacultureReform(http://farmedanddangerous.org/)Coalitionof
environmentalgroups,scientistsandFirstNationsopposedtocurrentsalmonfarmingpractices
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farming)
Ethicalconcernsabouttheconditionsonfishfarms(http://www.fishinghurts.com/FishFarms.asp)
SafetyforFishFarmWorkers
(http://wayback.archive.org/web/20090326130511/http://www.cdc.gov/nasd/docs/d001701
d001800/d001757/d001757.pdf),fromtheU.S.NationalAgriculturalSafetyDatabase
ThePureSalmonCampaignwebsite(http://www.puresalmon.org/)
TropicalFishFarminginFlorida(http://www.ftffa.com/)
Nature'sSubsidiestoShrimpandSalmonFarming
(http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/282/5390/883)
FishFarmingBusiness.com(http://www.fishfarmingbusiness.com/)StartUp&SuccessTipsFor
FishFarmBusinessOwners

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